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359
Index




agriculture among nomads, 169“70 Cavalry, adoption by the state of
A-ha-t™e-la, 68 Chao, 134
Altai, 17, 20, 35 Central Asia de¬ned, 13; horses
from, 233; see also Western
nomadic burials in the region, 39
Saka of the Altai, 39 Regions
see also Sayano-Altai Central Eurasia, de¬ned, 14
A-lu-ch™ai-teng, 77, 84 Ch™a-wu-hu-kou, 71
ch™an-yü (Hsiung-nu ruler)
Andreski Stanislav, 182
Andronovo culture, 24, 27“30 insubordination to, 225
see also chariots limited sovereignty, 223
animal sacri¬ces, 68“69, 73, 75 political authority, 222“23
ch™ang ch™eng, 136; see long walls
An-yang, 29, 31, 51, 55
non-Chinese bronzes in An-yang Chang Ch™ien
tombs, 54 information provided by, 270
Ao-han area, 66, 68 sent to Central Asia, 197, 247
Arzhan burial complex, 36, 38 speech by, 198“99
ch™ang yüan, long wall, 139
iron metallurgy, 72
astrology. See correlative cosmology Chao, state of, 78
adoption of cavalry, 131, 134“38
Bactria-Margiana Archaeological defended by Li Mu, 153“54
Complex, 22 walls built by, 143, 147
see also King Wu-ling of Chao
“barbarians”
ch™ao, court visit, 116
cultural statements about, 97“98
Birrell, Anne, 282 Ch™ao Ts™o (d. 154 b.c.), 202“204
burials Ch™ao-tao-kou, 52“53
“catacomb” style, 81, 83 Chao-wu-ta-meng, 62
earthen pit graves, 83 Ch™ao-yang, 64
nomadic, 84 chariot, 27“30, 42, 55
Shang, 51 imported to China from Central
at Yang-lang, 86 Asia, 54

361
INDEX


chariot (cont.) Chiu-ch™üan commandery
used by northern peoples, 108 as key to Han westward expansion,
see also Andronovo culture 245
Chavannes, Édouard on Ssu-ma Chou House, 101
Ch™ien, 260 displaced by northern peoples,
Ch™en, state of, 120 302
Ch™en Pu-shih, general, 278 presentation of war spoils to, 112
Chou li, ¬ve-zone theory in, 94, 95
Cheng, state of, 99, 121
Chernykh, 30, 55 Chou-chia-ti, 63, 73
Ch™i, state of, Ch™u, state of, 101, 105, 124, 138
attack on Ti, 115 as “barbarian,” 101
expeditions by Duke Huan, 110 Chu-fu Yen, 287, 298
chu-hou-wang, 230
treaty with Ti, 98
walls built by, 138 Chu-k™ai-kou culture, 48“49
wars against Jung and Ti, 107 Chü-shih, 251
Ch™i-chia culture, 46, 47“48, 53, 69 Chu-shu chi-nien, 138
Ch™üan Jung, see Jung
Ch™i-lao-t™u, 16, 62
Chia Yi (201“169 b.c.), 201“202 Ch™ün-pa-k™e, 71
Chiang clan, 105 Chün-tu-shan, 74, 76, 83
Ch™iang, 133, 57, 300 Chung-hang Yüeh, 271
as allies of the Hsiung-nu, 249 as a source on the Hsiung-nu, 269
Chiang-kao-ju, 113 Chung-shan, 69, 115, 126, 136, 137,
Ch™ih-feng, 66 139, 143
location of the Yen walls, 148 Cimmerians, 33
Ch™in, state of comets in political prognostications,
and northern cultures, 151 309
as a barbarian state, 102 Confucian statements on “barbarians,”
effects of its expansion, 187 104“105
expansion by, 133 correlative cosmology
invades Chao, 134 correlations between “heaven and
trade with the north, 137 earth,” 308
walls built by, 145“47 correspondences between China and
Chin, state of, 98, 101, 110“15, the north, 306
passim and Inner Asia, 304 ff.
as “barbarian,” 100 and prognostications, 295
expedition against Jung and Ti, cycles in Chinese and Hsiung-nu
110 history, 304
¬rst encounter with Hu people, 128
and the House of Chou, 101 Debaine-Francfort, 48, 67
oaths with non-Chou peoples, Dereivka, 24“26
Discourses on Salt and Iron (Yen T™ieh
116“21
Lun), 105
Ch™in K™ai, General of Yen, 142, 158
as a source on the Hsiung-nu, 269 on the costs of war, 289
Ch™in Shih Huang-ti, 128, 140 on trade, 133, 186
Ch™in-wei-chia, 47 divination involving the north, 308
China separate from the northern Doerfer on the Hsiung-nu language,
“barbarians,” 302 164
Ch™ing-yüan, 80 Duke Hsien of Chin, 119
362
INDEX


Duke Huan of Ch™i, 1, 97, 110 Han dynasty
Duke Hui of Chin, 122 administration of the border regions,
Duke K™ang of Liu, 117 240
Duke Mou-fu of Chai, 108 economic conditions, 286“87
Duke Mu of Ch™in, 103, 303“304 economic reforms, 241
Dzo Ching-chuan, 261 laws, 275
military expansion, 228
early nomadic sites notion of sovereignty, 218“20
comparison among, 83 rebellious leaders, 230
material culture, 41 Han Hsüan-ti (73“49 b.c.), 206
north-central region, 74 Han Kao-tsu (206“195 b.c.), 161
northeastern zone, 59 ff. defeated at P™ing-ch™eng, 192
northwestern zone, 68 ff. war with the Hsiung-nu, 190“91
Eastern Hu, see Tung Hu Han military
Eberhard, Wolfram, 167 armor, 234
eclipses and prognostications, 310 cavalry force, 232
Emperor Hsüan-ti (74“49 b.c.), 105 costs related to, 287
Emperor Mu, 131“32 crossbow, 234“35
Erh-k™o-ch™ien, 73 logistic support, 235
Erh-li-t™ou, 49, 66 maps, 283
methods to ¬ght nomads, 203
Fan Hsüan-tzu, 122 strategy, 289
Fan K™uai, 192 training of soldiers, 233“34
Fang Shu, 108 type of soldiers sent to Central Asia,
Fei, state of, 100, 101, 115 286
fen-yeh, 295, 308 Han Wen-ti (179“157 b.c.), 161
Feng Shu, 113 relations with the Hsiung-nu, 196, 199
Fletcher, Joseph Jr. on Inner Asian treaty of 162 b.c., 194
politics, 185 Han Wu-ti (140“87 b.c.), 133, 206
Fu Ch™en, minister, 99 reasons for conquering the Western
Fu Hao, 51, 54 regions, 250
Fu Ssu-nien, 93 political achievements, 208
wars against the Hsiung-nu, 236 ff.
geographical knowledge during the Hann, state of, 136
early Han, 281“84 Han-shu II culture, 72“73
gold objects, 84 Heaven™s mandate, 172
Great Wall, 128 Herodotus, 32
see long walls historian, see shih
Gryaznov, M. P., 34“36 historical causality in Ssu-ma Ch™ien™s
thought, 296, 310
Ha-ma-tun, 81 historiography during the Han dynasty,
Han An-kuo on ho-ch™in policy, 258“60
210“15, passim ho-ch™in policy, 155
Han campaigns debates over, 210“15
133“119 b.c., 236“41 genesis, 193
119“104 b.c., 241“44 ineffectiveness, 215“17
104“87 b.c., 244“47 treaty of 198 b.c., 193“95
Han Ching-ti (156“141 b.c.), 161 under Wen-ti and Ching-ti, 199“201
363
INDEX


ho-ch™in treaty territory invaded by China, 143
and kinship, 300 violation of treaties, 217
see also southern Hsiung-nu
violated by Hsiung-nu leaders,
224“25 Hsiung-nu culture
Horses archaeological culture, 81
domestication, 24“27 burials, 273
at Kuo-hsien-yao-tzu, 75 de¬ned, 99
horseriding, 62 laws, 274“75
Hou-chia-chuang, 54 Hsiung-nu state
Hsi-kou-p™an, 79, 84, 85 political and administrative
Hsia-yang, city of Kuo, 119 structure, 177
Hsiang-p™ing, 143 ruling clans, 178
Hsiang-tzu, minister of Chin, 128“29 Hsi-yang, capital of Fei, 115
Hsiao-t™un, 54 Hsün-tzu, 94
Hsien-yü, 100, 115 Hsün Wu, 115
city of Ku, 115, 129 Hu
Hsien-yün, 107, 109, 298 early trade with China, 131
Hsin-tien culture, 48 ¬rst mentioned, 128
Hsing, state of, 97“98 as a generic name for “mounted
Hsing-lin, 47 nomads,” 127
Hsiung-nu, 130, 151“52 synonymous with Hsiung-nu, 129
armament and tactics, 277 Hu-han-yeh, Hsiung-nu ruler, 226
as ancestors of the Mongols, 166 Hu-lu-ssu-t™ai, 78“79
before the Ch™in dynasty, 154 as a Hsiung-nu site, 152
behavior in battle, 278 Hu-Mo, 129
Chinese origin of, 300 Hua-Hsia, 90, 93, 94
in Chinese society, 270 culturally different from Ti, 97
and Central Asia, 196 Huai-nan-tzu
domination of the Western regions, description of the northern peoples,
249 291
early relation with the Han, 190 mythological geography, 296
ethnic origin, 163 notion of “law” in, 220
huang fu (barren domains)
expansion in Inner Asia, 189
genealogical “history,” 298“99 inhabited by northern peoples,
government, 178 302
hui, gatherings, 117
Han generals defecting to, 230
and ho-ch™in treaty, 216“17 Hulsew©, Anthony
language, 280“81 on early imperial laws, 219
linguistic af¬liation, 164 on Ssu-ma Ch™ien, 261
location of court, 189 on the Western regions, 249“50
military training, 276 Hun-yü, 189
notion of sovereignty, 226 Huo Ch™ü-ping, 239
raids against Chinese borders, 201 Huo-shao-kou, 48
related to the Hsien-yün, 164
relationship to other northern Inner Asia, de¬ned, 13
peoples, 165“66 in correlative cosmology, 304 ff.
sacri¬ces and rituals, 279“80 Inner Asian nomads
state formation, 186 state formation, 171
364
INDEX


use of civil institutions by, 172“73 Krader, Lawrence
see also pastoral nomads on nomadic society, 167
Ivolga, 251 on social classes, 184
Ku Chieh-kang research on Great Wall,
Jen An, 260 145
Ku-liang, 100, 101
Jung, 94, 95
Chiang Jung, 122 Ku-yüan culture, 75, 80“82, 86, 87
Ch™üan Jung, 108, 109, 119, 302 in relation to the Ch™in wall, 151
Hsü Jung, 108 Kuan Chung, 97, 105
in the Warring States period, 129, K™un-yi, 301
130 Kung Liu, 301
of T™ai-yüan, 108 Kung-sun Ao, 237, 239
Shan Jung, 119, 303 Kung-sun Ho, 237
term discussed, 108 Kung-tzu Ch™eng, 136
Kung-yang, 100
used to govern frontier areas,
110“11 Kuo Kung, 108
Western, 108, 122 Kuo Yi, 121
Kuo yü, 94, 96, 108, 126
Wu-chung Jung, 119
Yi-ch™ü Jung, 139, 142, 150 concentric-zone theory in, 94
Yin Jung, 100, 101 Kuo, state of, 119
Jung-Ti, 102 Kuo-hsien-yao-tzu, 74, 75
kurgan, 32, de¬ned, 23
K™a-yüeh culture, 68
Kao-ch™üeh, 143, 147 Lattimore, Owen, 13, 22
Karasuk culture, 31, 33, 52, 55 interpretation of Hu, 130
Ken-mou, a Ti tribe, 124 on the origin of nomadism, 33
Khazanov, A., 24, 33 on the Western Regions, 248
Khorezmian civilization, 23 Li K™o, 121
King Chao of Yen, 142 Li Kuang, 237
King Chao-hsiang of Ch™in (306“251 tactics for ¬ghting the nomads, 278
b.c.), 142 Li Ling, 208
King Hsi of Yen (254“222 b.c.), 154 Li Mu of Chao, 152“54
King Hsiang, 115 Li Ssu on foreign policy, 195
King Hsüan (827/25“782/80 b.c.), Liang Ch™i-ch™ao, 165
109 Liang-yü Mi, 121
King Hsüan of Ch™i, 138 Liao River Valley, 17
King Li (857/53“842/28 b.c.), 108 Liao-hsi, commandery, 143
King Mu (956“918 b.c.), 108, 302 Li-chia-ya, 52
King Wu, 302 Lin Hu, 59, 130, 134, 143
King Wu Ting (c. 1200 b.c.), 51 Lin Kan, 166
King Wu-ling of Chao, 70 Lin Yun, 50
debate on Hu clothing, 134“37 Lin-che-yü, 52
walls built by, 147 Lin-hsi county, 62
King Yi (c. 865“858 b.c.), 108 Lin-t™ao, 146
King Yu (781“771 b.c.), 109, 302 Littauer and Crouwel, on the chariot,
Kiselev, S., 35 29
Ko-k™un, 118 Liu Ching, architect of foreign policy,
Kou-chu (Mt.), 128 193
365
INDEX


Liu yüeh, 108 metallurgy
Loewe, Michael, 207 iron, 70“71
long walls, 128 of Sha-ching people, 79
and military expansion, 156 at P™ing-yang, 72
see also weapons
archaeological context, 150“52
built against nomads, 143 militarist doctrine, 106“107
built by Chao, 147 Modun (Mao-tun), 158
built by Ch™in, 142, 145 Hsiung-nu expansion under, 188
built by Yen, 147“49 parricide and ascent to throne,
in the Central Plain, 139 175“76
evidence in the Shih chi, 146 proposes to Empress Dowager Lü
general characteristics, 144 Hou, 194
Han cultural presence, 151 rise to power, 174
located far from agricultural zones, Mongolia, 17“18, 63
149 geographical de¬nition, 17
in the Warring States period, 142“ Morgan, Lewis Henry, 21
43 Mori, Masao, 186
Mu T™ien-tzu chuan, 108, 131
Lou-fan, 59, 78, 135, 143, 157, 189
Lower Hsia-chia-tien culture, 46, 49, information on trade, 285
66
Lu, state of, 124 Na-lin-kao-t™u, 85
Lu Wan, King of Yen, 230 Nan-shan-ken, 64, 77
luan bells, 65 Ning-ch™eng county, 65
Lung-ch™eng, Hsiung-nu sacred place, No-mu-hung, 48
189, 237 non-Chou peoples, 106
Lung-hsi commandery, 142 as “conquerable,” 107
in the military, 123“24
Ma Ch™ang-shou, 166 northern peoples,
described in the Huai-nan-tzu, 291
Ma-chia-yao, 46
Ma-wang-tui, 295 prognostications on, 306 ff.
Ma-yi, Han army defeated at, 214 Northern Zone, 13, 31
Man, 94“96, 112 and China, 54“56
Man-Yi, 102 bronzes, 49“52
and prognostications, 307 early nomads in, 56“57
pei-fang ti-ch™ü, 45
Manchuria, 14“17
Mao-ch™ing-kou, 77“78, 83 periodization, 57“59
and origins of Hsiung-nu Culture,
77 Okunevo, 47
economy, 78 Onggut Banner, 63
similarities with Pao-t™ou, 75 Ordos, 13, 17
Mathieu, R©mi, 290 chronology, 77
Mencius, 172 in relation to the “long walls,”
on “barbarians,” 105, 299 150“51
Meng T™ien, 158 sites, 58, 74
expedition to the Ordos, 174“75,
186 paci¬st doctrine, 116
Meng Wen-t™ung, 165 Pai-chin-pao, 63
meng, blood covenant, 116, 117 Pai-fu, 53
366
INDEX


Pan Ku, 207 Seimo-Turbino “phenomenon,” 30“31,
views on foreign policy, 271 47
Pao-t™ou, 75, 81 Sha-ching culture, 68“69
Shan Jung, see Jung
pastoral nomads
dependent or agricultural products, Shang commandery, 142
169 Shang dynasty (c. sixteenth
economy, 80 century“1045 b.c.), 107
need for agricultural goods, 170 Shang-ku, commandery, 143
the Shih chi as a source on, 272“73 Shang-sun, 68
Shan-hai ching, 290
Pazyryk, 39, 41
period, 35 Shelach, Gideon, 66
Pei-hsin-pao, 77 Shen Nung, 300
Pei-ti, commandery, 142 Shen Tao, 219
shih, historian
P™eng-p™u, 82
P™ing-yang, 72, 137“38 activities attributed to, 256“58
planets, correlations with the north, as record-keeper, 258
305 in the Chou period, 257“58
Pleiades, 305 in the Warring States period, 258
Po-tsung, 113 role in early China, 256
Shih chi,
prisoners of war, as a source of
information, 270 astronomical chapter, 305
compared with Han shu, 207“208
prognostications on northern peoples,
306 ff. on the cost of the Hsiung-nu wars,
Pulleyblank, Edwin, on Hsiung-nu 286
language, 164 intended purpose and functions,
262
Queen Dowager Hsüan, 142 on Li Mu, 152
on the “long walls,” 143
Rudenko, S., 34 on trade between China and the
North, 132
sacral investiture, in Inner Asian state sources on the Hsiung-nu, 268 ff.
Shih ching, 108, 301
formation, 183“84
sacral kingship, among Inner Asian Shih Nien-hai, 146
nomads, 171 Shih-erh-t™ai-ying-tzu, 64
Saka people, 41, 42 Shih-hui-kou, 86
Europoid type, 39 Shih-la-ts™un, 82
San-chiao-cheng, 69 Shu ching, 94
San-chia-tzu, 73 Shui-chien-kou-men, 78
Shuo-yüan, 157
Sarmatians, 42
Sauromatian, 42 silk,
Sayano-Altai region, 19“20, 31 in nomadic sites, 39
Scythians, 21, 32 in trade with Central Asia, 248
precious objects, 59 Sinkiang, 18“20
Scythian culture, 37 geographical de¬nition, 18
Scythian triad, 57, 76 metallurgy, 71
Scythian-type objects, 57, 65, 75, Saka culture, 77
83 Sintashta-Petrovka culture, 28
Scytho-Siberian people, 32, 35 Sira Mören River, 62
367
INDEX


Son of Heaven Mu, see Emperor Ti, 75, 78, 80
Mu as “barbarians,” 97
South Siberia, 47, 55, 67, 72 Ch™ih Ti, 80, 109, 113, 114
southern Hsiung-nu, 226 culturally different from Hua-Hsia,
peace treaty with the Han dynasty, 98“99
246 in the Warring States period, 129,
ssu yi, 98 131
Ssu-ma Ch™ien, Pai Ti, 80, 109, 114
and correlative cosmology, 307 Ti-tao, 146
as an astronomer, 265 T™ieh-chiang-kou, 150, 164
genealogy of the northern peoples, T™ien Tan, 115
229, Ting-ling, 189
tngri, 239
letter to Jen An, 260
personal knowledge of the northern T™ou-man, 186
frontier, 268 Trade,
philosophy of history, 263 between nomads and Chinese,
reasons for writing the Shih chi, 131“34
262“63 with Central Asia, 285
skepticism about sources, 292 in the region of Tai, 133
Ssu-ma T™an, 259 textual information on, 284“
Ssu-pa culture, 48 85
Ssu-wa culture, 48 with the Western regions, 248
state formation among Inner Asian Transbaikalia, 63, 67, 71, 72
nomads, tribute, paid by China to the Hsiung-
centralization, 183“86 nu, 171
militarization, 181“83 Ts™ai ch™i, 108
the notion of crisis, 179“81 Ts™ai-sang, 121
Stein, Aurel, on the Western Regions, Tsao-yang, 142
247“48 Tung Chung-shu, 271
Su-chi-k™ou, 79 Tung Hu (Eastern Hu), 59, 130, 135,
as a Hsiung-nu site, 151 149, 187, 188
Sung, state of, 114 attacked by Ch™in K™ai, 158
Tung-nan-kou, 64
ta ch™en, as a Türk title, 177 Tuva, 36
Ta-ching, 62
Tagar period, 35 Ulangom, 39
Ta-he-chuang, 47 Upper Hsia-chia-tien culture, 56,
Tai, commandery, 143 62“66
Tai, son of King Hui, 122 in relation to the “long walls,” 148,
T™ai-hang Mountains, 17, 88 150
T™ai-yüan, 190
Taklamakan, see Sinkiang Waldron, Arthur, 139, 156
Wang Hui, on ho-ch™in policy, 210“15,
Tan Fu, 301
passim
T™ao-hung-pa-la, 75“80, 85
Tao-tun-tzu, 81 Wang Kuo-wei, 165
Ta-p™ao-tzu, 63 Wang Mang (r. 9“33 a.d.), 226
Tarim Basin, see Sinkiang Watson, Burton, on Ssu-ma Ch™ien,
Ta-ssu-k™ung, 54 380
368
INDEX


weapons Yen, state of, 136, 154
bimetallic, 58 attacks on nomads, 142
bronze, 50, 53, 65, 79, 83 close to nomads, 143
iron, 71, 73, 84, 86 walls built by, 147“49
see also Scythian triad Yen-ch™ing, 70, 73“76, 89
Wei Chiang, 120 ff. Yen-shan mountains, 147
Yi Chou shu, 96
Wei Ch™ing, 237, 239
Western Chou (c. 1045“770 b.c.), 107 Yi, 94“96,
Western Regions in opposition to Hsia, 94
Yi-ch™ü Jung, see Jung
economic ties with the Hsiung-nu,
250“51 Yi-Ti, 100“101
Han administration, 246 Yin-shan mountains, 88
yin-yang, in the relationship between
and the Hsiung-nu, 196“99
motives behind Han expansion into, China and the north, 295, 307
Yü kung, 94“95,
247“49
on the wars between Han and ¬ve-zone theory in, 94, 284
Hsiung-nu, 250 description of the northern peoples,
Wey, state of, 97“98 292
Wu, state of, 101 Yu Yü, 103
as “barbarian,” 101“102 Yü-chia-chuang, 75, 82
Wu-chih Lo, 132 Yü-lung-t™ai, 79, 86
Wu-huan, conquered by the Hsiung- Yü-men, 20
nu, 190 Yü-pei-p™ing, commandery, 143
Wu-sun, contacts with the Han Yü-shu-kou, 69
dynasty, 196 Yü-yang, commandery, 143
Yüeh, southern people, 130
Yamnaya culture, 27 Yüeh-chih, defeated by the Hsiung-nu,
Yang, region, 138“39 187
Yang-lang, 82 Yün-chung, commandery, 143, 147
Yen T™ieh Lun, see Discourses on Salt

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