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in London, 1896“1897. Hong Kong: Oxford University
Press, 1986.
19 Sun Yat-sen™s activities among the Overseas Chinese are
well documented in many of the biographical studies
about him. The fullest study of his years in British Malaya
is the work by Yen Ching-hwang, The Overseas Chinese
and the 1911 Revolution, with special reference to Singapore
and Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press,
1976. Other studies trace his impact on later and more
radical politics among these Chinese; C. F. Yong and
R. B. McKenna, The Kuomintang Movement in British
Malaya, 1912“1949. Singapore: Singapore University
Press, 1990; and C. F. Yong, The Origins of Malayan
Communism. Singapore: South Seas Society, 1997.
The British were also aware of Sun™s in¬‚uence in
Canada and the United States. Although less alarm-
ing, the growth of a strong following among his Can-
tonese countrymen greatly concerned the authorities
in Hong Kong and various southern Treaty Ports;
L. Eve Armentrout-Ma, Chinese Politics in the Western
Hemisphere, 1893“1911: rivalry between reformers and
Notes (pages 29“32) 159

revolutionaries in the Americas. PhD Thesis, University
of California, Davis, 1977. Ann Arbor, Mi.: University
Micro¬lms International. This was revised and published
as Revolutionaries, Monarchists, and Chinatowns: Chinese
politics in the Americas and the 1911 Revolution. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
20 For Japan, the most authoritative work is still that of
Marius B. Jansen, The Japanese and Sun Yat-sen. Cam-
bridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967, 1954.
21 C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionar-
ies of Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist China,
1920“1927. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1989; Benjamin I. Schwartz, Chinese Communism
and the Rise of Mao. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 1951.
22 Nevertheless, Sa Zhenbing is much admired by his com-
patriots in Fuzhou; Wang Zhilun and Gao Xiang, Sa
Zhenbing (Biography of Sa Zhenbing). Fuzhou: Fujian
Educational Publishers, 1988; Swanson, Eighth Voyage of
the Dragon, pp. 113“166.
23 For the military before 1949, the early work of Evans
Carlson, The Chinese Army: its organisation and military
ef¬ciency, is still useful. This was published by the In-
stitute of Paci¬c Relations in New York in 1940. Also
authoritative for this period is F. F. (Frederick Fu) Liu,
A Military History of Modern China, 1924“1949. Prince-
ton: Princeton University Press, 1956. The background
to the full modernisation story, the numerous efforts to
train a modern army, can be found in Liu Feng-han™s
four-volume work, Xin jun zhi (History of the New
Army). Nangang, Taibei: Institute of Modern History,
Academia Sinica, 1967.
24 Chalmers A. Johnson, Peasant Nationalism and Com-
munist Power: the emergence of revolutionary China,
1937“1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962;
160 Notes (pages 34“36)

Dick Wilson, The Long March, 1935: the epic of Chinese
communism™s survival. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1971.
25 Barbara W. Tuchman, Sand against the Wind: Stilwell
and the American experience in China, 1911“45. London:
Macmillan, 1971. Set against the Stilwell point of view
are those of Anna Chennault and Madam Chiang Kai-
shek which record China™s appreciation of the US fac-
tor in the war; Anna Chennault, Chennault and the
Flying Tigers. New York: P. S. Eriksson, 1963; and
Chiang Soong Mei-ling, This is Our China, New
York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1940. Second
edition.
26 Swanson, Eighth Voyage of the Dragon, pp. 179“192;
eds Yang Guoyu et al., Dangdai Zhongguo haijun (The
Navy in Contemporary China). Beijing: Zhongguo she-
hui kexue (Chinese Social Science) Publishers, 1987,
pp. 10“34, 155“223. The defection of the cruiser
Chungking (originally HMS Aurora) was signi¬cant.
It was manned by British-trained of¬cers who sailed
the ship back to China in 1948. The cruiser sailed
from Wusong (Shanghai) to Yantai (Shandong) on 25
February 1949. This was followed by the surrender of
the Second Fleet in Nanjing in April. Altogether, after
sifting out those thought unsuitable, over 4,000 of¬cers
and sailors were retained in the PLA™s navy. But it was
not until 1955 that the PLA was able to recover all is-
lands off the coast, except for those of Mazu and Jinmen
and the Pescadores closer to Taiwan.
27 Malcolm H. Murfett, Hostage on the Yangtze: Britain,
China, and the Amethyst crisis of 1949. Annapolis, Md.:
Naval Institute Press, 1991, pp. 50“60, 213“236. The
Communists believed that the British had sent naval
forces to block the PLA from crossing the Yangzi river
and therefore ¬red their guns at all British vessels, Huang
Gangzhou, Zhang Aiping yu haijun (Zhang Aiping and
the Navy). Beijing: Haichao, 1991, pp. 33“34.
Notes (pages 37“44) 161

28 Yang et al., Dangdai Zhongguo haijun, pp. 47“49, 68“83.
29 Donald S. Zagoria, The Sino-Soviet Con¬‚ict, 1956“1961.
Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1962.
William E. Grif¬th, The Sino-Soviet Rift. London: Allen
& Unwin, 1964.
30 The rami¬cations of these developments are yet to be
fully studied. Two essays by You Ji outline some of
the immediate questions that arise: “Missile Diplomacy
and PRC domestic politics”, in Missile Diplomacy and
Taiwan™s Future. Edited by Greg Austin. Canberra:
Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian
National University. Canberra Papers on Strategy and
Defence, no. 122, 1997, pp. 29“55; and “A Blue Water
Navy, does it matter?” in China Rising: Nationalism and
Interdependence. Edited by David S. G. Goodman and
Gerry Segal. London and New York: Routledge, 1997,
pp. 71“89.
31 For a background to the skills and interests of the ocean-
going Hokkiens, Wang Gungwu, “Merchants Without
Empire: the Hokkien sojourning communities”, in
James D. Tracy ed. The Rise of Merchant Empires: long-
distance trade in the early modern world, 1350“1750.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 400“421.

3 “To trade”

1 Wang Gungwu, The Chinese Overseas: from earth-
bound China to the Quest for Autonomy. Cambridge,
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000, pp. 24“37; and
“Merchants without empires: the Hokkien sojourn-
ing communities”. In James D. Tracy, ed. The Rise of
Merchant Empires: long-distance trade in the early modern
world, 1350“1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1990, pp. 400“421.
2 Edward H. Schafer, “The History of the Empire of
Southern Han according to chapter 65 of the Wu Tai
162 Notes (pages 45“50)

shih of Ouyang Hsiu”, Silver Jubilee volume of the
Jimbun Kagaku Kenkyujo, (Kyoto), 1954, pp. 339ff; and
The Empire of Min. Rutland, Vt.: C. E. Tuttle, for
Harvard Yenching Institute, 1954.
3 Carl Crow, Four Hundred Million Customers: the experi-
ences “ some happy, some sad “ of an American in China,
and what they taught him. New York: Harper, 1937.
4 S. Gordon Redding, The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism.
Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1990. Hao Yen-p™ing, The
Comprador in Nineteenth Century China: bridge between
East and West. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1970. Albert Feuerwerker, China™s Early Industri-
alization, Sheng Hsuan-Huai, 1844“1916 and Mandarin
enterprise. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
1958.
5 Wang Gungwu, “The culture of Chinese merchants”.
In China and the Chinese Overseas. Singapore: Times
Academic Press, 1991, pp. 188“197.
6 John Keay. The Honourable Company: a history of the
English East India Company. London: HarperCollins,
1993, pp. 331“361; 421“456.
7 Yu Ying-shih, Trade and Expansion in Han China: a study
in the structure of Sino-barbarian economic relations. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1967.
8 John K. Fairbank, ed. The Chinese World Order: Tradi-
tional China™s foreign relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1968, pp. 1“14. Fairbank had started
in 1941 with research on the Chinese tributary system.
This recognised the ancient connection with trade and,
while his work evolved into the idea of a Chinese world
order, how the system was equally rooted in the feu-
dal politics of of¬cial trade was never neglected. That
¬rst study was done together with Teng Ssu-yu, “On
the Ch™ing Tributary System”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic
Studies, vol. 6, pp. 238“243. Since then, the trade fac-
tor has been played down and the tributary system has
Notes (pages 51“53) 163

been subsumed under that of defence and even “grand
strategy”. The most recent of such studies are Alas-
tair Iain Johnston, Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and
Grand Strategy in Chinese History. Princeton: Prince-
ton University Press, 1995; and Michael D. Swaine
and Ashley J. Tellis, Interpreting China™s Grand Strategy:
Past, Present, and Future. Santa Monica, Ca.: Rand,
2000.
Another approach links an extension of the tributary
system directly to the characteristics and frequency of
war, and goes as far as to call it “the Confucian interna-
tional order”; Lee Choon Kun, “War in the Confucian
International Order”. PhD Thesis, University of Texas
at Austin, 1988. Ann Arbor, Mi.: University Micro¬lms
International.
9 Frederic Wakeman, jr, “The Canton Trade and the
Opium War” in John K. Fairbank ed. The Cambridge
History of China. Volume 10. Late Ch™ing, 1800“1911,
Part I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978,
pp. 163“171. Cheong Weng Eang, The Hong Merchants of
Canton: Chinese merchants in Sino-Western trade. London:
Curzon Press, 1997, pp. 1“25.
10 F. W. Mote, Imperial China, 900“1800. Cambridge,
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999, pp. 949“956.
11 Wang Gungwu. The Nanhai Trade, pp. 116“117; Yang
Lien-sheng, “Historical notes on the Chinese world
order”; and Marc Mancall, “The Ch™ing tributary
system: an interpretative essay”, in Fairbank, ed. The
Chinese World Order, pp. 20“33; 63“85.
12 Morris Rossabi, Khubilai Khan: his life and times. Berke-
ley: University of California Press, 1987, pp. 99“103;
207“220.
13 Ma Huan, Ying-yai sheng-lan, “The Overall Survey of the
Ocean™s shores” [1433]. Translated by J. G. V. Mills. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt
Society, 1970, pp. 5“34.
164 Notes (pages 54“58)

14 Ng Chin Keong, “Gentry-Merchants and Peasant-
Peddlers “ the responses of the South Fukienese to the
offshore trading opportunities, 1522“1566”, Nanyang
University Journal, no. 7, 1973, pp. 161“175. Also his
Trade and Society: the Amoy network on the China coast,
1683“1735. Singapore: Singapore University Press,
1983.
15 James Chin Kong, “Merchants and other sojourners: the
Hokkiens overseas, 1570“1760”. University of Hong
Kong, PhD Thesis, 1999, chapter VII, pp. 316“357.
Also Aloysius Chang, “The Chinese community of
Nagasaki in the ¬rst century of the Tokugawa Period
(1603“1688)”. St John™s University, PhD Thesis, 1970.
Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Micro¬lms International,
1970; and John E. Wills, jr, Pepper, Guns, and Parleys:
the Dutch East India Company and China, 1622“1681.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974,
pp. 17“36, 194“212.
16 Jennifer W. Cushman, Fields from the Sea: Chinese junk
trade with Siam during the late eighteenth and early nine-
teenth centuries. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Studies on South-
east Asia no. 12, Cornell University, 1993, pp. 65“95;
W. L. Schurz, The Manila Galleon. New York: Dutton,
1939.
17 Hao Yen-p™ing, The Commercial Revolution in Nineteenth-
Century China: the rise of Sino-Western Mercantile Capital-
ism. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press, 1986,
pp. 17“19.
18 Hao, Commercial Revolution, pp. 20“33. During the two
decades before the First Opium War, the British mer-
chants reached a position when they outdid all the other
foreign merchants seeking to compete off the coast of
China.
19 Susan Mann Jones and Philip A. Kuhn, “Dynastic
Decline and the Roots of Rebellion”, Fairbank ed.,
Cambridge History, Late Ch™ing, pp. 108“132. Robert
Notes (pages 58“60) 165

P. Gardella, “Qing Administration of the Tea Trade”,
and Andrea McElderry, “Guarantors and Guarantees in
Qing Government-business Relations”, in To Achieve
Security and Wealth: the Qing imperial state and the econ-
omy, 1644“1911. Edited by Jane K. Leonard and John
R. Watt. Ithaca, N.Y.: East Asia Program, Cornell Uni-
versity, 1992, pp. 97“118; 119“137.
20 Leonard Bluss´ , “The VOC and the Junk Trade to
e
Batavia: a problem in administrative control”, in Strange
Company: Chinese settlers, Mestizo women, and the Dutch
in VOC Batavia. Dordrecht-Holland: Foris Publications,
1988, pp. 97“155; Dianne Lewis, Jan Campagnie in the
Straits of Malacca, 1641“1795. Athens, Ohio: Ohio Uni-
versity, Center for International Studies, 1995. Reinout
Vos, Gentle Janus, Merchant Prince: the VOC and the
tightrope of diplomacy in the Malay world, 1740“1800.
Translated by Beverly Jackson. Leiden: KITLV, 1993.
For Manila and the Sulu region, see Nicholas P. Cushner
ed., Documents Illustrating the British Conquest of Manila,
1762“1763. London: Royal Historical Society, Univer-
sity College, London, 1971. Howard T. Fry, Alexander
Dalrymple (1737“1808) and the expansion of British trade.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.
21 J. William Skinner, Chinese Society in Thailand: an analyt-
ical history. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1957;
and his Leadership and Power in the Chinese Community of
Thailand. Ithaca, N.Y.: Published for the Association for
Asian Studies by Cornell University Press, 1958. For
early Penang and Singapore, K. G. Tregonning, The
British in Malaya: the ¬rst forty years, 1786“1826. Tucson:
University of Arizona Press, 1965; and C. M. Turnbull,
The Straits Settlements, 1826“67: Indian presidency to crown
colony. London: Athlone Press, 1972.
22 Wang Dahai (Ong Tae-hae), Haidao yizhi. The Chinaman
Abroad, or, A desultory account of the Malayan Archipelago,
particularly of Java. Translation from the original by
166 Notes (pages 61“64)

W. H. Medhurst. Shanghai: The Mission Press, 1849.
An annotated edition of the original text by Yao Nan
and Wu Liangxuan was published in 1992: Haidao yizhi.
Hong Kong: Xuejin Book Company, Rare Texts Series
on the History of the Chinese Overseas, Chinese Uni-
versity of Hong Kong and Huaqiao History Association
of Shanghai.
23 The voluminous correspondence that Sheng Xuanhuai
has left us reveals the dif¬culties faced by mandarin
entrepreneurs during this transitional period; Sheng
Xuanhuai shiye handian gao (Sheng Xuanhuai™s letters
and telegraphs on modern industry in the late Ch™ing
period). Edited by Wang Er min and Wu Lun Nixia.
Taipei: Academia Sinica Institute of Modern History
Documents Series, Two volumes. No. 17, 1993. For a
more successful and different kind of literati industrialist,
see Samuel C. Chu. Reformer in Modern China: Chang
Chien, 1853“1926. New York: Columbia University
Press, 1965.
24 Parks M. Coble, The Shanghai Capitalists and the
Nationalist Government, 1927“1937. Cambridge, Mass.:
Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University,
1980, 1986; Sherman Cochran, Encountering Chinese
Networks: Western, Japanese, and Chinese corporations
in China, 1880“1937. Berkeley, Ca.: University of
California Press, 2000.
25 Hao Yen-p™ing, The Comprador in Nineteenth Century
China, pp. 44“63, 207“223; Wellington K. Chan,
Merchants, Mandarins, and Modern Enterprise in Late Ching
China. Cambridge, Mass.: East Asian Research Center,
1977.
26 J. Panglaykim (Pangestu) and I. Palmer, Entrepreneurship
and Commercial Risk: the case of a Schumpeterian business
in Indonesia. Singapore: Institute of Business Studies,
Nanyang University, 1970. For Sincere and Wing On
Notes (pages 65“70) 167

companies, see W. K. Chan, “The origins and early years
of the Wing On Company group in Australia, Fiji, Hong
Kong and Shanghai: organisation and strategy of a new
enterprise”, in Chinese Business Enterprise in Asia. Edited
by Ampalavanar Rajeswary Brown. London: Routledge,
1995, pp. 80“95.
27 Wong Siu-lun, Emigrant Entrepreneurs: Shanghai indus-
trialists in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University
Press, 1988.
28 Redding, Spirit of Chinese capitalism, pp. 205“225;
227“240.
29 Yoshihara Kunio, The Rise of Ersatz Capitalism in South-
East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1988.
30 Wong Siu-lun, “The Chinese family ¬rm: a model”,
British Journal of Sociology, vol. 36, no. 1, 1985, pp. 58“72.
S. Gordon Redding and G. Y. Y. Wong, “The psy-
chology of Chinese organisational behaviour” in The
Psychology of the Chinese People. Edited by Michael H.
Bond. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1986,
pp. 267“295.
31 The best-known examples of centres that were cred-
ited with successfully marrying social science teach-
ing with business methods were St John™s University in
Shanghai and Lingnan University in Guangzhou; Mary
Lamberton, St. John™s University, Shanghai, 1879“1951.
New York: United Board for Christian Colleges in
China, 1955; Charles Corbett, Lingnan University, a
short history based primarily on the records of the university™s
American trustees. New York: Trustees of Lingnan
University, 1963.
32 Yong Ching Fatt, Tan Kah Kee: the making of an over-
seas Chinese legend. Singapore: Oxford University Press,
1987, pp. 41“78.
33 Full accounts of Li Ka-shing™s life are those in Chinese.
The more accessible are Lu Yanyuan, Li Jiacheng. Beijing:
168 Notes (pages 72“77)

Xinhua chubanshe, 1996; and Sun Heping, Li Jiacheng.
Jinan: Shandong huabao chubanshe, 1998.
34 Three works by Goh Keng Swee: The Economics of
Modernization. Singapore: Federal Publications, 1995;
“Experience & prospect of Singapore™s economic de-
velopment: strategy formulation & execution”. Paper
prepared for the Hao Ran Foundation Workshop held
in Macau, from 26 July 1992 to 4 August 1992; and The
Practice of Economic Growth. Singapore: Federal Publica-
tions, 1977.
35 Edmund Terence Gomez and K. S. Jomo, Malaysia™s
Political Economy: politics, patronage, and pro¬ts. Cambridge
and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997;
Edmund Terence Gomez, Chinese Business in Malaysia:
accumulation, ascendance, accommodation. Richmond,
Surrey: Curzon, 1999.

4 “To convert”

1 Holmes Welch, The Practice of Chinese Buddhism. Cam-
bridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967; Erik
Zurcher, The Buddhist Conquest of China: the spread and
adaptation of Buddhism in early medieval China. Leiden:
Brill, 1959.
2 Brian Harrison, Waiting for China: the Anglo-Chinese Col-
lege at Malacca, 1818“1843, and early nineteenth-century
missions. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press,
1979; Jack S. Gregory, Great Britain and the Taipings.
London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1969; Jonathan D.
Spence, God™s Chinese Son: the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
of Hong Xiuquan. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996.
3 Paul Cohen, “Christian missions and their impact to
1900”. In John K. Fairbank, The Cambridge History
of China, vol. 10, Late Ch™ing, 1800“1911, Part I,
pp. 543“590. An excellent essay on the work of James
Notes (pages 77“80) 169

Legge is Yu Ying-shih™s Honorary degrees Convocation
Lecture at the University of Hong Kong on 3 October
1992. For Wanguo gongbao, see Adrian A. Bennett™s Re-
search Guide to the Wanguo gongbao (The Globe Magazine),
1874“1883. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center,
1976.
4 Saneto Keishu, Chugokujin Nihon ryugaku shi, zoho
(History of Chinese students in Japan), Chinese trans-
lation by Tan Ruqian (Tam Yue-him) and Lin Qiyan
(Lam Kai-yin). Beijing: Sanlian Joint Publications,
1983.
5 Douglas R. Reynolds, China, 1898“1912: the Xinzheng
revolution and Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Council on
East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1993, pp. 1“14;
111“126. China, 1895“1912: state-sponsored reforms &
China™s late-Qing revolution. Selected essays from Zhong-
guo Jindai Shi (Modern Chinese History, 1840“1919).
Edited by Douglas R. Reynolds. Armonk, N.Y.:
M. E. Sharpe, 1995.
6 As propounded by the generation of Wei Yuan and the
early reformers like Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang;
Mary Wright, The Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism:
the T™ung-chih Restoration, 1862“1874. Revised edition.
New York: Atheneum, 1966.
7 W. G. Beasley, Japanese Imperialism, 1894“1945. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1987, pp. 108“121; Morinosuke
Kajima, The Diplomacy of Japan, 1894“1922. Tokyo:
Kajima Institute of International Peace, 1976“1980.
Vol. 3, pp. 126ff.
8 Saneto Keishu, Chugokujin Nihon ryugaku shi
pp. 281“338.
9 Chang Hao, Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: search for order
and meaning (1890“1911). Berkeley, Ca.: University of
California Press, 1987, his concluding remarks on four
leading intellectuals, pp. 181“191.
170 Notes (pages 80“83)

10 Wen Ching (Lim Boon Keng), The Chinese Crisis from
Within. Edited by G. M. Reith. London: Library of
Congress, 1901. Lee Guan Kin (Li Yuanjin), Lin Wenqing
di sixiang: Zhongxi wenhua di huiliu yu maodun (The
ideas of Lim Boon Keng: convergence and contradic-
tion between Chinese and Western culture). Singapore:
Singapore Society for Asian Studies, 1990, pp. 78“86.
11 Adrian A. Bennett, John Fryer: the introduction of West-
ern science and technology into nineteenth-century China.
Cambridge, Mass.: East Asian Research Center, Harvard
University, 1967; Paul R. Bohr, Famine in China and
the Missionary: Timothy Richard as relief administrator
and advocate of national reform, 1876“1884. Cambridge,
Mass.: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University,
1972. W. A. P. Martin, The Lore of Cathay; or, the intellect
of China. New York, Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, 1901;
and Hanlin Papers: or, Essays on the intellectual life of the
Chinese. London: Trubner, 1880.
12 Liu T™ieh-yun (Liu E), The Travels of Lao Ts™an. Trans-
lated by Harold Shadick. New York: Columbia Univer-
sity Press, 1990 (¬st published by Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
University Press, 1952), pp. xix“xxv; 3“11.
13 Chen Tingzhuo, Baiyu zhai cihua (Ci-poetry notes from
the White Rain Studio). First edited and published in
a traditional wood-cut edition in 1894 by my great-
grandfather, Wang Gengxin, in eight chapters. This was
reprinted in modern type by Kai-ming Publishers in
Shanghai in the 1930s. A punctuated edition was pub-
lished in Beijing by Wenxue guji kanxingshe in 1959.
Chen™s complete manuscript in ten chapters was photo-
graphically reprinted in Shanghai by Guji chubanshe in
1984, together with his anthology of ci-poetry, Ci Ze
(Patterns of Ci-poetry).
Ding Chuanjing (Ting Ch™uan-ching) was known
after 1911 for his novels and even better known when
Notes (pages 84“85) 171

his collection of poems was published after his death in
1930. His Songren yishi huibian (¬rst edition published
in Shanghai by Commercial Press in 1935) was trans-
lated by Djang Chu and Jane C. Djang, A Compilation
of Anecdotes of Sung Personalities. Taipei: St. John™s Uni-
versity Press, 1989.
14 Vera Schwarcz, The Chinese Enlightenment: intellectuals
and the legacy of the May Fourth Movement of 1919.
Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press, 1986,
pp. 94“144; Lin, Yu-sheng, The Crisis of Chinese Con-
sciousness: Radical antitraditionalism in the May Fourth
era. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979;
Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed. Re¬‚ections on the May Fourth
Movement: a symposium. Cambridge, Mass.: East Asian
Research Center, Harvard University, 1972.
15 Taylor, Mrs Howard (M. Geraldine Guinness), The Story
of the China Inland Mission. With an introduction by
J. Hudson Taylor. London: Morgan & Scott, 1900.
Two volumes; A. J. Broomhall, Hudson Taylor & China™s
Open Century. Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder and Stoughton
and the Overseas Missionary Fellowship, 1981; Paul
R. Bohr, Famine in China and the Missionary; Howard
Taylor, Hudson Taylor in Early Years: the growth of a
soul. Singapore: Overseas Missionary Fellowship, 1989
(Original edition, 1911).
16 Pat Barr, To China with Love: the lives and times of Protes-
tant missionaries in China 1860“1900. London: Secker
and Warburg, 1972; John Leighton Stuart, Fifty Years in
China: the memoirs of John Leighton Stuart, missionary and
ambassador. New York: Random House, 1954: James B.
Webster, Christian Education and the National Conscious-
ness in China. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1923.
17 John Wong, The Origins of an Heroic Image: Sun Yatsen
in London, 1896“1897. Hong Kong: Oxford Univer-
sity Press, pp. 169“202. Harold Z. Schrif¬n, Sun Yat-sen
172 Notes (pages 86“88)

and the Origins of the Chinese Revolution. Berkeley, Ca.:
University of California Press, 1968.
18 Victor Purcell, Problems of Chinese Education. London:
K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1936; Gwee Yee Hean and
Francis H. K. Wong, Of¬cial Reports on Education: the
Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States, 1870“
1939. Singapore: Pan Paci¬c Book Distributors, 1980.
19 Lin Shu™s translations in classical Chinese prose in-
clude works like Lamb™s Tales from Shakespeare, Robinson
Crusoe, Gulliver™s Travels, and the major novels of Charles
Dickens. There were also innumerable contemporary
popular novels from Britain, most notably those of
H. Rider Haggard and Arthur Conan Doyle, but few
of these are read today in China. The best of the English
and French classical novels were later re-translated by
others into baihua for a wider audience. Selections of Lin
Shu™s own prose and poetry have been recently reprinted
to illustrate the in¬‚uence he had on his times. The most
representative of these is the collection, Lin Shu yanjiu
ziliao (Research materials on Lin Shu). Fuzhou: Fujian
People™s Publishing House, 1983. Lin Shu™s advocacy of
classical Chinese is recalled through his scholarly writ-
ings and reprints of his selections of traditional prose
essays.
20 Howard L. Boorman, ed. Biographical Dictionary of
Republican China. vol. 2, pp. 122“124 (Xu Zhimo);
vol. 3, pp. 132“135 (Lao She, or Shu Qingchun);
vol. 2, pp. 148“149 (Xu Dishan). Xiao Qian does not
have a biography, but is mentioned in several articles,
notably as a victim of the anti-Rightist campaign of
1957, vol. 3, p. 357. There are innumerable studies
of Xu Zhimo, especially his poetry. Zhu Guangqian™s
biography by Qian Niansun, Zhu Guangqian yu Zhongxi
wenhua (Zhu Guangqian and China-West culture).
Hefei: Anhui jiaoyu chubanshe, 1995.
Notes (pages 89“91) 173

21 Zhu Guangqian quanji (Complete Works). Hefei: Anhui
jiaoyu chubanshe, 1987, vol. 9, p. 186.
22 “Gei qingnian di shierfeng xin (Twelve Letters to the
Young)”. In Zhu, Complete Works, vol. 1, pp. 1“81.
23 Waley, “A Debt to China”. In Hsiao Ch™ien (comp.), A
Harp with a Thousand Strings, p. 342.
24 G. Lowes Dickinson™s The Greek View of Life (¬rst pub-
lished in London by Methuen in 1896) was translated
and published in 1934 by Shanghai Commercial Press,
and reprinted in Taipei in 1966. The English original
of this work was available in major Chinese universities.
The major texts of the Greek classics were translated
into Chinese between 1900 and 1930 and scholars were
familiar with them. It is interesting that the most de-
tailed study of the Greek city-states written since 1949
does not refer to Dickinson; Gu Zhun, “Xila bangcheng
zhidu” (The Greek city-state system), in Gu Zhun wenji
(The works of Gu Zhun), Guiyang: Guizhou People™s
Publishing, 1994, pp. 63“219. As for Dickinson™s later
book, An Essay on the Civilisations of India, China and
Japan (published in London by J. M. Dent in 1914), that
was also available in China. I am not aware, however,
whether his books became better known because of his
visit to China and the Chinese friends he made there.
His very successful Letters from John Chinaman, ¬rst pub-
lished in 1901, also by Dent in London, does not seem
to have been known in China.
25 Bertrand Russell, The Problem of China, London: Allen
& Unwin, 1966 (¬rst published in 1922); translated as
Zhongguo wenti by Qin Yue. Shanghai: Xuelin chuban-
she, 1996. Some of the notes based on Russell™s lectures
in China were subsequently published during the years
1922“1926. Recent Chinese writings about Russell
have referred to his articles about China published in
newspapers and magazines between 1921 and 1927. This
174 Notes (pages 91“93)

is brought out in Li Xueqin™s review in Dushu maga-
zine, no. 1 of 1996 (Beijing) of Feng Chongyi™s study of
Russell and China, Luosu yu Zhongguo. Beijing: Sanlian
Joint Publishing, 1994.
26 Translated by Hsu Kai-yu in Twentieth Century Chinese
Poetry: an anthology. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday,
1963, pp. 83“84. Also in Cyril Birch, ed. Anthology of
Chinese Literature. Vol. 2: From the 14th century to the present
day. New York: Grove Press, 1972, pp. 347“348.
27 Xiao Qian, Weidai ditu de luren: Xiao Qian huiyi lu (Mem-
oirs of Xiao Qian). Hong Kong: Xiangjiang Publish-
ers, 1988. This was abridged, adapted and translated by
Jeffrey C. Kinkley, and expanded and revised by Xiao
Qian, as Traveler without a Map. London: Hutchinson,
1990, chapters 1 to 3. In Mao™s China, Xiao began as
a deputy chief editor of the English edition of Renmin
Zhongguo (People™s China). In order to test his loyalty, he
was asked to be one of the editors of the Literature and
Art Gazette and adviser to the literary section of Renmin
Ribao (People™s Daily), both controlled by the Commu-
nist Party. But he had been outspoken in support of a
more liberal view of literature, even going as far as de-
fending translations of D. H. Lawrence, for which he
was not forgiven. Thus his position and reputation did
not save him from persecution as a “Rightist” in 1957.
28 Xiao-Kinkley, Traveler without a Map, p. 111.
29 Xiao-Kinkley, Traveler without a Map, p. 117.
30 Xiao™s ¬rst books published in England were Etching of
a Tormented Age: a glimpse of contemporary Chinese liter-
ature. London: Allen & Unwin, 1940; and China: but
not Cathay. London: Pilot Press, 1942. He also trans-
lated Charles and Mary Lamb™s Tales from Shakespeare and
Henry Fielding™s The Life of Jonathan Wild, both ¬rst
published in 1956 before he was disgraced. Although
Notes (pages 94“96) 175

not allowed to publish, he continued to translate. In
1962, under a pseudonym, he even managed to pub-
lish his translations of a selection of Stephen Leacock™s
satirical essays, Likeke fenchi xiaopin xuan. Beijing: Peo-
ple™s Publishing. After his rehabilitation in 1979, until his
death twenty years later, a ¬‚ood of his writings appeared.
This includes his memoirs and four major translations:
Henrik Ibsen™s Peer Gynt (Chongqing: People™s Publish-
ing, 1983), Upton Sinclair™s The Jungle (Beijing: People™s
Literature, 1984), Henry Fielding™s The History of Tom
Jones (Beijing: People™s Literature, 1984, two volumes)
and ¬nally, James Joyce™s Ulysses (Nanjing: Yilin, 1994,
three volumes).
31 Talented writers from China did write and publish in
English before the Second World War, but they were
mostly scholars, translators, and political commenta-
tors. The best known of them was probably Lin Yutang
(1895“1976) who was a product of a missionary school
in China, the Anglo-Chinese School in Gulangyu, the
island opposite Xiamen (Amoy) in Fujian province.
32 Yung Wing, My Life in China and America. New York:
H. Holt, 1909. Hu Shi (1891“1962) was much respected
but wrote far more in Chinese than in English. Another
who was highly regarded was Wellington V. K. Koo
(1888“1985). He wrote his memoirs in English, but this
has only been published in Chinese translation, in ten
volumes.
33 Ku Hung-ming and Lim Boon Keng were even more
at home in English, but did not have Lin Yutang™s deep
understanding of Chinese literature and philosophy. Ku
Hung-ming is best known for his three books: Papers from
a Viceroy™s Yamen: a Chinese plea for the cause of good gov-
ernment and true civilization in China. Shanghai: Shanghai
Mercury, 1901; The Spirit of the Chinese People: with an
176 Notes (pages 97“100)

essay on civilization and anarchy. Peking: Commercial
Press, 1922; The Story of a Chinese Oxford Movement.
Shanghai: Shanghai Mercury, 1912.
34 The most in¬‚uential of his translations were of Adam
Smith (1723“1790), Inquiry into the Nature and Causes
of the Wealth of Nations (Yuan fu); John Stuart Mill
(1806“1873), On Liberty (Qunji quanjie lun); Herbert
Spencer (1820“1903), Study of Sociology (Qunxue yiyan);
Thomas Huxley (1825“1895), Evolution and Ethics (Tian
yan lun); Edward Jenks (1861“1939), History of Politics
(She hui tong quan); Benjamin I. Schwartz, In search
of Wealth and Power: Yen Fu and the West. Cambridge,
Mass.: Belknap Press, 1964, chaps. IV“VIII.
35 Daniel Kwok, Scientism in Chinese Thought, 1900“1950.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.
36 Arif Dirlik, Revolution and History: the origins of Marxist
historiography in China, 1919“1937. Berkeley, Ca.: Uni-
versity of California Press, 1978. Dushu zazhi was pub-
lished from 1931 vol. 1, no. 1 to 1933 vol. 3, no. 6. Zhao
Qinghe, Dushu zazhi yu Zhongguo shehuishi lunzhan,
1931“1933 (Dushu zazhi and the debate on China™s so-
cial history, 1931“1933) [Historical Monographs series].
Taipei: Jia Ho Publishing, 1995.
37 Albert Feuerwerker, ed. History in Communist China.
Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1968.
38 The best known were Li Shihzhen (1518“1593), Ben-
cao gangmu (The Great Pharmacopoeia); Wang Zhen
(14th century), Nong shu (Treatise on Agriculture); Xu
Guangqi (1562“1633), Nongzheng quanshu (Complete
Treatise on Agriculture); Song Yingxing (b. 1587) Tian-
gong kaiwu (The Exploitation of the Works of Nature).
Parts of Bencao gangmu were translated into English
as Chinese Materia Medica, by Bernard E. Read and
published in Beijing in the Peking Natural History Bul-
letin (1931“1941), reprinted in Taipei: Southern Materia
Notes (pages 100“103) 177

Center, 1977. A recent study is George Metailie, “The
Bencao gangmu of Li Shihzhen: an innovation in natu-
ral history?”, in Innovation in Chinese Medicine. Edited
by Elizabeth Hsu, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2001, pp. 221“261.
W. H. Medhurst translated parts of Xu Guangqi™s
Nonzheng quanshu. This was entitled Dissertation on the
Silk-manufacture, and the Cultivation of the Mulberry, and
published by the Mission Press in Shanghai in 1849. The
translation of Song Yingxing™s Tiangong kaiwu was pub-
lished as Chinese Technology in the Seventeenth Century, by
E-tu Zen Sun and Shiou-chuan Sun, University Park:
Pennsylvania State University, 1966.
39 The earliest work by Chinese scholars themselves on
the history of mathematics, calendrical science, physics
and alchemy were Li Nian (1892“1963), Yan Dunjie
(1917“1988), Zhu Kezhen (1890“1974), Wang Jin
(b. 1895) and Ding Xuxian (1885“1978). In the ¬eld
of engineering, Liu Xianzhou (1890“1975) graduated
from the University of Hong Kong in 1918 and later be-
came vice-president of Qinghua University. He became
interested in engineering history in the 1930s and pub-
lished several studies, which came together as Zhongguo
jixie gongcheng famingshi (History of Chinese engineer-
ing inventions). Beijing: Kexue chubanshe, 1962; and
Zhongguo gudai nongye jixie famingshi (History of Chinese
inventions in agricultural engineering). Beijing: Kexue
chubanshe, 1963.
40 Wong Chimin and Wu Lien-teh, History of Chinese
Medicine, being a chronicle of medical happenings in China
from ancient times to the present period. Shanghai: National
Quarantine Service, 1936.
41 Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954“. Ho Peng
Yoke, Li, Qi and Shu: an introduction to science and
178 Notes (pages 108“109)

civilization in China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University
Press, 1985 and Wo y¨ Li Y¨ eh-se (I and Joseph Need-
u u
ham). Hong Kong: Joint Publications, 1985.

5 “To rule”

1 Biographical data of Chinese elites in the past followed
a formula and did not seek to provide a rounded picture
of their lives. They mostly recorded the public lives of
their subjects but, wherever possible, linkages with fam-
ily and ancestors were identi¬ed. Modern biographies
capture the different stages better: for example, Zhu
Dongrun™s biography of a controversial Prime Minister
of the Ming dynasty, Zhang Juzheng zhuan (Biography of
Zhang Juzheng, 1525“1582). Taipei: Tai-wan kai-ming
shu-tien, 1968; and Arthur Waley™s biography of Yuan
Mei (1716“1798), Yuan Mei: Eighteenth century Chinese
poet. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1956.
2 The revival of traditional religions among Chinese on
the mainland since the Cultural Revolution has been
widely noted. Recently, the Communist Party has spo-
ken of the need to recognise the importance of moral
and spiritual values for the country; Gongmin daode jian-
she shisi gangyao (Outline of measures for building public
morality), www.peopledaily.com.cn, 24 October 2001.
Following the meetings on religious affairs called by the
Party and the State Council on 10“12 December 2001,
there have been regular reports and editorials on the
subject of religion in the People™s Daily in 2002.
For Falungong, Benjamin Penny, “Falun gong, Proph-
esy and Apocalypse”, East Asian History, no. 23, June
2002, pp. 149“168; John Wong and William T. Liu, The
Mystery of China™s Falun Gong: its rise and its sociological
implications. Singapore: World Scienti¬c and Singapore
University Press, 1999.
Notes (pages 111“114) 179

3 This was reported in Hai Lu (Record of the Seas), the
account based on the experiences of Xie Qinggao who
was a sailor during the last decades of the 18th century.
Yang Bingnan, Hai lu. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan
(Commercial Press), 1936.
4 Robert Bickers, Britain in China: community, culture and
colonialism, 1900“1949. Manchester: Manchester Uni-
versity Press, 1999.
5 Robert Hart was appointed with two other English-
men, H. Tudor Davies and George Fitzroy, for the pe-
riod 1861“63, when they held the job in Shanghai.
Stanley F. Wright, Hart and the Chinese Customs. Belfast:
W. Mullan, published for Queen™s University, 1950.
Juliet Bredon, Sir Robert Hart: the romance of a great
career. New York: Dutton, 1909. Robert Hart, The
I.G. in Peking: letters of Robert Hart, Chinese Maritime
Customs, 1868“1907. Edited by John King Fairbank,
Katherine Frost Bruner, Elizabeth MacLeod Matheson.
Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard Uni-
versity Press, 1975.
6 John D. Frodsham, The First Chinese Embassy to the West:
the journals of Kuo Sung-Tao, Liu Hsi-Hung and Chang
Te-yi. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974; Owen Wong
Hong-hin, A New Pro¬le in Sino-Western diplomacy:
the ¬rst Chinese Minister to Great Britain. Kowloon:
Zhonghua Book Company, 1987.
7 Hsiao Kung-chuan, A Modern China and a New World:
K™ang Yu-wei, reformer and utopian, 1858“1927. Seattle:
University of Washington Press, 1975; also K™ang Yu-
wei: a biography and a symposium. Edited, with translation
by Lo Jung-pang. Tucson: Published for the Association
for Asian Studies by University of Arizona Press, 1967;
and Chang Hao, Liang Ch˜i-ch˜ao and Intellectual Transi-
tion in China, 1890“1907. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1971.
180 Notes (pages 114“119)

8 Schwartz, In Search of Wealth and Power, pp. 42“90.
No Chinese scholar before or after Yan Fu devoted
as much energy to the work of British intellectuals;
with one exception, they were all men of the 19th cen-
tury: Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer,
Thomas Huxley and Edward Jenks.
9 Ernest P. Young, “Politics in the aftermath of revo-
lution: the era of Yuan Shih-k™ai, 1912“16”, in The
Cambridge History of China, volume 12: Republican China,
1912“1949, Part I. Edited by John K. Fairbank. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 246“255.
Jerome Ch™en, Yuan Shih-K™ai, 1859“1916: Brutus
assumes the purple. London: George Allen & Unwin,
1961.
10 Vera Schwarcz, The Chinese Enlightenment, pp. 145“194.
Chow Tse-tsung, The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual
Revolution in Modern China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1960.
11 Early “Marxist” writings showed the in¬‚uence of
Japanese communists, who had less trouble with feudal-
ism than the Chinese historians. Dushu zazhi, 1931, vol.
1, no. 1“1933, vol. 3, no. 6. Zhao Qing-he, Dushu zazhi
yu Zhongguo, 1995. Marian Sawer, Marxism and the Ques-
tion of the Asiatic Mode of Production. The Hague: Nijhoff,
1977. The Asiatic Mode of Production in China. Edited by
Timothy Brook. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1989.
12 Russell, The Problem of China, pp. 18“20, 146“148.
13 Dewey™s lectures in China, mainly on philosophy of
education, were translated and published in Beijing in
1920 and in 1921, and these have been translated back
into English and published in 1973. Dewey himself was
impressed by the warm reception he received; John
Dewey and Alice C. Dewey, Letters from China and Japan,
1919“1920. London: Dent, 1920. He has not received
as much attention in recent years as Russell among
Notes (pages 119“122) 181

scholars in China. David L. Hall and Roger T. Ames,
The Democracy of the Dead: Dewey, Confucius, and the hope
for democracy in China. Chicago, Ill.: Open Court, 1998;
Barry C. Keenan, The Dewey Experiment in China: educa-
tional reform and political power in the early Republic. Cam-
bridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard
University, 1977.
14 Lin Shu began translating Dickens in the 1910s,
including Oliver Twist, David Copper¬eld, Nicholas
Nickleby, Dombey and Son, The Old Curiosity Shop.
Others after him in the 1920s translated A Christmas
Carol, Great Expectations, Hard Times and A Tale of Two
Cities. By that time, the sympathy for the words of
William Blake (1757“1827) was also in¬‚uenced by the
approval of Dickens among Russian revolutionaries who
considered Dickens as their predecessor in their criticism
of capitalist exploitation.
15 George Leith, A Short Account of the Settlement, Produce
and Commerce of Prince of Wales Island in the Straits of
Malacca. London: J. Bar¬eld, 1804. For early Penang and
Singapore, C. D. Cowan, “Early Penang and the rise of
Singapore, 1805“1832”, Journal of the Malayan Branch of
the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 23, part 2, 1950, pp. 1“210;
Ernest Chew, “The founding of a British settlement”, in
A History of Singapore. Edited by E. C. T. Chew and
Edwin Lee. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1991,
pp. 36“40.
16 Edwin Lee, The British as Rulers: governing multi-racial
Singapore, 1867“1914. Singapore: Singapore Univer-
sity Press, 1991, pp. 50“99. C. M. Turnbull, A History
of Singapore, 1819“1975. Singapore: Oxford University
Press, 1985. The favourable views of the leading Chinese
traders would have to be compared with the views of
later immigrants, and also with those of the nationalists
and revolutionaries, see Lee Poh Ping. Chinese Society in
182 Notes (pages 122“123)

Nineteenth Century Singapore. Kuala Lumpur: University
of Malaya Press, 1978; and Yen Ching-hwang, Com-
munity and Politics: the Chinese in colonial Singapore and
Malaysia. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1995.
17 Mark Elvin, “The administration of Shanghai,
1905“1914”, in The Chinese City between Two Worlds.
Edited by Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner. Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1974, pp. 239“262; Liang
Yuen-sheng, The Shanghai Taotai: linkage man in a chang-
ing society, 1843“90. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Press, 1990; and Marie Claire Bergere, “The role of
the bourgeoisie”, in China in Revolution: the ¬rst phase,
1900“1913. Edited by Mary C. Wright. New Haven
and London: Yale University Press, 1968, pp. 229“295.
An illuminating study of a speci¬c area of urban ad-
ministration may be found in Kerrie L. MacPherson, A
Wilderness of Marshes: the origins of Public Health in Shang-
hai, 1843“1893. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press,
1987.
On the increasingly lively Chinese press, Li Shao-nan,
“Xianggang di zhongxi baoye (Chinese and Western
newspapers in Hong Kong)”. In Wang Gungwu ed.
Xianggang shi xinbian (Hong Kong History: new per-
spectives). Vol. 2, pp. 493“533; and Chen Mong Hock,
The Early Chinese Newspapers of Singapore, 1881“1912.
Singapore: University of Malaya Press, 1967.
18 Song Ong Siang, One Hundred Years of the Chinese in
Singapore. Singapore: University of Malaya Press, 1967
reprint. (First published in London in 1923.) The work
was never translated into Chinese, although much of its
rich biographical material was included in various col-
lections of biographies published in Chinese. The most
recent example is Kua Bak Lim, ed. Who™s Who in the
Chinese Community of Singapore. Singapore: EPB Pub-
lishers, 1995. One of the few studies of Song Ong Siang
Notes (page 124) 183

compares him with two contemporaries who were more
proli¬c than him; Lee Guan Kin (Lee Yuanjin), Dongxi
wenhua de chuangji yu Xinhua zhishifenzhi de sanzhong
huiying (Responding to Eastern and Western Cultures
in Singapore: a comparative study of Khoo Seok Wan,
Lim Boon Keng and Song Ong Siang). Singapore and
River Edge, NJ: Singapore University Press and Global
Publishing, 2001. Also see Yong C. F. (Ching Fatt), Chi-
nese Leadership and Power in Colonial Singapore. Singapore:
Times Academic Press, 1992.
Tan Cheng Lock, Malayan Problems: from a Chinese
point of view. Edited by C. Q. Lee; with an introduc-
tion by Wu Lien-teh. Singapore: Tannsco, 1947. Lim
Kean Siew, The Eye over the Golden Sands: the memoirs
of a Penang family. Petaling Jaya: Pelanduk Publications,
1997.
19 On the futility of Hong Rengan™s (Hung Jen-kan)
worthy ideals, the views of the Reverend Joseph Edkins
in 1861 are telling:

The books are partly explanatory of the religion of the Bible,
and partly political. They recommend various improvements in
the constitution of the state, the institutions of social life, and in
the arts. They describe the advantages of railways, of the electric
telegraph, of a post of¬ce, of newspapers, and of steam machin-
ery . . . Unfortunately, these visions of future prosperity are not
accompanied by the genius for conquest and for government . . .
They would do better to busy themselves in forming an ef¬cient
government for the territory now under their power than to
be dreaming of possible improvements when the present era of
anarchy shall close.


Quoted in Prescott Clarke and J. S. Gregory, Western
Reports on the Taiping: a selection of documents. Canberra:
Australian National University Press, 1982, pp. 293“294
184 Notes (pages 124“126)

and 360“361; Jonathan D. Spence, God™s Chinese Son,
pp. 269“273.
20 Tsai Jung-fang, “Syncretism in the reformist thought of
Ho Kai and Hu Li-yuan”, Asian Pro¬le, vol. 6, no. 1,
1978, pp. 19“33; and “The predicament of the com-
prador ideologists: He Qi and Hu Liyuan”, Modern
China, vol. 7, no. 2, 1981, pp. 191“225.
Paul Cohen, in his essay on Christian missions,
describes Zheng Guanying™s Shengshi weiyan (¬rst
published 1893, with expanded editions, most recently
collected in Zheng Guanying ji (Collected works of
Zheng Guanying). Edited by Xia Dongyuan. Two
volumes. Beijing, 1982“1988): “the humanitarian sen-
timents permeating his in¬‚uential reform tract were
clearly of Christian provenance”, “Christian Missions
and their Impact to 1900”. In Fairbank, Cambridge
History of China, vol. 10, part I, p. 584.
21 Linda Pomerantz-Zhang, Wu Tingfang, 1842“1922: re-
form and modernization in modern Chinese history. Hong
Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1992.
22 Brian Harrison, ed. University of Hong Kong: the ¬rst 50
years, 1911“1961. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University
Press, 1962, pp. 45“57; and Chan Lau Kit-ching and
Peter Cunich, An Impossible Dream: Hong Kong Univer-
sity from Foundation to Re-establishment. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2003. The alumni in China produced
a volume of essays recalling their experiences at HKU,
Yizhi yiye zongguanqing (Sentiments in leaf and branch).
Edited by Liu Shuyong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Uni-
versity Press, 1993.
On Liu Xianzhou, pp. 35“51. Also, see 75 years of
Engineering: 75th anniversary commemorative publication of
the Faculty of Engineering, The University of Hong Kong.
Hong Kong: HKU Faculty of Engineering, 1988.
23 Sun Yat-sen gave his lecture at HKU on 19 Febru-
ary 1923; Sun Zhongshan quanji (Complete Works of
Notes (pages 127“129) 185

Sun Yat-sen), Beijing: Zhonghua Book company, 1985,
vol. 7, pp. 115“117. The nostalgia he had for his youthful
student days in Hong Kong was greatly different from
his deep suspicions about British policies a few years
earlier. His views in 1917 are expressed in “The ques-
tion of China™s survival”, now con¬rmed to have been
the ideas of Sun and translated in Prescriptions for Saving
China: selected writings of Sun Yat-sen. Edited by Julie Lee
Wei, Ramon H. Myers and Donald G. Gillin. Stanford
Ca.: Hoover Institution, 1994, pp. 131“199.
24 Both the community organisations and the social divi-
sions in the Malay States and the Straits Settlements are
captured clearly in C. S. Wong, A Gallery of Chinese
Kapitans. Singapore: Dewan Bahasa dan Kebudayaan,
Ministry of Culture, 1963, pp. 9“37, 67“87; and Yen
Ching-hwang, Community and Politics: the Chinese in colo-
nial Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Times Academic
Press, 1995, pp. 3“22, 33“53.
25 C. F. Yong, The Origins of Malayan Communism. Singa-
pore: South Seas Society, 1997, pp. 241“268; F. Spencer
Chapman, The Jungle is Neutral. London: Chatto &
Windus, 1949.
26 Khoo Kay Kim. The beginnings of political extremism
in Malaya, 1915“1935. PhD Thesis. Department of His-
tory, University of Malaya, 1975. Cheah Boon Kheng,
Red Star over Malaya: resistance and social con¬‚ict during
and after the Japanese occupation of Malaya, 1941“1946.
Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1983; and The
Masked Comrades: a study of the communist United Front
in Malaya, 1945“48. Singapore: Times Books Inter-
national, 1979. Yeo Kim Wah, Political Development in
Singapore, 1945“55. Singapore: Singapore University
Press, 1973.
27 Lee Kuan Yew, The Singapore Story: Memoirs of Lee Kuan
Yew. Singapore: Times Editions, 1998, pp. 256ff. Also,
earlier studies by Alex Josey, Lee Kuan Yew. Singapore:
186 Notes (pages 130“138)

D. Moore Press, 1968; and Lee Kuan Yew: the crucial
years. Singapore: Times Books International, 1980; John
Drysdale, Singapore: Struggle for Success. Singapore: Times
Books International, 1984.
28 Kuan Hsin-chi and Lau Siu-kai, Political Attitudes in a
Changing Context: the case of Hong Kong. Hong Kong:
Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Paci¬c Studies, Chinese
University of Hong Kong, 1997. Ambrose Y. C. King
and Rance P. L. Lee, eds, Social Life and Development
in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press,
1981.
29 Ian Scott, Political Change and the Crisis of Legitimacy in
Hong Kong. London: Hurst, 1989, pp. 127“170; Lui
Ting Terry, “Changing civil servants™ values”, in The
Hong Kong Civil Service and its Future. Edited by Ian
Scott and John P. Burns. Hong Kong: Oxford University
Press, 1988, pp. 131“158.
30 Jonathan Dimbleby, The Last Governor: Chris Patten &
the handover of Hong Kong. Toronto: Doubleday Canada,
1997, pp. 94ff.
31 Alvin Y. So, Hong Kong™s Embattled Democracy: a soci-
etal analysis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
1999; Wang Gungwu and John Wong, eds, Hong Kong in
China: the Challenges of Transition. Singapore: Times Aca-
demic Press, 1999. A close examination of the political
and administrative system is found in Yash Ghai, Hong
Kong™s New Constitutional Order: the resumption of Chinese
Sovereignty and the Basic Law. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
University Press, 1997, pp. 221“280 and 371“427.

6 Beyond Waley™s list

1 Waley, “A Debt to China”, in A Harp with a Thousand
Strings, p. 342.
2 Lynn Pan, ed., Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas.
Singapore and Cambridge, Mass.: Chinese Heritage
Notes (page 138) 187

Centre, Singapore, and Harvard University Press, 1999,
pp. 15“17, 48“71; and M. Jocelyn Armstrong and
R. Warwick Armstrong, “Introduction: Chinese popu-
lations of Southeast Asia”, in Chinese Populations in Con-
temporary Southeast Asian Societies: Identities, Interdepen-
dence and International In¬‚uence. Edited by M. Jocelyn
Armstrong, R. Warwick Armstrong and Kent Mulliner.
Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2001, pp. 1“10. The total
number of Chinese overseas is a ¬gure dif¬cult to deter-
mine or agree on. Most scholars use a ¬gure between 25
and 30 million, but some have claimed the larger ¬gure
of 30 to 35 million. This ¬gure would include some who
might still consider themselves as Chinese sojourners
or overseas Chinese (huaqiao, see chapter one, note 3),
but it does not include the Chinese who live in Taiwan,
Hong Kong, and Macau who, if included, would add
another 30 million to the total. Such a ¬gure of 60 mil-
lion would be totally misleading. From the point of view
of Beijing, Taipei and Chinese communities elsewhere,
the additional 30 million are not included in the term
Haiwai huaren (Chinese overseas).
At this stage, it is still useful to distinguish those Chi-
nese living in Hong Kong and Macau from those who
live in the PRC, although both those territories are now
part of the PRC. The Chinese in Taiwan, however, have
their own state system under the name of the Republic
of China. For them, the of¬cial term huaqiao (overseas
Chinese) is only used to describe Chinese not living
in Taiwan or on Mainland China. Under the circum-
stances, it is important to be clear that the “Chinese over-
seas” refers to Chinese living outside China (or Greater
China) and not outside the PRC.
3 China™s encounters with Britain have usually been
wrapped up in a larger blanket of relations with the West.
Two notable studies are Y. C. Wang™s Chinese Intellectu-
als and the West, 1872“1949. Chapel Hill: University of
188 Notes (pages 141“144)

North Carolina Press, 1966, and Jerome Ch™en™s China
and the West: Society and Culture, 1815“1937. London:
Hutchinson, 1979. The ¬rst pays more attention to the
Chinese-American story and the second takes on all of
Europe as well. The lectures here focus on Britain and
include the Chinese who lived under British jurisdic-
tion. The Chinese who have settled elsewhere in the
Commonwealth would need another book.
4 Jiang Zemin™s Speech at the 80th anniversary of the Chi-
nese Communist Party on 1 July, Renmin Ribao (People™s
Daily), 2 July 2001.
5 The Chinese Academy of the Social Sciences (CASS)
in Beijing has led the way for all its sister academies
in the provinces to give greater prominence to the so-
cial science divisions recognised and institutionalised in
Europe and North America; Qiao Jian, Li Peiliang and
Ma Rong, eds, Shehui kexue de yingyong yu Zhongguo
xiandaihua (Application of Social Sciences and China™s
Modernization). Beijing: Peking University Press, 1999.
This has led to improvements in the way new knowledge
is being presented and the changes are appreciated by
the policy-making bodies of the national government.
A good example is the way annual analyses of China™s
development have been organised disciplines, now avail-
able annually. For example, Zhongguo jingji qianjing fenxi.
Edited by Liu Guoguang, Wang Luolin and Li Jingwen.
Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, 1999“.
In the effort to gain a stronger position within the
country, and better recognition outside China, the
academy also began in 1998 to appoint foreign scholars as
Honorary Researchers, equivalent to Honorary Fellows,
who are expected to improve its pro¬le. A recent study
of CASS traces the changing role of the academy since
its separation from the Academy of Science; Margaret
Sleeboom, Academic nationalism (In English, with
Notes (pages 144“147) 189

Chinese title, Xueshu minzuzhuyi). Vol. 1. Its catego-
rizations and consequences explored in China and Japan;
Vol. 2. Institutional role of CASS in the formation of the
Chinese nation-state. Leiden: International Institute for
Asian Studies, Leiden University, 2001.
The reforms in the Academia Sinica in Taipei that
have led to the establishment of new discipline-based
institutes in the social sciences and humanities have not
been easy. The strong determination to reform, how-
ever, is guided by a desire to recognise the importance of
non-laboratory ¬elds of knowledge that had been organ-
ised in unsystematic ways. Speci¬cally, disciplines like
sociology, linguistics, philosophy, law and political sci-
ence have been identi¬ed to support the well-established
institutes of history, economics and anthropology.
6 The “Three Represents” (sange daibiao, representing ad-
vanced productive forces, progressive culture, and the
interests of all the people) captures this echo of an older
holistic political tradition, but it is too early to say if this
particular manifestation put forth by Jiang Zemin will
prevail. There are almost daily exhortations in the media
to study this new principle, suggesting a lack of popular
interest. A fairly representative example of this campaign
may be found in Sange daibiao yu lilun chuangxin (The
theoretical originality of the Three Represents), 2001.
7 Waley, “A Debt to China”, in A Harp with a Thousand
Strings, p. 345.
8 Ivan Morris, ed., Madly Singing, p. 80, quoted in chap-
ter one. I ¬rst met Arthur Waley in 1955 when he gave
a public lecture at the School of Oriental and African
Studies (SOAS) in London and was tempted to ask him
why he never considered visiting China himself. He gave
us a hint by telling us the story of calling on the Pro-
fessor of Chinese at SOAS about studying and translat-
ing Chinese poetry. The professor discouraged him by
190 Notes (page 147)

telling him that there was not much worth doing there.
He noted that the professor had come to that conclu-
sion after having lived a long time in a China that had
been transformed by the West. The China he himself
wanted to study, however, was what was there before
“modernity” began to change it beyond recognition.
Perhaps not everyone would agree that Noel Annan
has named everyone of importance among the gener-
ation that shaped British cultural life after the Second
World War, but the irrelevance of China was clear. Of
the three men Waley named, Bertrand Russell could
not be ignored and Lowes Dickinson earned a few un-
¬‚attering mentions, but there was no reference to their
thoughts on China. Even Waley himself did not appear
anywhere. The only exception, not named by Waley,
was Harold Acton who did try to capture a bit of mod-
ern Chinese poetry, but he too did so before the Second
World War (see note 11 following). Once the link with
a supine and helpless China as the victim was broken,
there did not seem to have been much reason to talk
about the British readiness “to make friends and learn”,
Noel Annan, Our Age: the Generation that made Post-War
Britain. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1990.
9 It is often forgotten that Pearl Buck won the Nobel Prize
for Literature in 1938, the ¬rst for novels about China,
The Good Earth (1931), Sons (1932), and A House Divided
(1935) probably being the best known. Her friendship
for the Chinese was deep and genuine, and her books
about their lives won them much sympathy in the West.
At least ten of her novels, mostly written in the 1930s,
have never been out of print. No other author writ-
ing about China in English can claim a similar popular
success.
10 G. Lowes Dickinson, Letters from John Chinaman.
London: Johnson, 1902, published in New York
under a different title, Letters from a Chinese Of¬cial:
Notes (page 148) 191

being an eastern view of western civilization. New York:
McClure, Phillips, 1903. Ernest Bramah, Kai Lung
Unrolls his Mat. London: Richards Press, 1928, was pre-
ceded by The Wallet of Kai Lung. London: Methuen,
1917 and Kai Lung™s Golden Hours. London: Richards,
1922.
11 Harold Acton translated poetry with Ch™en Shih-hsiang,
Modern Chinese Poetry. London: Duckworth, 1936; and
stories with Li Yi-hsieh, Four Cautionary Tales (from a
collection edited in 1672 by Feng Meng-lung). New
York: Wyn, 1937; followed by his novel, Peonies and
Ponies. London: Chatto and Windus, 1941.
Index



Academia Sinica 144, 189 Anglo imperial heritage 148
Academy of Science 103, 144 Anglo-Indian encounters 12
Academy of Social Sciences 144 Annan, Noel 147
accountability 112 anti-imperialism 119
Acton, Harold 147 Arab 44
agrarian communitarianism 96 Aristotle 88
agrarian worldview 42 armed trading vessels 49
Allen, Young J. 77, 81 army, land forces 25
America, American Asian Americans 94
business schools 62, 67 attitudes towards foreign trade 51
connection 67 Australasia 68
educational institutions 67 Australia 3, 28, 43, 138, 145
empire de facto 32
enterprises 67 Babas 123; see also Straits Chinese
help 36 baihua 87, 94
model 117 Baihuawen Movement 87
republic 115 Basic Law 131, 134, 135
revolution 112, 115 Batavia massacre 58
SMEs 67 Beer, Gillian 4
see also United States Beiyang Military Academy 24
Amethyst incident 36, 37 Beiyang Naval Academy 21
Anglo-American Beiyang squadron see naval ¬‚eets
capitalism 73 Belgium 113
cordon 140 Blake, William 119, 181
experience 68 Bolshevik revolution 110, 117
global in¬‚uence 73 Borneo 9
governance 120 bourgeois nationalists 62
industrialists 71 Boxer(s), Rebellion 22, 80, 82
interests 34 Bramah, Ernest 147
multinationals 65 Britain, British 29, 38, 57, 60, 62,
political heritage 133 76, 77, 115, 140
political ideals 135 administration, rule 108, 111, 114,
solution 117 122
Anglo(-Chinese) encounters 8, 12, business(es) 67, 68
38, 138, 147, 149 colonial rule 135
Anglo-Chinese relations 5, 42, 73 direct rule 125, 126
understanding 133 empire, government 1, 2, 8, 24,
Anglo ideals 119 26, 32, 117

193
194 Index

Burma 28
Britain, British, (cont.)
business economics, business schools
established ¬rms 68
62
Foreign Of¬ce 135
help 36
Cambridge 101, 137
ideas on medicine, hygiene, public
Canada 145, 158
health 124
Cantlie, James 27, 85
ideas on modern government 132
Canton trading system 51, 56, 57,
in Hong Kong 133
63, 73
in India 133
Canton merchants 58
institutions, system of government
Cantonese 44
97, 111, 114
capitalism 99, 100, 118
interests 24, 70
Chinese 65
law and order 123
ersatz 65
laws and institutions 66, 133
modern 69
maritime power 114
with Chinese characteristics 142
merchant administrators 59
cargo shipping business 64
merchants, merchant houses 48,
Central Asian Muslim powers 139
63, 122
Chaucer 94
military tradition 141
Chen Duxiu 99
model 114
Chen Tingzhuo 82, 96
naval power, navy 5, 16, 43, 60
Chen Yinke 146
political practices 113
Chennault, Anna 160
principles of governance 145
Chiang Kai-shek 12, 31, 34, 85
social thought 114
Chiang Kai-shek, Madam 160
systems of law 111
China, attitudes towards modernity
teachers 85
79
technological advances 5
China coast 56
trading interests 121
China Inland Mission 84
universities 67
China market 45
values 119
China Merchants™ Steam Navigation
British Malaya 2, 27, 85, 158; see also
Company 60
Malaya
China/Chinese
British rule 108, 109, 120, 121, 122,
capitalism 65, 73, 142; see also
123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129,
capitalism
130, 132, 136, 144, 145
China-born 123
advantages of 123
civilisation 102, 103, 104, 105
in Asia 136
entrepreneurs 47, 49, 68; see also
in Hong Kong 126
entrepreneurs
British-ruled territories 121
in Hong Kong 122, 123
British-trained scientists 101
in Taiwan 139
Buck, Pearl S. 147
(informal) networks 65, 67; see also
Buddhism, Buddhist(s) 75, 76, 87,
networks
96, 98, 107, 109
intellectuals 80
Buddhist sutras 97, 108
Index 195

Commonwealth 1, 2, 3, 9, 32, 43,
learning 81
94, 137, 138, 147
merchants, traders 5, 6, 46, 47, 48,
Chinese in the 137
57, 61, 62, 63, 75, 141
countries 145, 146
middlemen 59
place in Asia 138
nationalism 127
communism 34, 120
navy, coastal defences 13, 18, 39,
Communist Party 109, 127, 141
140
communist(s), armies, party, troops
political culture 118
32, 35, 36, 151
religion 75
compradore(s) 63, 124
schools 86, 127
Confucian(s) 97, 98, 115
science, scientists 99, 104; see also
elites 108
science
learning 98
strategic thinking 138, 141
loyalty 115
worldview 142
service 108
Chinese Academy of the Social
upbringing 109
Sciences (CASS) 188
values 96
Chinese College of Medicine 85

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