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Confucianism 76, 78, 81, 95, 96, 97,
Chinese overseas (also known as
107
Haiwai huaren) 27, 68, 71, 152,
Confucianist orthodoxy 143
187
constitutional monarchy 113, 115
Chinese sojourner 1, 60, 111, 151;
constitutionalists 117
see also sojourners, networking
conversion(s) to science, modern
tradition, faith in 83
learning 75, 77“85, 86, 89, 92,
tradition, rejection of 81
94, 95, 107, 143
writers; see writers of Chinese
conversions to Christianity 85, 86
descent
country traders 56, 57
Christian converts, conversion 86,
Cultural Revolution also Great
106; see also conversion
Proletariat Cultural Revolution
Christian faith 144
131, 137
Christian missionaries, missions 84,
89“90, 184; see also
democracy in Hong Kong 131
missionaries, missions
Deng Xiaoping 69, 134
Christian(s), Christianity 11, 78, 81,
economic reforms 131
84, 85, 98, 105, 107, 109,
Dewey, John 118, 119
143
Dickens, Charles 88, 99, 119, 172
Christians and spices 110
Dickinson, Goldsworthy Lowes 8,
Churchill, Winston 10, 33
90, 92, 146, 147
civil war 120
Ding Chuanjing 83, 96
class struggle 118
Ding Wenjiang 98
Clementi, Cecil 151
Ding Xuxuan 177
coastal traders 56
Dominions 137, 138
Cohong, merchants 51, 56, 57
Dongnan University 118
Cold War 39, 119, 130, 135
Dutch 44, 49, 54, 55, 60
colonial Chinese 95
196 Index

France, French 14, 20, 21, 61, 76, 94,
Dutch East Indies 64
112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 140
Dutch merchant administrators
free trade doctrines 58, 59
59
French Indo-China 28
Dutch in Batavia 121
French revolution 115
Friedman, Milton 70
East Africa 53
Fryer, John 77, 81
East Asia 136
Fujian Chinese 55, 56; see also
East Indies 49
Hokkien
Edkins, Joseph 183
Fuzhou Naval Academy 30, 97
Empress Dowager (also Cixi) 22
Fuzhou (Foochow) Navy Yard 20, 21
Engels, Friedrich 99
England, English 50, 54
Gandhi, Mahatma 11, 12, 132
language 67, 81, 94
Germans, Germany 14, 24, 26, 28,
language schools 86
29, 79, 120, 139
literary classics 88
global civilisation 104
novel 93
global market economy 132, 142
romantics 88
governance of Hong Kong 144
English East India Company 121
government-linked companies,
English-medium schools 127
Singapore 72
entrepreneurial class 47
Great Depression 65
entrepreneurs 49, 61, 70; see also
Great Leap Forward 137
Chinese entrepreneurs
Great Proletarian Cultural
ersatz capitalism 65; see also capitalism
Revolution 106
Eurasians 85
Greek classics 173
Europe 23
Guangdong 56, 70, 71
European systems of government 113
Guo Songdao 113
executive-led government(s) 132,
Guomindang 28, 36, 38, 70, 85; see
144
also Nationalist
guoyu 87
Falungong 109, 145
Feng Yuxiang 26
Hancock, Keith 1, 15
feudalism 118
Hao Yen-p™ing 56
Fielding, Henry 93
Hardy, Thomas 88
¬nancial control 113
Hart, Sir Robert 20, 21, 112, 156
First World War 26, 79, 84, 109
Hindus 4, 85
foreign
Ho Kai 85, 124
capitalists 64
Hokkien(s) 43, 44
enterprises 63
Hong Kong 3, 9, 14, 43, 60, 63, 64,
naval forces 26
69, 70, 76, 80, 95, 101, 122,
rulers 50, 51
124, 127, 129, 132, 136, 138,
trade, merchants, traders 50, 54,
140, 149, 158, 185, 187
56, 57
Chinese 135
Forster, E. M. 88, 91, 92, 93, 146,
Chinese students from 137
147
Index 197

leaders 113, 114, 116
government, governance 123, 130,
victory 78
134
Java 52
Legislative Council 124
Jiang Zemin 189
people of 135
Joyce, James 92, 93
Special Administrative Region 134
Hong Kong™s handover 134
Kang Youwei 12, 114, 179
Hong Kongers 130; see also Hong
keji 99, 105
Kong, Chinese
kexue 98; see also science
Hong Rengan 123
Kiangnan Arsenal 60
Hong Xiuquan 76, 84, 123
King™s College, Cambridge 91
Hsiao Chien A Harp with a Thousand
kinship systems, traditional 62
Strings 7; see also Xiao Qian
Kipling, Rudyard 147
Hu Liyuan 124
Koo, Wellington V. K. 175
Hu Shi 87, 93
Korean Peninsula 79
Huangpu Military Academy 27, 31,
Korean War 39, 140
37
Korean(s) 73
Hundred Days™ Reform 80
Koxinga see Zheng Chenggong
Hutchison 69
Ku Hung-ming (Gu Hongming) 95,
Huxley, Thomas 97
96, 137
Imperial Maritime Customs 112
land forces (Chinese) 31
imperialism 99, 116
Lao She 88
India 111, 121, 140
law students in Britain 125
India, Indians 9, 20, 44, 49, 54,
Lawrence, D. H. 92, 174
60
Lee Kong Chian (Li Guangqian) 68
Indian Ocean 44, 54
Lee Kuan Yew 129
Indian Ocean ports 122
Lee Seng Tee (Li Chengzhi) 68
Indo-China coasts 52
Legge, James 76, 148
Indonesia 72
Leith, George 121
industrial revolution 99, 118
Lenin 117
institutions of Victorian England 113
Li Hung-Chang 21, 60
International Settlement 112
Li Ka-shing (Li Jiacheng) 68, 69, 70
internationalist communism 139
Li Nian 177
Interpreters™ College 77
Li Shihzhen 176
Iqbal, Muhammed 93
Li Yuanhong 16, 18
Islam 109
Liang Qichao 80, 114
Italy 113
Light, Francis 121
Lim Bo Seng (Lin Mousheng) 128
Japan, Japanese 10, 14, 20, 23, 24, 26,
Lim Boon Keng (Lin Wenqing) 80,
29, 34, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 60,
96, 124, 137
61, 62, 100, 120, 128, 139, 140
Lin Shu 80, 87, 99, 172
communists 180
Lin Yutang 175
intentions 79
Lin Zexu 25, 155, 156
invasion 120
198 Index

Ming, dynasty, rulers, of¬cials 15, 44,
Lingnan University 167
53, 54, 55, 100
Liu, E 82, 83, 96
Mirza Ghalib 6
Liu Xianzhou 125, 177
missions/missionaries
London 60
British and American 5, 83, 84,
Long March 32
85, 98, 101
Christian 84, 89“90
Macartney, Lord
colleges 67
mission of 16, 51, 154
mixin (superstition) 98, 106
Macau 55, 56, 187
modern schools, schooling 84
Mainland China 105; see also China
modern sovereign nation-state 145
Malacca 111; see also Melaka
modern urban government 131
Malay Archipelago 56
Mongol(s) also Yuan 15, 53
Malay Peninsula 58, 122
Morrison, Robert 76, 84
Malay States 86, 95, 185
multi-racial society 128
Malaya 1, 3, 9, 43, 64, 95, 101, 111,
Muslim rebels, rebellions 4
127, 132, 151
Muslim traders 17, 20, 53, 54
Federation of 72
Muslim(s) 85; see also Islam
independent 128
separation from 129
Nanjing government 112
Malayan Communist Party 128
National Alliance 72
Malayan state 128
national interest(s) 69, 72
Malaysia 72, 138, 145
nationalisation of industries 65
Manchu(s), court, dynasty 15, 54,
nationalism 85, 114, 117
115; see also Qing court
Nationalist armies, troops 32, 34,
Manchukuo 30
35
Mandarin 87
Nationalist government, forces 28,
Mandela, Nelson 11
32, 34“36, 39, 151; see also
Manila 58
Guomindang
Mao Haijian 18, 19
Nationalist regime 127
Mao Zedong 12, 39, 93, 106, 131
Nationalist(s) 35
Mao Zedong, death of 134
nationalists 63, 127
maritime China, Chinese 51, 52, 53,
Naval Academy, Mawei 30
54, 55, 58, 59, 60
naval and technological skills 113
maritime trade 52
naval ¬‚eets, navy, warfare 2, 18, 34,
Martin, Kingsley 147
37
Martin, W. A. P. 77, 81
Fujian 21
Marx, Karl 99, 117, 118
Guangdong 21
Marxist doctrines 118
squadrons in Beiyang 21
Marxist ideologues 103
squadrons in Nanyang 21
Mazu and Jinmen 160
Needham, Joseph 101, 102, 103,
medical colleges 124
104, 148
Melaka 76, 84; see also Malacca
Netherlands East Indies 2, 21, 28,
merchant class 126
122
Mill, John Stuart 97
Index 199

Persian(s) 44
network(s) 66; see also Chinese
Philippines 56
networks
pirates, Japanese and Chinese 15; see
informal 73
also Wako
local trading 121
PLA Eastern China Command 37
overseas 71
Plato 88
trading 72
plural society colonies 144
New Army 25
Portuguese 44, 45, 49, 53, 121
new nation-state 116
power sharing 112
new nationalism 115
PRC see People™s Republic of China
new republic 116
private merchants 51
New Systems Revolution 77, 82
Prussia 114
New Zealand 138
putonghua 87
Ng Choy 125
Ng Lean Tuck 101; see also Wu
Qianlong, Emperor 16, 51
Lian-teh, Liande
Qing bureaucracy 113
Nobel prizes 99
Qing court, dynasty, Emperor,
North America 68
empire 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23,
29, 51, 54, 55, 56, 60; see also
Oei Tiong Ham companies 64
Manchu
Opening of China 111
Qinghua University 177
opium 48
Quaker movement 147
Opium War 13, 18, 36, 45, 56, 114,
138, 164
realm of Man 108, 109, 120,
Orwell, George 147
144
Overseas Chinese 27, 151, 158; see
Red Sea 53
also Chinese overseas
reformer(s) 82, 83
Oxford 146
Reid, Gilbert 81
religion(s), Chinese, in China 75, 76,
Paci¬c Ocean 60
96, 98, 178
parliamentary democracy 136
representative parliament 113
patriotic bourgeoisie 63
Republic (Chinese) 60, 77
patriotic war 32
Republic of China in Taiwan 125,
patriots 127
130
Patten, Christopher 135
republican model 113
Pax Mongolica 53
republican revolution 115
Pearl Harbor 32, 34
Restriction Schemes 69
peasant communism 120
Revolution 2, 24, 25, 28
Peking University 95
calls for 97
Penang 58, 59, 111, 121, 122, 149
revolutionaries 82, 83, 116
People™s Action Party 129
Reynolds, Douglas 77
People™s Liberation Army (PLA) 36,
Riau-Johore empire 58
37, 38, 39
Richard, Timothy 81, 84
People™s Republic of China 45, 130,
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 33, 34
133, 134, 137
200 Index

Singapore 3, 14, 43, 58, 59, 60, 72,
Royal Naval College, Greenwich 20,
111, 121, 122, 128, 136, 137,
31, 97
138, 145, 149
rule of law 5
Sino-American 70
Russell, Bertrand 8, 90, 118, 119,
political entanglements 70
147, 173
Sino-British Declaration 131
Russia, Russian(s) 14, 20, 114, 118,
Sino-Japanese relations 70, 78
130, 140
Sino-Japanese War, (1894“1895) 21,
revolutionaries 181
77, 78
socialism 90
Sino-Japanese War, second
Russo-Japanese War 78
(1937“1945) 30, 34
small and medium-sized enterprises
Sa Zhenbing 30, 159
67
Saneto Keishu 77
Smith, Adam 97
Sanyuanli 16
Smuts, Jan Christiaan viii, 1, 145
Sayyid Ahmad Khan 6
Snow, Edgar 92
School of Oriental and African
Social Darwinism 97
Studies 91
social sciences 143
science 5, 97, 98, 99, 102, 105, 107,
socialism 99
143
sojourner networking 60; see also
science and civilisation in China
networks
102
Song Ong Siang 100, 123, 137
capacity for 104
Song Yingxing 100
in Chinese civilisation 101, 103
Song, dynasty 52, 83
civilisation 102, 104
Soong Mei-ling 85
and democracy 99
South Africa 10, 11
in traditional China 100
South Asia 53
worship of 105
South China Sea 44, 60, 140
scienti¬c socialism 99, 106
South Paci¬c 138
Second World War 35, 43, 120, 128,
Southeast Asia, Asians 28, 48, 53, 54,
129, 146, 148
56, 58, 60, 66, 72
secular conversion 81, 85
Southeast Asian ports 56
secular learning 108
southern China 58
secular worldview 98
Soviet navy 37
Self-Strengthening Movement 114
Soviet Russia, Union 10, 37, 39,
Shanghai 59, 60, 63, 64, 86, 112,
110, 112, 120, 140
122
Spain, Spanish 121
Shantou 122
Spanish, navy 53, 55, 57
Shantou University 69
Spencer, Herbert 97
Shen Baozhen 20, 30
Spratly Islands 140
Sheng Xuanhuai 60
St John™s University 167
Shenzhen 133
state-supervised enterprises 71
shipbuilding 20
Straits Chinese Magazine, The 123
Siamese power 58
Straits Settlements 28, 80, 95, 185
Sincere and Wing On stores 64
Index 201

United States 8, 10, 23, 30, 32, 33,
Straits Settlements, Chinese in the
35, 39, 43, 57, 77, 80, 83, 99,
123
116, 117, 125, 135, 140, 146,
Sun Yat-sen 12, 27, 28, 29, 31,
148, 158
77“85, 115, 126, 158
congress 45, 72
superstition 98
private missionary colleges 67
Sydney 64
social science and business
school(s) 67
Tagore, Rabindranath 93
universities in Hong Kong 143
Taiping, armies, rebellion 17
universities in Taiwan 143
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 16, 76
University of Edinburgh 95
Taiwan, straits 38, 39, 55, 70, 71,
University of Hong Kong 88, 125,
139, 140, 187
128, 177
Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng) 68,
urban order 113
69
Taoism 107, 109
Victorian England 119
Taoist dissent 143
Vietnam War 140
Taoist ideas, practices 96, 97, 108
Voroshilov Naval Academy 37
Taylor, James Hudson 84
tertiary institutions 124
Wade, Sir Thomas 20
Thai polity 58
Wako (pirates) 53
Thailand 56
Waley, Arthur “A Debt to China” 7
Thonburi-Bangkok 58
Waley, Arthur 7, 13, 76, 89, 90, 91,
Three Represents 189
93, 106, 110, 137, 138, 146,
three stages of life, living 96, 107
148, 178, 189
Tiananmen tragedy 135
Wang Jin 177
Tianjin 59
Wang Tao 63
trading rights 49
Wang Zhen 176
tradition of restraint 139
War of 1840“42 57; see also Opium
translations/translators 23, 24, 77, 78,
War
79, 80, 92, 93, 114
warlord(s), Chinese 25, 32, 34, 35,
Treaty of Nanking 54
112, 116, 117
Treaty Ports 60, 61, 79, 83, 111, 112,
Washington Conference 30, 31
121, 122
Wei Yuan 21
Trevelyan, Robert 8, 90
West Borneo 58
tributary system 50, 51, 53, 54, 162,
West Indies 137
163
Western agency houses 61
Tsarist Russia 24, 29, 30
Western Europe 135
Tsing Hua University 125
Wong Chimin 101
Twenty-one Demands 79
World Trade Organisation (WTO)
45, 46
unequal treaties 64
writers of Asian and African descent
United Kingdom 3; see also Britain
94
United Malay National Organisation
writers of Chinese descent 94
(UMNO) 72
202 Index

Wu Lien-teh 137; see also Ng Lean Yoshihara Kunio 65
Tuck Yuan Shikai 25, 116
Wu Peifu 30 Yuan, dynasty 52, 100; see also
Manchu
xenophobia 117 Yung Wing 95
Xiamen University 68, 122
Xiao Jingguang 37 Zeng Guofan 15
Xiao Qian 88, 91, 92, 93, 146, 172, Zeng Jize 113
174 Zhang Jian 60
Xu Dishan 88 Zhang Zhidong 81, 82
Xu Guangqi 176 Zhang Zuolin 25
Xu Zhimo 89, 91, 93, 96, 146 Zheng Chenggong 15, 38, 55
Xue Fucheng 113 Zheng Guanying 124
Zheng He, Admiral 53, 153
Yale University 95 Zheng Zhilong 54
Yan Dunjie 177 Zhongshan Cantonese 64
Yan Fu 14, 80, 87, 97, 114 Zhu Guangqian 88, 89, 93, 96
Yongle, emperor, naval expeditions Zhu Kezhen 177
14, 19 Zuo Zongtang 19, 20

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