<<

. 10
( 11)



>>

Bhat, G. and Bergstrom, J.C. (1997), Integration of geographical information systems
based spatial analysis in recreation demand analysis, Faculty Series 96“26,
Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens,
Ga.
Billing, P. (1998), Towards sustainable agriculture: the perspectives of the common
agricultural policy in the EU, in Dabbert, S., Whitby, M. and Dubgaard, A. (eds.),
The Economics of Landscape and Wildlife Conservation, CABI International,
Wallingford, Oxon.
Bishop, K.D. (1992), Assessing the bene¬ts of community forests: an evaluation of the
recreational use bene¬ts of two urban fringe woodlands, Journal of Environmental
Planning and Management, 35(1): 63“76.
Bjornstad, D.J. and Kahn, J.R. (eds.) (1996), The Contingent Valuation of Environmental
Resources: Methodological Issues and Research Needs, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
Blakeway-Smith, J., Miller, D. and Quine, C. (1993), The use of geographic information
systems in forest management, mimeo, Macaulay Land Use Research Institute,
Aberdeen.
(1994), An appraisal of the susceptibility of forestry to windblow using GIS.
Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 1994 Conference, 11“13 April. Department of
Geography, University of Leicester, Association of Geographical Information.
Blamey, R.K. (1995), Citizens, consumers and contingent valuation: an investigation into
respondent behaviour, Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University.
(1996), Citizens, consumers and contingent valuation: clari¬cation and the expression
of citizen values and issue-opinions, in Adamowicz, W.L., Boxall, P.C., Luckert,
M.K., Phillips, W.E. and White, W.A. (eds.), Forestry, Economics and the
Environment, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, pp. 103“33.
(1998), Contingent valuation and the activation of environmental norms, Ecological
Economics, 24(1): 47“72.
Bloom, B. (1988), Unlovely as a tree, Financial Times, 10 March, London.
Blunden, J. and Curry, N. (1985), The Changing Countryside, Croom Helm/Open
University, London.
(1988), A Future For Our Countryside, Blackwell, Oxford.
Blyth, J.F. (1974), Land capability assessment for forestry in north-east Scotland, Ph.D.
thesis, University of Aberdeen.
Blyth, J.F. and MacLeod, D.A. (1981), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) in north-east
Scotland: 1. Relationships between site factors and growth, Forestry, 54: 41“62.
Bockstael, N.E., McConnell, K.E. and Strand, I.E. (1991), Recreation, in Braden, J.B. and
Kolstad, C.D. (eds.), Measuring the Demand for Environmental Quality,
North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 227“70.
Bockstael, N.E., Strand, I.E. Jr and Hanemann, W.M. (1987), Time and the recreational
demand model, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 69(2): 293“302.
Body, R. (1982), Agriculture: The Triumph and the Shame, Temple Smith, London.
Bohm, P. (1972), Estimating demand for public goods: an experiment, European
Economic Review, 3: 733“6.
Boj¨ , J. (1985), A Cost-Bene¬t Analysis of Forestry in Mountainous Areas: The Case of
o
Valadalen, Stockholm School of Economics.
Boulding, K. (1966), The economics of the coming Spaceship Earth, in Jarett, H. (ed.),
Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, Johns Hopkins University Press,
Baltimore, pp. 3“14.
References 299

Bowers, J.K. (1985), Do we need more forests?, Discussion Paper 137, Department of
Economics, University of Leeds.
(1987), Set-aside and other stories, in Baldock, D. and Conder, D. (eds.), Removing
Land from Agriculture, Council for the Protection of Rural England and Institute for
European Environmental Policy, London, pp. 5“18.
Bowers, J.K. and Cheshire, P. (1983), Agriculture, the Countryside and Land Use,
Methuen, London.
Bowes, M.D. and Loomis, J.B. (1980), A note on the use of travel cost models with
unequal zonal populations, Land Economics, 56: 465“70.
Bowler, I.R. (1985), Agriculture under the Common Agricultural Policy: A Geography,
Manchester University Press.
Boxall, P.C., McFarlane, B.L. and Gartrell, M. (1996), An aggregate travel cost approach
to valuing forest recreation at managed sites, Forestry Chronicle, 72: 615“21.
Boyle, K.J., Bishop, R.C. and Welsh, M.P. (1985), Starting point bias in contingent
valuation surveys, Land Economics, 61: 188“94.
Bracken, I. and Martin, D.J. (1995), Linkage of the 1981 and 1991 UK Census using
surface modelling concepts, Environment and Planning A, 27: 379“90.
Bradley, R.I. and Knox, J.W. (1995), The prediction of irrigation demands for England
and Wales. Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 1995 Conference, 5“7 April.
Department of Surveying, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Association for
Geographical Information.
Brainard, J.S., Lovett, A.A. and Bateman, I.J. (1997), Using isochrone surfaces in travel
cost models, Journal of Transport Geography, 5(2): 117“26.
(1999), Integrating geographical information systems into travel cost analysis and
bene¬t transfer, International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 13(3):
227“46.
Brase, B.T. and La Due, E.L. (1989), Farmer investment behavior: a review of the
literature, Discussion Paper 89/5, Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell
University.
Brennan, G. and Buchanan, J.M. (1984), Voter choice, American Behavioral Scientist,
28: 185“201.
Bridges, E.M. and Batjes, N.H. (1996), Soil gaseous emissions and global climatic
change, Geography, 81: 155“69.
Britton, D. (1990), Recent changes and current trends, in Britton, D. (ed.), Agriculture in
Britain: Changing Pressures and Policies, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon,
pp. 1“33.
Broadhurst, R. (2001), Managing Environments for Leisure and Recreation, Routledge,
London.
Brookshire, D.S. and Coursey, D.L. (1987), Measuring the value of a public good: an
empirical comparison of elicitation procedures, American Economic Review 77:
554“66.
Brookshire, D.S., d™Arge, R.C., Schulze, W.D. and Thayer, M.A. (1981), Experiments in
valuing public goods, in Smith, V.K. (ed.), Advances in Applied Economics, vol. I,
JAI Press, Greenwich, Conn.
Broome, J. (1992), Counting the Costs of Global Warming, White Horse Press,
Cambridge.
Brouwer, F. and Lowe, P. (eds.) (2000a), CAP Regimes and the European Countryside,
CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon.
Brouwer, F. and Lowe, P. (2000b), CAP and the environment: policy development and the
state of research, in Brouwer, F. and Lowe, P. (eds.), CAP Regimes and the European
Countryside, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, pp. 1“14.
300 References

Brouwer, R. and Bateman, I.J. (2000), A comparison of the social bene¬ts of reducing
sunbathing health risks in low and high risk countries: further empirical testing of the
validity and reliability of bene¬ts transfer, CSERGE Global Environmental Change
Working Paper GEC2000“17, Centre for Social and Economic Research on the
Global Environment, University of East Anglia and University College London.
Brouwer, R., Langford, I.H., Bateman, I.J. and Turner, R.K. (1999), A meta-analysis
of wetland contingent valuation studies, Regional Environmental Change, 1(1):
47“57.
Brouwer, R. and Spaninks, F.A., (1999), The validity of environmental bene¬ts transfer:
further empirical testing. Environmental and Resource Economics, 14(1): 95“117.
Brown, C. (1999), Global Forest Products Outlook Study: thematic Study on plantations,
Working Paper No. GFPOS/WP/03 (Draft), FAO, Rome.
Brown, P. (1998), Climate, Biodiversity and Forests: Issues and Opportunities Emerging
from the Kyoto Protocol, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
Brown, T.C. and Slovic, P. (1988), Effects of context on economic measures of values, in
Peterson, G.L., Driver, B.L. and Gregory, R. (eds.), Amenity Resource Valuation:
Integrating Economics with Other Disciplines, Venture State College,
Penn., pp. 23“30.
Brown, W.G. and Nawas, F. (1973), Impact of aggregation on the estimation of outdoor
recreation demand functions, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 55(2):
246“9.
Brubaker, E. (1982), Sixty-eight percent free revelation and thirty-two percent free ride?
Demand disclosures under varying conditions of exclusion, in Smith, V.L. (ed.),
Research in Experimental Economics, vol. II, JAI Press, Greenwich, Conn.,
pp. 151“66.
Bryant, D., Nielsen, D. and Tangley, L. (1997), The Last Frontier Forests, World
Resources Institute, Washington D.C.
Bucher-Wallin, I.K., Sonnleitner, M.A., Egli, P., Gunthardt-Georg, M.S., Tarjan, D.,
Schulin, R. and Bucher, J.B. (2000), Effects of elevated CO2 , increased nitrogen
deposition and soil on evapotranspiration and water use ef¬ciency of spruce“beech
model ecosystems, Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 40(4): 49“60.
Buckley, G.P. (ed.) (1989), Biological Habitat Reconstruction, Belhaven Press, London.
Buckwell, A. (1989), Economic signals, farmers™ response and environmental change,
Journal of Rural Studies, 5(2): 149“60.
Buckwell, A.E., Harvey, D.R., Thomson, K.J. and Parton, K.A. (1982), The Costs of the
Common Agricultural Policy. Croom Helm, London.
Bureau of Transport and Communications Economics (BTCE) (1996a), Trees and
greenhouse: costs of sequestering Australian transport emissions, Working Paper 23,
Bureau of Transport and Communications Economics, Canberra.
Bureau of Transport and Communications Economics (BTCE) (1996b), Transport
Greenhouse: Costs and Options for Reducing Emissions, Report 94, Bureau of
Transport and Communications Economics, Canberra.
Burness, H.S., Cummings, R.G., Mehr, A.F. and Walbert, M.S. (1983), Valuing policies
which reduce environmental risk, Natural Resources Journal 23: 675“82.
Burnham, P. (1985), A turning point in British land use policies, Town and Country
Planning, June 1985.
Burrell, A. (1987), EC agricultural surpluses and budget control, Journal of Agricultural
Economics, 38(1): 1“14.
Burrough, P.A. and McDonnell, R.A. (1998), Principles of Geographical Information
Systems, Oxford University Press.
References 301

Burt, O.R. (1986), Econometric modeling of the capitalization formula for farmland
prices, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 68: 10“26.
Busby, R.J.N. (1974), Forest site yield guide to upland Britain, Forestry Commission
Forest Record 97, HMSO, London.
Cabinet Of¬ce (2000), Sharing the Nation™s Prosperity: Economic, Social and
Environmental Conditions in the Countryside, a report to the Prime Minister by the
Cabinet Of¬ce, Whitehall, London.
Campbell, D. and Fairley, R. (1991), Forestry and the conservation and enhancement of
landscape, in Forestry Expansion: A Study of Technical, Economic and Ecological
Factors, Paper No. 2, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Cannell, M.G.R. and Cape, J. (1991), International environmental impacts: acid rain and
the greenhouse effect, in Forestry Expansion: A Study of Technical, Economic and
Ecological Factors, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Cannell, M.G.R. and Dewar R.C. (1995), The carbon sink provided by plantation forests
and their products in Britain, Forestry, 68: 35“48.
Cannell, M.G.R., Dewar, R.C. and Pyatt, D.G. (1993), Conifer plantations on drained
peatlands in Britain: a net gain or loss of carbon? Forestry, 66: 353“69.
Cannell, M.G.R. and Milne, R. (1995a), Carbon pools and sequestration in forest
ecosystems in Britain, in Carbon Sequestration in Vegetation and Soils, report to the
Global Atmosphere Division of the Department of the Environment, Institute of
Terrestrial Ecology, Penicuik, Edinburgh.
(1995b), Carbon pools and sequestration in forest ecosystems in Britain, Forestry, 68:
361“78.
Capstick, C.W. (1991), British agricultural policy under the CAP, in Ritson, C. and
Harvey, D. (eds.), The Common Agricultural Policy and the World Economy: Essays
in Honour of John Ashton, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Carson, R.T. (1998), Valuation of tropical rainforests: philosophical and practical issues in
the use of contingent valuation, Ecological Economics, 24(1): 15“29.
Carson, R.T., Flores, N.E. and Hanemann, W.M. (1992), On the creation and destruction
of public goods: the matter of sequencing, paper presented at the Third Annual
Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource
Economists, Cracow.
(1998), Sequencing and valuing public goods, Journal of Environmental Economics
and Management, 36: 314“23.
Carson, R.T., Flores, N.E., Martin, K.M. and Wright, J.L. (1996), Contingent valuation
and revealed preference methodologies: comparing the estimates for quasi-public
goods, Land Economics, 72: 80“99.
Carson, R.T., Groves, T. and Machina, M.J. (1999), Incentive and informational properties
of preference questions, plenary address at the Ninth Annual Conference of the
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE), Oslo,
June.
Carson, R.T. and Mitchell, R.C. (1995), Sequencing and nesting in contingent valuation
surveys, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 28: 155“73.
Central Statistical Of¬ce (1991), Regional Trends 1991, HMSO, London.
(1993a), Internal Purchasing Power of the Pound: March 1993, HMSO, London.
(1993b), Monthly Digest of Statistics: February 1993, No. 566, HMSO, London.
Cesario, F.J. (1976), Value of time in recreation bene¬t studies, Land Economics, 55:
32“41.
Cesario, F.J. and Knetsch, J.L. (1970), Time bias in recreation bene¬t estimates, Water
Resources Research, 6(3): 700“4.
302 References

(1976), A recreation site demand and bene¬t estimation model, Regional Studies, 10:
97“104.
Chambers, R.G. and Pope, R.D. (1994), A virtually ideal production system: specifying
and estimating the VIPS model, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76:
105“13.
Champ, P.A., Boyle, K. and Brown, T.C. (eds.) (forthcoming), A Primer on Non-market
Valuation, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
Chang, S.J. (1998), A generalized Faustmann model for the determination of optimal
harvest age, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(5): 652“9.
Cheshire, P.C. and Stabler, M.J. (1976), Joint consumption bene¬ts in recreational site
˜surplus™: an empirical estimate, Regional Studies, 10: 343“51.
Christensen, J.B. (1985), An economic approach to assessing the value of recreation with
special reference to forest areas, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Forestry and Wood
Science, University College of North Wales, Bangor.
Cicchetti, C.J. and Freeman, A.M. III (1971), Optimal demand and consumer™s surplus:
further comment, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 85: 528“39.
Cieszewski, C.J., Turner, D.P. and Phillips, D.L. (1996), Statistical analysis of error
propagation in national level carbon budgets, Proceedings of the Second
International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and
Environmental Sciences, USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colo., pp. 649“58.
Cline, W.R. (1992a), The Economics of Global Warming, Institute for International
Economics, Washington, D.C.
(1992b), Optimal carbon emissions over time: experiments with the Nordhaus DICE
model, mimeo, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C.
(1993), Give greenhouse abatement a fair chance, Finance and Development, 30(1):
3“5.
Cloke, P., Milbourne, P. and Thomas, C. (1996), From wasteland to wonderland: opencast
mining, regeneration and the English National Forest, Geoforum, 27(2): 159“74.
Cobb, R.N. (1993), The merging of agricultural and environmental policy “ a study of
farmers™ responses to policy change, Ph.D. thesis, School of Environmental Sciences,
University of East Anglia.
Colenutt, R.J. and Sidaway, R.M. (1973), Forest of Dean Day Visitor Survey, Forestry
Commission Bulletin 46, HMSO, London.
Collins™ Atlas of the World (1991), Collins, Edinburgh.
Colman, D. (1991), Land purchase as a means of providing external bene¬ts from
agriculture, in Hanley, N.D. (ed.), Farming and the Countryside: An Economic
Analysis of External Costs and Bene¬ts, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.,
pp. 215“29.
(1993), Environmental economics and agricultural policy, in Rayner, A.J. and
Colman, D. (eds.), Current Issues in Agricultural Economics, Macmillan,
Basingstoke, pp. 205“23.
Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (1985a), Perspectives for the Common
Agricultural Policy, COM(85)333, Commission of the European Communities,
Brussels.
(1985b), The Agricultural Situation in the Community “ 1984 Report. Commission of
the European Communities, Brussels.
(1987), The Agricultural Situation in the Community “ 1986 Report. Commission of the
European Communities, Brussels.
(1989), The Agricultural Situation in the Community “ 1988 Report. Commission of the
European Communities, Brussels.
References 303

(1990), The Agricultural Situation in the Community “ 1989 Report. Commission of the
European Communities, Brussels.
(1991), The Development and Future of the Common Agricultural Policy: Proposals of
the Commission of the European Communities, COM(91)258, Commission of the
European Communities, Brussels.
(1992a), The Agricultural Situation in the Community “ 1991 Report, Commission of
the European Communities, Brussels.
(1992b), Towards Sustainability: A European Community Programme for Policy and
Action in Relation to the Environment and Sustainable Development, Commission of
the European Communities, Brussels.
(1992c), Council Regulation No. 1765/92 Establishing a Support System for Producers
of Certain Arable Crops, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.
(1992d), Council Regulation No. 2078/92 on Agricultural Production Methods
Compatible with the Requirements of the Protection of the Environment and the
Maintenance of the Countryside, Commission of the European Communities,
Brussels.
Common, M. (1973), A note on the use of the Clawson method, Regional Studies, 7:
401“6.
Common, M., Bull, T. and Stoeckl, N. (1999), The Travel Cost Method: an empirical
investigation of Randall™s dif¬culty, Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource
Economics, 43(4): 457“77.
Cooper, D.N. (1992), An analysis of the agricultural input industries, Ph.D. thesis,
Department of Economics, University of Nottingham.
Cooper, J.C. (2000), Nonparametric and semi-nonparametric recreational demand
analysis, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 82(2): 451“62.
Corbett, J.D. and Carter, S.E. (1997), Using GIS to enhance agricultural planning: the
example of inter-seasonal rainfall in Zimbabwe, Transactions in GIS, 1: 207“18.
Costanza, R. and Daly, H. (1992), Natural capital and sustainable development,
Conservation Biology 6: 37“46.
Council for the Protection of Rural England (CPRE) (1992), The Lost Land: Land Use
Change in England 1945“90, CPRE, London.
Countryside Agency (2001), The State of the Countryside 2001, Countryside Agency
Publications, Wetherby.
Countryside Commission (1987), Forestry in the Countryside, CCP245, Countryside
Commission, Cheltenham.
(1993), The National Forest, CCP410, Countryside Commission, Cheltenham.
Countryside Commission and Forestry Commission (1996), Woodland Creation: Needs
and Opportunities in the English Countryside, Countryside Commission,
Cheltenham.
Coursey, D.L., Hovis, J. and Schulze, W.D. (1986), The disparity between willingness to
accept and willingness to pay measures of value, Quarterly Journal of Economics,
102: 679“90.
Cowling, R.M. and Heijnis, C.E. (2001), The identi¬cation of Broad Habitat Units as
biodiversity entities for systematic conservation planning in the Cape Floristic
Region, South African Journal of Botany, 67(1): 15“38.
Crabtree, B., Chalmers, N. and Barron, N. J. (1998), Information for policy design:
modelling participation in a farm woodland incentive scheme, Journal of
Agricultural Economics, 49(3): 306“20.
Cronin, F.J. and Herzeg, K. (1982), Valuing nonmarket Goods through contingent
markets, cited in Cummings, R.G., Brookshire, D.S. and Schulze, W.D. (eds.),
304 References

Valuing Environmental Goods: A State of the Arts Assessment of the Contingent
Method, Rowman and Allenheld, Totowa, N.J. (1986).
Cruikshank, M.M., Tomlinson, R.W., Devine, P.M. and Milne, R. (1995), Estimation of
carbon stores and production of carbon density maps for Northern Ireland: progress
in the use of data based on CORINE land cover, Soil Survey and the Peatland
Survey, in Carbon Sequestration in Vegetation and Soils, report to the Global
Atmosphere Division of the Department of the Environment, Institute of Terrestrial
Ecology, Penicuik, Edinburgh.
Cummings, R.G., Brookshire, D.S. and Schulze, W.D. (eds.) (1986), Valuing
Environmental Goods: A State of the Arts Assessment of the Contingent Method,
Rowman and Allenheld, Totowa, N.J.
Cunningham, S. (1990), An economic analysis of depreciation and investment in UK
agricultural machinery, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Economics, University of Exeter.
Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R., Mooney, H.A. and Ehrlich, A.H. (1991), Greenhouse
economics: learn before you leap, Ecological Economics, 4: 1“10.
Dake, K. (1991), Orienting dispositions in the perception of risk, Journal of
Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22(1): 61“82.
Dalias, P., Anderson, J.M., Bottner, P. and Couteaux, M.M. (2001), Temperature
responses of carbon mineralization in conifer forest soils from different regional
climates incubated under standard laboratory conditions, Global Change Biology,
7(2): 181“92.
Daly, H. (1977), Steady State Economics, Freeman, San Francisco.
(1995), On Wilfred Beckerman™s critique of sustainable development, Environmental
Values, 4(1): 49“55.
Daly, H. and Cobb, J. (1990), For the Common Good, Greenprint Press, London.
D™Arrigo, R., Jocoby, G.C. and Fung, I.Y. (1987), Boreal forests and
atmosphere“biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, Nature, 329: 321“3.
Davidson, D.A. (1991), Forestry and GIS, Mapping Awareness, 5(5): 43“5.
Davidson, D.A. and Grieve, I.C. (1995), Peat erosion in upland Scotland, in Carbon
Sequestration in Vegetation and Soils, report to the Global Atmosphere Division of
the Department of the Environment, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Penicuik,
Edinburgh.
Davis, S. D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (1994), Centres of Plant Diversity: A
Guide and Strategy for their Conservation, vol. I., World Wide Fund for Nature,
Gland, Switzerland.
Deaton, A. and Muellbauer, J. (1980), Economics and Consumer Behaviour, Cambridge
University Press.
Deegen, P. (2000), Concerning the interpretation of the Faustmann™s formula as a complex
behavioral model in forest economics, Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, 171(5“6):
88“96.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) (2002), Agriculture in the
United Kingdom, HMSO, London.
Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) (2000), Our
Countryside: The Future. A Fair Deal for Rural England (Rural White Paper),
Cm 4909, HMSO, Norwich.
Department of the Environment (DoE) (1987), Handling Geographic Information: Report
of the Committee of Enquiry chaired by Lord Chorley, HMSO, London.
(1988), Memorandum of Evidence Submitted to the House of Lords Select Committee
on the European Communities Set-aside of Agricultural Land, 1987/88 session, 10th
Report, HMSO, London.
(1991), Policy Appraisal and the Environment, HMSO, London.
References 305

Department of Transport (DoT), (1987), Values for Journey Time Savings and Accident
Prevention, Department of Transport, London.
(1992), London traf¬c monitoring report 1992, Transport Statistics Report, Department
of Transport, London.
(1993), Vehicle speeds in Great Britain 1992, Statistics Bulletin, 93 (30), Department of
Transport, London.
Desvousges, W.H., Johnson, F.R. and Banzaf, H.S. (1998), Environmental Policy Analysis
With Limited Information: Principles and Applications of the Transfer Method,
Edward Elgar, Northampton, Mass.
Desvousges, W.H., Naughton, M.C. and Parsons, G.R. (1992), Bene¬t transfer:
conceptual problems in estimating water quality bene¬ts using existing studies,
Water Resources Research, 28(3): 675“83.
Desvousges, W.H., Smith, V.K. and McGivney, M.P. (1983), A comparison of alternative
approaches for estimating recreation and related bene¬ts of water quality
improvements. Report No. EPA-230-05-83-001, Of¬ce of Policy Analysis, US
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Dewar, R.C. and Cannell, M.G.R. (1992), Carbon sequestration in the trees, products and
soils of forest plantations: an analysis using UK examples, Tree Physiology, 11:
49“72.
Diamond, P.A. and Hausman, J.A. (1994), Contingent valuation: is some number better
than no number?, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(4): 45“64.
Diewart, W.E. (1973), Functional forms for pro¬t and transformation functions, Journal of
Economic Theory, 6: 284“316.
Dillman, B.L. and Bergstrom, J.C. (1991), Measuring environmental amenity bene¬ts of
agricultural land, in Hanley, N.D. (ed.), Farming and the Countryside: An Economic
Analysis of External Costs and Bene¬ts, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon,
pp. 250“71.
Dobbs, I.M. (1991), The individual travel cost method: estimation and bene¬t assessment
with a discrete and possibly grouped dependent variable, Countryside Change Unit
Working Paper 17, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Dobson, R. (1997), Four sheep for every Welshman, The Independent on Sunday,
27 July.
Dolman, P.M., Lovett, A.A., O™Riordan, T. and Cobb, R.N. (2001), Designing whole
landscapes, Landscape Research, 26: 305“35.
Doran, A. (1979), Economics of forestry: a review and critical appraisal, Bulletin No. 168,
Manchester University.
Dore, M., Kulshreshtha, S. and Johnston, M. (2001), An integrated economic“ecological
analysis of land use decisions in forest“agriculture fringe regions of Northern
Saskatchewan, Geographical and Environmental Modelling, 5(3): 159“75.
Downing, M. and Ozuna, T. (1996), Testing the reliability of the bene¬t function
transfer approach, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 30:
316“22.
Dubourg, W.R., Jones-Lee, M.W. and Loomes, G. (1997), Imprecise preferences and
survey design in contingent valuation, Economica, 64(256): 681“702.
Eade, J.D.O. and Moran, D. (1996), Spatial economic valuation: bene¬ts transfer using
geographical information systems, Journal of Environmental Management, 48:
97“110.
Eamus, D. and Jarvis, P.G. (1989), Direct effects of CO2 increases on trees and forest in
the UK, Advances in Ecological Research, 19: 1“55.
Economic Commission for Europe and the European Community (ECE) (1993), Forest
Condition in Europe “ Results of the 1992 Survey, UN/ECE, Geneva.
306 References

Edwards, N.T. (1975), Effect of temperature and moisture on carbon dioxide evolution in
a mixed deciduous forest ¬‚oor, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 39:
361“5.
Edwards, N.T. and Ross-Todd, B.M. (1983), Soil carbon in a mixed deciduous forest
following clear-butting with and without residue removal, Soil Science Society of
America Journal, 47: 1014“21.
Edwards, P.N. and Christie, J.M. (1981), Yield models for forest management, Forestry
Commission Booklet 48, HMSO, London.
Edwards, R.W., Gee, A.S. and Stoner, J.H. (eds.) (1990), Acid Waters in Wales,
Monographiae Biologicae, vol. LXVI, Kluwer, London.
Efron, B. and Tibshirani, R.J. (1993), An Introduction to the Bootstrap, Chapman and
Hall, New York.
Egli, P., Maurer, S., Spinnler, D., Landolt, W., Gunthardt-Georg, M.S. and Korner, C.
(2001), Downward adjustment of carbon ¬‚uxes at the biochemical, leaf, and
ecosystem scale in beech“spruce model communities exposed to long-term
atmospheric CO2 enrichment, Oikos, 92(2): 279“90.
Elston, D.A., Jayasinghe, G., Buckland, S.T., Macmillan, D.C. and Aspinall, R.J. (1997),
Adapting regression equations to minimise the mean squared error of predictions
made using covariate data from a GIS, International Journal of Geographical
Information Science, 11(3): 265“80.
Elvidge, C. D. et al. (1999), DMSP-OLS estimation of tropical forest area impacted by
ground ¬res in Roriama, Brazil, cited in United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Bank and the
World Resources Institute, World Resources 2000“2001: People and Ecosystems,
The Fraying Web of Life, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (2000).
Englin, J. and Mendelsohn, R. (1991), A hedonic travel cost analysis for valuation of
multiple components of site quality: the recreation value of forest management,
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 21: 275“90.
Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) (1994), Arc/Info Release 7: Network
Analysis, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, Calif.
Ernle, Lord (1919), English Farming Past and Present, Longman, Harlow.
European Commission and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(EC-UNECE) (1994), Forest Condition in Europe: Results of the 1993 Survey,
EC-UNECE, Brussels.
European Economic Community (EEC) (1962), Treaty Establishing the European
Economic Community, Rome 1957, Article 39, HMSO, London.
(1987), Changes to the EEC Market Organisation for Milk and Milk Products. Green
Europe, 220. European Economic Community, Luxembourg.
European Union (EU) (1992), CORINE Land Cover Technical Guide, part 1, European
Commission, Directorate-General Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection,
Brussels.
Evans, A. (1987), The growth of forestry and its effects upon rural communities in North
East Scotland: the case of Strathdon, Scottish Forestry, 41: 310“13.
Evans, N. and Morris, C. (1997), Towards a geography of agri-environmental policies in
England and Wales, Geoforum, 28(2): 189“204.
Everett, R.D. (1979), The monetary value of the recreational bene¬ts of wildlife, Journal
of Environmental Management, 8: 203“13.
Ewers, H.J. et al. (1986), Zur monet¨ ren Bewertung von Umweltsch¨ den: methodische
a a
Untersuchung am Beispiel der Waldsch¨ den, Umweltbundesamt Bericht, 4/86,
a
Berlin.
References 307

Fankhauser, S. (1993), Global warming economics: issues and state of the art, CSERGE
Working Paper GEC 93“28, Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global
Environment, University of East Anglia and University College London.
(1994a), Evaluating the social costs of greenhouse gas emissions, CSERGE Working
Paper GEC 94“01, Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global
Environment, University of East Anglia and University College London.
(1994b), The social costs of greenhouse gas emissions: an expected value approach,
Energy Journal, 15(2): 157“84.
(1995), Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse, Earthscan,
London.
Farm Business Survey (FBS) (1988), Farm Business Survey in Wales: Statistical Results
for 1987/88, Department of Economics and Agricultural Economics, University of
Wales, Aberystwyth.
(1989), Farm Business Survey in Wales: Statistical Results for 1988/89, Department of
Economics and Agricultural Economics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth.
(1990), Farm Business Survey in Wales: Statistical Results for 1989/90, Department of
Economics and Agricultural Economics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth.
(1991), Farm Business Survey in Wales: Statistical Results for 1990/91, Department of
Economics and Agricultural Economics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth.
(1992), Farm Business Survey in Wales: Statistical Results for 1991/92, Department of
Economics and Agricultural Economics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth.
Faustmann, M. (1849), Berechnung des Wertes welchen Waldboden sowie noch nicht
haubare Holzbest¨ nde f¨ r die Waldwirtschaft besitzen. Originally published in
a u
Allgemeine Forst Jagd, translated by Linnard, W. in Martin Faustmann and the
evolution of the discounted cash ¬‚ow, Institute Paper No. 42, Commonwealth
Forestry Institute, Oxford.
Fearn, H. (1990), Motivating farmers to plant trees, paper presented at the Forestry
Commission™s First Economics Research Conference, University of York, September.
Fearne, A. (1991), The history and development of the CAP, in Ritson, C. and Harvey, D.
(eds.), The Common Agricultural Policy and the World Economy: Essays in Honour
of John Ashton, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Feldstein, M. (1980), In¬‚ation, portfolio choice and the prices of land and corporate stock,
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62: 910“16.
Fennell, R. (1987), The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Community,
2nd edn, BSP Professional Books, Oxford.
Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour: An
Introduction to Theory and Research, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.
Fleischer, A. and Tsur, Y. (2000), Measuring the recreational value of agricultural
landscape, European Review of Agricultural Economics, 27(3): 385“98.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1997), State of the World™s Forests 1997,
FAO, Rome.
Forest Enterprise (2001), Standing Sales Price Index and Competitive Softwood Log
Index, Edinburgh.
Forestry Commission (FC) (1979), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1985a), 65th Annual Report and Accounts, Edinburgh.
(1985b), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1985c), The Policy for Broadleaved Woodlands, Policy Paper 5, Edinburgh.
(1987), Census of woodlands and trees 1979“82, Forestry Commission Bulletin 63,
Edinburgh.
(1988a), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
308 References

(1988b), Woodland grant scheme (lea¬‚et), Edinburgh.
(1989), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1990), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1991), Community woodland supplement (lea¬‚et WGS 12/91), Edinburgh.
(1992), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1993), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1994a), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1994b), Forestry Review: Highlights from the Forestry Commission Annual Report
1993/94, Edinburgh.
(1996), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1997), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
(1998), A New Focus for England™s Woodlands: Strategic Priorities and Programmes,
Cambridge.
(2001a), ˜Vital™ woodlands can help rural economy, says Deputy Rural Affairs Minister,
New Release No. 4155, 6 August 2001, Forestry Commission website
(www.forestry.gov.uk).
(2001b), A Woodland Strategy for Wales: Executive Summary of Consultation
Responses, Forestry Commission website (www.forestry.gov.uk).
(2001c), Forestry Facts and Figures, Edinburgh.
Forestry Industry Committee of Great Britain (FICGB) (1992), The Forestry Industry
Year-Book 1991“92, London.
Foster, V., Bateman, I.J. and Harley, D. (1997), Real and hypothetical willingness to pay
for environmental preservation: a non-experimental comparison, Journal of
Agricultural Economics, 48(2): 123“38.
Franklin, M. (1988), Rich Man™s Farming “ The Crisis in Agriculture. Royal Institute of
International Affairs, London.
Freeman, A.M., III (1979), The Bene¬ts of Environmental Improvement: Theory and
Practice, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
(1993), The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values: Theory and Methods.
Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.
Fromm, O. (2000), Ecological structure and functions of biodiversity as elements of its
total economic value, Environmental and Resource Economics, 16(3): 303“28.
Fuller, R.J. (1996), Relationship between grazing and birds with particular reference to
sheep in the British uplands, BTO Research Report No. 164, report to the Joint
Nature Conservation Committee, British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, Norfolk.
Fuller, R.J., Gregory, R.D., Gibbons, D.W., Marchant, J.H., Wilson, J.D., Baillie, S.R. and
Carter, N. (1995), Population declines and range contractions among lowland
farmland birds in Britain, Conservation Biology, 9: 1425“41.
Gale, M.F. and Anderson, A.B. (1984), High elevation planting in Galloway, Scottish
Forestry, 38(1): 3“15.
Galinski, W. and Kuppers, M. (1994), Polish forest ecosystem: the in¬‚uence of changes in
the economic system on the carbon balance, Climatic Change, 27(1): 103“19.
Garrod, G.D. and Willis, K.G. (1991), Some empirical estimates of forest amenity value,
Working Paper 13, Countryside Change Unit, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
(1992a), The environmental impact of woodland: a two-stage hedonic price model of
the amenity value of forestry in Britain, Applied Economics, 24: 715“28.
(1992b), Valuing goods™ characteristics: an application of the hedonic price method to
environmental attributes, Journal of Environmental Management, 34: 59“76.
(1992c), The amenity value of woodland in Great Britain: a comparison of economic
estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics, 2: 1“20.
References 309

(1994), Valuing biodiversity and nature conservation at the local level, Biodiversity and
Conservation, 3: 555“65.
Gatrell, A.C. and Naumann, I. (1992), Hospital location planning: a pilot GIS study, paper
presented at the Mapping Awareness Conference, London, February.
Gemmell, F.M. (1995), Effects of forest cover, terrain, and scale on timber volume
estimation with thematic mapper data in a Rocky Mountain site, Remote Sensing
Environment, 51: 291“305.
Geoghegan, J., Wainger, L.A. and Bockstael, N.E. (1997), Spatial landscape indices in a
hedonic framework: an ecological economics analysis using GIS, Ecological
Economics, 23: 251“64.
Gilg, A.W. (1996), Countryside Planning, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.
Glass, G., McGaw, B. and Smith, M.L. (1981), Meta-Analysis in Social Research, Sage,
Beverly Hills, Calif.
Global Environment Facility (GEF) (1998), Valuing the Global Environment: Actions and
Investments for a 21st Century. Washington, D.C.
Goldstein, H. (1995), Multilevel Statistical Models, 2nd edn, Edward Arnold, London.
Good, J.E.G. (ed.) (1987), Environmental Aspects of Plantation Forestry in Wales, ITE
Symposium No. 22, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-over-Sands.
Good, J.E.G., Newton, I., Miles, J., Marrs, R., Greatorex-Davies, J.N. (1991), Forests as
wildlife habitat, in Forestry Expansion: A Study of Technical, Economic and
Ecological Factors, Paper No. 4, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Goodchild, M.F. (1993), Data models and data quality: problems and prospects, in
Goodchild, M.F., Parks, B.O. and Steyaert, L.T. (eds.), Environmental Modelling
with GIS, Oxford University Press, pp. 94“103.
Goodin, R.E. (1982), Discounting discounting, Journal of Public Policy, 2: 53“72.
Goodpaster, K.E. (1978), On being morally considerable, Journal of Philosophy, 75:
308“325.
Goodwin, S. (1995), It™s hard to get into the woods today, The Independent,
15 November.
Grace, J. (1977), Plant Responses to Wind, Academic Press, London.
Green, B. (1996), Countryside Conservation, 3rd edn, Spon, London.
Green, C.H. and Tunstall, S.M. (1991), The evaluation of river quality improvements by
the contingent valuation method, Applied Economics 23: 1135“46.
Green, C.H., Tunstall, S.M., N™Jai, A. and Rodgers, A. (1990), The economic evaluation
of environmental goods, Project Appraisal 5(2): 70“82.
Green, D., Jacowitz, K.E., Kahneman, D. and McFadden, D. (1998), Referendum
contingent valuation, anchoring, and willingness to pay for public goods, Resource
and Energy Economics, 20(2): 85“116.
Grieve, I.C. (2001), Human impacts on soil properties and their implications for the
sensitivity of soil systems in Scotland, Catena, 42(2“4): 361“74.
Grif¬n, R.C. (1998), The fundamental principles of cost-bene¬t analysis, Water Resources
Research, 34(8): 2063“71.
Grubb, M. (1992), The costs of climate change: critical elements, paper presented at the
HASA workshop on Costs, Impacts and Possible Bene¬ts of CO2 Mitigation,
Laxenburg, Austria, September.
Gum, R.L. and Martin, W.E. (1975), Problems and solutions in estimating the demand for
and value of rural outdoor recreation, American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
57: 558“66.
Gurnell, J. Clark, M. and Feaver, J. (1996), Red squirrels in Thetford Forest: habitat
modelling for better forestry, Mapping Awareness, 10(4): 36“8.
310 References

H.M. Government (1990), Our Common Inheritance “ Britain™s Environmental Strategy.
HMSO, London.
H.M. Treasury (1972), Forestry in Great Britain: An Interdepartmental Cost/Bene¬t
Study, HMSO, London.
(1991), Economic Appraisal in Central Government: A Technical Guide for
Government Departments, HMSO, London.
Haggett, P., Cliff, A.D. and Frey, A. (1977), Locational Analysis in Human Geography,
vol. I: Locational Models, 2nd edn, Edward Arnold, London.
Hallett, S.H., Jones, R.J.A. and Keay, C.A. (1996), Environmental information systems
developments for planning sustainable land use, International Journal of
Geographical Information Systems, 10(1): 47“64.
Hammitt, J.K. and Harvey, C.M. (2000), Equity, ef¬ciency, uncertainty, and the mitigation
of global climate change, Risk Analysis, 20(6): 851“60.
Hanemann, W.M. (1999), Neo-classical economic theory and contingent valuation, in
Bateman, I.J. and Willis, K.G. (eds.), Valuing Environmental Preferences: Theory
and Practice of the Contingent Valuation Method in the US, EU, and Developing
Countries, Oxford University Press, pp. 42“96.
Hanemann, W.M., Loomis, J. and Kanninen, B. (1991), Statistical ef¬ciency of
double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation, American Journal of
Agricultural Economics 73: 1255“63.
Hanley, N. (1989), Valuing rural recreation bene¬ts: an empirical comparison of two
approaches, Journal of Agricultural Economics, 40(3): 361“74.
(1990), Valuation of Environmental Effects: Final Report “ Stage One, Industry
Department of Scotland and the Scottish Development Agency,
Edinburgh.
(2001), Cost-bene¬t analysis and environmental policy making, Environment and
Planning C, 19: 103“18.
Hanley, N. and Common, M.S. (1987), Evaluating the recreation wildlife and landscape
bene¬ts of forestry: preliminary results from a Scottish study, Papers in Economics
Finance and Investment, No. 141, University of Stirling, Scotland.
Hanley, N. and Ruffell, R.J. (1991), Recreational use values of woodland features, report
to the Forestry Commission, University of Stirling.
(1992), The valuation of forest characteristics, Working Paper 849, Institute for
Economic Research, Queen™s University, Kingston, Ontario.
Hanley, N. and Spash, C.L. (1993), Cost Bene¬t Analysis and the Environment, Edward
Elgar, Cheltenham.
Hanley, N., Whitby, M. and Simpson, E. (1999), Assessing the success of
agri-environmental policy in the UK, Land Use Policy, 16: 67“80.
Hanley, N., Wright, R.E. and Adamowicz, V. (1998), Using choice experiments to value
the environment: design issues, current experience and future prospects,
Environmental and Resource Economics, 11(3“4): 413“28.
Harriman, R. and Morrison, B.R.S. (1982), Ecology of streams draining forested and
non-forested catchments in an area of central Scotland subject to acid precipitation,
Hydrobiologia, 88: 251“63.
Harris, C.C. and Brown, G. (1992), Gain, loss and personal responsibility: the role of
motivation in resource valuation decision-making, Ecological Economics 5:
73“92.
Harris, C.C., Driver, B.L. and McLaughlin, M.J. (1989), Improving the contingent
valuation method: a psychological approach, Journal of Environmental Economics
and Management, 17: 213“29.
References 311

Harris, S., Swinbank, A. and Wilkinson, G. (1983), The Food and Farm Policies of the
European Community. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Harrison, A. and Tranter, R.B. (1989), The changing ¬nancial structure of farming, Centre
for Agricultural Strategy Report 13, University of Reading.
Harrison, A.F., Jones, H.E., Howson, G. and Garnett, M.H. (1995), Impacts of forestry on
carbon balance in peats, in Carbon Sequestration in Vegetation and Soils, report to
the Global Atmosphere Division of the Department of the Environment, Institute of
Terrestrial Ecology, Penicuik, Edinburgh.
Harrison, A.R., Dunn, R., Brown, L. and Turton, P.J. (1991), The use of geographical
information systems in the analysis of countryside data, ¬nal report to the
Department of the Environment (research contract PECD 7/2/77), Department of
Geography, University of Bristol.
Hart, C.E. (1987), Private Woodlands: A Guide to British Timber Prices and Forestry
Costings, published by the author, Coleford, Dean, Gloucestershire.
(1990), Broadleaf planting costs, pers. comm., Chenies, Dean, Gloucestershire.
(1991), Practical Forestry, 3rd edn, Alan Sutton Publishing, Stroud.
Harvey, D.R. (1991a), Agriculture and the environment: the way ahead?, in Hanley, N.D.
(ed.), Farming and the Countryside: An Economic Analysis of External Costs and
Bene¬ts, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon., pp. 275“321.
(1991b), The agricultural demand for land: its availability and cost for forestry, in
Forestry Expansion: A Study of Technical, Economic and Ecological Factors: Paper
No. 11, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Hasselmann, K. (1999), Intertemporal accounting of climate change “ harmonizing
economic ef¬ciency and climate stewardship, Climatic Change, 41(3“4): 333“50.
Hausman, J.A. (1993), Contingent Valuation: A Critical Assessment, Elsevier Science
Publishers, Amsterdam.
Healey, J.R., Price, C. and Tay, J. (2000), The cost of carbon retention by reduced impact
logging, Forest Ecology and Management, 139(1“3): 237“55.
Heath, J., Kersteins, G. and Mans¬eld, T.A. (1995), Growth and physiological response of
beech and oak seedlings to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration under two levels
of mineral nutrient supply, in Carbon Sequestration in Vegetation and Soils, report to
the Global Atmosphere Division of the Department of the Environment, Institute of
Terrestrial Ecology, Penicuik, Edinburgh.
Henderson, N. and Bateman, I.J. (1995), Empirical and public choice evidence for
hyperbolic social discount rates and the implications for intergenerational
discounting, Environmental and Resource Economics, 5: 413“23.
Herriges, J.A. and Kling C.L. (eds.) (1999), Valuing Recreation and the Environment:
Revealed Preference Methods in Theory and Practice, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
Hill, B.E. (1984), The Common Agricultural Policy “ Past, Present and Future. Methuen,
London.
(1990), Incomes and wealth, in Britton, D. (ed.), Agriculture in Britain: Changing
Pressures and Policies, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon., pp. 135“60.
Hill, M.J. and Aspinall, R.J. (eds.) (2000), Spatial Information for Land Use
Management, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Amsterdam.
Hodge, I. (1990a), The changing place of farming, in Britton, D. (ed.), Agriculture in
Britain: Changing Pressures and Policies, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.,
pp. 34“44.
(1990b), The future public pressures on farming, in Britton, D. (ed.), Agriculture in
Britain: Changing Pressures and Policies, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.,
pp. 119“34.
312 References

(1990c), Con¬‚ict or consensus over agricultural and countryside issues, in Britton, D.
(ed.), Agriculture in Britain: Changing Pressures and Policies, CAB International,
Wallingford, Oxon., pp. 94“104.
(1990d), Land use by design?, in Britton, D. (ed.), Agriculture in Britain: Changing
Pressures and Policies, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon., pp. 105“18.
Hodge, S.J. (1995), Creating and Managing Woodlands Around Towns, Forestry
Commission, Edinburgh.
Hoehn, J.P. and Randall, A. (1987), A satisfactory bene¬t cost indicator from contingent
valuation, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 14(3):
226“47.
Hoevenagel, R. (1990), The validity of the Contingent Valuation method: some aspects on
the basis of three Dutch studies, paper presented at the First Annual Meeting of the
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE),
Venice, 17“20 April.
Hornung, M. and Adamson, J. (1991), The impacts on water quality and quantity, in
Forestry Expansion: A Study of Technical, Economic and Ecological Factors,
Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Houghton, J.T., Callander, B.A. and Varney, S.K. (eds.) (1992), Supplement, in Climate
Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scienti¬c Assessment,
Cambridge University Press, pp. 1“22.
House of Lords (1992), Select Committee on the European Communities: The
Implementation of the Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, 1992/93 Session,
9th Report, HMSO, London.
Howarth, R.B. (1996), Discount rates and sustainable development, Ecological Modelling,
92(2): 263“70.
Howarth, R.W. (1985), Farming for Farmers?, Institute of Economic Affairs, London.
Hubbard, L. and Ritson, C. (1991), The reform of the CAP, in Ritson, C. and Harvey, D.
(eds.), The Common Agricultural Policy and the World Economy: Essays in Honour
of John Ashton, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Hufschmidt, M.M., James, D.E., Meister, A.D., Bower, B.T. and Dixon, J.A. (1983),
Environment, Natural Systems and Development: An Economic Valuation Guide,
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Innes, J.L. (1987), Air pollution and forestry, Forestry Commission Bulletin 70, Edinburgh.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1992), Global Climate Change and
the Rising Challenge of the Sea: Supporting Document for the IPCC Update 1992,
WMO and UNEP, Geneva.
(1996a), Climate Change 1995 “ Impact, Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate
Change “ Scienti¬c-Technical Analysis. Contribution of Working Group II to the
Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
Cambridge University Press.
(1996b), Climate Change 1995 “ Economic and Social Dimensions. Contribution of
Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.
(2000), Land Use, Land Change, and Forestry, Cambridge University Press.
(2001a), Climate Change 2001: The Scienti¬c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I
to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
Cambridge University Press.
(2001b), Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of
Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.
References 313

Jarvis, N.J. and Mullins, C.E. (1987), Modelling the effects of drought on the growth of
Sitka spruce in Scotland. Forestry, 60: 13“30.
Jenkins, D. (ed.) (1984), Agriculture and the Environment, ITE Symposium No. 13,
Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge.
(1986), Trees and Wildlife in the Scottish Uplands, ITE Symposium No. 17, Institute of
Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood.
Jenkinson, D.A. (1971), The Accumulation of Organic Matter on Soil Left Uncultivated,
Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden.
(1988), Soil organic matter and its dynamics, in Wild, A. (ed.), Russell™s Soil
Conditions and Plant Growth, Longman, London.
Johansson, P.-O. (1987), The Economic Theory and Measurement of Environmental
Bene¬ts. Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, B.M. (1966), Travel time and the price of leisure, Western Economic Journal,
4: 135“45.
Johnson, J.A. and Nicholls, D.C. (1991), The impact of government intervention on
private forest management in England and Wales, Occasional Paper 30, Forestry
Commission, Edinburgh.
Johnson, J.A. and Price, C. (1987), Afforestation, employment and depopulation in the
Snowdonia National Park, Journal of Rural Studies, 87(3): 195“205.
Johnston, D.R., Grayson, A.J. and Bradley, R.T. (1967), Forest Planning, Faber, London.
Jones, P.J., Rehman, T., Harvey, D.R., Tranter, R.B., Marsh, J.S., Bunce, R.G.H. and
Howard, D.C. (1995), Developing LUAM (Land Use Allocation Model) and
modelling CAP reforms, Centre for Agricultural Strategy Paper 32, University of
Reading.
Jones, R.J.A. and Thomasson, A.J. (1985), An Agroclimatic Databank for England and
Wales, Technical Monograph No. 16, Soil Survey of England and Wales, Harpenden.
Josling, T. (1993), Agricultural policy reform in the USA and the EC, in Rayner, A.J. and
Colman, D. (eds.), Current Issues in Agricultural Economics, Macmillan,
Basingstoke, pp. 32“61.
Just, R.E., Hueth, D.L. and Schmitz, A. (1982), Applied Welfare Economics and Public
Policy, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Kahn, J.R. (1995), Square pegs and round holes: can the economic paradigm be used to
value the wilderness?, Growth and Change, 26(4): 591“610.
Kahneman, D. (1986), Comments, in Cummings, R.G., Brookshire, D.S. and Schulze,
W.D. (eds.), Valuing Environmental Goods: A State of the Arts Assessment of the
Contingent Method, Rowman and Allenheld, Totowa, N.J.
Kahneman, D. and Knetsch, J.L. (1992), Valuing public goods: the purchase of moral
satisfaction, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 22(1): 57“70.
Kahneman, D., Slovic, P. and Tversky, A. (eds.) (1982), Judgement Under Uncertainty:
Heuristics and Biases, Cambridge University Press.
Kahneman, D. and Tversky, A. (1982), The psychology of preferences, Scienti¬c
American, January, pp. 2136“41.
(1984), Choices, values and frames, American Psychologist, 39: 341“50.
Kaiser, K., Kaupenjohann, M. and Zech, W. (2001), Sorption of dissolved organic carbon
in soils: effects of soil sample storage, soil-to-solution ratio, and temperature,
Geoderma, 99(3“4): 317“28.
Kanninen, B.J. (1995), Bias in discrete response contingent valuation, Journal of
Environmental Economics and Management, 28(1): 114“25.
Kauppi, P.E., Mielik¨ inen, K. and Kuusela, K. (1992), Biomass and carbon budget of
o
European forests, 1971 to 1990, Science, 256: 70“4.
314 References

Kazmier, L.J. and Pohl, N.F. (1987), Basic Statistics for Business and Economics,
McGraw-Hill, Singapore.
Kellomaki, S., Karjalainen, T. and Vaisanen, H. (1997), More timber from boreal forests
under changing climate?, Forest Ecology and Management, 94(1“3): 195“208.
Kilpatrick, D.J. and Savill, P.S. (1981), Top height growth curves for Sitka spruce in
Northern Ireland. Forestry, 54: 63“73.
King, G.M. (2000), Land use impacts on atmospheric carbon monoxide consumption by
soils, Global Biochemical Cycles, 14(4): 1161“72.
Kirchhoff, S., Colby, B. G. and LaFrance, J. T. (1997), Evaluating the performance of
bene¬t transfer: an empirical inquiry, Journal of Environmental Economics and
Management, 33: 75“93.
Klimowicz, Z. and Uziak, S. (2001), The in¬‚uence of long-term cultivation on soil
properties and patterns in an undulating terrain in Poland, Catena, 43(3): 177“89.
Kliskey, A.D. (2000), Recreation terrain suitability mapping: a spatially explicit
methodology for determining recreation potential for resource use assessment,
Landscape and Urban Planning, 52(1): 33“43.
Kneese, A.V. and Schulze, W.D. (1985), Ethics and environmental economics, in Kneese,
A.V. and Sweeney, J.L. (eds.) Handbook of Natural Resource and Energy
Economics, vol. I, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 191“220.
Kolchugina, T.P. and Vinson, T.S. (1993), Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of
the Soviet Union. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7: 291“304.
Kraak, M.J. and Ormeling, F.J. (1996), Cartography: Visualization of Spatial Data,
Longman, Harlow.
Kristr¨ m, B. (1990), W. Stanley Jeavons (1988) on option value, Journal of
o
Environmental Economics and Management, 18: 86“87.
Krutilla, J.V. and Fisher, A.C. (1975), The Economics of Natural Environments: Studies in
the Valuation of Commodity and Amenity Resources, Johns Hopkins University
Press, Baltimore.
Kurz, W.A., Apps, M.J., Beukema, S.J. and Lekstrum, T. (1994), 20th century carbon
budget of Canadian forests, Tellus, 47B: 170“7.
Kurz, W.A., Apps, M.J., Webb, T.M. and McNamee. P.J. (1992), Informative Report. The
Carbon Budget of the Canadian Forest Sector: Phase I, NOR-X-326, Forestry
Canada, Edmonton.
Laidler, D. and Estrin, S. (1989), Introduction to Microeconomics, 3rd edn, Philip Allan,
New York.
Lake, I. R., Bateman, I.J., Day, B.H. and Lovett, A.A. (2000b), Improving land
compensation procedures via GIS and hedonic pricing, Environment and Planning C,
18: 681“696.
Lake, I.R., Lovett, A.A., Bateman, I.J. and Day, B. (2000a), Using GIS and large-scale
digital data to implement hedonic pricing studies, International Journal of
Geographical Information Systems, 14(6): 521“41.
Lake, I.R., Lovett, A.A., Bateman, I.J. and Langford, I.H. (1998), Modelling
environmental in¬‚uences on property prices in an urban environment, Computers,
Environment and Urban Systems, 22(2), 121“36.
Langford, I.H., Bateman, I.J. and Langford, H.D. (1996), A multilevel modelling
approach to triple-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation, Environmental
and Resource Economics, 7(3): 197“211.
Langford, I.H., Georgiou, S., Bateman, I.J., Day, R.J. and Turner, R.K. (2000), Public
perceptions of health risks from polluted coastal bathing waters: a mixed
methodological analysis using cultural theory, Risk Analysis, 20(5): 691“704.
References 315

Laurini, R. and Thompson, D. (1992), Fundamentals of Spatial Information Systems,
Academic Press, London.
Lavers, C. and Haines-Young, R. (1993), The use of landscape models for the prediction
of the environmental impact of forestry, in Haines-Young, R., Green, D.R. and
Cousins, S.H. (eds.), Landscape Ecology and GIS, Taylor and Francis, London,
pp. 273“81.
Lavers, G.M. (1969), The Strength Properties of Timbers, Forest Products Research
Bulletin 50, 2nd edn, HMSO, London.
Laxton, H. and Whitby, M.C. (1986), Employment in forestry in the Northern Region,
report to the Countryside Commission, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Layard, P.R.G. and Walters, A.A (1978), Microeconomic Theory, McGraw-Hill,
Maidenhead.
Lean, G. (1996), Where have all the woods gone?, The Independent on Sunday, 16 June.
Lean, G. and Rosie, G. (1988), Forests of money, The Observer Magazine, 14 February.
Leigh, J.A. and Randall, A.G. (1981), Timber Trade Practice, 4th edn, Macmillan,
London.
Leopold, A. (1949), A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There, Oxford
University Press.
Lewis, F. (1988), Broadleaf planting costs, pers. comm., Kerswell, Exeter.
Lewis-Beck, M.S. (1980), Applied Regression: An Introduction, Quantitative Applications
in the Social Sciences Series, Paper No. 22, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, Calif.
Lind, R.C. (ed.) (1982a), Discounting for Time and Risk in Energy Policy, Johns Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore.
Lind, R.C. (1982b), A primer on the major issues relating to the discount rate for
evaluating national energy options, in Lind, R.C. (ed.), Discounting for Time and
Risk in Energy Policy, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 21“94.
(1982c), Introduction, in Lind, R.C. (ed.), Discounting for Time and Risk in Energy
Policy, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 1“19.
Liston-Heyes, C. (1999), Stated vs. computed travel data: a note for TCM practitioners,
Tourism Management, 20(1): 149“52.
Little, I.M.D. and Mirlees, J.A. (1974), Project Appraisal and Planning for Developing
Countries, Heinemann, London.
Lloyd, T. (1993), Testing a present value model of agricultural land prices, paper
presented at the Agricultural Economics Society 1993 Conference, Department of
Economics, University of Nottingham.
Lloyd, T., Watkins, C. and Williams, D. (1995), Turning farmers into foresters via market
liberalisation, Journal of Agricultural Economics, 46(3): 361“70.
London Research Centre (1992), SASPAC User Manual. Reprinted by Manchester
Computing Centre, Manchester.
Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. and Rhind, D.W. (eds.) (1999),
Geographical Information Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. and Rhind, D.W. (2001), Geographical
Information Systems and Science, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Loomis, J.B. (1990), Comparative reliability of the dichotomous choice and open-ended
contingent valuation techniques, Journal of Environmental Economics and
Management 18(1): 78“85.
(1992), The evolution of a more rigorous approach to bene¬t transfer: bene¬t function
transfer, Water Resources Research, 28(3): 701“705.
(1996), Measuring general public preservation values for forest resources: evidence
from contingent valuation surveys, in Adamowicz, W.L., Boxall, P.C., Luckert, M.K.,
316 References

Phillips, W.E. and White, W.A. (eds.), Forestry, Economics and the Environment,
CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Loomis, J.B., Gonzalez-Caban, A. and Gregory, R. (1994), Do reminders of substitutes
and budget constraints in¬‚uence contingent valuation estimates?, Land Economics,
70(4): 499“506.
Loomis, J.B., Roach, B., Ward, F. and Ready, R. (1995), Testing transferability of
recreation demand models across regions: a study of Corps of Engineers reservoirs,
Water Resources Research, 31(3): 721“30.
Lovett, A.A. (2000), GIS and environmental management, in O™Riordan, T. (ed.),
Environmental Science for Environmental Management, 2nd edn, Prentice Hall,
Harlow, pp. 267“85.
Lovett, A.A. and Bateman, I.J. (2001), Economic analysis of environmental preferences:
progress and prospects, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 25: 131“9.
Lovett, A.A., Brainard, J.S. and Bateman, I.J. (1997), Improving bene¬t transfer demand
functions: a GIS approach, Journal of Environmental Management, 51: 373“89.
Lovett, A.A. and Flowerdew, R. (1989), Analysis of count data using Poisson regression,
Professional Geographer, 41: 190“8.
Lovett, A.A., Kennaway, J.R., S¨ nnenberg, G., Cobb, R.N., Dolman, P.M., O™Riordan, T.
u
and Arnold, D.B. (2001), Visualising sustainable agricultural landscapes, in Fisher, P.
and Unwin, D. (eds.), Virtual Reality in Geography, Taylor & Francis, London,
pp. 102“30.
Lowe, P. and Baldock, D. (2000), Integration of environmental objectives into agricultural
policy making, in Brouwer, F. and Lowe, P. (eds.), CAP Regimes and the European
Countryside, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon., pp. 31“52.
Lupien, A.E., Moreland, W.H. and Dangermond, J. (1987), Network analysis in
geographic information systems, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote
Sensing, 53: 1417“21.
Lynch, T.D. (1989), The Taxation of Woodlands in the United Kingdom, Green and Son,
Edinburgh.
MacFarlane, R. (2000), Managing whole landscapes in the post-productive rural
environment, in Benson, J.F. and Roe, M.H. (eds.), Landscape and Sustainability,
Spon Press, London, pp. 129“56.
MacKenzie, D. (1990), Europe™s agricultural policy ˜destroys the environment™, New
Scientist, 126 (1714): 20“2.
Maclaren, J.P. (1996a), Environmental Effects of Planted Forests in New Zealand, Bulletin
No. 198, Forest Research Institute, New Zealand.
(1996b), New Zealand™s planted forests as carbon sinks, Commonwealth Forestry
Review, 75(1): 100“3.
Maclaren, J.P. and Wakelin, S.J. (1991), Forestry and Forest Products as a Carbon Sink in
New Zealand. (Bulletin No. 162, Forest Reasearch Institute, New Zealand) Ian
Bryce, Rotorua, New Zealand.
Maclaren, J.P., Wakelin, S. and Te Morenga, L. (1995), Plantation forestry in New
Zealand “ concepts, methodologies and recent calculations, Proceedings of the 1995
Invitation Symposium of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and
Engineering, Parkville, Australia, pp. 217“36.
Macmillan, D.C. (1991), Predicting the general yield class of Sitka spruce on better
quality land in Scotland, Forestry, 64(4): 359“72.
MacNeill, J. (1990), Sustainable development: meeting the growth imperative for the 21st
century, in Angell, D.J.R., Comer, J.D. and Wilkinson, M.L.N. (eds.), Sustaining
Earth: Response to the Environmental Threats, Macmillan, London, pp. 191“205.
References 317

Maddala, G.S. (1988), Introduction to Econometrics, Macmillan, New York.
Makundi, W., Sathaye, J. and Masera, O. (1992), Carbon emission and sequestration in
forest: case studies from seven developing countries, vol. 1: Summary. Report
No. LBL-32199, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley,
Calif.
Malcolm, D.C. (1970), Site factors and the growth of Sitka spruce, Ph.D. thesis,
University of Edinburgh.
Malcolm, D.C. and Studholme, W.P. (1972), Yield and form in high elevation stands of
Sitka spruce and European larch in Scotland, Scottish Forestry, 26(4): 296“308.
Mann, H.B. and Whitney, R. (1947), On a test of whether one of two random samples is
stochastically larger than the other, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 18: 50“60.
Markandya, A. and Pearce, D.W. (1994), Natural environments and the social rate of
discount, in Weiss, J. (ed.), The Economics of Project Appraisal and the
Environment, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
Marland, G. and Marland, S. (1992), Should we store carbon in trees? Water, Air and Soil
Pollution, 64: 181“95.
Marques, M.C., Gravenhorst, G., and Ibrom, A. (2001), Input of atmospheric particles
into forest stands by dry deposition, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 130 (1“4), part 2:
571“6.
Marris, C., O™Riordan, T. and Langford, I. (1996), Integrating sociological approaches to
public perceptions of environmental risks: detailed results from a questionnaire
survey, CSERGE Working Paper GEC 96“07, Centre for Social and Economic
Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia.
Marsh, J.S. and Swanney, P.J. (1980), Agriculture and the European Community. George
Allen and Unwin, London.
Martin, D.J. (1990), A suite of programs for socioeconomic surface modelling, Technical
Report in Geo-Information Systems, Computing and Cartography No. 28, Wales and
South West Regional Research Laboratory, Cardiff.
(1996a), Geographic Information Systems: Socioeconomic Applications, Routledge,
London.
(1996b), An assessment of surface and zonal models of population, International
Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 10: 973“89.
Marwell, G. and Ames, R.E. (1981), Economists free ride, does anyone else? Experiments
on the provision of public goods, part 4, Journal of Public Economics 15: 295“310.
Mather, A.S. (1998), The changing role of forests, in Ilbery, B. (ed.), The Geography of
Rural Change, Longman, London, pp. 106“27.
Matthews, E. and Hammond, A. (1999), Critical Consumption Trends and Implications:
Degrading the Earth™s Ecosystems, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
Matthews, E., Payne, R., Rohweder, M. and Murray, S. (2000), Pilot Analysis of Global
Ecosystems: Forest Ecosystems, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
Matthews, G. (1993), The carbon content of trees, Technical Paper 4, Forestry
Commission, Edinburgh.
Matthews, R.W. (1991), Biomass production and carbon storage by British forests,
mimeo, Mensuration Branch, Forestry Commission, Alice Holt Lodge Research
Station, Farnham.
(1992), Forests and arable energy crops in Britain: can they help stop global warming?
in Wood, Fuel for Thought, Conference Proceedings, Harwell Laboratories,
Oxfordshire.
(1993), Towards a methodology for the evaluation of the carbon budget of forests,
mimeo, Mensuration Branch, Forestry Commission, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham.
318 References

(1995), The in¬‚uence of carbon budget methodology on assessments of the impacts of
forest management on the carbon balance, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced
Research Workshop, March 1995, available from author, Forestry Commission,
Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham.
Mauldin, T. and Platinga, A.J., (1998), An econometric analysis of the costs of reducing
atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through afforestation, paper presented at
the World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists, Isola di San
Giorgio, Venice, Italy, 25“27 June (available at www.feem.it/gnee/).
Mayhead, G.J. (1973), The effect of altitude above sea level on the yield class of Sitka
spruce, Scottish Forestry, 27: 231“7.
McConnell, K.E. (1975), Some problems in estimating the demand for outdoor recreation,
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 57(2): 330“4.
(1992a), On-site time in the demand for recreation, American Journal of Agricultural
Economics, 74(4): 918“25.
(1992b), Model building with judgement: implications for bene¬t transfers with travel
cost models, Water Resources Research, 28(3): 695“700.
(1999), Household labor market choices and the demand for recreation, Land
Economics, 75(3): 466“77.
McConnell, K.E. and Strand, I. (1981), Measuring the cost of time in recreation demand
analysis: an application to sport ¬shing, American Journal of Agricultural
Economics, 63(1): 153“6.
McGilvray, J. and Perman, R. (1991), Sporting recreational use of land, in Forestry
Expansion: A Study of Technical, Economic and Ecological Factors, Forestry
Commission, Edinburgh.
McGrath, S.P. and Loveland, P.J. (1992), The Soil Geochemical Atlas of England and
Wales, Blackie Academic and Professional, London.
McInerney, J. (1986), Agricultural policy at the crossroads, in Gilg, A. (ed.), Countryside
Planning Yearbook 1986, Geobooks, Norwich, pp. 44“75.
Medley, G. (1992), Nature, the environment and the future, presented at The University of
the Third Age at Cambridge: 1992 International Symposium, The Challenges of the
Future, 13“18 September, King™s College, Cambridge.
Melichar, E. (1979), Capital gains versus current income in the farming sector, American
Journal of Agricultural Economics, 61: 1085“92.
Mendelsohn, R., Hof, J., Peterson, G. and Johnson, R. (1992), Measuring recreation
values with multiple destination trips, American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
24(4): 926“33.
Mendenhall, W., Reinmuth, J.E., Beaver, R. and Dunhan, D. (1986), Statistics for
Management and Economics, 5th edn, Duxbury Press, Boston.
Mill, J.S. (1863), Utilitarianism, in Smith, J.M. and Sosa, E. (eds.) (1969), Mill™s
Utilitarianism: Text and Criticism, Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif.
Milne, R. and Brown, T.A. (1997), Carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain,
Journal of Environmental Management, 49: 413“33.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) (1987a), Farm Woodland Scheme,
A consultation document by the Agriculture Departments and the Forestry
Commission, London and Edinburgh.
(1987b), Farming UK. HMSO, London.
(1990), Pilot Nitrate Scheme “ Nitrate Sensitive Areas: Explanatory Lea¬‚et, London.
(1992a), Increased incentives for farm woodlands: joint announcement by Agriculture
Departments of the UK and the Forestry Commission, News Release 36/92,
31 January, London.
References 319

(1992b), The Farm Woodland Premium Scheme: Rules and Procedures, London.
(1992c), Farm Woodlands: A Practical Guide, London.
(1992d), Arable Area Payments: Explanatory Booklet, London.
Minitab (1992) Minitab Version 9.1: Reference Manual, Minitab Inc., State College,
Penn.
(1994) MINITAB Reference Manual, Minitab Inc., Rosemont, Penn.
Mitchell, R.C. and Carson, R.T. (1989), Using Surveys to Value Public Goods: The
Contingent Valuation Method, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.
Mitlin, D.C. (1987), Price“size curves for conifers, Forestry Commission Bulletin 68,
HMSO, London.
Morris, C.N. (1980), The Common Agricultural Policy, Fiscal Studies, 1: 17“35.
Motha, J. and Heyhoe, E. (1998), Road improvements and greenhouse gas emissions,
paper presented at the Eighth World Conference on Transport Research, Antwerp,
16 July, Bureau of Transport Economics, Canberra, Australia.
Moxey, A. (1996), Geographical information systems and agricultural economics, Journal
of Agricultural Economics, 47(1): 115“16.
Moxey, A. and Allanson, P. (1994), Areal interpolation of spatially extensive variables: a
comparison of alternative techniques, International Journal of Geographical
Information Systems, 8(5): 479“87.
Moxey, A. and White, B. (1998), Interdisciplinary modelling of agri-environmental
problems: lessons from NELUP, in Dabbert, S., Dubgaard, A., Slangen, L. and
Whitby, M. (eds.), The Economics of Landscape and Wildlife Conservation, CAB
International, Wallingford, Oxon., pp. 231“8.
Moyer, H.W. and Josling, T.E. (1990), Agricultural Policy Reform: Politics and Process in
the EC and US, Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.
Murray, M.B., Leith, I.D. and Friend, A.D. (1995), Growth and nutrition of Sitka spruce
and beech seedlings grown at three relative nutrient addition rates under ambient and
elevated CO2 concentration, in Carbon Sequestration in Vegetation and Soils, report
to the Global Atmosphere Division of the Department of the Environment, Institute
of Terrestrial Ecology, Penicuik, Edinburgh.
Myers, N. (1990), Tropical forests, in Leggett, J. (ed.), Global Warming: the Greenpeace
Report, Oxford University Press, pp. 372“99.
National Assembly for Wales (1999) Woodland for Wales, Consultation Document, Cardiff.
(2000), Welsh Agricultural Statistics 2000, Cardiff.
(2001a), Woodlands for Wales: The National Assembly for Wales™ Strategy for Trees
and Woodlands, Forestry Commission (on behalf of the National Assembly for
Wales), Aberystwyth.
(2001b), Draft Document on the Future of Agriculture, Cardiff.
(2001c), Farming Facts and Figures, Wales 2001, Cardiff.
National Audit Of¬ce (NAO) (1986), Review of the Forestry Commission™s Objectives and
Achievements, report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, HMSO, London.
National Farmers Union (NFU) (1992), Memorandum of evidence submitted to the House
of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities. The Implementation of
the Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy. 1992/93 Session, 9th Report, HMSO,
London.
Nature Conservancy Council (NCC) (1977), Nature Conservation and Agriculture,
London.
(1984), Nature Conservation in Great Britain, Shrewsbury.
Navrud, S. (1989a), Estimating social bene¬ts of environmental improvements from
reduced acid depositions: a contingent valuation survey, in Folmer, H. and van
320 References

Ierland, E., (eds.), Valuation Methods and Policy Making in Environmental
Economics, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
(1989b), The Use of Bene¬ts Estimates in Environmental Decision Making: Case Study
on Norway, OECD, Paris.
(1991), Willingness to pay for preservation of species: an experiment with actual
payments, paper presented at the Second Annual Conference of the European
Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, Stockholm, 11“14 June.
Neff, J.C. and Asner, G.P. (2001), Dissolved organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems:
synthesis and a model, Ecosystems, 4(1): 29“48.
Nelson, J.P. (1977), Accessibility and the value of time in commuting, Southern Economic
Journal, 43(3): 1321“9.
Neville, W. and Mordaunt, F. (1993), A Guide to the Reformed Common Agricultural
Policy, Estates Gazette Ltd, London.
Neville-Rolfe, E. (1990), British agricultural policy and the EC, in Britton, D. (ed.),
Agriculture in Britain: Changing Pressures and Policies, CAB International,
Wallingford, Oxon.
Nisbet, T.R. (1990), Forests and surface water acidi¬cation, Forestry Commission Bulletin
86, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
Noel, J.F., O™Connor, M. and Sang, J.T.K. (2000), The Bouchereau woodland and the
transmission of socio-ecological economic value, Ecological Economics, 34(2):
247“66.
Nordhaus, W.D. (1991a), The cost of slowing climate change: a survey, Energy Journal,
12(1): 37“65.
(1991b), A sketch of the economics of the greenhouse effect, American Economic
Review, Papers and Proceedings, 81(2): 146“50.
(1991c), To slow or not to slow: the economics of the greenhouse effect, Economic
Journal, 101(407): 920“37.
(1992a), The DICE model: background and structure of a dynamic integrated climate
economy model of the economics of global warming, Cowles Foundation Discussion
Paper 1009, New Haven, Conn.
(1992b), An optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases, Science, 258:
1315“19.
Norman, C., Potter, C. and Cook, H. (1994), Using GIS to target agri-environmental
policy, in Worboys, M. (ed.), Innovations in GIS, vol. I, Taylor and Francis, London,
pp. 251“62.
North, J. (1990), Future agricultural land use patterns, in Britton, D. (ed.), Agriculture in
Britain: Changing Pressures and Policies, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Norusis, M.J. (1985), SPSS-X: Advanced Statistics Guide, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Nowak, D.J. (1993), Atmospheric carbon reduction by urban trees, Journal of
Environmental Management, 37: 207“17.
Nozick, R. (1974), Anarchy, State and Utopia, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
O™Callaghan, J.R. (1995), NELUP: an introduction, Journal of Environmental Planning
and Management, 38(1): 5“20.
(1996), Land Use: The Interaction of Economics, Ecology and Hydrology, Chapman
and Hall, London.
O™Riordan, T. (1976), Environmentalism, Pion Press, London.
Oglethorpe, D.R. and O™Callaghan, J.R. (1995), Farm-level economic modelling within a
river catchment decision support system, Journal of Environmental Planning and
Management, 38(1): 93“106.
Old¬eld, S., Lusty, C. and MacKiven, A. (1998), The World List of Threatened Trees,
World Conservation Press, Cambridge.
References 321

Olson, D.M. and Dinerstein, E. (1998), The Global 2000: a representation approach to
conserving the earth™s most biologically valuable ecoregions, Conservation Biology
12(3): 502“15.
Openshaw, S. (1984), The modi¬able areal unit problem, Concepts and Techniques in
Modern Geography (CATMOG) 38, Environmental Publications, Norwich.
Opschoor, J.B. and Pearce, D.W. (eds.) (1991), Persistent Pollutants: Economics and
Policy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Ordnance Survey (1987), Gazetteer of Great Britain, Macmillan, London.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1987), National
Policies and Agricultural Trade, Paris.
(1991), Environmental Policy: How to Apply Economic Instruments, Paris.
(1992), Tables of Producer Subsidy Equivalents and Consumer Subsidy Equivalents
1978“1991, Paris.
Orne, M.T. (1962), On the social psychology of the psychological experiment, American
Psychologist, 17: 776“89.
Page, G. (1970), Quantitative site assessment: some practical applications in British
forestry, Forestry, 43: 45“56.
Page, T. (1977), Conservation and Economic Ef¬ciency, Johns Hopkins University Press,
Baltimore.
Parry, M.L. (1993), Climate change and the future of agriculture, International Journal of
Environment and Pollution, 3(1“3): 13“30.
Parry, M.L. (ed.) (2000), Assessment of Potential Effects and Adaptations for Climate
Change in Europe, The Europe ACACIA Project, Jackson Environment Institute,
University of East Anglia.
Parton, W.J., Schmiel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S. (1987), Analysis of factors
controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grassland, Soil Science Society
of America Journal, 51: 1173“9.
Pearce, D.W. (1986), Cost-Bene¬t Analysis, 2nd edn, Macmillan, Basingstoke.
(1991), Assessing the returns to the economy and to society from investments in
forestry, in Forestry Expansion: A Study of Technical, Economic and Ecological
Factors, Paper No. 14, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
(1993), Blueprint 3, Earthscan, London.
(1994), Assessing the social rate of return from investment in temperate zone forestry,
in Layard, R. and Glaister, S. (eds.), Cost-Bene¬t Analysis, 2nd edn, Cambridge
University Press, pp. 464“90.
(1998), Cost-bene¬t analysis and environmental policy, Oxford Review of Economic
Policy, 14(4): 84“100.
Pearce, D.W. and Barbier, E.B. (2000), Blueprint for a Sustainable Economy, Earthscan,
London.
Pearce, D.W., Barbier, E.B. and Markandya, A. (1990), Sustainable Development:
Economics and Environment in the Third World, Earthscan, London.
Pearce, D.W. and Markandya, A. (1989), The Bene¬ts of Environmental Policy,
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.
Pearce, D.W. and Markandya, A. (undated) An analysis of real prices of UK timber,
mimeo, University College London.
Pearce, D.W., Markandya, A. and Barbier, E.B. (1989), Blueprint for a Green Economy,
Earthscan, London.
Pearce, D.W. and Turner, R.K. (1990), The Economics of Natural Resources and the
Environment, Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.
Pearce, D.W. and Ulph, D. (1995), A social discount rate for the United Kingdom,
CSERGE GEC Working Paper 95“01, Centre for Social and Economic Research on
322 References

the Global Environment, University of East Anglia and University College
London.
(1998), A social discount rate for the United Kingdom, in Pearce, D.W. (ed.),
Economics and Environment: Essays on Ecological Economics and Sustainable
Development, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp. 268“85.
Pearce, D.W. and Warford, J.J. (1993), World Without End, Oxford University Press.
Peck, S.C. and Teisberg, T.J. (1992a), CETA: a model for carbon emissions trajectory
assessment, Energy Journal, 13(1): 55“77.
(1992b), Global Warming Uncertainties and the Value of Information: an Analysis
using CETA, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif.
Perman, R., Ma, Y. and McGilvray, J. (1996), Natural Resource and Environmental
Economics, Longman, Harlow.
Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J. and Common, M. (1999), Natural Resource and
Environmental Economics, 2nd edn, Longman, London.
Peterken, G. (1993), Woodland Conservation and Management, 2nd edn, Chapman and
Hall, London.
Peterson, G.L., Brown, T.C., McCollum, D.W., Bell, P.A., Birjulin, A.A. and Clarke, A.
(1996), Moral responsibility effects in valuation of WTA for public and private goods
by the method of paired comparison, in Adamowicz, W.L., Boxall, P.C., Luckert,
M.K., Phillips, W.E. and White, W.A. (eds.), Forestry, Economics and the
Environment, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Peterson, R.W. and Boyle, K.J. (forthcoming), Out of sight, out of mind? Using GIS to
incorporate visibility in hedonic property value models, Land Economics, in press.
Peyron, J.L., Terreaux, J.P., Calvet, P. and Guo, B. (1998), Main economic management
criteria for forests: a review, Annales des Sciences Forestieres, 55(5): 523“51.
Philip, M.S. (1976), The impact of policies and ¬scal measures on forest investment, in
Grayson, A.J. (ed.), Evaluation of the Contribution of Forestry to Economic
Development, Bulletin 56, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, pp. 79“85.
Pigou, A.C. (1932), The Economics of Welfare, 4th edn, Macmillan, London.
Pollock, S. (1999), Discounting the future “ the cost of global warming, Interdisciplinary
Science Reviews, 24(3): 195“201.
Post, W.M., Peng, T.H., Emanuel, W.R., King, A.W., Dale, V.H. and De Angelis, D.L.
(1990), The global carbon cycle, American Scientist, 78: 310“26.
Potter, C. (1988), Environmentally sensitive areas in England and Wales: an experiment in
countryside management, Land Use Policy 5(3): 301“12.
(1990), Conservation under a European farm survival policy, Journal of Rural Studies.
6(1): 1“7.
Potter, C., Burnham, P., Edwards, A., Gasson, R. and Green, B. (1991), Diversion of
Land “ Conservation in a Period of Farming Contraction, Routledge, London.
Powe, N.A., Garrod, G.D., Brunsdon, C.F. and Willis, K.G. (1997), Using a geographic
information system to estimate an hedonic price model of the bene¬ts of woodland
access, Forestry, 70(2): 139“49.
Price, C. (1983), Evaluation of congestion and other social costs: implications for systems
of recreation parks, Sistemi Urbani, 1: 119“39.
(1987a), Does shadow pricing go on for ever?, mimeo, School of Agricultural and
Forest Sciences, University College of North Wales, Bangor.
(1987b), The Theory and Application of Forest Economics, Blackwell, Oxford.
(1993), Time, Discounting and Value, Blackwell, Oxford.
(1997a), Twenty-¬ve years of forestry cost-bene¬t analysis in Britain, Forestry, 70(3):
171“89.
References 323

(1997b), Analysis of time pro¬les of climate change, in Adger, W.N., Pettenella, D. and
Whitby, M. (eds.), Climate-Change Mitigation and European Land-Use Policies,
CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon., pp. 71“88.
(2000), Valuation of unpriced products: contingent valuation, cost-bene¬t analysis and
participatory democracy, Land Use Policy, 17(3): 187“96.
Price, C., Christensen, J.B. and Humphreys, S.K. (1986), Elasticities of demand for
recreation site and recreation experience, Environment and Planning A, 18: 1259“63.
Price, C. and Dale, I. (1982), Price predictions and economically affordable area, Journal
of Agricultural Economics, 33(1): 13“23.
Priha, O., Grayston, S.J., Hiukka, R., Pennanen, T. and Smolander, A. (2001), Microbial
community structure and characteristics of the organic matter in soils under Pinus
sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula pendula at two forest sites, Biology and Fertility of
Soils, 33(1): 17“24.
Rackham, O. (1976), Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape, Dent, London.
Ragg, J.M., Jones, R.J.A. and Proctor, M.E. (1988), The re¬nement and representation of
spatial data in an information system using statistical and DBMS procedures and
trend surface analysis, Geologische Jahrbuch, A104: 295“308, Hanover.
Ramsey, F.P. (1928), A mathematical theory of saving, Economic Journal, 38: 543“59.
Randall, A. (1987), The total value dilemma, in Peterson, G.L. and Sorg, C.F. (eds.),
Toward the measurement of total economic value, General Technical Report
RM-148, United States Department of Agriculture: Forest Service, Rocky Mountain
Forest and Range Experimental Station, Fort Collins, Colo., pp. 3“13.
(1994), A dif¬culty with the travel cost method, Land Economics, 70(1): 88“96.
Randall, A. and Hoehn, J.P. (1992), Embedding effects in contingent valuation:
implications for natural resource damage assessment, Staff Paper 92“14, Department
of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University.
(1996), Embedding in market demand systems, Journal of Environmental Economics
and Management, 30: 369“80.
Rasse, D.P., Longdoz, B. and Ceulemans, R. (2001), TRAP: a modelling approach to
below-ground carbon allocation in temperate forests, Plant and Soil, 229(2): 281“93.
Ravenscraft, D.J. and Dwyer, J.F. (1978), Re¬‚ecting site attractiveness in travel cost-based
models for recreation bene¬t estimation, Forestry Research Report 78“6, Dept. of
Forestry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Rawls, J. (1972), A Theory of Justice, Oxford University Press.
Reed, W.J. and Haight, R.G. (1996), Predicting the present value distribution of a forest
plantation investment, Forest Science, 42(3): 378“88.
Repetto, R., Magrath, W., Well, M., Beer, C. and Rossini, F. (1989), Wasting Assets:
Natural Resources in the National Income Accounts, World Resources Institute,
Washington, D.C.
Revesz, R.L. (1999), Environmental regulation, cost-bene¬t analysis, and the discounting
of human lives, Columbia Law Review, 99(4): 941“1017.
Rhind, D.W. (1990), Global databases and GIS, in Foster, M.J. and Shand, P.J. (eds.), The
Association for Geographic Information Yearbook 1990, Taylor & Francis, London,
pp. 218“23.
Ritson, C. (1991a), Introduction to the CAP, in Ritson, C. and Harvey, D. (eds.), The
Common Agricultural Policy and the World Economy: Essays in Honour of John
Ashton, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
(1991b), The CAP and the consumer, in Ritson, C. and Harvey, D. (eds.) The Common
Agricultural Policy and the World Economy: Essays in Honour of John Ashton, CAB
International, Wallingford, Oxon.
324 References

Robbins, L. (1935), An Essay on the Nature and Signi¬cance of Economic Science, 2nd
edn, Macmillan, London.
Roberts, K.J. and Thompson, M.E. (1983), An empirical application of the contingent
valuation method to value marine resources. Reprinted in Cummings R.G.,
Brookshire, D.S. and Schulze, W.D. (eds.), Valuing Environmental Goods: A State of
the Arts Assessment of the Contingent Method, Rowman and Allenheld, Totowa, N.J.
Roberts, K.J., Thompson, M.E. and Pawlyk, P.W. (1985), Contingent valuation of
recreational diving at petroleum rigs, Gulf of Mexico, Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society, 114: 155“65.
Robinson, G.M. (1990), Con¬‚ict and Change in the Countryside. Belhaven Press, London.
R¨ ling, N. (1993), Agricultural knowledge and environmental regulation: the Crop
o
Protection Plan and the Koekoekspolder, Sociologia Ruralis, 33: 212“31.
(1994), Platforms for decision-making about ecosystems, in Fresco, L.O., Stroosnijder,
L., Bouma, J. and van Keulen, H. (eds.), The Future of the Land: Mobilising and
Integrating Knowledge for Land Use Options, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester,
pp. 385“93.
Rollins, K. and Lyke, A. (1998), The case for diminishing marginal existence values,
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 36(3): 324“44.
Rollston, H. (1988), Environmental Ethics, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.
Roningen, V.O. and Dixit, P.M. (1989), Economics implications of agricultural policy
reforms in industrial market economics, Staff Report No. AGES 89“36, Agriculture
and Trade Analysis Division, Economics Research Service, United States
Department of Agriculture.
Rosenberger, R.S. and Loomis, J.B. (2000), Using meta-analysis for bene¬t transfer:
in-sample convergent validity tests of an outdoor recreation database, Water
Resources Research, 36(4): 1097“107.
Rosenblatt, J., Mayer, T., Bartholdy, K., Demekas, D., Gupta, S. and Lipschitz, L. (1988),
The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Community: principles and
consequences, Occasional Paper 62, International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C.
Rosenthal, D.H., Donnelly, D.M., Schiffhauer, M.B. and Brink, G.E. (1986), User™s Guide
to RMTCM: Software for Travel Cost Analysis, General Technical Report RM-132,
United States Department of Agriculture: Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest
and Range Experimental Station, Fort Collins, Colo.
Rowe, R.D., d™Arge, R. and Brookshire, D. (1980), An experiment on the economic value
of visibility. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 7: 1“19.
Rowe, R.D., Schulze, W.D. and Bref¬‚e, W. (1996), A test for payment card biases,
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 31: 178“85.

<<

. 10
( 11)



>>