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Index




acidi¬cation 153, 289, 290 capital type(s) 146
afforestation 155, 186, 194“197, 251, 267 carbon dioxide 184, 187, 194
Agenda 2000 226 Carbon Emission Trajectory Assessment (CETA) 187
agri-environmental policies (AEP) 224 carbon emission(s) 186“189, 197
agricultural interest rates 138 carbon liberation 191, 205“208, 287
Alternative Land Use and Rural Economy carbon sequestration 153
(ALURE) 224 carbon storage 197, 287
ALURE: see Alternative Land Use and Rural in beech 203“205
Economy curves 197
ancient woodland 170 livewood 198
Anglesey 175 net 192“197, 198, 209“217
annuity 137, 149, 155, 178, 179, 211, 286 in Sitka spruce 198“202
arrivals function 91“92, 95“96, 106“109; application soil 186, 198, 209, 287
97“102 in trees 189“191
aspect 167, 172 Cardiff 102
catchment areas 86
Bartholomew 97, 167, 235 CBA: see cost-bene¬t analysis
BCa percentile method 58, 67, 68 Census 95, 107
beech 134“136, 149, 171“173, 177, 179, 197, 205, civic duty 74
211, 273 climate change 184
beliefs Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 142, 220“228
positive 22 Community Charge: see poll tax
normative 22 Community Woodland Scheme 57, 63, 65, 281
bene¬ts transfer 34, 44“49, 288 Community Woodland Supplement 64, 66, 125
Better Land Supplement (BLS) 124 computer-aided design 5
bid curve 20; analysis 60“61, 64“65 conifers 156, 253“262, 267, 272“273, 286, 290
biodiversity 154, 225, 289 conservation area 171
BLS: see Better Land Supplement Conservative government 115
Box“Cox (functional form) 39 construct validity 70
Brecon Beacons 175 consumer surplus 17“18, 31, 35, 36, 41, 44, 56, 81,
British stocking units (BSU) 139 87, 105
British Trust for Ornithology 154, 289 contingent valuation (CV) 18“29, 49, 258, 285“286,
British Waterways 48, 107 288; see also elicitation effects, elicitation
broadleaves 134, 156, 262“266, 273“280, 286, 287, methods
290 convergent validation 83
brown earth 170, 243 CORINE 195
Brundtland Commission 145 cost-bene¬t analysis (CBA) 3, 4, 8, 10, 15, 218,
BSE 228 280“284, 289, 291
BSU: see British stocking units Council of Ministers (European Union) 220, 222,
budget constraint 29“30, 66, 72“73, 75, 89 223
Countryside Commission 107, 117, 249
Cambridgeshire 77 Countryside Stewardship Scheme 224, 256
CAP: see Common Agricultural Policy CWS: see Community Woodland Supplement


332
Index 333

dairy farms 139, 236, 239“249, 259“262, 266, 272, Farm Business Survey in Wales (FBSW) 139, 231
273, 280, 287 farm-gate income (FGI) 4, 228, 236, 237, 238,
deep ecology 3 247“248, 253, 257, 258, 263, 281, 287
deforestation 112 Farm Surplus 237, 239“248
DEFRA: see Department of the Environment, Food Farm Woodland Premium Scheme (FWPS) 126
and Rural Affairs Farm Woodland Scheme (FWS) 126
DEM: see digital elevation model farmers 118, 128, 136, 227, 237, 252, 286
demand curve 15, 17, 31, 40, 81 WTA survey 63“65
Department of the Environment, Food and Rural FBS: see Farm Business Survey
Affairs (DEFRA) 45 FBSW: see Farm Business Survey in Wales
Department of Transport 37 FC: see Forestry Commission
DF: see discount factor felling date 191, 200
digital elevation model (DEM) 167, 235 felling age 132, 148
discount factor (DF) 132“133 felling licenses 63, 128, 256
discount rates 115, 136“148, 197, 199, 200, 211, 252, FEOGA: see European Agricultural Guidance and
280, 286 Guarantee Fund
farmers™ 137“144, 147 fertiliser 243
hyperbolic 147 FGI: see farm-gate income
impact of 149, 156 FIAP: see Forestry Investment Appraisal Programme
multiple 147 Fifth Action Programme on the Environment 224
private sector 145 ¬rst thinning (TD1) 191
public sector 148 foot and mouth 228
risk-weighted 287 Forest of Dean 92
social 144“148 Forestry Commission (FC) 57, 74, 98, 107, 113, 116,
dog walking 81, 83 117, 123, 128, 161, 249, 282
Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy (DICE) model tax support for 59
187 Forestry Investment Appraisal Programme (FIAP) 129
FWPS: see Farm Woodland Premium Scheme
ecological economics 3, 4 FWS: see Farm Woodland Scheme
economic security 151, 155
economist 1, 5 generalised linear model 49
ED: see Enumeration District geographical information system (GIS) 5“7, 76“80,
elasticity of the marginal utility of consumption 85, 218, 228, 286, 290“291
schedule 144 global warming 4, 146
elicitation effects 23“27, 51 Gower Peninsula 175
anchoring 25, 74 grants (see also subsidies) 123“128, 178, 238, 253,
good respondent 25 280, 282, 287, 291
starting point effects 26, 74 Green (explanatory variable) 71, 72, 73, 74
strategic overbidding 24 green currency 221
upward rounding 25 green pound 221, 223
elicitation methods 19 greenhouse gases (GHG) 184, 282
dichotomous choice (DC) 19, 26
iterative bidding (IB) 19, 26 hardwoods 121“123, 135, 192
open ended (OE) 19, 23, 26, 27, 53, 58 hedonic pricing 5, 154, 289
payment card (PC) 19, 26, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59 Hicks“Kaldor (hypothetical compensation test) 146
emissions 197 hill farming 143
employment 152
Enumeration District (ED) 95, 97 imports 152
Environment Agency 45 income elasticity of utility 187
environmental economics 3, 4 in¬‚ation 138
Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA) 126, 224 Institute of Terrestrial Ecology 107“109
equity 9“11 land cover data 195
ESA: see Environmentally Sensitive Areas Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Essex 77 184, 188, 282
ethics 9“11 ITCM: see travel cost
European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund
(FEOGA) 220, 222 joined-up government 117
European Union 127, 186 journey origins 85“87, 107
existence values: see value, existence
Kant, Immanuel 2, 10
Farm Business Survey (FBS) 229 Kyoto Climate Change Convention 189, 282
334 Index

Labour government 115 Norfolk Broads 26, 28
Land Information System (LandIS) 142, 161, Norwich 51
162“163, 214, 231“235, 247, 287 NPV: see net present value
land prices 138, 139
Land Use Allocation Model 229 oak 203
LandIS: see Land Information System oceans 185
landscape amenity 154, 289 oil crisis 115
least cost method 3 OLS: see ordinary least squares
Less Favoured Area 227 OPEC 118
levies (on farming) 238 opportunity cost (as time cost) 17, 34, 35“38, 132
libertarianism 9 opportunity costs 8, 136, 218, 219, 284
lignin 194 optimal rotation 148, 211
Lincolnshire 77 option value: see value, option
Liverpool 102“105 ordering effects: see question-ordering effects
Locke, John 9 ordinary least squares (OLS) 40, 55, 56, 80, 83
lowland 159, 196, 211, 231, 243, 257, 259, 262, 266, Ordnance Survey 76, 167
281, 291
lowland lithomorph 170 payment principle 57, 58, 67
Lynford Stag 52 payment vehicle 19, 28“29, 51, 66, 68, 73, 74, 286
PCA: see principal components analysis
MacSharry Reforms 224 peat 194, 196, 209, 216, 258, 259, 262, 263, 267
MAFF: see Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and plausibility tests 83, 90
Food podzol soil 170
majority ¬lter 92 Poisson distribution 33, 41
Manchester 102 poll tax 52, 53
market price support (for farming) 238 population grid surface 95, 98
MAUP: see modi¬able areal unit problem precautionary principle 3, 4, 11
maximum likelihood (ML) estimation 41, 80, 81 preferences
MCA: see Monetary Compensation Amounts environmental 15
meanderers 36, 79 expressed 18
mental accounting literature 19“29 individual 17, 22
merchantable volume (MV) 189 revealed 17
meta-analysis 47, 48, 49“51 time 187
methane 196 Premium Scheme 224
milk farms: see dairy farms price“size curve 131, 135, 148
milk quotas 223, 229, 266 principal components analysis (PCA) 160, 168, 236
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) producer subsidy equivalent 222
126, 138, 162, 231 protest bid 64
modi¬able areal unit problem (MAUP) 33 public/private good 74“75
Monetary Compensation Amounts (MCA) 221, 289 public rights of way 63
monoculture 127
moral reference class 2“3 question-ordering effects 29“30, 66“76, 286
multipurpose forestry 290
multipurpose woodlands 4, 117, 119, 127, 266, 284, random utility model (RUM) 31
288, 291 raster 6, 92, 174, 230
rate of return 139“143
National Assembly for Wales 117, 225, 249, 284 rate of time preference 144
National Forest 117 Rawls™ theory of justice 10“11, 145
National Parks 58, 59 recreation 43
national security 151 retail food price index 222
National Trust 54, 81, 83 retail price index (RPI) 142
NELUP: see NERC/ESRC Land Use Modelling risk 137
Programme aversion 251, 262
NERC/ESRC Land Use Modelling Programme premiums 256, 272
(NELUP) 229 road network 5, 35, 76, 87, 92, 97
net farm income (NFI) 237 road speeds 77, 78
net present value (NPV) 111, 134, 137, 179, 211, 217, RPI: see retail price index
286 Rural White Paper 117
NFI: see net farm income
non-use value: see value, non-use SCDB: see Sub-Compartment Database
Norfolk 77 sensitivity analysis 174, 177, 191
Index 335

set-aside 224 tropical forests 185
shadow price 186“189, 286 Twyford Down 17
shadow project pricing 15
shadow value: see value, shadow unproductive land 171
sheep farms 225, 236, 239“248, 253“259, 262“266, unthinned live wood (uTWCS) 203
272“273, 280, 287, 291 upland 159, 196, 211, 231, 246, 259, 262, 266, 272,
silvicultural management 170, 192 282, 291
Site of Special Scienti¬c Interest (SSSI) 146 US Environmental Protection Agency 45
Sitka spruce 129, 130“134, 149, 159, 168“171, use value: see value, use
174“176, 179, 191, 197, 205, 211 utilitarianism 9, 10, 11
slope 167 uTWCS: see unthinned live wood
Smith, Adam 9
Snowdonia 175 validation testing 20
social norm 54, 61, 71 value
social value: see value, social bequest 2, 22, 155
softwoods 119“121, 192 existence 7, 22
soil organic matter (SOM) 192 expressive 74
Soil Survey 162 non-use 2, 22
SOM: see soil organic matter normative 74
SSSI: see Site of Special Scienti¬c Interest option 153
Strategy for Woodland 118 shadow 7, 151, 178, 228, 237, 239, 246“248, 249
Sub-Compartment Database (SCDB) 161“162, social 4, 145, 151“156, 238, 252, 253, 257, 262,
167“168 263, 272“280, 281, 284
subsidies (see also grants) 4, 149, 225, 238 total economic (TEV) 1, 3, 11
substitutability 147 true 1
substitute woodlands 105, 108 use 1, 7, 22
Suffolk 77 vector 6
sustainable development 3, 10, 145, 146, viewsheds 5
147 visitor
Swansea 102 child 56, 102“105
rates 31, 32, 34
tax relief 118 zones 31
TEV: see value, total economic
TF: see thinning factor wage rates 36, 38
TGF: see trip generation function Wales 4, 11“12, 97, 100“102, 109, 124, 139, 168, 175,
theoretical validation 70 185, 225“228, 231, 253, 284
Thetford 1 Study 52“56, 65, 89 Wantage 57“66, 89
Thetford 2 Study 66“75, 76“88 Ward error sum of squares (ESS) 236
Thetford Forest 51, 52, 55, 96, 109 warm glow 30“31, 59
thinning factor (TF) 201, 204 westerly wind 172
thinnings 130, 135, 151, 197 wetland 118
timber value maps 177“179 WGS: see Woodland Grant Scheme
timber yield 129, 148 willingness to accept (WTA) 18, 19, 22, 63
time cost: see opportunity cost willingness to pay (WTP) (see also elicitation effects)
topex 163“167 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 29“31, 53, 57“61, 88
total economic value: see value, total economic wind erosion 167
transfer payments 151, 291 wind hazard 163“167
travel cost method (TCM) 17, 29“31, 285, 286, windblow 170
288 Woodland Grant Scheme (WGS) 124
individual travel cost method (ITCM) 31, 34, 56, Woodland Management Grant (WMG) 124
91, 258, 263 Woodland Trust 282
zonal travel cost method (as ZTCM) 31, 34 WTA: see willingness to accept
travel expenditure 34, 44, 48, 55, 80 WTP: see willingness to pay
travel time zones 92, 96, 101
trip generation function (TGF) 30“31, 35, 38“40, 55, yield class (YC) model 130, 133, 158“160, 168“173,
81 174“177, 199

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