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abstraction, 68“9 Barton Court Farm, 98
acculturation, 5 biography, xiii, 82, 83“5
accumulation, 100“1 of artefacts, 83“5, 96, 99 102,
agency, 20, 71, 170, 171, 172, 176“7, of humans, 83, 84
179“81 see also Grooved ware, biography
animals, 157, 158“60, 161, 179“81 ˜black boxes™, 29, 33, 34, 37“8, 46, 57“8
animate objects, 34, 35, 83, 100, 161, 176, Blackhammer, 159
177, 178 botanical analysis, 14, 16, 19, 42, 46, 47,
anthropology, xiii, 8, 35, 59, 60, 65, 81 64, 98
archaeological laboratory, 49“50, 54, 60, ˜boundary objects™, 75, 178“9
63 Broken K Pueblo, 93
site-as-laboratory, 49
archaeological practice, 38, 39, 40, 45, 53, carved stone balls, 107, 163
55, 58“62, 63, 168 categorisation, 5, 7, 8, 35, 54, 76, 97, 168
as a science, 49 cattle milk, 30, 33
linear structure of, 40“4, 46, 56, 62, 77 ceramics, 30, 33, 42, 46, 55, 67“8, 104
archaeological record, 10“22, 23“4, 37, and identity, 105“7
95, 178 as cultural indicator, 105
physical model, 11“17, 20, 23, 37, 100 biography of, 106
textual model, 17“20, 23, 37 ecology, 86
archaeological science, xi, xiii, 2, 3, 14, 17, neolithic, 105“7
20“2, 38, 39, 45“6, 47, 63“4, 78, 173, production of, 68, 87, 91, 92, 93, 94, 97
175“6 scienti¬c analysis of, 76, 88, 91
practice of, 16, 49, 173“6, 182 see also Grooved ware
XXXX, xi, 70, 74, 81, 103, 173, 175“6, chaˆnes op´ratoires, 90, 120, 138
± e
178, 179, 181, 182 clay, 87, 89
processual (or New), 11, 12, 14, 15“16, see also ceramics
26, 37, 70 cognitive psychology, 5
social, 3 consumption, xiii, 52, 62, 85, 95, 96“9,
theoretical, 1, 2, 3, 20“2, 23, 37“8, 169 157“61, 165“7
art history, 65 and social identity, 96, 119, 163“4
arts, 1“3 see also biography
associations, 35“6 context, 18“19, 40, 41, 44, 45, 47, 50, 51,
52, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 74“5, 76, 78,
Barnhouse, 111, 113“17, 152, 166, 175 84, 101, 175, 181
house, 2 135“8, 141, 148“9, 166 and artefacts, 74“5, 78, 84, 97, 102,
links to wider landscape, 150“7 106“7
middens, 140“2 see also decontextualisation
spatial arrangement, 115“17 culture, 1, 11, 26“9, 36“7, 169
structure, 8 138“9, 149“50, 163, 166 culture-history, 11, 51, 70, 117
see also Grooved ware, at Barnhouse cultural evolution, 14, 15, 70, 92
Barnhouse Odin, 150, 152 Cuween Hill, 159

203
204 Index

Darwinian theory, 36“7, 64, 180 distribution, 107
decontextualisation, 41, 42, 44, 50, 55, fabric, 118, 120“2, 126“8, 130, 138,
56, 74 142, 150“1, 154
see also context form, 117“18, 120
deposition, 85, 99“102, 105 function, 107, 118
structured, 19, 55, 99“100 production, 122“8, 130“1, 161“2
votive, 100
see also biography habitus, 20
design studies, 65 Harris matrix, 54
domestication, 52 see also systems analysis
hermeneutics, 6, 18, 38
ecological theory, 14, 15, 16“17, 64, 86, 87 hierachy, 40, 44“6, 49, 56“7, 60
embodiment, 94 houses, 110“11, 117, 158, 162, 163
empiricism, 13, 14, 20, 21, 23, 37, 45, 46, see also Grooved ware, and houses
51, 72“3
energy dispersive analysis by x-ray identity, xiii, 84, 86“7, 90, 93, 96, 106“7,
(EDAX), 91 161
environment, 15, 55, 86 inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy
ethnoarchaeology, 13“14, 79, 93“4 (ICPS), 66, 73, 88
ethnobotany, 36 instrumental neutron activation analysis
ethnozoology, 36 (INAA), 68, 71
excavation, 39“46, 47, 49, 53“5, 56, 58“9, iron age, 55, 85
62, 77 Isbister, 158, 159, 160
as archaeology, 45 isotopic analysis, 17, 88
as ethnography, 59
exchange, 85, 87, 88, 95“6, 149, 174“5 Knowe of Ramsay, 159
see also biography Knowe of Yarso, 159

faunal analysis, 14, 16, 42, 46, 47, 51, 63, landscape, 86“7, 89, 105
98 see also place
feasting, 100, 152, 165, 166 language, 3“4, 5, 17, 65, 181“2
food, 62, 104, 119, 131“2, 135, 136“7, lead isotope analysis (LIA), 88“9, 174
138, 149, 152, 154, 157“61, 164, life cycle: see biography
165“7 Links of Noltland, 163
fragmentation, 40“6, 49, 54“8, 60, 99“102 lithics, 42, 55, 137“8, 163

Gas Chromatography (GC), 30“3, 42, 73, Maes Howe, 115
98, 105“6, 119, 131“2, 135, 142, 146 Marxist theory, 12
gender, 106 mass spectrometry (MS): see gas
graf¬ti, 100 chromatography
Grooved ware, 106, 107“13, 164“5 material culture, 39, 59, 64“6, 72, 82,
analysis of, 117“20, 131“5 179
and houses, 161“3 and social relations, 65, 83“5, 93“5,
and identity, 117, 130“1, 143“4, 105, 118“19, 176“81, 181
148“50, 155“7, 161, 164, 165“6 materiality, 65, 101, 169, 179
at Barnhouse, xi, 117“44, 145“50, 157, materials analysis, 39, 51“3, 55, 63, 73,
160“1, 177“8 76, 81, 85, 91“2, 95, 101“2, 103
biography, 113, 120, 143“4, 145“8, memory, 131, 156, 158
150“7, 158, 163 metalwork, 42, 85
consumption, 131“9, 148, 154, 157, deposition of, 100
160“1 production of, 92
decoration, 107, 111“12, 117, 122, 123, scienti¬c analysis of, 42, 55, 76, 88“9,
130“1, 135, 138, 148, 150“1, 154, 91, 173“5
163 metaphor, 5, 19, 177
deposition, 140“3, 144 microwear analysis, 67
Index 205

Middle Range Theory, 13“14, 25 primitivism, 79
monuments, 104, 105, 110, 111, 150, 158, production, 62, 85, 86, 87, 89, 96
164, 165 social organisation of, 93“5
mortuary rituals, 100, 158 see also biography and ˜chaˆnes op´ratoires™
± e
museum studies, 65 proton-induced x-ray emission
spectroscopy (PIXE), 93
narratives, 61“2, 69“72 publication, 39, 40, 42, 43“4, 45, 46,
fact and ¬ction, 69, 169“70, 172 50“3, 55, 56, 58, 59“60, 62
scale of, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78,
nature, 3“4, 28“9, 36“7, 169 Quanterness, 115, 152“6
networks, 25, 26, 29, 33, 35“6, 55, 62, artefacts, 154
70“1, 171, 175 human remains, 153
neolithic, 85, 103“5, 167
agriculture, 104 rationalism, xiii, 6“10, 16, 20, 21, 27, 28,
artefacts, 105 35, 36, 37, 44, 54
as social change, 104, 164“7 relationism, 36
British, 51, 84 relativism, xiii, 6“10, 20, 24, 25, 28, 35,
economy, 104 171
European, 84“5, 104 representation, 41, 44, 49, 55, 57, 59, 73,
Orcadian, 110“17, 163“4 178
neutron activation analysis (NAA), 42, 66, resource procurement, 86“9, 122, 128“31,
73, 88 174“5
Ring of Bookan, 115
objectivity, xiii, 3“6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, Ring of Brodgar, 111, 115
21, 23, 25, 37, 40, 44, 45, 46, 49, Rinyo, 111, 115, 146
50“3, 54, 55“8, 59, 65, 60, 171“2,
175 sampling, 41, 66“9, 72, 75“7, 89, 95, 99
obsidian, 88 of artefacts, 75“6
optical emission spectroscopy (OES), 88 scale, 35“6, 62, 66“9, 81“2, 98
Orkney, 51, 107“10 of analysis, 67, 68, 69, 70“2, 85, 178,
osteology, 19, 47 179“81
otherness, 59 of resolution, 67
Otzi, 70 geographical, 68, 76
macroscale, 66, 68, 70“2, 74, 76, 98“9,
palaeobotany: see botanical analysis 164, 181
paradigms, 9, 24, 26, 170 microscale, 66“7, 68, 70“2, 75, 81“2,
passage grave art, 107, 122, 163 88, 93, 95, 98“9, 119, 164, 181
petrology, 17, 42, 51“2, 63, 68, 72, 88, 89, see also narratives, scale of scanning
91, 102, 120, 126“8 electron microscopy (SEM), 66, 67,
phenomenalism, 4 91
phenomenology, 65 science
place, 86“7, 87, 130, 163, 165 and society, xii, 2, 27“9, 34“5
and artefacts, 87, 89 anthropology of, 27“9, 35“7, 38, 168
and memory, 86“7, 131 discipline of, xii“xiii, 1“3, 26“9, 34, 35
see also landscape history of, 8, 9, 65, 69, 89
plants, 157“8 natural science, 1“10, 22, 27, 29, 33“4,
plasma emission spectrometry, 42 53“4, 74, 169, 181
positivism, xiii, 2, 25, 37 practice of, 3, 26, 29, 35, 63“4, 69, 168,
logical, 4 170, 172, 176
post-excavation, 39, 40, 42“4, 45, 46“9, scienti¬c texts, 29“30
53“5, 56, 58, 59, 61 scientism, 21
on-site, 77“8 scientists, 1, 4, 6, 26, 171“2
post-modernism, xiii archaeological, xiii, 1, 12, 17, 19, 23, 37,
post-structuralism, 2, 20 42, 45, 52“3, 56, 60, 64, 66, 74, 77,
pottery: see ceramics 173, 178, 179
206 Index

semiotics, 5“6 symbols, 17“18, 19
settlements, 111, 115“17 systems theory, 14“15, 16“17, 54, 58
signs, 17“18
site catchment, 86 taphonomy, 14, 16, 178
site formation, 13“14 technology, xiii, 12, 33, 34, 35, 38, 64, 65,
Skara Brae, 111, 115, 146, 163 89“93
social practice, 6, 19“20 and society, 38, 80“1, 88, 90“3, 103,
in the past, 62, 67, 68, 73“4, 168, 176, 170“1
178, 179, 181 iron production, 78“82
social science, 1“10, 22, 26, 29, 53“4, 64, see also ˜chaˆnes op´ratoires™
± e
169, 181 testability, 49“50
soil micromorphology, xiii, 63 theory: and methodology, xi, 2, 17, 21, 22,
specialist reports: see publication 26, 29, 61, 64, 103, 175
specialists, 42, 46, 47, 51“3, 54, 55, 56, thermoluminescence, 91
78 ˜thick description™, 25
stable isotope analysis, xiii, 67, 72 trace element analysis, 67, 72
stone tools, 42, 46, 51, 55, 104, 137“8, ˜two cultures™, 1“3, 182
163 typology, 105“6
consumption and exchange of, 99,
149 Unstan, 115, 130, 154
scienti¬c analysis of, 87, 88, 102 use, 85, 105
Stones of Stenness, 111, 115, 150“1, 152, see also biography
156, 157, 166 use-life, 84, 85, 97
structuralism, 5, 19“20 see also biography
structural linguistics, 17“18 use-wear analysis, 98
structuration, 20, 34
structure xeroradiography, 91
macrostructure, 66, 72, 83 x-ray ¬‚ourescence spectroscopy (XRF),
microstructure, 66, 72, 74, 75, 180 42, 66, 88, 89
subjectivity, xiii, 3“6, 10, 11, 12“13, 20,
24“5, 35, 58“62, 65, 172 zooarchaeology: see faunal analysis

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