. 11
( 12)


Ethik¯ n Nikomakhei¯ n Theta to Kappa
o o

articulates the irreducibility of the human to itself, to a structure of self-
enclosed determinacy, and raises the question of divine pervasiveness.
As we noted, in this context belong the questions concerning freedom,
emancipation from toil, the irreducibility of human life to necessity, its
bonds, and its mechanisms. The contemplative involvement ultimately
procures the respite and regeneration that are the marks of a life no
longer completely absorbed in the task of survival:

Such a life, of course, would be above [kre©ttwn] that of a human being, for a
human being will live in this manner not insofar as one is human, but insofar as
one has something divine in oneself; and the activity of this divine part of the soul
is as much superior to that of the other kind of virtue as that divine part is superior
to the composite soul of a human being. So since the intellect is divine relative to
a human being, the life according to this intellect, too, will be divine relative to
human life. Thus, we should not follow the recommendation of thinkers who say
that those who are human beings should think only of human things and that
mortals should think only of mortal things, but we should try as far as possible
to partake of immortality and to make every effort to live according to the best
[kr†tiston] [part of the soul] in us; for even if this part be of small measure,
it surpasses all the others by far in power and worth. It would seem, too, that
each human being is this part, if indeed this is the dominant part and is better
[Šmeinon] than the other parts; so it would be absurd if one did not choose one™s
own life but that of another. And what was stated earlier is appropriate here also:
that which is by nature proper [o«ke±on] to each being is the best [kr†tiston] and
most pleasant for that being. So for a human being, too, the life according to the
intellect is the best and most pleasant, if indeed a human being in the highest
sense is this intellect. Hence this life, too, is the happiest. (1177b26“1178a8)

This passage, addressing the question of human self-transcendence,
could also be taken as a further development of friendship understood
as asymmetrical relationship. Human self-transcendence would designate
the friendship of human and divine, articulating the togetherness of the
human and that which is not human “ of the human and that which per-
vades and encompasses the human while remaining incommensurate,
excessive to it. In this sense, friendship would name that bond situat-
ing the human within that which is irreducible to the human, the bond
in virtue of which the human may acknowledge itself as belonging in
the irreducible. Of course, our emphasis on such a relation between the
human and the non-human or beyond-human is due to the fact that, on
Aristotle™s own terms, the other-than-human is in the human and is the
human: both “is in” the human as one of its parts and “is” the human in its
distinctiveness. Interestingly, the Aristotelian indication of the distinctive
On Happiness or the Good 303

feature of the human being amounts neither to a simple de¬nition of
human nature nor to an emphasis on the centrality of the human. In
a decidedly non-anthropocentric gesture, Aristotle points out that what
is decisively at the heart of the human being is other-than-human, non-
human, or inhuman. In this sense, friendship bespeaks harmonization
within and without oneself, inside and outside: the open articulation of
radical alterity, the gathering of that which cannot be brought under the
same measure. The genuinely human trait would precisely reside in the
hospitality with respect to the wholly other.
Thus, the Aristotelian discourse regarding contemplation withstands a
crucial tension. On the one hand, the intellect at work in human beings
is considered as not human, indeed, divine. A human being lives the
supremely joyous life of intellectual activity not insofar as he or she is
a human being, but insofar as he or she has something divine in him-
or herself (1177b27). On the other hand, the human being is such an
activity, is the divine, and should therefore be identi¬ed with that “part.”
Not only, then, is nous the most excellent, divine “part” of the human soul,
not only is living according to nous the most desirable and unquali¬ed
good for a human being, but, furthermore, “each” human being “in the
highest sense” is nous (1178a2, 1178a8). The human lets the divine dwell
to the point of becoming (one with) it. Precisely as not self-same, as
indeterminately open (hospitable) to ultimate alterity, the human being
is divine.
Again, surmising that “each” human being is this “part” makes it dif¬-
cult to conceive of nous as separable (i.e., separable from the phenomenal
and worldly matters) “ unless, as suggested during the examination of
Book Zeta on the intellectual virtues, by “separability” one would mean,
here, the separability from singular individuals. In this case, nous would
indeed be separable, but in the sense of separable from “me,” from any
one, because common and most shared.
Let us elaborate on this further. Human self-overcoming points to
the question of the divine, to the question of the other-than-human that
resides in the human: the other-than-human in and as the human. In this
connection, we should emphasize the paradoxical “propriety of alter-
ity,” the propriety and opportunity of the other in and as the human.
Indeed, the human being is de¬ned by such a self-transcendence, a self-
transcendence in virtue of which the human, in fact each human being,
may distance him- or herself from him- or herself in order to transpire
otherwise, in order to enact him- or herself on a plane where individuality
Ethik¯ n Nikomakhei¯ n Theta to Kappa
o o

narrowly understood is superseded, transmuted. We could say that what
distinctively characterizes the human is precisely the capacity for such a
self-distancing, the opening of such a space, the spacing within and as
Understanding the separation of nous in terms of separation from one-
self, thus, may point to the phenomenon of becoming more spacious,
more comprehensive “ of distancing oneself from oneself so as to experi-
ence one™s own irreducibility to one™s own narrowly con¬ned identity. In
this sense, separation from oneself may mean ¬nding oneself well beyond
individual bounds: ¬nding oneself, but otherwise, on another plane “ as
nous, at one with nous. It may mean discovering in oneself a vastness coin-
ciding with the starry sky. Separation, distance, non-coincidence vis-` -vis
oneself, thus, may come to signify self-recovery, joining oneself (again),
(re)turning to oneself in a more genuine way, connecting with one™s more
comprehensive (utterly unique and yet widely shared) self.
Here we seize an almost proto-Kantian thought of disinterestedness,
the self-overcoming characteristic of the good soul spontaneously inter-
ested in nature, drawn to a contemplation of nature in its most shining,
divine manifestations. Along these lines, once more, we should insist on
the connection between the Aristotelian ethico-political discourses and
the so-called metaphysical treatises. For even the relation to the highest
good, treated in Metaphysics Lambda as a matter of pursuing the beloved,
seems to corroborate this understanding of the subject caught in the rap-
ture of contemplation, carried away, beyond itself, by the vision allowed
by sophia, taken over by the intuition, absorbed in the contemplation of
divine bliss. Such a contemplation or intuition, qua erotic in character,
has everything to do with genuine lived involvement, with the engage-
ment in the matters of life. Thus, not even the pursuit of the unquali¬ed
would be presented as theoretically aloof from living, from the practical
and experiential dimensions thereof. As Aristotle proposes in Metaphysics
Lambda, that which is supremely desirable and that which is supremely
intelligible are one (1072a26ff.).24

24 In this regard, Pierre Hadot observes: “Yet again, the theoretical way of life reveals its
ethical dimension. If the philosopher delights in coming to know other beings, this is
because he only desires that which leads him to the supremely desirable.” He also speaks
of “that detachment from oneself in virtue of which the individual reaches to the level of
spirit, of intellect, which is one™s true self, thus becoming conscious of the attraction that
the supreme principle exerts on him or her, supreme desirable and supreme intelligi-
ble.” Finally, referring to a moment in Metaphysics 1075a5ff. (also echoed by Theophras-
tus in Metaphysics 9b15ff.), Hadot underlines that the highest manner of intellectual
Again on Logos and Praxis 305

But what, then, is at stake in self-transcendence, in the transcendence
of the self narrowly understood and its transmutation into a self at once
more genuine and shared? At stake seems to be the commonality of the
divine, the divine belonging to this human being and to every other
human being. This does not make the divine absolutely heterogeneous.
Because the conjunction of human and divine is a togetherness of incom-
mensurables, it could be said that the divine remains the same in each
case, but incommensurably: the same in¬‚ected through a human articu-
lation each time unique. The divinity of the human, in the human, as the
human, may be glimpsed as the shining of “the same” through in¬nite
and irreducible singularity: a sameness to be acknowledged but not pos-
sibly reckoned. The human being is illuminated as incalculable sameness
and shared singularity.
Qua common, not identi¬ed with “me,” not simply individual let alone
personal, nous cannot be altered by accidents or contingent particulars.
Rather, it seizes them, makes them light up and become perspicuous. It
seizes them, yet remains impassive, “the same” “ as though always already
comprehending them all, as a kind of collective repository of all experi-
ence conscious and unconscious, as collective consciousness and uncon-

5. again on logos and praxis
Toward the end of Book Kappa, Aristotle returns to a point that he has
emphasized with great care already numerous times: the dissociation of
reason and speech, logos, from action and experience, in particular as this
dissociation is exempli¬ed by the sophists. Aristotle states:

As for those of the sophists who profess to know politics, they appear to be very
far from teaching it; for, in general, they do not even know what kind of thing
it is or what it is concerned with, otherwise they would not have posited it as
being the same as rhetoric, or even inferior to it, nor would they have thought it
easy to legislate by collecting the laws which are well thought of. Thus, they say
that it is possible to select the best laws, as if (a) that selection did not require
intelligence [sun”sewv] and (b) right judgment [kr±nai ½rq¤v] [in making the
selection] were not the greatest thing, as in the case of music; for while those who

perception, for Aristotle, is a matter not of knowledge but of coincidence (however
ephemeral) with the divine, with thought thinking itself for eternity: “It would really
seem that the bliss of human intellect reaches its culmination when, at times, it thinks,
with indivisible intuition, the indivisibility of divine bliss.” “Nothing,” he concludes, “is
farther removed from the theory of the theoretical, that is, of contemplation” (84).
Ethik¯ n Nikomakhei¯ n Theta to Kappa
o o

are experienced [›mpeiroi] judge rightly the works in their ¬eld and understand
by what means and in what manner [they are achieved], and also what harmonizes
with what, those who are inexperienced should be content if they do not fail to
notice [dialanq†nein] whether the work is well or badly made, as in painting.

In the lines that follow this passage (esp. 1181b5“12), Aristotle is very clear
in associating and in fact binding together the¯ria and politics, the specu-
lative posture of contemplation and political involvement. The capacity
for judgment alone can be of assistance in assessing political action and
institution, politik¯ (1181b1) “ but such a capacity necessarily rests on
habituation. Says Aristotle:

So perhaps the collection of laws or constitutions, too, would be helpful to those
who can contemplate and judge [qewr¦sai kaª kr±nai] what is beautifully stated
or the contrary and what kinds of laws or constitutions harmonize with a given
situation; but those who go over such collection without the habit of contem-
plation or judgment cannot judge beautifully, except by accident, although they
might gain more intelligence concerning them. (1181b7“12)

Invoked here are a political practice (or making) infused with intellec-
tual insight and a speculative posture involved in ethico-political matters.
Once more, at the very end of this treatise we ¬nd prescribed the unity
of logos and ethical excellence, that is to say, practical orientation to the
good. Without such a union, logos would be but rational cleverness, allow-
ing one indifferently to play each and every part, without solicitude for
the true and good. Again, the prescription here is doing as one says
or as one reasons and, conversely, speaking or reasoning according to
one™s own doing, experience, and vicissitudes. Only through such root-
edness can logos gain the depth and resonance of genuine wisdom. Now
as well as then, this thought may strike many as na¨ve. Yet it may be not
quite so.
Indeed, such a call for the unity of logos and praxis must have struck
even Greek listeners or readers as rather impractical or unrealistic. The
requirement of exercise, experience, and habituation forces logos to pro-
ceed too close to phenomena in their in¬nite complexity. Plato him-
self stages this impatience vis-` -vis that which may slow logos down, veil
its swiftness, agility, and brilliance. In Republic I (343d), Thrasymachus
the sophist scornfully calls Socrates “most simple” (eu¯thestatos). Eu¯th¯s
e ee
would literally signify one of harmonious comportment, showing integrity
in his or her behavior. However, it is telling that in common usage,
which the sophist is here following, eu¯th¯s means “simple” in the sense of
Again on Logos and Praxis 307

“simple-minded,” not especially sophisticated or intellectually endowed.
Already in his own context and time, Aristotle is working against the grain
of this entrenched trope that dictates the secondary status of “merely
acting well” “ and precisely suggests the utmost relevance of the unity,
whether simple or not, of language and deed.


This excursus began with a reading of segments from the Metaphysics and
Posterior Analytics. Through these texts, ¬rst philosophy, that is, the inves-
tigation of conditions, emerges as essentially informed by considerations
regarding at once sensibility and action (aisth¯sis and praxis). In this con-
text, Aristotle delineates the intertwinement of perceptual and practical
motifs in its phenomenal or even phenomenological character.
The Main Section is devoted to an analysis of Nicomachean Ethics Alpha
to Zeta and related texts. Aristotle™s discussion of ¯thos, far from a circum-
scribed and secondary discipline, is progressively disclosed as involved in
casting light on primordial structures “ of nature, human nature, ¬rst
origins, ¬nal causality. The ethical treatises interrogate those altogether
embodied and practical matters in which any human inquiry, including
the “science of wisdom,” is rooted. In this way, they make explicit and
articulate the awareness of the non-scienti¬c ground of science.
The Interlude returns to the Metaphysics, most notably to the discussion
of the so-called principle of non-contradiction in Book Gamma. It aims
to show at work what was previously observed regarding the intellectual
virtues (particularly, intellect and wisdom) in their inseparability from
the virtues pertaining to character and action. Far from being a “meta-
physical” law, the principle of non-contradiction is shown in its genuinely
physical traits, as that which informs what is “ as that which informs being
in its becoming and acting.
The Concluding Section focuses on Nicomachean Ethics Theta to Kappa,
the discussions of friendship and the good. It draws together the ethico-
political motifs and the study of the most comprehensive teleology.
In other words, it shows how, on Aristotelian terms, politics and ¬nal
Kolophon 309

causality, engagement in action as well as the contemplative activity, imply
each other.
To be sure, the variety and magnitude of the themes here intersect-
ing may have allowed only a rather preliminary and schematic approach.
However, the attempt at a recon¬guration of our reception of Greek
thought, paradigmatically of Aristotle, seems to be relevant for reasons
exceeding the study of ancient philosophy (I shall not say: of the “clas-
sics”) narrowly understood. To make just an example, let us consider the
very contemporary question raised in various domains of the so-called
human sciences, regarding the anthropological relativity of Western cul-
ture. The contrast between what is recognized as the Greek legacy and
cultures not European, not Greek, not even Judeo-Greek-Christian, is now
customary and has come to concern even domains such as the scienti¬c-
mathematical ones, until recently held (no doubt, in an arrogant, hasty
gesture) to have neither parallel nor strictly comparable developments in
non-Western cultures. In ethnomathematics and similar ¬elds of study the
contrast, for example, between logic as a quintessentially Greek expres-
sion (principle of non-contradiction, etc.) and radically other ways of
thinking, ordering, and organizing may present itself as a self-evident
assumption. However, contrasts of such a tenor may also turn out to be
rather facile, questionable, particularly if we activate an understanding
of Greek matters that is more nuanced, problematic, less caricatured.
The attempts to break through Eurocentric prejudice of colonial
matrix and open to alterity, cultural and otherwise, may be most urgently
needed. However, at times they rest on rhetorical devices and tropes that,
if not altogether ¬ctitious, still deserve close examination. For instance,
they may resort to an exceedingly simpli¬ed, homogenous construction
of what is called “Western,” its origin, and its development. In so doing,
they may end up with accounts as violently blind toward the irreducibility,
plurality, and alterity of origin (said to be Greek, in our instance) as they
are eager to found a respectful acknowledgment of the presently desig-
nated “other.” But whether a direct line connects “us” to those who are
claimed as “our” Greek “forefathers,” whether “the Greeks” are closer to
“us here” (to the scienti¬c as well as political practices current in Europe
and North America today) than other cultures are “ this, in a serious
sense, remains to be seen.
There are, of course, other intersecting preoccupations that may call
for this kind of investigation of the complexity of origins. Last but not
least, there is the desire to instill a sense of unease vis-` -vis both the anxiety
of the “post-” (the need to have overcome and disposed of, a need not all

that distant from the rhetoric of new beginnings and of the unquali¬edly
new) and the repressiveness of the “back to” (the nostalgic call claiming to
save us from ever-decadent times). Beyond the patricidal quest for survival
(always a quest for the new) as well as ¬lial piety, beyond Hesiod™s archaic
fathers swallowing their children (pushing time back under) as well as the
ineffable father forever withdrawing, here I attempted an engagement
with Aristotle.
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Index of Passages

1227a6“10, 122
De anima
1227b23“34, 123
425b24“25, 20,
1238b18“23, 291
1241a22, 284
429b30ff., 201
1241a23“26, 284
430a10“17, 201
1245a39“b1, 268
430a11“12, 200
1245b2, 268
430a18“19, 201
1245b8, 268


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