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with the reduction in overseas commitments represented by the Wilson
government™s decision to withdraw from East of Suez, the White Paper
can also be seen as a response to the problem that the cost of weapons
systems tended to grow more rapidly than national income, leading to a
reduction in the size of the armed forces, without necessarily increasing
their ¬repower relative to that of potential enemies. Cuts had to be made
in commitments by the late 1960s, and the deterrent and the con-
tribution of the BAOR to the political cohesion of NATO were deemed
to have higher priority than Britain™s world role. Contrary to what
Barnett believed, policymakers could tackle inherited overseas com-
mitments with clear-sighted, strategic calculation once the Treasury had
pointed out that costs were exceeding bene¬ts.
British strategy between 1904 and 1969 was certainly not beyond
criticism. It was overly in¬‚uenced by bureaucratic politics, with each
service pressing its own case for the importance of the contribution that
it could make to national security. In particular, the RAF was too
concerned to retain its separate identity after 1918 and was unable to
support the army or the navy effectively until 1942. Even the Global
Strategy paper of 1952, which has its admirers among authorities in
strategic studies, can be seen to be an exercise in papering over cracks
created by the vested interests of individual services. Attlee was surely
right when he said that there was a need for a single defence doctrine to
ensure proper combined use of arms. The transfer of responsibility for
the nuclear deterrent from the V-bombers to Polaris submarines in 1969
Conclusion 351

may have helped in this regard, since the RAF henceforth no longer had
ˆ
a separate raison d™etre from the other services.

Postscript
The pattern in defence policy established at the end of the 1960s remained
in place for the remainder of the Cold War. The cost-effectiveness of a
submarine-launched, second-strike nuclear deterrent led to the Polaris
system being updated in the Chevaline programme in the 1970s and
replaced by Trident in the 1980s. British land, air and sea power was
concentrated in Europe and the North Atlantic, but greater out-of-
NATO area capability was retained than the decision to withdraw from
East of Suez might seem to have implied. British warships continued to
take part in exercises with allies in the Indian Ocean and the Paci¬c and,
despite the decision in 1966 not to build new aircraft carriers, the
˜Invincible™-class ˜through-deck cruisers™ laid down in the 1970s gave
the navy continuing ¬xed-wing air support with VTOL Harriers. No
country other than the two superpowers could have done what the
British armed forces accomplished in the Falklands War in 1982, and no
other European ally of the United States made so large a contribution to
the coalition that drove the Iraqi army from Kuwait in 1991.4 The
British way of warfare continued to be different from that of a con-
tinental European power, and was best performed by adaptable, highly
professional, volunteer forces rather than more numerous but less well
trained conscripts.




4
Geoffrey Till, ˜The return to globalism: the Royal Navy east of Suez, 1975“2003™, in
Kennedy (ed.), British Naval Strategy, pp. 244“68; Lawrence Freedman, The Of¬cial
History of the Falklands Campaign, 2 vols. (Abingdon: Routledge, 2005), vol. II: War and
Diplomacy; Alberto Bin, Richard Hill and Archer Jones, Desert Storm: A Forgotten War
(Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998), pp. 67“8, 79.
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Index




Abyssinia, 103, 148 and anti-submarine warfare, 57, 175,
Aden, 305, 331, 333, 334, 336, 341 180
Admiralty cost, 6, 116“17, 119
and aircraft carriers, 118, 270, 293, 325, development, 4, 30“2, 110, 173
326“7, 333, 335 and reconnaissance, 30, 60, 64, 66, 169,
and Anglo-German naval agreement, 179
103 see also bombers; fighters; strategic
and anti-aircraft guns, 31 bombing; tactical air power
and battleships, 241“2, 269, 293“4 aircraft carriers, 345
and Cabinet dispute over dreadnoughts, angled deck, 242
38 cost, 5
and finance, 36 debates on role, 270, 293, 325, 326“7,
and Fleet Air Arm, 176 331, 333, 334“5, 337“9
and guided-missile cruisers, 294 decision not to build more, 339,
and improvements in warship design, 351
23“4, 25, 26“7 early development, 32, 57
industrial capacity, 140, 153 escort carriers, 177
and inter-service rivalry, 14, 41, 68, inter-war, 99, 118, 176
118 Japanese, 177
and Mediterranean (1940), 207 nuclear capability, 280
Navy of the Future paper (1954), post-1945, 242, 291“2, 323
291“2 in Second World War, 176“7, 179
and Polaris, 295“6 in Suez operation, 322
and policymaking, 19, 20“1, 104 aircraft industry, 68, 137“40, 347
and trade protection, 43, 85, 121, 179, alleged British backwardness, 115
180, 243, 295 compared with American, 189
two-power standard, 17, 42, 153 compared with French and German
and war plans, 46“7, 120, 146“7, 214 (1960s), 313“14
see also blockade; bomber versus compared with German (pre-1945), 68,
battleship controversy; broken- 138“9, 144, 185“6, 188“9
backed warfare; Churchill; convoys; and Inskip review, 158
London naval conferences and post-1945, 249, 252“3, 271, 310“14
treaties; Naval Intelligence production planning, 190, 191
Department; naval weapons and profits, 143
tactics; Royal Navy; Washington shadow factories, 139, 158
naval treaty weaker firms, 175
aero-engines see also Short Brothers
firms merged, 312, 313 air defence systems, 65“6, 111, 157,
piston, 67, 68“9, 110, 116, 173 162, 172, 256, 264, 265, 320, 325,
turbo-jet, 173, 184, 239 345
Afrika Korps, 212, 215 ineffective in nuclear age, 263, 266, 283,
agriculture, 75, 192“3 317
aircraft, 96 airliners, 109, 256


367
368 Index

Air Ministry Ark Royal, HMS
creation of, 54“5 (1914), 32
and inter-service rivalry, 14 (1934), 118
opposition to aircraft carriers, 118, 335 armaments
and research and development, 115 cost, 5“6, 23, 39, 116“17, 118, 119, 126,
see also aircraft; Air Staff; Royal Air 290, 314, 343
Force production compared with Germany,
air policing, 100, 105, 114 144, 185“7
air power, 4, 12 armed forces, size of, 247, 248, 249“50,
see also strategic bombing; tactical air 323, 324, 339“40
power armoured cruisers, 23, 25
airships, 31 armoured divisions, 124, 156, 157, 203, 204
see also Zeppelins arms industry, 7, 40
Air Staff see also aircraft industry; naval
on defence of Singapore, 147, 213 armaments industry; royal ordnance
doctrine on strategic bombing, 112“13, factories; shipbuilding; Vickers
158, 160, 221, 226, 228 Armstrong, Sir William, 278
neglect of co-operation with navy, 175 army, see British army
on tactical air power, 174 army weapons and tactics, 27“30, 58“63,
see also Royal Air force; strategic 122“5, 180“4, 244“5, 296“8
bombing see also artillery; gas weapons;
air torpedo attacks, 57, 176“7 machine guns; missiles; rifles; tanks
air weapons and tactics, 63“6, 108“17, artillery, 4, 27“8, 59“60, 62“3, 90, 96, 125,
169“75, 237“41, 283“91 182, 184, 244, 297, 346
see also aircraft; bombers; fighters; gas 18-pounder, 27“8, 59, 125
weapons; missiles; tactical air power 25-pounder, 125, 184, 244, 297
Alexander, A. V., 232, 247, 248 see also anti-aircraft guns; anti-tank
Alexander, Sir Harold (later Earl), 223, guns
233, 254, 269 Asdic, 121, 122, 179, 185
amphibious warfare, 12, 46“7, 58, 208, see also Sonar
348“9 Ashmore, Major-General Edward, 65
commando carriers, 295 Asquith, H. H., 20, 36, 46, 47, 49, 50“1,
landing craft, 58, 208 52, 70, 88
Anderson, Sir John, 167, 168, 210, 218, Atlantic, Battle of, 175, 180, 191, 209,
227, 231, 234 218, 221, 243
Anglo-American Combined Chiefs of Staff, atomic bomb, 165, 226“7, 228, 234“7, 350
219, 222 British decision to develop, 226, 230, 231
Anglo-American Loan Agreement, 245, 246 destructiveness, 235
Anglo-American naval staff talks, 102 influence on strategy, 263, 265, 270
Anglo-American relations post-1945, supply, 260“1, 264
229“30, 234, 266, 280“1, 316, 331 tests, 226, 236
see also nuclear weapons see also nuclear weapons
Anglo-French entente, 18 Attlee, Clement, 168, 182, 232, 251, 264,
Anglo-French staff talks, 18, 104, 157 350
Anglo-French war plans, 199 and atomic bomb, 231, 234
Anglo-German naval agreement, 103 on hydrogen bomb, 272
Anglo-Japanese alliance, 15, 18, 99 proposals to reduce defence
Anschluss, 137, 142 commitments, 261, 262
anti-aircraft guns, 31, 65, 108, 110, 111, Australia, 95, 148, 149“50, 211, 214, 215,
141, 153, 158, 172, 176, 178, 268 263, 273, 274, 334, 339, 340
anti-submarine warfare, 13, 57, 84, 85, see also dominions
121“2, 175, 179“80, 243, 290, 292, Austria-Hungary, 19, 49, 50, 87, 90“1
293, 295, 345
anti-tank guns, 125, 182, 297
area bombing, 169, 170, 208, 210 B-29, Boeing, 237, 238, 240
Index 369

Babij, Orest, 4 Black, Nicholas, 85
Backhouse, Sir Roger, 144 Blackburn Aircraft Ltd, 175, 176
bacteriological weapons, 109, 234n, 262 Blake, HMS, 5
see also biological weapons Blenheim, Bristol, 114, 116, 170, 173
´
Baghdad Pact, 274, 323, 324, 325 Bleriot, Louis, 31
balance of payments, 8, 9, 10, 97, 346 blockade, 10, 11“12, 349
pre-1914, 33“4 pre-1914 planning, 1, 44“6
in First World War, 75“6, 78 First World War, 77, 78, 80“1, 82, 83
in 1930s, 133, 136 impact, 83“4, 95, 96
post-1945, 245, 247, 248, 251, 255, 259, and war plans in 1930s, 146, 154, 162,
273, 302“3, 304“5, 308, 343 199
balance of power, 15, 17, 157, 229 Second World War, 199, 207, 208, 216,
Balderston, Theo, 73 217, 228
Baldwin, Stanley, 99, 102, 105, 108, 112, Blue Danube, 279“80, 281
151 Blue Steel, 281, 288, 289, 290, 324
committee on air disarmament, 108, 112 Blue Streak, 289, 295, 319, 325, 345
Balfour, A. J., 19, 27, 36, 42, 54 Blue Water, 296, 326
Ball, Simon, 264, 267 Board of Trade, 11, 14, 21, 81, 84, 106,
balloons, 30, 31 143, 190, 233, 254, 258
Bank of England, 33“4, 73“4, 135, 304 Boer War, 17, 27, 29, 40, 59
Bank rate, 34, 74, 253 Bofors gun, 7
Barnett, Correlli, 2“3, 7, 67“8, 104, 115, Bomber Command, 345
145, 187, 188, 191, 227, 349, 350 and Battle of Atlantic, 209
˜baroque arsenal™, 8, 346 cross-Channel attacks on France, 205, 223
Battle, Fairey, 114, 116, 162, 170 post-1945, 238, 264, 265, 267, 318, 322,
battle-cruisers, 22“3, 25, 78“9, 79“80 329
battleships size, 210, 217, 218, 228
and aircraft carriers 4, 179, 241 and strategic air offensive against
cost, 5, 39, 118, 140, 241 Germany, 203, 204, 208, 209“10,
inter-war, 117“18 210“11, 217, 221, 225
post-1945, 241“2, 292, 293“4, 345 tactics, 169“70, 171“2, 174
pre-1914 developments, 22“6 unready in 1939, 159“60, 161
see also capital ships; dreadnoughts; see also area bombing; bombers;
pre-dreadnoughts; ˜Queen Elizabeth™ nuclear deterrent; strategic bombing;
and ˜Royal Sovereign™ classes V-bombers
Baylis, John, 230, 272, 322, 328“9 bombers, 65, 110, 237
Beatty, Admiral David, 78“9, 107 American, 110, 171, 197“8, 235, 236,
Beaverbrook, Lord, 173, 189“90, 197 238, 264, 269, 289, 317
BEF British, 66, 108“9, 113“14, 160, 169,
(pre-1914), 29, 40, 46 170“1, 238
(1914“18), 51, 53, 87, 91, 95 fear of, 108, 109, 151, 162
(1939“40), 174, 200, 203, 204, 205 German, 65, 110, 113
see also Field Force power-operated turrets, 113
Belgium, 49, 91, 155, 203, 204 pre-war expansion schemes, 159
Berlin, 66, 171, 206, 208 production, 185“6
Bernal, J. D., 210 Soviet, 237
Bevin, Ernest see also knock-out blow; strategic
as foreign secretary, 229“30, 231, 247, bombing; V-bombers
261 bomber versus battleship controversy, 115,
as minister of labour, 168, 190“1 118“20, 179
biological weapons, 263 Bonar Law, Andrew, 52, 105, 118
see also bacteriological weapons Bond, Brian, 104, 349
Birch, Nigel, 285, 310 borrowing for defence, 36, 131, 132, 136
Bishop, Frederick, 327 see also deficit finance
Bismarck, 122, 177, 178, 179 Boyle, Sir Dermot, 286, 324
370 Index

Bradbury, Sir John, 73 Cambrai, 62
Bradley, Omar, 268 Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry, 20
Bren gun, 7 Canada, 77, 95, 132, 134, 149, 150, 196,
Bridges, Sir Edward, 131, 144, 232, 253 224, 253, 257, 273, 274
Bristol Type 115, 133 Canadian aircraft, 285
Britain, Battle of, 206 see also dominions
British army Canberra, English Electric, 238, 240, 252,
BAOR, 296, 325, 331, 336, 337, 350 256, 266, 280, 290, 291, 312, 322
inter-war roles, 104, 107, 145, 153, 155, capital ships, 23
161 cost, 118, 149
and invasion threat, 41“2, 205 numbers available for Far East, 103,
post-1945, 244“5, 264, 268, 297, 320, 146“7
325, 330“1 numbers in different fleets, 38“9
size of, 51, 67, 69“70, 218, 224, 268, role, 45, 56
340 in Second World War, 177“8, 179
tactical doctrine, 180“1, 183 treaty limits on, 99, 120
see also amphibious warfare; army see also battle-cruisers; battleships;
weapons and tactics; BEF; dreadnoughts
conscription; continental Caporetto, 90, 93
commitment; Field Force; limited Carden, Sir John, 124
liability; Territorial Army Casablanca conference, 220, 221
British way of warfare 12, 47, 348, 349, cavalry, 4, 28“9, 59, 62, 89, 94, 123“4, 213
351 CENTO, 274
Broadberry, Stephen, 259 Centurion tank, 244, 256, 257, 297
Brodie, Bernard, 316, 317 Ceylon, 215
broken-backed warfare, 266“7, 269, 321, Chalmers, Malcolm, 8
325, 331 Chamberlain, Austen, 37, 70, 99
Brook, Sir Norman, 255, 277, 278, 303, 312 Chamberlain, Joseph, 18, 36
Brooke, Sir Alan, 166“7, 222 Chamberlain, Neville, 143
Brown, Ernest, 168 fear of consequences of rearmament, 132
Brown, George, 342 and finance for defence, 130, 142, 144
Brown, Sir Harold, 142 and foreign policy, 101“2, 133, 134, 161
Browning machine gun, 7 influence on defence policy, 11, 102,
Brundrett, Sir Frederick, 281, 286, 287, 105, 106, 151, 152, 153“4, 157, 159,
320 349
Buccaneer, Blackburn NA-39, 291, 293, as war leader, 165, 167, 201
339 Chanak crisis, 148
budgets, 9, 35“6, 131 Chatfield, Sir Ernle, 101, 106, 107, 119,
see also taxation 120, 121, 147, 148
Bulgaria, 49, 50, 89“90, 212 and Inskip review, 154, 161
bureaucratic politics, 14“15, 350 Cherwell, Lord, 210, 234, 241, 254, 269
see also policymaking see also Lindemann
Burma, 215, 220, 226 Chief of the Defence Staff, 276, 279
businessmen, 70“1, 72, 143, 185 see also Mountbatten
Butler, R. A., 253, 254, 257, 269, 307 Chiefs of Staff, 11, 101, 106, 107, 166, 232
Butt Report, 169 and war plans, 98, 154
and imperial defence, 148
in Second World War, 166“7
Cabinet
Future Strategy paper, 207
and policymaking, 19, 22, 38, 50“1, 159,
and post-war defence organisation, 232,
231, 277“8
276
see also CID; Defence Committee;
review (1947), 263
War Cabinet; War Council
requirements (1949), 248
Cairncross, Sir Alec, 189
review (1950), 265
Callaghan, James, 243, 304, 331, 336“7,
Global Strategy paper, 254“5, 266“9
339
Index 371

excluded from Radical Review, 269 inter-war, 104“5, 106“7, 108, 109,
and impact of hydrogen bomb on 111“12, 118“19, 142, 145, 147, 148
strategy, 283, 318 pre-1914, 17, 19“20, 21“2, 30, 31, 41“2,
disagreements on strategy in nuclear age, 44“5, 46, 47
321, 322, 323, 327 see also DRC
and East of Suez, 334 civil defence, 109, 235, 282“3, 320
Chieftain tank, 297, 315, 331 civil expenditure, 130, 304, 339, 346“7
Childs, David, 94 Clark, Ian, 281
China, 99, 130, 220, 226, 337 Clarke, Sir George, 34
Churchill tank, 182, 183 Clarke, Sir Richard, 278, 332, 333
Churchill, Winston Clausewitz, Carl von, 11, 12, 21
at Admiralty (1911“15), 14, 20, 21, 23, CND, 282“3
25, 32, 38, 39, 43, 47, 53“4 coal-mining, 72, 192
and Antwerp, 91 Coastal Command, 115, 175, 207, 209,
and Dardanelles, 51, 87“8, 202 217, 267
on Jellicoe, 79 Cockcroft, Sir John, 277
and tanks, 58, 61, 94, 345 Cold War, 229, 231, 248, 264“6, 319, 351
and Western Front, 92 conflicts and limited war commitments,
as chancellor of the exchequer, 14, 99, 265, 268, 269, 320
105, 128, 130 long-term strategy, 268, 350
and inter-war defence policy, 102, 105, Colonial Office, 21
109 Combined Chiefs of Staff, see
as war leader, 11, 165“8, 195, 198, 199, Anglo-American Combined Chiefs of
205, 218“19, 228, 346 Staff
and Norway, 201, 202 combined operations, see amphibious
and Singapore naval base, 99, 166, 215 warfare
on danger of war with Japan, 99, 213, 214 Comet tank, 183, 187
and air reinforcements for Far East, 213, command and control systems, 63, 65,
214, 227 111, 182, 345
and war in Mediterranean and Middle Committee of Imperial Defence, see CID
East, 207, 212, 213, 215, 220, 222, Commonwealth, 229, 246, 273“4, 299,
223 325, 343
and strategic air offensive against see also dominions
Germany, 208, 210, 211 conscription, 6, 12, 29, 40, 69, 70, 71, 157,
creation of SOE, 208 191, 247
and Battle of Atlantic, 209, 210, 217 abolition, , 297, 307
and Arctic convoys, 216 and labour shortage, 271, 273
and invasion of North Africa, 219 consumer expenditure, 74, 194, 346
and invasion of France, 218, 219, 220, continental commitment, 12, 46, 48, 87,
222 96, 97, 157, 161, 349, 350“1
and atomic bomb, 226, 227, 232, 234 post-1945, 265, 268, 319
and post-1945 international relations, see also limited liability
229, 343 contracts, 8“9, 193
as prime minister (1951“5), 233“4, 275, conventional forces in nuclear age, 318,
277, 278, 279 322, 327, 330, 331, 343, 350
and rearmament in the 1950s, 230, 254, proposed cuts in, 327
256, 257, 269 convoys, 43, 57, 85“6, 96, 175, 177, 180,
and old battleships, 178, 269 206, 292
decision to develop British hydrogen Arctic, 178, 216
bomb, 272, 277“8, 319 Cooper, Malcolm, 54, 55
CID Corbett, Sir Julian, 13, 41
Air Defence Research Sub-Committee, Cornwall, HMS, 5
105 Coronel, 79, 80
Air Warfare in Spain Sub-Committee, cost-effectiveness, 13
112 cost-plus mentality, 193, 347
372 Index

Craddock, Rear-Admiral Christopher, 79, 80 (1961), 330
Crafts, Nicholas, 9n, 259 (1962), 330
Crete, 212, 228 (1966), 339
Crewe, Marquess of, 46, 70 Defiant, Boulton Paul, 172
Cripps, Sir Stafford, 168, 231, 233, 248, 250 deficit finance, 73
Cromwell tank, 183, 187“8 see also borrowing for defence; budgets
crowding out, 8 de Gaulle, President Charles, 328, 336
cruisers, 43, 56, 79“81, 120, 121, 179 Department of Economic Affairs, 302
post-1945, 243, 292, 294 Department of Scientific and Industrial
prices, 5, 117 Research, 67
˜Sverdlov™ class, 242, 294 destroyers, 26, 45, 57, 121“2, 146, 206,
treaty limits on, 99, 121, 145“6 243, 292, 294, 295
see also armoured cruisers Deverell, Sir Cyril, 125
Crusader tank, 182 Dickson, Sir William, 269, 270, 286, 324
Cuban missiles crisis, 318 Dill, Sir John, 167, 208, 213
Cunningham, Sir Andrew, 166 Dockrill, Saki, 331
Cunningham, Sir John, 264 Dodecanese, 222“3
Cyprus, 334 dominions
Czech army, 157 economic relations with, 133“4, 246
and imperial defence, 18, 148“50, 161,
211
Daladier, Edouard, 201
supply of troops, 86
Dalton, Hugh, 245, 247
Douglas, Sir Charles, 47
Dardanelles, 49, 51, 53, 56, 57“8, 86,
Douglas-Home, Sir Alec (formerly Lord
87“8, 96, 348“9
Home), 279, 333, 334
Declaration of London, 44“5, 78, 81, 83
Douhet, Giulio, 113
decolonisation, 273“5
Dreadnought, HMS
Defence Committee, 232, 248“9, 261,
(1906), 4, 23, 24“5
265, 269, 275, 277, 282“3, 284,
(1963), 295
287, 289, 293“4, 306“7, 324, 326,
dreadnoughts, 23“6, 38 see also
332“3
battle-cruisers; battleships
defence expenditure
DRC, 101, 102, 103, 120, 121, 130, 145,
departments™ shares, 38, 150“1
149, 150“2, 153, 161, 349
international comparisons, 34, 149, 259,
Dulles, John Foster, 316
305“6
Dunkirk, 182, 197, 204, 205
as percentage of national income, 34“5,
Dutch East Indies, 215
126“7, 249“50, 259“60, 305“6,
308“9, 333, 334, 335, 346
defence industries, 3, 137“43, 310“15, East of Suez, 331“42, 343, 349,
321“2 350, 351
see also aircraft industry; munitions economic factors, 6, 7“10, 32“40, 67“78,
production; naval armaments 125“36, 184“99, 245“60, 271, 272“3,
industry; royal ordnance factories; 298“310, 324, 346“8
shipbuilding; Vickers Britain™s relative decline, 2“3, 7, 9, 298,
Defence Loans Act (1937), 131 300“1, 308
defence policy reviews (1964“7), 335“6, financial strength, 33“4, 76, 96
337“9, 340 stability as element of power, 132, 144,
Defence of the Realm Acts, 72 154, 162, 323
Defence Requirements Sub-Committee of see also balance of payments; fourth
the CID, see DRC arm of defence; gold and dollar
defence white papers reserves; overseas assets
(1954), 269 economic warfare, 11, 78, 207, 349
(1955), 272, 319 see also blockade; Ministry of
(1957), 273, 275, 281, 285, 286, 287, 308, Economic Warfare; oil
311, 312, 323, 325“6, 342, 348, 350 economists, 13, 167
(1958), 317, 327 Economic Section, 167, 250“1
Index 373

Eden, Anthony assets; sterling; United States,
and aircraft industry, 284, 311 financial relations with
and economy, 299, 306, 307 Eyers-Monsell, Sir Bolton, 102, 118
and Fighter Command, 284
as foreign secretary, 319 F-111, General Dynamics, 290, 338, 341, 342
and hydrogen bomb, 306, 319 Fairey Aviation Co. Ltd, 138, 176
policy review, 322“3 Falklands, Battle of, 80
as prime minister, 273, 277, 279, 350 Falklands War, 351
reduces defence expenditure, 309 Falls, Cyril, 212
and Suez, 278 Far East, 101, 327, 341
Edgerton, David, 1, 3, 12, 115, 118, see also East of Suez: Indonesia; Japan;
137, 140, 184“5, 189, 344, 348, 349 Malaya; SEATO; Singapore
Edward VII, 20 Fearon, Peter, 137
Egypt Federation of British Industries, 143
in First World War, 87, 91 Ferguson, Niall, 77
inter-war, 100, 103, 133, 148, 156 Ferris, John, 4, 127
in Second World War, 164, 181, 207, Field Force, 153, 154, 156, 157
208, 211, 213, 215, 220 see also BEF (1939“40)
post-1945, 246, 261, 262“3, 264, 265 Fighter Command
see also Suez 1930s, 110, 160
Eighth Army, 183, 215, 220 Second World War, 172, 205, 206, 209
Eisenhower, Dwight, 223“4, 289, 299 post-1945, 238“9, 267“8, 283, 284“7, 324
administration, 268 cost, 293
El Alamein, 164, 174, 181, 215, 217, 220 fighters, 64, 65“6, 110“11, 112, 115“17,
electronics, 4, 122 144, 173, 287
see also radar, radio American, 197, 239
Elles, Sir Hugh, 125 escort fighters, 171
Ellington, Sir Edward, 112, 119 German, 64, 68, 110, 115“16, 173
Emden, 79, 80 jet fighters, 173“4, 184, 237, 238“40,
Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 190, 193 283“7, 314, 345
Empire, 3“4, 161 priority for, 158, 159
colonial development, 246 production, 185“6
defence of, 12, 158, 211, 349 Soviet, 239
see also Commonwealth; dominions; Finland, 201“2
imperial preference; India; Malaya; First World War, 4, 11, 15, 24, 28, 49“97, 174
Singapore naval base Fisher, Sir John
enterprise, 9, 259, 346 at Admiralty, 21, 53
escort vessels, 121, 179, 180, 243, 292 and Corbett, 41
see also destroyers; sloops and development of naval weapons, 22,
Esher, Lord, 20 23“5, 43, 53, 344
European Defence Community, 319 scraps obsolete ships 37, 43, 80
exchange controls, 135, 136 on showing flag, 294
exports and strategy 22, 42
pre-1939, 8, 14, 69, 75, 96, 132, 134, 137 use of press, 38
post-1939, 189, 198, 245, 246, 247, 252, Fisher, Sir Warren, 14“15, 101“2, 104,
254, 255, 256, 258, 273, 298, 299, 121, 131, 152, 153
304“5, 315 Fleet Air Arm, 115, 151“2, 159, 172, 176,
of aircraft, 138, 240, 314 240, 291, 314, 326“7
impact of rearmament, 132, 258“9 cost, 293, 338
markets, 96, 162, 199, 253 and jet aircraft, 241
of tanks, 123, 257, 297 flying boats, 115, 175
see also metal-using industries Foch, Marshal Ferdinand, 53
external finance, 195 Focke-Wulf
see also balance of payments; exports; Fw 190, 173
gold and dollar reserves; overseas Ta 154, 188
374 Index

Fokker fighters, 64, 68 Germany
food, 75, 192, 196, 198 aircraft industry, 30, 68“9, 109, 138,
see also agriculture 185“6, 188“9
Forbes, Sir Charles, 203 army in Second World War, 186“7
Foreign Office attack on Holland and Belgium (1940),
and East of Suez, 332, 334, 336, 340, 203
341 blockade of, 11, 83“4, 199“200, 216,
and Germany, 18 217
and policymaking, 14, 21, 81 colonies, 49, 86, 87
and Soviet Union, 229 danger from (1930s), 101, 102, 104,
and Ten Year Rule, 98, 130 150, 161
and United States, 18, 77 decision on unrestricted submarine
foreign policy warfare (1917), 49, 84
traditional objectives, 17 defeat (1918), 50, 90, 95
see also Chamberlain, Neville financial weakness, 37, 73
foreign securities, see overseas assets impact of strategic air offensive on, 221,
fourth arm of defence, 132, 144, 155, 159, 225, 226
162, 163, 271 maintenance of British forces in, 255, 305
France navy, 17, 25“7, 38“9, 43, 120“1, 147,
air force, 145, 204 177
aircraft industry, 140 re-creation of air force, 102
Allied invasion of, 219, 222, 223, 224, 225 relations with, pre-1914, 18
army, 29“30, 91, 93, 95, 200, 203 strategic bombers, 160“1
contracts in United States, 197 see also Afrika Korps; Luftwaffe; panzer
danger of being overrun, 155 divisions; U-boats
fall of, 164, 174, 205, 350 Gladiator, Gloster, 110“11, 115
force de frappe, 328 Global Strategy paper, 230“1, 235, 254,
frontier defences, 155, 200 255, 260, 266“9, 271, 283, 348,
post-1945, 230, 264 350
relations with, 15 GNP, 10, 33, 300
as rival, 17 gold and dollar reserves,
weakened by depression, 103, 128“9 pre-1939, 7, 9, 34, 76, 133, 135
see also Anglo-French entente; post-1939, 195, 196, 198, 253, 302
Anglo-French staff talks; continental Gotha bombers, 65, 68
commitment, de Gaulle Gowing, Margaret, 233
French, David, 1, 46, 92, 181 Grand Fleet, 43, 45, 56, 78“9
French, Sir John, 51, 52, 91 Grant tank, 183
Fuchs, Klaus, 235 Greece, 87, 89“90, 161, 212, 223, 230,
Fuller, Major-General J. F. C., 58, 61, 123, 261, 262
345 Greenwood, David, 275, 309, 343
Future Strategy paper (1940), 207, 208 Grey, Sir Edward, 21, 35, 49
Grove, Eric, 230, 240
Groves“Anderson memorandum, 234
Gaitskell, Hugh, 233, 251
Gallipoli, see Dardanelles
Gardner, Jock, 180 Hague conference, 20, 44
gas weapons, 58, 61, 109“10, 199, 234n Haig, Sir Douglas
GDP, 10, 33, 126“8 and aerial reconnaissance, 64
Geddes, Eric, 60 and cavalry, 59
committee on government expenditure, as commander of BEF, 53
130 excessive optimism, 93
Geiger, Till, 259 and strategy, 59, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96
General Staff, 20, 28 and tanks, 62
and pre-1914 strategy, 46, 47 view of situation in October 1918, 95
in First World War, 51, 92 and War Office, 21
Geneva disarmament conference, 100, 108 Haldane, Richard, 21, 29, 30
Index 375

committee on anti-aircraft research, 110 Hong Kong, 146, 214“15, 333, 336
Halifax, Handley Page, 116, 170 Hood, HMS, 79, 179
Halifax, Lord, 157, 202 Hopkins, Sir Richard, 129
Hall, Sir Robert, 251 Hore-Belisha, Leslie, 154
Hamilton, Sir Edward, 37 house-building, 143
Hamilton, Sir Ian, 58 Howard, Sir Michael, 3“4, 12, 104, 156,
Hampden, Handley Page, 113“14, 116, 158, 349
169, 170 Humphreys-Davies, G. P., 256
Handley Page 0/400, 65, 66, 108 Hunter, Hawker, 5, 239“40, 253, 256,
Hankey, Sir Maurice, 21, 44, 47, 50, 88, 283, 287
106, 112, 149 Hurricane, Hawker, 5, 110“11, 173, 206
and DRC, 101, 102, 121, 150 hydrogen bomb, 271, 343, 350
and Inskip review, 131, 154“5, 161 British decision to develop, 277“8
Harcourt, Lewis, 46 destructiveness, 272, 283, 317
Harding, Sir John, 269 impact on strategy, 283, 318“19, 321
Harrier, Hawker Siddeley, see P.1127 tests, 281
Harris, Sir Arthur, 169, 170, 171, 209, US development of, 270, 272
211, 221 see also nuclear deterrent; nuclear
Harris, J. P., 181 weapons
Harrison, Mark, 164, 195 hydrophone, 57, 85
Hart, Hawker, 108, 113, 114, 116
Hartley, Keith, 8 IMF, 304
Harwood, Edmund, 248 imperial preference 36, 133, 198
Head, Anthony, 275, 322“3 imports, cost of, 133
Healey, Denis Independent Air Force, 66
and aircraft carriers, 337“8, 339 India, 17, 88, 100, 101, 134, 145, 148, 161,
and aircraft industry, 290, 314 164, 196, 246, 261, 262, 273, 332, 337
and East of Suez, 274, 339, 340, 342 India Office, 21, 89
and RAF, 287, 290 Indian Army, 86, 87, 148, 181, 211, 215,
as secretary of state for defence, 277, 226
279, 334, 335, 340, 341 Indian Ocean, 215, 261, 324
Heinkel see also East of Suez
He 111, 110, 170 Indonesia, confrontation with, 274, 297,
He 177, 160, 186, 188 334, 336, 340, 343, 346
He 162, 188 industrial relations, 72, 74“5, 192, 315
helicopters, 292, 294, 295, 298, 313, 322, see also strikes, trade unions
339 industry, 347
Henderson, Commander Reginald, 85 government controls over, 72, 137,
Hendon, Fairey, 109, 113 143“4, 154
Henley, Hawker, 114 see also aircraft industry; arms industry;
Hercules, Lockheed, 291 metal-using industries; naval
Hiroshima, 226, 235 armaments industry; shipbuilding
Hitch, Charles, 13 infantry, 29, 60, 95, 96, 155, 183, 244
Hitler, Adolf, 11, 101, 102, 103, 108, 121, inflation, 73, 132, 194, 259
164, 174, 191 Inland Revenue, 72
Hoare, Sir Samuel, 149 Inskip, Sir Thomas, 105“6, 112, 119, 143
Hobart, Percy, 181 review of defence expenditure, 131,
Hobson, John, 34 154“6, 158“9, 162, 270, 347
Holland, 203 intelligence
see also Low Countries army™s tactical application, 63
Home, Lord, assessments of German strength in
see Douglas-Home, Sir Alec 1930s, 107
Home Defence Force, 145, 151“2, 153 French assessments of Germany, 201
Home Office, on German borrowing for rearmament,
see civil defence 131
376 Index

intelligence (Cont.) Khrushchev, Nikita, 299, 318
on German naval construction, 38, 56 Kier, Elizabeth, 180“1
Industrial Intelligence Centre, 107 ˜King George V™ class, 120, 178, 241, 269,
Joint Intelligence Committee on nuclear 294
war, 282 Kirkman, Sir Sidney, 282
signals intelligence, 65, 78, 180 Kitchener, Field Marshal Lord, 51“2, 55,
on Soviet aircraft, 239 69, 71, 91, 92
on Soviet strength in 1939, 161 knock-out blow, 11, 112, 154, 160, 162
see also Morton; Naval Intelligence Korean War, 230, 244, 249, 251, 257, 298,
Department 316
interest rates, 73“4 Kuwait, 274, 351
see also Bank Rate
invasion, threat of, 41“2, 205“6 labour force, 8, 9, 71, 142, 144, 190“2, 195
investment, 8, 259, 309 controls on, 168, 251
Iran, 216, 274 dilution, 72, 74, 142, 191“2
Iraq, 100, 213, 261, 274 productivity, 139, 191
Ironside, Sir Edmund, 202 shortage post-1945, 247, 252, 257, 273,
Ismay, General Hastings, 166, 232, 276 310, 311
Italy Lambert, Nicholas, 22
danger from (1930s), 103, 146, 156, 161 Lancaster, Avro, 170, 238
and early development of aircraft, 31 League of Nations, 103
and First World War, 49, 87, 90“1 Lend-Lease, 164, 190, 198“9, 228, 240,
navy, 19, 25, 178 245, 350
in Second World War, 164, 177, 181, Liddell Hart, Captain Basil, 58, 61, 87, 96,
207, 211“12, 213, 220, 221, 223 154, 181, 345
see also Regia Aeronautica Lightning, English Electric, see P.1
limited liability, 154, 157
Jacob, Sir Ian, 232, 276 Lincoln, Avro, 238, 279
Jaguar, BAC-Breguet, 314 Lindemann, Professor F. A., 168, 195
Japan see also Cherwell
attempt to improve relations with, 101“2 Lloyd George, David,
and First World War, 49, 87 and Admiralty, 54, 85
navy, 25, 146 and alternatives to Western Front, 87, 90
plans for war with, 120“1, 146“7, 161 as chancellor of the exchequer, 23, 30,
risk of war with, 99, 102, 130, 150, 213 37, 39, 44, 49, 55, 72
and Second World War, 164, 215, 220, and generals, 53, 58
226 as minister of munitions, 52, 69, 70“1
see also Anglo-Japanese alliance as prime minister, 11, 52, 105, 130, 145
Javelin, Gloster, 256, 283, 285 as secretary of state for war, 52
Jellicoe, Sir John, 54, 78“9 Lloyd, Selwyn, 302, 306“7, 319“20
Jenkins, Roy, 331, 337, 341 loans to allies, 69, 74, 76, 97, 349
Joffre, Marshal Joseph, 91, 92 London
Johnson Act, 133, 134, 196, 198 air raids on, 65“6, 206
Jones, H. A., 66 as financial centre, 33“4, 135
Jordan, 262 London naval conferences and treaties
Jutland, 24, 58, 78“9, 80 (1930), 103, 119, 140, 145
(1935“6), 101, 103, 120, 121
Loos, 60, 61
Kaldor, Mary, 8, 344
Low Countries, 17, 153, 162
Kennedy, Greg, 4, 101
see also Belgium; Holland
Kennedy, Sir John, 212
Ludendorff, Erich, 50, 90, 93
Kennedy, John F., 290
Ludlow-Hewitt, Sir Edgar, 160
administration, 318, 329
Luftwaffe
Kennedy, Paul 2, 145, 275, 343
defeat in Battle of Britain, 206
Kenya, 261, 274
equipment, 109, 116, 173, 189
Keynes, John Maynard, 13, 70, 77, 134, 245
Index 377

and invasion of Soviet Union, 209 McMahon Act, 234, 236, 280
losses in Battle of France, 204 McNamara, Robert, 14, 330, 336“7, 341
and Mediterranean, 211 Mediterranean
in Norway, 203 route to India, 17
reduced threat from, 219 pre-1914 plans, 18“19
striking power exaggerated, 107, 160, 1930s plans, 147, 156
162, 199 in Second World War, 207, 211, 220,
and war at sea, 179, 205, 206, 207, 209, 222“3
216 post-1945, 261
weakened by strategic air offensive, 221, medium bomber force, see V-bombers
225 Melman, Seymour, 9n
merchant navy, 33
in First World War, 57, 67, 84, 85
MacDonald, James Ramsay, 105 in Second World War, 209
MacDonald, Malcolm, 149 see also convoys
machine guns, 4, 28, 59“60, 64, 88, 184 Mesopotamia, 88“9, 91
machine tools, 67, 134, 141, 196, 251, Messerschmitt
252, 253, 257, 259 Bf 109, 115, 116, 172, 173, 206
Macmillan, Harold, 275“6 Bf 110, 188, 206
on air defence, 283, 284, 287 Me 262, 174
and aircraft carriers, 293 metal-using industries, 252, 253, 254, 255,
and aircraft industry, 312 258, 270
on civil defence, 282 Meteor, Gloster, 174, 238, 240
on defence expenditure, 309, 324, 326, Middle East
333 pre-1945, 49, 89, 96, 100, 156, 213, 217
and deterrent, 289, 290, 324 post-1945, 261“3, 264, 274, 284, 332,
and economy, 301 333, 339: air bases, 262, 263, 265, 334
ends conscription, 307 see also Baghdad Pact; Persian Gulf
as prime minister, 277, 279, 350 Mierzejewski, Alfred, 225
and Suez crisis, 303 MiG-15, 239
Madagascar, 215 military-industrial complex, 184“5, 227,
Maginot Line, see France, frontier 270, 315, 342“3, 347
defences see also aircraft industry; arms industry;
Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 12, 41 naval armaments industry; science;
Malaya, 284 shipbuilding
communist insurgency, 246, 274, 346 Mills, Sir George, 329
defence of, 147, 179, 213“14, 215, 227 mines, 27, 56, 57, 85, 200, 201“2, 244, 345
see also Singapore naval base minesweepers, 56, 244, 267, 292, 293
Malaysia, 274, 331, 340“1, 342, 343 Ministry of Aircraft Production, 185, 188,
Malta, 213, 220 189“90, 210, 249
Manchester, Avro, 170 see also Beaverbrook
Manchuria, 100 Ministry of Aviation, 276, 314, 333
manpower planning, 167, 168, 191, Ministry of Blockade, 81
218“19, 233 Ministry of Defence, 237, 332
Marder, Arthur, 43, 80 and cost-effectiveness, 13

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