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Marshall, General George, 220 and crowding out, 8
aid, 247, 248 and industrial capacity, 247
mass production, 67, 68, 124, 137 and policymaking, 232, 233, 275“7, 278
Matapan, Cape, Battle of, 177 Ministry of Economic Warfare, 200, 201
Maudling, Reginald, 310, 333 Ministry of Food, 75
Mayhew, Christopher, 339 Ministry of Labour (and National Service),
McGrigor, Sir Rhoderick, 269, 270 74, 142, 143, 190“1, 218
McKean, Roland, 13 Ministry of Materials, 233
McKenna, Reginald, 24, 30, 44, 47, 55, Ministry of Munitions, 52, 55, 68, 71, 72,
69, 70 140, 185
378 Index

Ministry of Supply, 143, 185, 187, 189, National Plan (1965), 307, 342
197, 218 NATO, 230, 249, 251, 259, 265, 274
(post-1945), 233, 249, 253, 256, 277, flanks, 331
285, 289, 310 Lisbon targets, 265, 268
missiles, 4, 237 multilateral nuclear force, 318
air-to-air, 267, 287 obligations, 323, 324, 325, 326
anti-tank, 297 political priority, 336, 339, 343, 350
ballistic, 238, 280, 283 strategy, 317“18, 329“30, 339
ICBMs, 280, 317 naval armaments industry, 140
nuclear, 248 see also shipbuilding
ship-to-ship, 294 Naval Intelligence Department, 21, 42, 44
surface-to-air, 285, 286, 287, 293, 295, naval weapons and tactics, 22“7, 55“8,
297, 324, 325, 345 117“22, 176“80, 241“4, 291“6
surface-to-surface, 296 see also aircraft carriers; armoured
threat to UK, 263 cruisers; Asdic; battle-cruisers;
see also Blue Steel; Blue Streak; Blue battleships; capital ships; convoys;
Water; Polaris; Sea Slug; Skybolt; cruisers; destroyers; dreadnoughts;
Thor; V1; V2 escort vessels; hydrophones; mines;
Monckton, Sir Walter, 311 missiles; pre-dreadnoughts; Sonar;
monitors, 53 submarines; torpedo-craft; torpedoes
Montgomery, Bernard (later Viscount), Navias, Martin, 323
220, 224“5, 233, 262, 264 Neilson, Keith, 4, 101
Montgomery-Massingberd, Sir Archibald, Neuve Chapelle, 64
102, 112, 123 New Zealand, 148, 149“50, 211, 214, 263,
Moore, Richard, 267 273, 274, 334, 339, 340
Morgenthau, Henry, 198 see also dominions
Morley, Viscount, 46 Nimrod, Hawker Siddeley, 291
Morrison, Herbert, 231 NNP, 34
mortars, 59, 184 Norstad, General Lauris, 318
Morton, Desmond, 107 North Africa, Allied landings in, 164,
Mosquito, de Havilland, 116, 171, 188, 219“20
238 Norway, 166, 201“3, 349
Mountbatten, Earl, 276, 279 nuclear deterrent 4, 11, 12, 15, 343, 350
on aircraft carriers and aircraft, 285, 291, atomic bomb, 231, 236, 260, 266
335 commitment to NATO, 329“30, 339
on Britain™s world role, 331 independent British, 236, 266, 272, 319,
and nuclear deterrent, 289“90, 327 320, 323, 324, 325
on strategy, 324 interdependence with USA, 328
Mowatt, Sir Francis, 40 Mountbatten™s doubts, 327, 330
Munich agreement, 157, 159 nuclear parity, 322
Munitions of War Act, 72 nuclear sufficiency, 327
munitions production, 67, 184, 185 second-strike capability, 317
see also machine tools; shells, supply of; switch to Polaris system, 4, 296, 328, 350
tanks, production targeting strategy, 329
Murray, Sir George, 40 thermonuclear, 287
Musgrave, Sir Cyril, 312 see also atomic bomb; hydrogen bomb;
Mussolini, Benito, 103, 221 Polaris
Mustang, North American, see P-51 nuclear propulsion, 295
Mutual Aid Agreement, 198 nuclear weapons, 4, 234“7, 279“82
Anglo-American partnership, 280“1,
327, 329
Napier, D. & Son Ltd, 173
naval warfare, 280, 291
Narvik, 202“3
tactical, 268, 270, 280, 296, 317, 321,
national debt, 35, 128“9, 131
326, 329, 330
national income, 10, 34
see also atomic bomb; hydrogen bomb
see also GDP; GNP; NNP
Index 379

O™Brien, Phillips, 3, 221 Porton, 109
Offer, Avner, 1, 34, 45, 84 Postan, M. M., 137
oil Pound, Sir Dudley, 167
German supplies, 90, 200, 204, 207, Powell, Sir Richard, 255, 281, 289
208, 209, 217, 225, 349 pre-dreadnoughts, 23“5, 39, 45, 56
Middle Eastern supplies, 88, 100, 217, Price, Christopher, 133“4, 135
261, 264, 274, 284, 304, 322, 332, prices, 39, 116, 126, 132
333, 336, 343 see also inflation
replaces coal, 26 Prime Minister™s Statistical Section, 168
Soviet production, 201, 263 Prince of Wales, HMS, 179, 214
operational research, 13 productivity, 8, 9, 189, 191, 193, 259,
opportunity cost, 14 300“2, 313, 346
optical glass, 67 profits, 39, 72, 142“3, 193
Ottawa agreements, 133, 134
overseas assets, 7, 33, 76, 96, 133, 195, Quebec agreement (1943), 226, 234
196, 199, 245, 346 ˜Queen Elizabeth™ class, 26, 39, 178“9
Overy, Richard, 165 Q-ships, 82

P.1 Lightning, English Electric, 6, 285, radar, 4, 184, 185
286, 287, 314 and air defence, 111, 112, 172, 173, 206,
P-51 Mustang, North American, 184, 197 256, 317, 345
P.177, 285, 291 and war at sea, 122, 176, 178, 179, 180,
P.1127 Harrier, 314, 351 243
P.1154, 291, 333, 338 Radical Review, 255, 269, 271
Padmore, Sir Thomas, 312 radio, 4, 22, 60, 63, 65, 111
Pakistan, 246, 262, 274 railways, 12, 60, 62, 86, 90
Palestine, 89, 100, 262 raw materials, 3, 10“11, 14, 33, 44, 81, 84,
Panther tank, 183 86, 132, 133, 195, 196, 233, 251, 252,
panzer divisions, 123, 203, 204, 212 253
Park, W. Hays, 172 rearmament (1930s), 131
Parker, Sir Harold, 249 1936 programme, 104, 152, 153“4
Parker, R. A. C., 142 1939 planning date, 98, 101, 102
Passchendaele, 53, 58, 86, 93 cost of armed forces, 131“2, 136“7
path dependency, 172n economic consequences, 132
Penney, Sir William, 277 and industry, 137, 139, 140“1, 349
Percival, General A. E., 214 period covered, 160
Persian Gulf, 331, 336, 342, 343 possible earlier start, 144
Phantom, McDonnell, 287, 291 and skilled labour, 142
Phillips, Sir Frederick, 136 rearmament (1950s), 249“60
Pickering, Jeffrey, 331 programme reviewed, 253“5
Plowden, Edwin (later Lord), 251, 277, programmed expenditure, 250“1, 252
313 Red Beard, 280
pocket battleships, 120“1, 147, 200 Red Snow, 281
Poland, 161, 164 Regia Aeronautica, 113, 179, 211
Polaris, 342 research and development, 5“7, 344, 347
as cheaper deterrent, 328 pre-1945, 67, 115, 185
missiles, 4, 289, 290, 318 post-1945, 231, 238, 248, 249, 253, 265,
national control, 329“30 268, 287, 310, 311, 312, 315, 326,
submarines, 292, 295“6, 317, 333, 337 328, 342
updated and replaced, 351 resistance movements, 208, 216, 217
policymaking, 14“15, 19“22, 50“5, 104“7, ˜Resolution™-class submarines, 295, 296,
165“8, 231“4, 275“9 see also Cabinet 328
and individual departments Reynaud, Paul, 201
Pollen, Arthur, 26 Rhineland, 99, 104
Portal, Sir Charles, 166, 170 rifles, 29, 244“5
380 Index

Ritchie, Sebastian, 137 see also Admiralty; air torpedo attacks;
Roberts, Lord, 29, 42 amphibious warfare; Fleet Air Arm;
Robertson, Sir William, 52, 53, 89, 90 Grand Fleet; naval weapons and tactics
Robinson, Sir Arthur, 131 royal ordnance factories, 40, 140“1, 249
Roc, Blackburn, 172 ˜Royal Sovereign™ class, 178
Rolls-Royce Ltd, 68, 110, 116, 173, 239, 313 Royal Tank Corps, 123
Merlin engine, 110, 184 Ruhr, 66, 114, 153, 204, 221, 224
Romania, 49, 87, 90, 161, 200, 225 Runciman, Walter, 69
Rommel, Erwin, 212, 215, 220 Russia
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 198, 200, 205, 206, development of aircraft, 31
215, 216, 218, 219, 222, 227, 234 in First World War, 50, 87“8, 92, 93
Rosecrance, R. N., 230 relations with, pre-1914, 17, 18
Roskill, Stephen, 177, 178 see also Soviet Union
Rothermere, Lord, 54 Russo-Japanese War, 17, 27, 44, 59
Rothschild, Lord, 278
Royal Air Force, 349, 350, 351 Sabre, North American F-86, 239, 240
as alternative to army, 153 Salonika, 64, 85, 86, 87, 89“90, 91
co-operation with army, 114, 174“5, 182 SAM, see missiles, surface-to-air
creation of, 54 Sandys, Duncan,
expansion in 1930s, 102“3 and aircraft carriers, 270
expression of power, 12 as minister of aviation, 312
independent service, 4 as minister of defence, 275“6, 280, 285,
and Inskip review, 158 286“7, 289, 294, 325, 326, 345
in Norwegian campaign, 203 as minister of supply, 256, 257, 269
nuclear capability, 280 see also Defence White Paper (1957)
Scheme L, 159 Sayers, R. S., 135
Scheme M, 159 Scapa Flow, 56, 200
and strategy, 107 Scharnhorst battle-cruiser, 178
transport capability, 291 science 3, 185
see also Air Staff; air weapons and advances in, 9, 344
tactics; Bomber Command; Coastal resources for, 7, 8, 61, 228
Command; Fighter Command; Home see also technology
Defence Force; strategic bombing; scientific instruments, 67
tactical air power scientists, 13, 185, 227, 307, 311
Royal Flying Corps, 31“2, 54, 64, 68 see also Brundrett; Cockroft; Penney;
Royal Naval Air Service, 32, 54, 68 Zuckerman
Royal Navy sea communications, 263, 264, 265, 267,
air attacks on, 179, 202“3, 212 349
balance between aircraft carriers and see also trade routes
capital ships, 177 Sea Slug missiles, 293, 295, 310
cost of ships, 5, 23, 39, 117, 118, 241, 294 SEATO, 274, 323, 324, 325, 327
debates on role, 325, 326“7 Second World War, 11, 13, 15, 164“228,
deployment, 3, 43 346
development of aircraft, 31“2, 57 Seely, J. E. B., 28, 32
expression of power, 12 Selborne, Earl of, 24, 25, 37
and Japan, 99, 103, 107, 120“1, 146“7, Serbia, 49, 89
153, 214“15, 226 Shackleton, Avro, 291
Lloyd on economies in, 320 Shay, Robert, 143
and mines, 27, 57, 200, 244, 267 shells, supply of, 28, 52, 60, 70“1
sea power fundamental, 348 Sherman tank, 183, 216
and submarines, 22“3, 26“7, 57, 122 shipbuilding, 27, 40, 56, 67, 71, 72, 185,
takes over deterrent role, 296 191, 315, 347
technical leader, 27, 122, 242, 345 see also naval armaments industry
and threat of invasion in 1940, 205 Short Brothers, 9n
two-power standard, 17, 153 Simon, Sir John, 132n, 156, 157, 167
Index 381

Singapore balances, 133, 134, 196, 199, 245, 246,
naval base, inter-war, 99, 101, 146, 147, 302
148, 152, 153 devaluation: (1949), 247
in Second World War, 164, 166, 213, (1967), 304, 309, 331, 340, 341
214, 215 exchange rate, 76, 78, 133, 135, 136
post-1945, 274, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, as trading currency, 303
340“1, 342 weakness (post-1945), 247, 273, 302,
see also Malaya 303, 307, 343
Singleton, John, 8 see also exchange controls
Singleton, Mr Justice, 210 Stirling, Short, 170
Skybolt, 289“90, 328 stock exchange, 74, 144
Slessor, Sir John, 233 Strachan, Hew, 12
and Global Strategy paper, 267, 268 strategic bombing, 4, 13, 65“6, 108, 112“13,
on jet fighters, 239 145, 160, 171, 174, 200, 345, 349
on lack of priority for fighters, 159 air offensive against Germany, 11,
on tactical air warfare, 174 169“70, 186, 208, 210“11, 216, 217,
Slim, Sir William, 226, 233, 267 221, 225, 226
sloops, 56, 57 plans for air offensive against Soviet
Smith, Adam, 13 Union, 264, 267, 329
Smith, Allan, 71 see also Air Staff; area bombing
Smuts, Jan Christian, 54 strategy, 10“14, 40“7, 50, 78“95, 144“61,
SOE, 11, 208, 224 199“226, 227“8, 260“70, 271,
Somme, 58, 61, 64, 86, 93 316“42, 348“51
Sonar, 121, 243“4, 295 American ˜New Look™, 269
see also Asdic flexible response, 318, 329, 330, 331
sound-detectors, 65, 111 island bases, 335
South Africa, 87, 135, 149, 150, 263, 273 long war, 154, 162, 189, 196, 199, 200,
see also dominions 201, 228, 321, 349
South Arabia, 336, 341, 343 long-term for Cold War, 350
Soviet Union, 7, 15 massive retaliation, 269, 316, 318,
aircraft, 237, 239 329
army, 228, 263, 268, 318 see also British way of warfare;
and Cold War, 229“30, 261 continental commitment; Future
distrusted in 1930s, 103 Strategy paper; Global Strategy paper;
economic competition from, 299, 350 Inskip review; strategic bombing;
first space satellite, 280 Western Front
navy, 242 Strath, William, 281
negotiations for alliance with, 161 committee on home defence implications
and nuclear weapons, 235, 260, 263, 272 of a thermonuclear war, 281“2, 319
post-1945 plans for war with, 260, 264, strikes, 74, 192
267, 280, 321, 329 submarine bases in Flanders, 91, 93
and Second World War, 164, 199“200, submarines, 4, 22“3, 25, 26“7, 43, 56, 57,
201, 207, 211, 216, 218, 225, 228 122, 152, 292, 344
threat to India, 145, 148 nuclear, 295
Spanish Civil War, 112, 160 Soviet, 242, 264
Spee, Vice-Admiral Graf von, 79“80 see also anti-submarine warfare;
Spitfire, Supermarine, 6, 110“11, 172, Polaris; U-boats
173, 206 subsidies, 12, 69, 70, 76, 97, 349
Stalin, Josef, 128, 161, 216, 218, 223 Suez
Stalingrad, 164, 217 canal, 87, 100, 156, 262, 324
standardisation, 6, 68 crisis, 273, 274, 294, 303“4
steel production, 67, 190 operation, 278, 322, 323
sterling, 346 super-priority scheme, 256“7, 283
area, 8, 132“4, 135, 196, 198, 246, 253, Swedish iron ore, 83, 200, 201
274, 298“9, 303, 304 Swift, Supermarine, 240, 253, 256, 283
382 Index

Swinton, Lord, 137, 143, 159 post-1945, 268, 320, 325
committee on defence budget, 293, 319, Thor missiles, 280, 289, 295, 325
320, 328 Thorneycroft, Peter, 276, 312, 333
Syria, 213 Thucydides, 7
˜Tiger™-class cruisers, 294
Tiger tank, 183
tactical air power, 64, 66, 113, 114, 174“5,
Till, Geoffrey, 122
204, 268, 345
Tirpitz, Admiral Alfred von, 43
tactics, 10
Tirpitz battleship, 178
see also air weapons and tactics; army
Tizard, Sir Henry, 13, 210, 236“7
weapons and tactics; naval weapons
Tobruk, 212, 215
tanks, 4, 96
Tokyo fire-raid, 235
British development of, 58, 122“4, 156,
torpedo-craft, 25, 26, 45
162, 182“3, 227, 244, 249, 297, 347
torpedoes, 22“3, 24, 26, 56, 57, 79, 82,
British use of, 61“2, 63, 86, 93“4, 123,
119, 176, 200, 291
180, 181, 208, 211, 345
Townshend, General Sir Charles, 89
French, 61, 203
trade defence, 43, 56, 179, 210, 228
German, 61, 123, 182“3, 203
use of aircraft for, 158
Italian, 123
see also Coastal Command; convoys
production 68, 141“2, 144, 186“7, 190,
trade routes, 14, 15, 17, 22, 155, 158, 163,
257
199, 206, 207, 227, 228, 242, 348
quality compared with German, 182
see also sea communications
tank guns, 124, 182, 244, 297
trade unions, 72, 142, 193, 194
transport by air, 335
transport
see also armoured divisions; panzer
air, 291, 298, 323, 326, 335
divisions
motorisation 28, 125
Taranto, 176
and supply of shells 28, 60
taxation
see also railways
and defence expenditure, 36“7, 131“2
Travers, Tim, 93“4, 345
and economy, 9, 35, 259, 346
Treasury, 347, 350
excess profits duty, 72
and control of expenditure, 22, 23, 35“6,
excess profits tax, 193
39, 55, 104, 107, 118, 131, 141, 156,
income tax 73, 130, 132, 194, 255
249, 278
national defence contribution, 142
and cost-effectiveness, 13
reduced revenue in depression, 128
demands economies post-1945, 247,
war finance 73, 194
253, 254, 265, 326, 335, 339
see also budget
and East of Suez, 332, 333, 342
technology, 344
and economy, 8, 35, 258, 273, 303
alleged British backwardness, 3, 48,
and excess profits tax, 193
57“8, 67“8, 96, 115, 122, 345
and exchange controls, 135
changes, 2“3, 4“7, 24, 42, 62“3, 110,
and financial controls, 144
111, 184, 325
and gold and foreign exchange reserves,
factor of production, 2, 8
33“4, 135, 253
reliance on United States, 184, 343, 345
on Japan and the United States, 101“2
see also air defence systems; aircraft
and policymaking, 14“15, 22, 232
industry; artillery, atomic bomb;
in Second World War, 167
electronics; hydrogen bomb; radar;
and strategy, 1, 11, 104, 155, 159, 162
radio; science
and super-priority scheme, 256“7
Tedder, Sir Arthur, 169n, 223, 233, 264
and tank production, 257
Tehran conference, 223
and war finance, 73, 193
Templer, Sir Gerald, 324, 327
see also balance of payments;
Ten Year Rule, 98, 100, 130, 137
Chamberlain, Neville; Fisher, Sir
Terraine, John, 59
Warren; fourth arm of defence; United
Territorial Army, 29, 47, 153, 154, 156,
States, financial relations with
157
Treasury bills, 74, 77, 195
expansion (1939), 157
Index 383

Trenchard, Hugh (later Lord), 54“5, 64, V-bombers, 238, 280, 287“90, 319, 325,
66, 107, 109, 113, 118, 152, 153, 160 328, 342, 345, 350
Trend, Sir Burke, 278, 314, 333“5, 336, phasing out, 328
338, 339, 340 size of medium bomber force, 269, 270,
Trident, 351 320“1, 324, 326
Truman, Harry, 226, 234 targeting strategy, 328
doctrine, 230 Valiant, Vickers, 238, 252, 256, 287“8,
TSR-2, 6, 289, 290, 291, 309, 312, 333, 322
338, 340, 343 Victor, 256, 287“8, 326
Tunisia, 220, 221 Vulcan, 256, 287“8, 326
Turkey, 49, 50, 87“9, 161, 212, 220, 222, Vanguard, HMS, 241, 293“4
230, 261, 274 Vansittart, Sir Robert, 101
Turner, John, 50 Versailles, Treaty of, 98, 120, 121
Typhoon, Hawker, 173, 188 Vickers Ltd, 40, 138, 139, 140, 249,
315
Vickers-Armstrong Ltd, 124
U-boats
Vietnam, 337, 338, 341
in First World War, 57, 78“9, 81, 82, 84, 85
VTOL fighters, 291, 292, 314
inter-war, 121
see also P.1127, P.1154
in Second World War, 164, 175,
179“80, 200, 206“7, 209, 211, 216
post-1945: taken over by Soviet navy, wages, 74, 116n, 126, 194
242 war aims, 49, 164
Uganda, 274 War Cabinet, 52, 56, 165, 167, 168
unemployment, 129“30 War Council, 50, 87
United States war debts, 76, 129, 133
army in 1918, 95 war economy, 67“78, 184“99
British dependence on, 198“9 British compared with American,
declares war (1917), 49, 77 German and Soviet, 195
defence aid from, 253 war finance, 73, 193
diplomatic relations with, 18, 81, 101 War Office,
enters Second World War, 217 and anti-aircraft guns, 31, 141
financial relations with, 7, 70, 75, 76“8, and artillery, 27“8, 125, 297
196“8 and development of aircraft, 32
and imperial preference, 198 hampered by lack of industrial capacity,
inter-war isolationism, 2, 103, 162 140“2
and Japan, 99, 146, 213 and inter-service rivalry, 14, 41“2, 68
nuclear deterrent, 11, 236, 260“1, 271, and policymaking, 19, 20“1
318 programme cut by Chamberlain, 153
and Pacific war, 220, 226 tank re-equipment programme, 124
relative size of American and British and war plans, 46“7
forces (1944“5), 219, 224, 228 see also army weapons and tactics;
source of supplies, 15, 49, 67, 76“8, 134, artillery; British Army; General Staff
164, 190, 196“7 Ward, George, 287
and sterling area, 198“9 Warsaw Pact, 330
vulnerability to Soviet missiles, 280 Washington conference, 99
see also Anglo-American relations; Washington naval treaty, 99, 103, 118, 119,
Lend-Lease 120, 121, 140, 145, 146, 178
US Strategic Air Command, 270, 318, Watkinson, Harold, 276, 289
319, 329 Wavell, Sir Archibald, 181, 211, 212
USAAF, 171“2, 174, 217, 221, 225 Weir, Lord, 54, 137, 142, 153“4
USAF, 236, 264, 269, 317 welfare state, 346
Wellington, Vickers, 113“14, 169, 170,
V1 flying bomb, 174 173, 175
V2 rocket, 174, 238 Western Europe, defence of, 264, 265,
Vampire, de Havilland, 238, 240, 241 318, 330, 333
384 Index

Western European Union, 230, 264, Wolff, Leon, 58
319, 333 women, 70, 72, 191
Western Front, 53, 54, 58“9, 61, 68, 86, Wood, Sir Kingsley, 159, 167
90, 91, 93, 95, 96 Wright, Orville and Wilbur, 30, 344
Whitley, Armstrong Whitworth, 113“14,
116, 169, 170, 173, 175 Yellow Sun, 281
Wilmot, Chester, 224 Ypres, 61 see also Passchendaele
Wilson, Sir Arthur, 46
Wilson, Harold, 274, 278, 279, 304, 331, Zeppelin, Count Ferdinand von, 30
337, 338, 342 Zeppelins, 31, 65
Wilson, Sir Henry, 46, 47, 53, 94 Zhukov, Marshal Gregory, 260
Wilson, Sir Horace, 131, 167 Zimmermann telegram, 49
Wilson, Keith, 18 Zuckerman, Solly, 169n, 210, 289, 335,
Wilson, Woodrow, 49, 77 338, 339

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