<<

. 28
( 28)



and search for extrasolar planets, internal motions, 257
546 heliocentric velocities, 297 masses, 257
in the Orion region, 269
and Mars, 486 Keplerian orbits, 296
Maunder minimum, 113 kinematic distances, 302 physical conditions, 255“6
Max Planck Institut fur local standard of rest (LSR), 297 rotation, 257
Radioastronomie, 69, 70 mass interior to radius, 296 spiral structure, explanations of,
328, 328
maxi black holes, 152 metalicity, 293
Maxwell, James Clerk, 11, 416 molecular clouds and spiral and spiral structure of Milky Way,
structure, 305“6, 305, 306 305“6, 305, 306
Maxwell“Boltzmann distribution, 163
Earth, 462“3, 463 molecular ring, 303 star formation, 267“71
Maxwell Montes, Venus, 485 OB associations, 304 types, 268
Maxwell™s equations, 11, 125 optical tracers of spiral structure, virial theorem, 257
Mayall telescope, 47, 55 304 molecular excitation
radial distribution of H2, 302, 303 collisional, 256“7, 257
Mercury
atmosphere, 492 radial distribution of HI, 303 models, 256
density, 491 radio tracers of spiral structure, molecular hydrogen (H2), 250
magnetic field, 491 304“6 molecular level origin of life, 541
Mariner 10, 479, 480 relative transverse velocity, 299 molecular ring, Milky Way, 303
orbit and curved space-time, 144 rotation and mass distribution, molecular spectra, 255
surface, 483 294“6 molten interior, Io, 514
rotation curve, 301
merging physics of big and small, momentum of photon, 184
417“22 Doppler shift, 296“302 monopoles, 419
Moon, 469“74, 470, 471“4
meson, 410, 415 measuring, 300“2
and radial velocities, 298, 299
metalicity, 293 axis of rotation, 435
metals, 35 RR Lyrae stars, 293 interior, 473“4
metamorphic rocks, 448 spiral structure, Milky Way, 304“6 motion, 435“8
meteors, 429, 530“2 subcentral point, 299 as a test of general relativity, 143
meteorites, 530“2 Sun™s motion about GC, 296 space probes, 439
crater, 532 thickness of disk, different tracers, surface, 470“2
304 true path, 436
meteoroids, 530“2
methane, see CH4 thickness of disk, HI, 303, 303 moons, 429
methods of displaying images, 66“8 warp in HI, 303 of Jupiter, 497
Michelson, A. A., 126 warp in H2, 304 of outer planets, 512“19
Michelson interferometer, 61, 71 Miller, Stanley L., 541 of Pluto, 523
mid-Atlantic ridge, 451, 451 Miller“Urey experiments, 541 of Saturn, 497
Milky Way galaxy, 221, 293“310 Millikan, Robert, 17 of Uranus, 498
Mössbauer effect, 146, 146
average gas distribution, 302“4 millimeter interferometers, 270
bulge, 293, 295 use in studying galaxies, 323 motion of the moon, as a test of
Cepheids, 293 millimeter observing, 71 general relativity, 143
576 INDEX



motions of the planets, 430“5 neutron capture, 167 O2, on early Earth, 540
O3, see ozone; ozone hole; ozone layer
moving cluster, convergent point, neutron degeneracy pressure, 197“8
224, 224 neutron stars, 197“9 OB associations, 267
distance to, 221“5 acceleration of gravity on, 198 HR diagrams, 267
proper motion, 221 in close binaries, 213“15 Milky Way, 304
space velocity, 224 relation to molecular clouds, 267
density of, 197
transverse velocity , 221 magnetic fields, 199 Orion region, 287
moving sources and observers, 84“7 magnetic flux, frozen in, 199 subgroups, 267
Mt Everest, 452 rotation, 197“9 triggers, 267
Mt Palomar, 47, 47 structure of, 199 objective lens, 45
mu particle, 411 superfluid in, 199 objective prism spectra, 60
New Technology Telescope, 50
Multiple Mirror Telescope, 51 observations from space, 56“8
Murchison meteorite, 531, 541 Newton, Isaac, 434 observations of cosmic background
mutations, origin of life, 541 Newtonian focus, 48 radiation, 398“405
Newton™s laws, 87 BOOMERANG, 403“4
N galaxies, 322 law of gravitation, 88 observatories, 53“6
Next Generation Space Telescope, 58
N11, Large Magellanic Cloud, 323“4 observing, in infrared, 63“6
NGC 1232, 318 occultations, asteroids, 532“3, 533
N2 on early Earth, 541
NH/AV, 250, 250 NGC 1365, 320 ocean tides, 467“8
NAIC, see National Atmospheric and NGC 1530, 320 OH, 251
NGC 4314, starburst galaxy, 354
Ionospheric Center Olbers, Heinrich, 378
NASA, 56, 64, 66, 76, 77 NGC 4565, 319 Olbers™s paradox, 378“80, 378, 379, 392
NGC 4622, 318
NASA Ames Research Center, 64 oldest rocks on Earth, 450
NGC 7217, 317 Olympus Mons, Mars, 486, 486
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration, see NASA NGC 3132, 184 Omega Nebula (M17), 275
National Atmospheric and NH3 (ammonia), 251 Oort cloud
Ionospheric Center (NAIC), 69 on early Earth, 541 and early Earth, 541
national observatories, 53 NICMOS, 66 origin of comets, 527
NN Ser, 84
National Optical Astronomy open clusters, 221
Observatory (NOAO), 47, 54, 55, NOAO, see National Optical open universe, 382
56, 105 Astronomy Observatory opposition, 432
optical depth, 103“4, 238, 248
National Radio Astronomy Nobel Prize, 172, 215, 399, 411, 412,
and absorption, 104
Observatory (NRAO), 68, 70, 416, 541, 542
74, 75 Nobeyama 45m telescope, 72, 72 optical double, 83
12 m telescope at, 72 non-stellar black holes, 151 optical tracers of spiral structure,
northern polar cap, Mars, 486, 487
millimeter telescope at, 251 Milky Way, 304
National Radio Quiet Zone, 68 Nova Mon 1975, 1917, 217 optically thin limit, 104
NCG 1566, Seyfert galaxy, 362 novae, 212 optics of a camera, 44
T Pyxidis, 212 orange soil, 473
Neptune
atmosphere, 504, 505 NP0532, 203 orbit of Pluto, 523“4
NRAO, see National Radio Astronomy orbit to Venus, 441
basic features, 498“500
images, 500 Observatory minimum energy, 441
interiors, 506 nuclear building blocks, 159“62 orbital periods, extrasolar planets,
ring system, 509, 509 nuclear energy for stars, 164“7 546
and Triton, 519, 519 nuclear forces, 160 orbital speed
neutrino, 162, 411 nuclear physics, 159“67 Earth, 439
primordial, 408“9 nuclear reactions, 161“2, 273 Milky Way, 296
neutrino decoupling, 419 nucleon, 159 orbiting bodies, as test of general
neutrino mass, dark matter in nucleotides, 542 relativity, 143
galaxies, 331 nucleus, 28 Orbiting Solar Observatory 7 (OSO 7),
neutrino oscillations, 173 nucleus of a comet, 525 111
neutron, 159, 160, 411 organic compounds, 450
primordial, 407“8 O spectral type, 36 origin of comets, 527
origin of dipole anisotropy, 402
neutron abundance, primordial, 408 O stars, 267
INDEX 577



Penzias, Arno, 251, 398, 399
origin of life, 537“49 population II stars, 232
origin of the Moon, 474 perihelion population inversion, 280“1
origin of Solar System, 429 comets, 527 populations, 32
of Mercury, advance of, 144
origin of spectral lines, 27 in cluster of stars, 232
Orion Nebula, 67, 269, 287, 288, 289 level, 33, 255“7, 399“401
period changes in pulsars, 203“5
Orion region, 287“9, 287 period“luminosity relation, 181“3 positron, 162
CO map, 269 for Cepheids, 182 postulate of special relativity, 125
energetic flow, 289 PG115+080, gravitational lensed potential energy, for globular cluster,
quasar, 369
giant molecular clouds (GMCs), 227
269, 287 Phobos, 494, 494 power absorbed by Earth, 453
power law spectrum, 197
HII regions, 287 photocells, 16
Horsehead Nebula, 239, 288 photoelectric devices, 58 power radiated by Earth, 453
OB association, 287 photoelectric effect, 16, 244“45 Poynting“Robertson drag, 511
Orion Nebula, 67, 269, 287, 288, 289 photographic plate, 58 Poynting“Robertson effect, 540
oscillating universe, 384, 384 panoramic quality, 58 pre-biotic soup, origin of life, 542
other planetary systems, see precession, Earth, 468“9, 468
photometry, 58
extrasolar planets photomultiplier, 59 pressure distribution, Earth, 455“7,
456
outer planets, 429, 497“519 photon, 16“17, 28, 412, 415, 418
pressure in a degenerate gas, 187
atmospheres, 500“5 photon diffusion, 177
basic features, 497“500 photon number density, primordial, prime focus, 48
distance to, 434 408 blockage, 48
Galilean satellites, 512 photon sphere, 150 primordial abundances, 409
interiors, 506, 506 principle of equivalence, 140“3, 140
photosphere, 101, 105“9
moons, 512“19 base, 107 probability, 32
temperature, 109 of a nuclear reaction, 164
ring system, 506“12
overcoming the fusion barrier, 162“4 photosynthesis, on early Earth, 540 problems in cosmology, 417“19
ozone (O3), 450 physics of big and small, merging, problems with simultaneity, 127
ozone hole, 462 Procyon, 27
417“22
Project Gemini, 55, 56
ozone layer, 462 pion, 411“12
prominences, 117, 118
Pioneer spacecraft, Jupiter, 497
p“e“p reaction, 174 Pioneer Venus Orbiter, 480 proper length, 130
p“p chain, 165 pixel, 58 proper motion, in moving cluster, 221
pair production, and black hole, 151 plages, 117 proper time, 128
panoramic quality of photographic Planck, Max, 16 proportional counters, 75
plate, 58 Planck constant, 16 proteins, and origin of life, 542
paraboloid, 48 Planck function, cosmic background proton, 159, 411, 415
parallax, spectroscopic, 38 radiation, 397 primordial, 407“8
parallax angle, 18 Planck time, 417 proton decay, 416“17
parallax measurements, 19 Planck™s law, 15“16 proton rest energy, 161
paramagnetic material, 243 planetary nebulae, 183“5 proton“proton chain, 165
lines of sight through, 185
parameters of cosmological models, protostars, 272“4
planets, 430; see also under individual protostellar cores, 286, 287
385
planet names
parity, 413 Proxima Centauri, 20
pseudo-force, 142
parsec, 19 planitesimals, 539“40
particle orbits, Saturn, 507“8 plant life, on early Earth, 540 asteroids, 533
particle“antiparticle pairs, 418 plasma, 395 Earth, 463“4
Pathfinder landing site, Mars, 488 plate tectonics, 450“2 Ptolemy, 9, 430
Pleiades, 221, 222
pattern speed, explanations of spiral pulsars, 199“205
Pluto, 523“4, 524 Crab Pulsar, 205
structure, 327“8
Pauli exclusion principle, 186, 197, polar caps, Mars, 480, 489“90 energy loss, 204
glitches, 203, 204
414 polarization, 242
pc, see parsec polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons magnetic field in pulsar
peculiar galaxies, 322 (PAHs), 243 mechanism, 202
penumbra, 113, 113, 437 population I stars, 232 mechanism, 201“3
578 INDEX



period changes, 203“5 of planets, 481“2 radio windows, 11
of Venus, 483“5, 484, 485
probes of interstellar space, 205“6 radioactive dating
pulse profiles, 200 radial distribution Earth, 448“50
slowing down, 203 of HI, Milky Way, 303 meteoroids, 532
variations, 205 of H2, Milky Way, 302, 303 radioactive decay, Earth, 447, 450
radial velocity, 85, 85
pump, masers, 280“1 radioactivity, Titan, 517
Purcell, Edwin, 248 radiation radius of curvature of universe, 385
absorption, 102, 103, 104 Raleigh“Jeans law, 15
Q0103-294 spectrum, quasar, 366 and matter in expanding universe, rapid variability, active galaxies, 370
QCD, see quantum chromodynamics 396 RCW108, 268
QED, see quantum electrodynamics radiation dominated universe, 398 Reber, Grote, 68
QSOs, see quasi-stellar objects radiation pressure, 540 recombination lines, 279
quadrature, 432 comets, 526 recombination, era of, 395
quantization of angular momentum, radiation transport, 101“5, 170 recombinations, 277
29 radiative processes, 256 red giant, 178, 246
quantum chromodynamics (QCD), radiative transport into the tropo- red supergiant, 179
sphere, 459
415 redshift, 86, 402
quantum efficiency, 58 radio absorption and emission lines, quasars, 363“4, 365
248
quantum electrodynamics (QED), 412 redshift“age relation, 390
quantum mechanical vacuum, 419, radio astronomy, 68“75 redshift surveys
419 radio emission, Jupiter, 504 21 cm emission, 345
quantum mechanics, 31“2 radio galaxies, 322, 355“9 H emission, 345
3C 465, 356 results, 347, 347
quantum revolution, 17
quantum theory, 31 black hole, 358“9 slices, 345
Cen A, 357
quark, 411“12, 417, 419 redshifted blackbody spectrum, 397
Cygnus A, 356
colors, 414 reduced mass, 29
confinement, 415“16, 415 distances, 356 reference epoch, 380
flavors, 414 energy source in nucleus, 358 reflected sunlight, Saturn, 507
Her A, 356 reflecting telescope, 45“53, 46
properties, 411
image formation in, 45
quark“antiquark pairs, 415 high energy electrons, 355
jet collimation, 358
spin, 414 refractory materials, 470
quasars, 362“8, 378 jets, 356, 357 regolith, 470
3C 48, 364 lobes, 356 relative abundances, primordial,
M87, 356
3C 273, 363“4 409
image, 364 magnetic fields, 357 relative angular speed, 433
spectrum, 364 model, 357“9 relative transverse velocity, 299
Balmer series, 363“4 nozzle, 357 relativistic energy, 135
spectrum, evolution of, 355, 355
discovery, 362“3 relativistic momentum, 135
energy-redshift problem, 366“8 strong magnetic field, 355 relaxation time, cluster of stars,
gravitationally lensed, 368“9, 368 structure, 358 228“9, 228
Abell 218, 369 superluminal expansion, 359“61 replication, 541
PG115 080, 369 resolution, radio telescope, 69
synchrotron radiation, 355
radio images, 67
H line, 363“4 resolving power, 61
radio interferometery, 73, 217
and Hubble™s law, 364 resonant orbits, 511“12
Lyman-alpha forest, 365 radio jets, 356 rest energy, 136
properties, 365“8 radio lobes, 356 of proton, 136, 161
Q0103-294 spectrum, 366 radio receiver, 71 rest wavelength, 86
redshift, 363“5 radio source counts, 392 retention, Earth, 462“3
quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), 365; see retrograde motion, 430“5, 430
radio sources, strength, 69
also quasars radio studies of atomic hydrogen, ribonucleic acid (RNA), 542
247“51, see also 21 cm line ring evolution, 510
r-process, 166, 167 radio telescope resolution, 69 ring galaxies, 322
Ring Nebula, 183
radar, Solar System, 433 radio tracers of spiral structure, Milky
Way, 304“6; see also spiral structure at different wavelengths, 185
radar mapping
INDEX 579



ring system background radiation, 400 intelligence
dynamics, 509“12 rotational inertia, 255, 258 Seyfert, Carl, 322
Jupiter, 508, 508 rotational quantum number, 255 Seyfert galaxies, 322, 361“2
Neptune, 509, 509 NCG 1566, 362
RR Lyrae, 183
outer planets, 506“12 RR Lyrae stars, 221 Shapley, Harlow, 221, 293, 315
shells in high mass stars, 179
Saturn, 497, 507“8 Hubble constant, 342
Uranus, 508, 508 Milky Way, 293 shepherding satellites, 511“12
Rubin, Vera, 331, 331 Shoemaker“Levy, comet, 528, 528
Ritchey“Cretien design, 49
RNA see ribonucleic acid Jupiter impacts, 529“30, 529, 530
runaway stars, 214
Robertson“Walker metric, 385 Russell, Henry Norris, 36 short range forces, 411
Roche limit, 509“10, 509, 510 Rutherford, Ernest, 27 sibilants, 36
Roche lobes, 209 Rydberg constant, 28 sidereal period, 433
Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), 76, 77 signal-to-noise ratio, 59
s-process, 166, 166
root mean square (rms) speed, 108 silicates, 243
root mean square (rms) velocity, in Saha equation, 33“4 simulation of large-scale structure,
421
cluster of stars, 227 Salaam, Abdus, 416
ROSAT, see Roentgen Satellite San Andreas fault, from space, 452 simultaneity, 127
Rosette Nebula (NGC 2244), 276 Saturn absolute, 127
rotating black hole, 150 atmosphere, 504, 504 problems with, 127
aurora, 503
rotating interstellar cloud, 265 singularity, 148
images, 499
rotation Sirius B, 146
interiors, 506 SIRTF, see Space Infrared Telescope
elliptical galaxies, 316“17
moons, see Saturn, moons
Mars, 480 facility
Milky Way mass distribution, ring system, 507“8 sizes
294“6 Saturn, moons asteroids, 532“3
Dione, 517 outer planets, 498
neutron stars, 198“9
Enceladus, 517
Venus, 479 Pluto, 523
Iapetus, 517
rotation curve, dark matter in galax- quasar emitting region, 365
ies, 330“1, 331 Tetheys, 518 stars, 97
Doppler shifts, 296“302, 331 Titan, 516“18 white dwarfs, 37
measuring, 300“2; see also rotation scale factor, 380, 382, 406 slices, redshift surveys, 345, 346
vs. time, 389, 392
curve, measuring 21 cm line small fluctuations, 420, 421
Milky Way, 301; see also Milky Way Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), 322
scale height, 456
radial velocities, 298, 299 SN1987A, supernova remnant in, 195
scale of universe, 377“8
SNO, see Sudbury Neutrino
rotation curve, measuring 21 cm line, scattering, 237
and absorption, 238, 242
300 Observatory
SNU, see solar neutrino unit
Doppler shifts, 300 Schmidt, Maarten, 364
molecular clouds and HII regions, Schmidt camera, 49 SO galaxies, 321
Schmitt, Harrison, 473
301 Socorro, New Mexico, 73
outside Sun™s orbit, 301 Schrödinger, Erwin, 32 sodium cloud, Io, 515
SOFIA, see Stratospheric Observatory
subcentral point, 300 Schwarzschild, Karl, 148
Schwarzschild radius, 148, 149
rotation period for Infrared Astronomy
Jupiter, 497 radio galaxies, 358 solar activity, 113“18
solar eclipse, 110, 436“7
Mars, 480 scintillation, 200
solar flare, 116, 117
Mercury, 479 searches for extraterrestrial intelli-
solar limb, 106
Moon, 468 gence (SETI), 547“9
solar magnetic field, 115, 117
Neptune, 500 sedimentary rocks, 448
Saturn, 497 seeds of galaxies, 403 solar mass, 89
seeing, 43, 43 solar model, 172
Sun, 116
Uranus, 498 segments, 52 solar nebula, 537“8
Venus, 479 seismic disturbances, interiors, 490 solar neutrino problem, 173
SEST, see Swedish“ESO Submillimetre
rotational energy, 254 solar neutrino unit (SNU) 173
rotational energy levels, 255, 255 Telescope solar neutrinos, 106, 172“5
SETI, see searches for extraterrestrial solar spectrum, 107
rotational excitation, cosmic
580 INDEX



Solar System, 429“43 barred spirals, 317 stationary states, 28
appearance of, extrasolar planets, classification, 317 statistical weights, 33
544“5 flocculent, 317 steady-state theories, 378
life in, 543“4 grand design, 317 Stefan“Boltzmann constant, 15
minor bodies, 523“4 HII regions, 324“5 Stefan“Boltzmann law, 15
origin, 537“40, 538 luminosity class, 317“19 stellar black holes, 150, 206
distance from Sun, effect of, luminosity profile, 321 stellar colors, 17“18
stellar diameters, 97
538“40 luminosity scale length, 321
outer planets, 497“519 properties, 321 stellar distances, 18“20
study of, 438“9 star formation, 324“6 stellar energy sources, 157“9
surveying, 432 supernovae remnants, 325 stellar evolution, 171, 341
solar telescope, 105 spiral structure, explanations of, stellar luminosity, 245
solar wind, 101, 117 326“30 stellar masses, 88, 94“6
Sombrero galaxy, M104, 319 density wave, 327“8, 327 stellar models, 171“2
sounding rockets, 75 predictions, 330 stellar old age, 177“89
theoretical calculations, 329
Space Infrared Telescope Facility stellar sizes, 96“7
(SIRTF), 66, 66 stellar spectra, 27
dust lanes, 328
space probes, 438“9 interstellar matter, 328 stellar structure, 168“2
Space Telescope Science Institute matter speed, 327“8 stellar winds, 246
(STScI), 57 Milky Way, 304“6 trigger, 266
space velocity, in moving cluster, 224 molecular clouds, 328, 328 stimulated emission, 256, 256, 280“1
space-time, 132“6 pattern speed, 327“8 stones, meteoroids, 531
space-time diagram, 133 temporary, 327, 327 stony irons, meteoroids, 531
in general relativity, 139 spontaneous symmetry breaking, 413 strange particles, 413
space-time interval, 134, 134, 385 SS433, 218“19, 218, 219 stratosphere, 455
spacecraft exploration, Venus, 480 standard candles, 391 Stratospheric Observatory for
spacelike intervals, 134 type I supernova, 213 Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), 64,
65
special relativity, 125“36 standard model of Sun, 173
star counts, 239, 240 strength of radio sources, 69
superluminal expansion, 359“61
speckle interferometry, 96 star formation, 263“89, 537 Stromgren, Bengt, 277
spectral classes, 26 efficiency, 266 Stromgren radius, 277
spectral lines, 25“6 galaxies, 322“6 Stromgren sphere, 277
Doppler broadening, 108“9 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), strong decay, 162
formation of, 32“6 323“4 strong nuclear force, 166, 410, 415
origin of, 27 magnetic effects, 270“2 structure
of comets, 515“26, 526
in stars, 25“38 spiral galaxies, 324“6
spectral types, 26“7, 35 of radio galaxies, 358
starburst galaxies, 353
STScI, see Space Telescope Science
early, 27 trigger, 266
late, 27 starburst galaxies, 353“5 Institute
spectroheliogram, 110 CO observations, 353 subcentral point, 299
spectroscopic binary, 83, 87 efficiency of star formation, 354 subgiant, 177
spectroscopic parallax, 38, 239 emission lines, 353 Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, 174,
174
Hubble constant, 342 FIR observations, 353
spectroscopy, 58, 60“2 giant molecular clouds (GMCs), Sun
spectrum 353“4 central pressure, 169
M82, 354
cosmic background radiation, 399 central temperature, 170
model, 355 differential rotation, 116
evolution of, radio galaxies, 355
of radiation, 397 star formation, 353 formation, 537
speed of light, 125 supernovae remnants, 354 lifetime, 165
spherical aberration, 44 stars magnetic field, 114
spherical symmetry, 412“13, 413 colors, 12 mass, 101
spicules, 109 gravitational lifetime, 158 motion about center of mass, 545
spin, 186 nuclear energy, 164“7 motion about galactic center, 296
spiral galaxies, 317“22 variable, 179“80 radius, 101
INDEX 581



X-ray image, 118 tau particle, 411 torque, Earth, 468
sunspots, 113“7, 113 Taurus“Littrow region, 473 Townes, Charles, 280
cycle of, 114 Taylor series, 387 transmission, atmospheric, 12
number , 114 tectonic plates, 451, 451 transverse velocity, in moving cluster,
Sunyaev“Zeldovich effect, 406 telescopes, 41“77 221
super GUTs, see grand unified theo- Trifid Nebula (M20), 276
infrared, 63“6
trigger in star formation, 266; see also
ries temperature
superclusters, 345“7 of background radiation, 398 star formation
dynamical state, 345 of early Earth, 541 HII regions, 279
local, 345 of Earth, 452“4 trigonometric parallax, 18
superfluid, in neutron stars, 199 ionization, Ti, 34 Hubble constant, 342
supergiants, 36 Mercury, 483 triple-alpha process, 165
supergranulation, 109 Neptune, 504 Trojans, asteroids, 533
supergravity, 417 Uranus, 498, 504 troposphere, 455, 459
Tully“Fisher relation, 344, 344
superior conjunction, 432 temperature distribution
Earth, 457“62, 457
superluminal expansion, 359“61 tunneling, 164
3C 279, 360 Jupiter, 500“1 turnoff point, in HR diagram for
and Saturn, 501
Hubble™s law, 359 cluster of stars, 231
special relativity, 359“61 Sun, 107 two-phase model, 250
temperature vs. time graph, 458
supermassive black holes, 370 type I supernova, 343
supernova, 193“7, 391 Terra Ishta, Venus, 485 type II Cepheids, 182
Hubble constant, 343 tests of general relativity, 143“8 type II supernova, 193
light curve for type II, 194 Tharsis ridge, Mars, 487“9
in NGC4603, 194 theoretical modeling, interiors, 491 Uhuru satellite, 76, 216
remnants, 194 theories of everything (TOE), 417 ultraviolet excess, 365
type I as standard candles, 213 thermal equilibrium, primordial, ultraviolet photons, 274, 277“8
type I light curve, 213 407“8 ultraviolet radiation, 450, 462
umbra, 113, 113, 437
type II, 193 thermal motions, 263
supernova remnants thermodynamic equilibrium, 13 uncertainty principle, 151, 187
Cas A, 195 thermodynamics of interstellar universe
at different wavelengths, 195 medium, 258“9 close to boundary, 392
in LMC, 195 thickness of Earth atmosphere, 454“5 computer models, 348
SN1987A, 195 as expanding balloon, 340
thickness of disk
different tracers, Milky Way, 304 as expanding sphere, 386
starburst galaxies, 354
Veil Nebula, 195 HI, Milky Way, 303, 303 expansion of, 378“81
surface accuracy, 64 Ti, ionization temperature, 34 keeping track of, 380“1
surface gravity, Uranus, 498 tidal effects, 149, 509 Newtonian gravitation, 381“4
on Earth, 467“9, 468
Swedish“ESO Submillimeter open or closed?, 390“2
Telescope (SEST), 72, 72, 323 on Titan, 517 scale of, 377“8
University of Arizona Mirror Lab, 51
symmetries, 412“13, 416 tidal forces, 509“10
symmetry breaking, 413, 418 in black holes, 149 University of Chile, 55
synchrotron radiation, 196, 196 tidal heating, Io, 514, 514 University of Hawaii, 111
tides, see tidal effects; tidal forces
Jupiter, 497 Uranus
time delay, radar, 481“2, 482 atmosphere, 504, 505
radio galaxies, 355
synodic period, 433 time dilation, 128 basic features, 497“8
images, 499
when approaching a black hole,
T Pyxidis, 212 150 interiors, 506
T Tauri, 285 time line for early universe, 418 moons, see Uranus, moons
H emission, 286 ring system, 508, 508
time reversal, 413
T Tauri stars, 285“6, 285, 286 timelike intervals, 134 Uranus, moons
light curves, 285, 285 TOE, see theories of everything, 417 Ariel, 518, 519
Miranda, 519, 519
T Tauri wind, 537, 540 Tombaugh, Clyde, 523
tail of comets, 526, 526 Oberon, 519, 519
top-down evolution of universe, 347,
348 Titania, 518, 519
Tarantula Nebula, LMC, 323
582 INDEX



Urey, Harold, 541 superclusters, 345 weird terrain, Mercury, 483
V616Mon, 217 virial theorem, 225“31, 272 West, comet, 528
vacuum polarization, and black hole, molecular clouds, 257 Whipple, Fred L., 525
151 virtual photons, 412 white dwarf
Valles Marineris, Mars, 486, 489 visibility, 73 in close binaries, 211
van Allen, James, 465 visible spectrum, 10 degeneracy pressure of, 186
van Allen radiation belts, 465 visible windows, 11 density of, 186
Van de Hulst, Henk, 248 visual binary, 83 detecting observationally, 37,
VLA, see Very Large Array 186“9, 187
Van den Bergh, Sydney, 317
VLBA, see Very Long Baseline Array
van der Waals force, 415, 539 relativistic effects in, 187
VLBI, see Very Long Baseline
variability, quasars, 365 size of, 37
variable stars, 179“80 Interferometry white ovals, Jupiter, 503
on HR diagram, 180 VLT, see Very Large Telescope Wilson, Robert, 251, 398, 399
Veil Nebula (supernova remnant), 195 volcanic activity, Io, 513“14, 514 windows, 12, 64
infrared, 64
Venera, Venus, 480 volcanoes on Earth, 448
Venus, 481 rock from, 448 winds
atmosphere, 492 Voyager 2 Jupiter, 500“1
carbon dioxide, 492 Uranus, 498 Saturn, 504
general circulation, 493, 493 Uranus™ moons, 518“19 Wolf“Rayet stars, 36
greenhouse effect, 492 Voyager missions, 443 Wollaston, William Hyde, 25
images of low level clouds, 492 Voyager spacecraft Wu, C. S., 413
interiors compared with Earth, 491 Jupiter, 497
Pioneer Venus Orbiter, 480 Saturn, 508 X and Y particles, 416, 418
surface, 483“5 X-ray emission, clusters of galaxies,
surface pressure, 492 W particle, 412 337
temperature distribution, 493, 493 and Z particle, 416 X-ray images
Very Large Array (VLA), 73, 74 Centaurus cluster, 338
W Virginis stars, 182
Very Large Telescope (VLT), 51, 52 Sun, 118
warp
Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), 75 Virgo cluster, 338
in HI, Milky Way, 303
X-ray satellites, 77
Very Long Baseline Interferometry in H2, Milky Way, 304
(VLBI), 74 Milky Way, 293
vibrational levels, 254 water, 448, 543 Yang, C. N., 413
Yerkes Observatory, 46
Viking landers, 543 water ice, 539
Viking 1 landing site, Mars, 487 water vapor, 448 Young, Thomas, 10
trench, 488 Watson, William, 542
Viking 2 landing site, Mars, 487 wave function, 32 Z particle, 412
Viking spacecraft, Mars, 481 wave mechanics, 32 and W particle, 416
Virgo cluster, 335, 336, 345 ZAMS, see zero-age main sequence
wave“particle duality, 17, 31
X-ray image, 338 Zeeman effect, 115, 115, 270
wavelength, 10
interstellar HI, 249, 249
virial equilibrium, 267 weak decay, 162
zero-age main sequence, 167, 167, 274
virial mass weak nuclear force, 412
clusters of galaxies, 336“7 Weinberg, Steven, 416 zones, Jupiter, 248, 502
clusters of stars, 229 Wein™s law, 14

<<

. 28
( 28)