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Index




Acevedo, Carlos, 125 Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Adelman, Howard, 74 (ASEAN), 81
Afghanistan, 2, 4“5, 17, 212, 225“227, 232, Azerbaijan, 165
233
Ajello, Aldo, 142 Ballantine, Karen, 76, 197
Akashi, Yasushi, 85 n29, 86 n34 Barre, Said, 16
Ake, Claude, 21 Belarus, 165
Albania, 217 n19 Belgium, 31, 70, 171
Alden, Chris, 147 Berman, Sheri, 160“161
´
Aleman, Arnoldo, 121 Bicesse Accord, see Angola
Ali, Mohamed, 191 n31 Bosnia, 3, 17“18, 26, 62, 97“107, 153, 154,
Alianza Republicana Nationalista, 123, see 162“163, 181“183, 190“198, 202,
also El Salvador 207“210, 213, 228, see also Dayton
American Colonization Society, 90, see also Peace Accord
Liberia elections
Amnesty International, 33, 95 entity-level in 1997, 105
Angola, 3, 5, 17, 63“69, 114, 136, 152, 154, national-level in 1996, 100“105,
172 n94, 174, 190 192
Bicesse Accord, 64“65, 67“69 national-level in 1998, 105“106
election of 1992, 66“69 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 99,
Lusaka Protocol, 67 n34 101, 105
United Nations Veri¬cation Mission in International Force (IFOR), 100, 103
Angola (UNAVEM), 64“65, 68 Republica Srpska, 99, 101, 103“105
Angulo, Carmelo, 118 Security Force (SFOR), 103 n28, 182
Annan, Ko¬, 2, 3, 6, 24“25, 42, 44, 56, 113, United Nations Protection Force
217, 220, 225, 229 (UNPROFOR), 97“98, 100, 141
Anstee, Margaret Joan, 66 Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 2, 3, 6, 18, 24,
Arbenz, Jacobo, 129 36“37, 42, 44, 55“56, 120
ARENA Party, see Alianza Republicana Agenda for Democratization, 36“37
Nationalista An Agenda for Peace, 18, 55“56
Ar´ valo, Juan Jos´ , 129
e e Boyce, James, 128
Arias, Oscar, 112 Brahimi, Lakhdar, 229
Armenia, 165 Brazil, 203
Arusha Accords, see Rwanda Britain, 14, 31, 81, 137, 141, 222“223
Asia Foundation, 197 Burki, Shavid, 203


281
Index
282

Burkino Faso, 165 “con¬‚ict dampeners,” 168“173, 235
Burundi, 46 Congo, 14, 62, 212, see also Zaire
Conroy, Michael, 166“167
Callaghy, Thomas, 200 consociationalism, 193“194
Cambodia, 3, 17, 62, 79“90, 153“154, Contras, 112, 115, 119, see also Nicaragua
164“165, 172 n94, 190, 196, 206 Coser, Lewis, 157
elections Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
of 1993, 84“85, 87“88 (Comecon), 143, 161
of 1998, 86“88 Cousens, Elizabeth, 56 n6
Paris Peace Accords of 1990, 81“82, 86, 88 Cristiani, Alfredo, 123
United Nations Transitional Authority in Croatia, 3, 62, 97“98, 107“111, 152“153,
Cambodia (UNTAC), 82“87 162, 182, 213, 217, see also Dayton
Radio UNTAC, 196“197 Peace Accord
Cambodian People™s Party (CPP), 85“89, see postcon¬‚ict elections, 109, 110
also Cambodia United Nations Civilian Police Support
Cameroon, 165 Group (UNPSG), 108 n58
Canada, 31, 137, 198 United Nations Protection Force
Center for International Private Enterprise, (UNPROFOR), 97, 98, 107
32 United Nations Transition Administration
Central African Republic, 61 for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and
Chad, 62, 203 Western Sirmium (UNTAES), 108
Chambers, Simone, 160 Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), 101,
Chamorro, Violeta, see de Chamorro, Violeta 105, 109, see also Bosnia; Croatia
Barrios Cropsey, Joseph, 49 n54
Chandler, David, 33, 209 Cuba, 23, 63“64, 136
´
Chapultepec Accord, 122“123, see also El Cyprus, 14
Salvador
Chile, 203 Dahl, Robert, 157, 161
China, 23, 80“81 Dallaire, Rom´ o, 73 n73, 197
e
Chissano, Joaquin, 142, 144 Dayton Peace Accord, 99“100, 102, 104,
Chossudovsky, Michel, 77 106“109, 192, 202, see also Bosnia;
Christian Democratic Party, 123, see also El Croatia
Salvador de Chamorro, Violeta Barrios, 116“117
civil society, see nongovernmental de Cu´ llar, Javier P´ rez, 122
e e
organizations de Montesquieu, Baron Charles-Louis, 50
civil war, 1“2, 5, 8, 42“46, 60, 232“233, de Tocqueville, Alexis, 156, 157 n12
235“236 “demagogue democracies,” 154
characteristics of states emerging from, 3, democracy, 6, 7, 19“25, 33, 35“37, 40, 42,
168“175, 201 44, 156“160, 204“206, see also “illiberal
de¬ned, 1, 60 democracy”
Clinton administration, 42 contested de¬nitions of, 15“16, 21
Coalition pour la D´ fense de la R´ publique
e e logical paradoxes within, 156“159
(CDR), 72“74, see also Rwanda resistance to liberal version of, 21
coffee, 114, 122, 129 democratic peace, see liberal peace thesis
Cold War, 13“16, 27, 180 Democratic Republic of Congo, see Congo
conditions at termination of, 16“17, Democratic Turnhalle Alliance, 137, see also
20“22, 33, 35 Namibia
Collier, Paul, 169, 200 n60 democratization, see liberalization: political
Community of Sant™Egidio, 141 Denitch, Bogdan, 162
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Denmark, 203
Europe (CSCE), see Organization for Deutsch, Karl, 170
Security and Cooperation in Europe Diamond, Larry, 35“36, 44, 170, 207
(OSCE) Dodik, Milorad, 104“105
Index 283

Doe, Samuel, 90“91, 94 Fishel, Kimbra, 125, 127
Dokie, Samuel, 93 France, 14, 31, 79, 81, 144, 147
dos Santos, Jos´ Eduardo, 65, 67“69, 174,
e Free Trade Union Institute, 32
see also Angola Freedom House, 89
¸˜
Downs, George, 56“57, 155 Frente de Libertacao de Mocambique
¸
Doyle, Michael, 43, 81 n5, 82 (Frelimo), 141“147, see also
Mozambique
¸˜
East Timor, 3, 62, 218“221, 228“229, 233 Frente Nacional de Libertacao de Angola
Constituent Assembly, 219 (FNLA), 63“68, see also Angola
elections Front Uni Pour Un Cambodge Ind´ pendant,
e
referendum of 1999, 219 Neutre, Paci¬que et Coop´ ratif
e
of 2002, 220 (FUNCINPEC), 80, 81, 85“88, see also
Special Representative of the Cambodia
Secretary-General, 220, 221 Fukuyama, Francis, 20
United Nations Transitional
Administration in East Timor Gabon, 165
(UNTAET), 218“220 Galtung, John, 57“58
Economic Community of West African States Gambia, 24
(ECOWAS), 91, 222 General Framework for Peace in Bosnia and
Economic Freedom of the World, 21“22 Herzegovina, see Bosnia; Dayton Peace
Economist Intelligence Unit, 126 Accord
Egypt, 13“14, 46, 167, see also United genocide, 1, 63, 74“78
Nations Emergency Force George, Alexander, 58
El Salvador, 3, 17, 62, 122“128, 130, 153, Georgia, 62, 165
´
154, 167, 195, 203, see also Chapultepec Germany, 4, 31, 82, 135, 137, 160“162, 195,
Accord; Esquipulas Accord; United 198, 207
Nations Observer Group in Central Gershman, Carl, 22
America Ghana, 203
elections Gini Index of income equality, 117, 125, 129
of 1994, 123 Glickman, Harvey, 172
of 1997 and 1999, 124 “good governance”
United Nations Observer Mission in El and the International Monetary Fund,
Salvador (ONUSAL), 123 201“202
elections, 5, 20, 23“24, 30, 43, 81, 157“158, and the United Nations Development
162“164, 188“194, 214, see also Program, 23“24
individual country entries and the World Bank, 30, 201“202
Equatorial Guinea, 165 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 80
Esman, Milton, 110 Greenstock, Jeremy, 229“230
Esquipulas Accord, 112“113, 115, 122, 129 Guatemala, 3, 62, 112“114, 128“133, 153,
Ethiopia, 164 154, 167, 205, see also Esquipulas
ethnic cleansing, 1, 35, 44, 98, 111, 183, see Accord
also genocide Coordination Committee of Agricultural,
“ethnic entrepreneurs,” 161“163 Commercial, Industrial, and Financial
Europe, Eastern, 6“7, 25“27, 32, 162 Associations, 131
European Union, 18, 26“27, 31, 92, 106, election of 1999, 130
142, 197, 216 Socio-Economic Accord, 130“133
United Nations Human Rights Veri¬cation
Farabundo Mart´ Liberation Front (FLMN),
± Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA),
112“113, 122“124, 127, see also El 130, 133
Salvador Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity
Federalist Papers, 49“50, see also Hamilton, (URNG), 112, 129“130, see also
Alexander; Madison, James Guatemala
˜
First World War, see World War I Gusmao, Xanana, 219, 221
Index
284

Habyarimana, Juv´ nal, 70“76
e intrastate violence, see civil war
Haiti, 28, 61 Iraq, 5, 212
Halperin, Morton, 44 Islamic National Front, 163, see also
Hamilton, Alexander, 49“50 Sudan
¨
Hammarskjold, Dag, 14, 16 Israel, 14
hate speech, 197, see also news media Ivory Coast, 4
Heyman, Jeffery, 197 n54 Izetbegovic, Alija, 99 n5, 105
Hobbes, Thomas, 47“48, 177, 187
Hoef¬‚er, Anke, 200 Japan, 4, 32, 82, 207
Holbrooke, Richard, 101, 183 n14 Jelavic, Ante, 105
Holiday, David, 131 n109 Journal of Democracy, 35
Holland, see Netherlands
Honduras, 203 Kabbah, Ahmed Tejan, 222“223
Horowitz, Donald, 164, 191 Kamm, Henry, 206 n87
Human Development Index, 124“125, see Kant, Immanuel, 49
also United Nations: Development Karadzic, Radovan, 103“105
Program Karl, Terry Lynn, 164
Human Immunode¬ciency Virus, 232 Kaufmann, Chaim, 172, 181“183, 185
Human Rights Watch, 33, 94 Kazakhstan, 165
Huntington, Samuel, 174“175, 185“187 Kelly, Michael, 104 n34
Kenya, 165
IFOR, see Bosnia: International Force Keynes, John Maynard, 158
“illiberal democracy,” 21, see also democracy Khmer People™s National Liberation Front
India, 20, 171, 183, 191 (KPNLF), 80, 81, 85, see also
Indonesia, 218 Cambodia
Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe, Khmer Rouge, 80“81, 84“87, see also
32 Cambodia
Institutionalization Before Liberalization Kopstein, Jeffrey, 160
(IBL), 7“8, 187“212, 215, 218, 223, Kosovo, 2, 3, 26, 62, 198, 213“218, 228,
227“228, 232“233 229, 233
Inter-American Democratic Charter, 28 Institute for Civil Administration, 215
Inter-American Development Bank, 115, Kosovo Force (KFOR), 213, 216
123, 126, 130“132 Special Representative of the
International Centre for Human Rights and Secretary-General, 213“215, 217“218,
Democratic Development, 32 228
International Covenant on Civil and Political territorial elections of November 2001,
Rights, 206 n88 216
International Criminal Tribunal for the United Nations Mission in Kosovo
Former Yugoslavia, 102 (UNMIK), 213, 215“216, 229
International Crisis Group, 223 Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), 213, 215,
International Foundation for Electoral see also Kosovo
Systems, 32, 92 Krahn ethnic group, 90“91, 94, see also
International League for Human Rights, 33 Liberia
International Monetary Fund, 26, 29“30, 71, Krajina, 107“108, see also Croatia
77, 83, 100, 106“107, 116“117, 121, Kyrgystan, 165
123“124, 128, 130“132, 138, 143“144,
166, 199“205 League of Nations, 40, 90, 231
international organizations Lebanon, 14
ideological predispositions of, 22“35 United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
International Peace Research Institute, 44 (UNIFIL), 14
International Republican Institute, 32 Lesotho, 27
International Support and Veri¬cation liberal peace thesis, 6, 8“9, 37, 40“51,
Commission, see Nicaragua 77“78, 94, 151“152, 176“178, 235
Index 285

liberalization Mexico, 203
as an antidote for various social ills, Mill, James, 50
35“37, 40“42, 44 Milosevic, Slobodan, 98 n4, 108
economic, 5, 19, 26, 34, 36“37, 45“46, Mocumbi, Pascoal, 146
55“60, 158“159, 166“168, 175“178, modernization theory, 176
187“188, 199“205, 228, 233, 235 Monde, Le, 219
pathologies of, 159“168 Morris-Hale, Walter, 157
as a policy goal of international Mouvement R´ volutionnaire National pour
e
organizations, 22“35 le D´ veloppement (MRND), 71, see also
e
political, 5“9, 19, 34, 37, 45, 55, 57, Rwanda
¸˜
59“60, 151“156, 187“199, 216, 228, Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola
233, 235 (MPLA), 63“68, see also Angola
problems of, 6, 45“46, 74“77, 87“88, 103, Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 20
106“107, 113“114, 118“122, 124“125, Mozambique, 3, 17, 62, 141“148, 153“154,
134, 146, 148, 159“168, 173“178, 172, 190“191
199“201 elections
Liberia, 3, 5, 62, 90“96, 154, 164, 172, 190 of 1994, 142, 144
Abuja Accord of 1996, 91, 93, 95 of 1999, 144
Americo-Liberian elite, 90“94 peace agreement of 1992, 141“142
Anti-Terrorist Unit, 93“94 United Nations Operation in Mozambique
Economic Community of West African (UNOMOZ), 142
States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), Muravchik, Joshua, 44
see Economic Community of West Museveni, Yoweri, 70
African States
elections of 1997, 92“95 Namibia, 3, 13, 17, 22, 62, 64, 135“141,
United Nations Mission in Liberia 153, 172, 182, 217
(UNMIL), 5, 95, 143 Constituent Assembly, 136“138
United Nations Observer Mission in Contact Group, 137
Liberia (UNOMIL), 5, 91 elections
Liberians United for Reconciliation and of 1989, 136“137
Democracy (LURD), 95, see also of 1999, 140
Liberia peace agreement of 1998, 131, 136
Libya, 62 United Nations Transition Assistance
Lijphart, Arend, 193 Group (UNTAG), 136
Linz, Juan, 170, 174 n102 National Democratic Institute for
Lipset, Seymour Martin, 167, 170 International Affairs, 32
Locke, John, 6, 47, 48, 176“177 national development agencies, 31“32
Lom´ Convention, 27, 138, see also European
e National Endowment for Democracy (NED),
Union 32
Lusaka Accord, 67, see also Angola National Patriotic Front for Liberia (NPFL),
Lyons, Terrence, 95 91, see also Liberia
National Patriotic Party (NPP), 91“92, see
Macedonia, 2, 162 also Liberia
Madison, James, 49“50, 176 Neier, Aryeh, 33
Makinda, Samuel, 70 Netherlands, 31
Malaysia, 171 New Guinea, 15, 164
Mali, 46 United Nations Security Force (UNSF), 15
Mans¬eld, Edward, 45 New York Times, 134
marketization, see liberalization, economic news media, 76, 196“199, 214
Marten, Kimberly Zisk, 227 Nicaragua, 3, 28, 114“122, 130, 153, 154,
Mauritania, 62, 165 167, 203, see also Esquipulas Accord;
McNeill, Dan, 227 United Nations Observer Group in
media, see news media Central America
Index
286

Nicaragua (cont.) Pastor, Manuel, 20 n22, 128, 166“167
elections peace enforcement, 18, 38
of 1990, 116 de¬nition of, 38
of 1996 and 2001, 121 peace operations, 18, 37“39
International Support and Veri¬cation typology, 37“39
Commission (ICVN), 116 peacebuilding
rearmados, 119 aims of, 2“3, 13, 55“57, 125, 155
Somoza regime, 114“115, 120“121 categories of, 153
United Nations Observer Mission for the de¬nition of, 38, 39
Veri¬cation of Elections in Nicaragua as a form of social engineering, 4, 5, 231
(ONUVEN), 116 operations
Niger, 27 standards for evaluating the success of,
Nigeria, 46, 91, 167, 191“194, 222 5“6, 55“57, 155
´
Nitlapan-UCA, 119 typical elements of, 3“4, 18“19, 38, 175
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 2, underlying assumptions of, 4“6, 41“42,
19, 32“35, 76, 156“157, 160“161, 169, 59, 235
194“196 peacekeeping, 13“18
“democracy NGOs,” 32 de¬nition of, 37“38
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 18, peacemaking, de¬nition of, 38
27“28, 103, 154, 198, 213, see also Peou, Sorpong, 88
Bosnia: International Force; Bosnia: Peru, 28, 167, 203
Security Force; Kosovo: Kosovo Force Petritsch, Wolfgang, 105 n41
North Atlantic Treaty, 27 Philippines, 24, 171, 195
Partnership for Peace, 27“28 Plavsic, Biljana, 103“105
Nujoma, Sam, 137, 140 Poplasen, Nikola, 105
Portugal, 63“65, 100, 141, 218
¨
Ojendal, Joakim, 83 Posen, Barry, 181 n5
O™Neill, William, 216 Pot, Pol, 80
Open Society Institute, 31“32, 197 preventive diplomacy, de¬nition of, 37
Organization for Economic Cooperation and privatization, see liberalization, economic
Development, 31“32, 195 Pugh, Michael, 202
“Culture of Peace” program, 195 Putnam, Robert, 157 n12
Development Assistance Committee, 31
Organization for Security and Cooperation Radio-T´ l´ vision Libres des Milles Collines
ee
in Europe (OSCE), 19, 25“26, 100“101, (RTLM), 72“73, 76, 197, see also news
103, 108, 214, 230 media; Rwanda
Of¬ce for Democratic Institutions and Ramos-Horta, Jose, 220
Human Rights (ODIHR), 25“26 Ranariddh, Norodom, 85, 86“87
Organization of African Unity, 70, 92, 142 Reagan, Ronald, 32
Organization of American States, 18, 28, refugees, 2, 18, 102, 109, see also United
115“116 Nations: High Commissioner for
Unit for the Promotion of Democracy, 28 Refugees
Ortega, Daniel, 116 Reinicke, Wolfgang, 30
Resistˆ ncia Nacional Mocambicana
e ¸
Packenham, Robert, 176 (Renamo), 141“147, 153, see also
Pape, Robert, 182 Mozambique
Paraguay, 28 Revolutionary United Front (RUF),
Paris Peace Accords, see Cambodia 222“223, see also Sierra Leone
partition, as a strategy for peacebuilding, Rhodesia, 141, 145
179, 181“185 Roberts, David, 88
Party of Democratic Action (SDA), 101, 105, Roman Catholic Church, 130
see also Bosnia Rose, Richard, 175 n104
Index 287

Rugova, Ibrahim, 216“217 Snyder, Jack, 45, 76, 162, 197
Rummel, R. J., 43“44, 157 social investment funds, 134, 202“203, see
Russett, Bruce, 43 also structural adjustment programs
Rwanda, 2, 3, 5, 63, 69“78, 114, 152, 154, sociology, world polity school of, 34“35
161, 167, 172, 189, 195, 196 Solomon, Richard, 87 n47
akazu, 71 Somalia, 3, 16“18, 61
Arusha Accords, 70, 71“77 Somoza Garc´a, Anastasio, 114, see also
±
events of April 1994, 73“74, 161, see also Nicaragua: Somoza regime
genocide Soros, George, 32
popular media, 76, 197“198, see also South Africa, 63“64, 135“136, 139“140, 145,
Radio-T´ l´ vision Libres des Milles
ee 153
Collines South West Africa, see Namibia
Presidential Guard, 73 South West Africa People™s Organization
United Nations Assistance Mission for (SWAPO), 136, 138“140, 148, see also
Rwanda (UNAMIR), 72“73 Namibia
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), 70, 75“77, Soviet Union, see Union of Soviet Socialist
see also Rwanda Republics
Srebrenica, Bosnia, 98
Sachs, Jeffrey, 21 Sri Lanka, 164, 171
Sambanis, Nicholas, 169 Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe,
Samosa Garc´a, Anastasio, 114
± 26 n58, see also European Union
Sanderson, John, 221 n35 Stanley, William, 131 n109
Sandinistas, 115“116, 119, see also Stedman, Stephen John, 56“57, 155
Nicaragua; Sandino, Augusto C´ sar
e Steiner, Michael, 217, see also Kosovo
Sandino, Augusto C´ sar, 115, see also
e Stiftungen, 32, see also Germany
Sandinistas Straw, Jack, 2
Sankoh, Foday, 223 structural adjustment programs, 29, 71“72,
Sann, Son, 80 77, 83, 106“107, 117, 123, 130, 143,
Savimbi, Jonas, 67“69, 72, 92 144, 166“167, 199“205, see also
Schattschneider, E. E., 157 International Monetary Fund; World
Schear, James, 82, 86 Bank
Seddon, David, 29, 46 typical elements of, 166
Sen, Hun, 79, 81, 85“87, 88“90, 153, 154 “structural violence,” 57“58
Senegal, 203 Sudan, 163“164, 167
September 11, 2001, attacks on New York Suez Crisis of 1956, 13“14, see also Egypt
and Washington, D.C., 2, 225 Suhrke, Astrid, 74
Serb People™s Alliance, 104, see also Bosnia Surinam, 28
Serbia, 162, 213, see also Yugoslavia, Federal Switzerland, 31, 142
Republic of
Serbian Democratic Party (SDS), 101, 104, Tajikistan, 62, 195
see also Bosnia Talbott, Strobe, 42
Shin, Don Chull, 175 n104 Taliban, 225“226, see also Afghanistan
Sierra Leone, 3, 27, 62, 222“225, 233 Tanzania, 46, 165, 167
election of 2002, 222“224 Taya, Ould, 165
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone Taylor, Charles, 79, 91, 94, 153
(UNAMSIL), 222“225 terrorism, see September 11, 2001, attacks on
Sihanouk, Norodom, 80, 81, 85 New York and Washington, D.C.
Slavonia, see also Croatia Thailand, 80
Eastern, 107“110 Thayer, Nate, 87 n47
Western, 107“108 Tigrean People™s Liberation Front, 164, see
Slovenia, 97, 162, 213 also Ethiopia
Smith, Adam, 41, 48“49, 158, 177, 201 Tito, Josip Broz, 162
Index
288

Togo, 165 United Nations Observer Group in
Tudjman, Franjo, 109 Central America (ONUCA), 116
Tunisia, 46, 167 United Nations Observer Mission for the
Turkmenistan, 165 Veri¬cation of Elections in Nicaragua
(ONUVEN), see Nicaragua
Uganda, 70, 203 United Nations Observer Mission in El
˜
Uniao Nacional para a Indepˆ ndencia Total
e Salvador (ONUSAL), see El Salvador
de Angola (UNITA), 63“68, see also United Nations Observer Mission in
Angola Liberia (UNOMIL), see Liberia
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 15, 16, United Nations Operation in
27, 63, 80“81, 180 Mozambique (UNOMOZ), see
United Nations, 2, 13“19, 22“25, 36“37, 56, Mozambique
63“66, 68, 72“73, 81“84, 86, 92“93, 98, United Nations Protection Force
100, 107“108, 113, 115“116, 123, (UNPROFOR), see Bosnia; Croatia
129“130, 136“137, 141“142, 197, 210, United Nations Security Force (UNSF),
213“214, 217“223, 225“226, 228“230, see New Guinea
see also International Monetary Fund; United Nations Transition
World Bank; World Health Administration for Eastern Slavonia,
Organization Baranja and Western Sirmium
Charter, 15 (UNTAES), see Croatia
Commission on Human Rights, 23 United Nations Transition Assistance
Department of Peace-Keeping Operations, Group (UNTAG), see Namibia
229 United Nations Transitional
Department of Political Affairs, 229 Administration in East Timor
Development Program, 18, 23“24, 92, (UNTAET), see East Timor
118, 223 United Nations Transitional Authority in
Educational, Scienti¬c, and Cultural Cambodia (UNTAC), see Cambodia
Organization, 197 United Nations Veri¬cation Mission in
Electoral Assistance Division, 23 Angola (UNAVEM), see Angola
General Assembly, 23 Security Council, 15, 17, 60, 63, 81, 86,
High Commissioner for Human Rights, 23 94, 213
High Commissioner for Refugees, 100, Trusteeship Council, 136, 230“231
109 n63, 142 United States, 15“16, 44, 63, 80, 100, 115,
peace operations, see also peace 137, 141, 180, 211, 216, 218, 225,
enforcement; peacekeeping 230
United Nations Assistance Mission for Agency for International Development
Rwanda (UNAMIR), see Rwanda (USAID), 31, 117
United Nations Civilian Police Support Department of State, 94, 124
Group (UNPSG), see Croatia Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
United Nations Emergency Force 22“23
(UNEF), 14, see also Egypt; Suez Crisis Uruguay, 203
of 1956 Uzbekistan, 165
United Nations Human Rights
Veri¬cation Mission in Guatemala Vietnam, 79“81
(MINUGUA), see Guatemala Vilas, Carlos, 120
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
(UNIFIL), see Lebanon Walton, John, 29, 46
United Nations Mission in Kosovo War of the Comuneros, 114, see also
(UNMIK), see Kosovo Nicaragua
United Nations Mission in Liberia Washington Consensus, 29, see also
(UNMIL), see Liberia International Monetary Fund; World
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone Bank
(UNAMSIL), see Sierra Leone Washington Post, 95, 216
Index 289

Wealth of Nations, The, 49, see also Smith, World Bank, 26, 29“30, 71, 77, 106, 115,
Adam 117, 123“124, 128, 130“132, 138, 144,
Weber, Max, 207 166, 199“205, 232
Westendorp, Carlos, 105 Articles of Agreement, 30
Western Sahara, 17, 62 World Health Organization, 142
Westminster Foundation for Democracy, World War I, 6, 7, 40“41, 135
32 World War II, 4, 136
Williams, David, 33
Wilson, Woodrow, 6, 40“41, see also Young, Tom, 33
Wilsonianism Yugoslav National Army (JNA), 97, 107,
Wilsonianism, 6“7, 41“42, 57, 59“60, 109“110
76“77, 79, 81, 89“90, 93“96, 102“103, Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of, 27, 97“98,
109, 114, 134, 139“141, 145“147, 107, 153, 162“163, 167“172, 213, see
151“155, 156, 175“178, 179“187, 211, also Kosovo
see also liberal peace thesis; Wilson,
Woodrow Zaire, 2, 16, see also Congo
alternatives to, 179“211 Zambia, 46, 136, 167
de¬nition of, 6 Zepa, Bosnia, 98
Woodward, Susan, 163 Zimmerman, Warren, 163

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