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Atiyah™s Accidents, Compensation and the Law Seventh Edition




Since its ¬rst publication, Accidents, Compensation and the Law has been
recognised as the leading treatment of the law of personal injuries compensation
and the social, political and economic issues surrounding it. The seventh edition
of this classic work explores recent momentous changes in personal injury law
and practice and puts them into broad perspective. Most signi¬cantly, it
examines developments a¬ecting the ¬nancing and conduct of personal injury
claiming: the abolition of legal aid for most personal injury claims; the increasing
use of conditional fee agreements and after-the-event insurance; the meteoric
rise and impending regulation of the claims management industry. Complaints
that Britain is a ˜compensation culture™ su¬ering an ˜insurance crisis™ are
investigated. New statistics on tort claims are discussed, providing fresh insights
into the evolution of the tort system which, despite recent reforms, remains
deeply ¬‚awed and ripe for radical reform.


Peter Cane has been Professor of Law in the Research School of Social
Sciences at the Australian National University since 1997. For twenty years
previously he taught law at Corpus Christi College Oxford. His main research
interests are in the law of obligations, especially tort law; public law, especially
administrative law; and legal theory. Recent publications include Responsibility
in Law and Morality (2002) and The Oxford Handbook of Legal Studies (edited
with Mark Tushnet) (2003).
Patrick Atiyah is one of the leading common lawyers of his generation. Until
his early retirement in 1988 he was Professor of English Law at Oxford
University. His published writings range widely over topics in tort law, contract
law, legal history and legal theory; and include The Sale of Goods (11th edition
with J N Harpers and H L McQueen, 2005), The Rise and Fall of Freedom of
Contract (1985) and The Damages Lottery (1997).
The Law in Context Series

Editors: William Twining (University College London) and
Christopher McCrudden (Lincoln College, Oxford)
Since 1970 the Law in Context series has been in the forefront of the movement to broaden
the study of law. It has been a vehicle for the publication of innovative scholarly books that
treat law and legal phenomena critically in their social, political and economic contexts
from a variety of perspectives. The series particularly aims to publish scholarly legal
writing that brings fresh perspectives to bear on new and existing areas of law taught in
universities. A contextual approach involves treating legal subjects broadly, using materi-
als from other social sciences, and from any other discipline that helps to explain the oper-
ation in practice of the subject under discussion. It is hoped that this orientation is at once
more stimulating and more realistic than the bare exposition of legal rules. The series
includes original books that have a di¬erent emphasis from traditional legal textbooks,
while maintaining the same high standards of scholarship. They are written primarily for
undergraduate and graduate students of law and of other disciplines, but most also appeal
to a wider readership. In the past, most books in the series have focused on English law,
but recent publications include books on European law, globalisation, transnational legal
processes, and comparative law.

Books in the Series
Anderson, Schum & Twining: Analysis of Evidence
Ashworth: Sentencing and Criminal Justice
Barton & Douglas: Law and Parenthood
Beecher-Monas: Evaluating Scienti¬c Evidence: An Interdisciplinary Framework for
Intellectual Due Process
Bell: French Legal Cultures
Bercusson: European Labour Law
Birkinshaw: European Public Law
Birkinshaw: Freedom of Information: The Law, the Practice and the Ideal
Cane: Atiyah™s Accidents, Compensation and the Law
Clarke & Kohler: Property Law: Commentary and Materials
Collins: The Law of Contract
Davies: Perspectives on Labour Law
Dembour: Who Believes in Human Rights?: The European Convention in Question
de Sousa Santos: Toward a New Legal Common Sense
Diduck: Law™s Families
Elworthy & Holder: Environmental Protection: Text and Materials
Fortin: Children™s Rights and the Developing Law
Glover-Thomas: Reconstructing Mental Health Law and Policy
Gobert & Punch: Rethinking Corporate Crime
Harlow & Rawlings: Law and Administration
Harris: An Introduction to Law
Harris, Campbell & Halson Remedies in Contract and Tort
Harvey: Seeking Asylum in the UK: Problems and Prospects
Hervey & McHale: Health Law and the European Union
Lacey & Wells: Reconstructing Criminal Law
Lewis: Choice and the Legal Order: Rising above Politics
Likosky: Transnational Legal Processes
Maughan & Webb: Lawyering Skills and the Legal Process
McGlynn: Families and the European Union: Law, Politics and Pluralism
Mo¬at: Trusts Law: Text and Materials
Norrie: Crime, Reason and History
O™Dair: Legal Ethics
Oliver: Common Values and the Public-Private Divide
Oliver & Drewry: The Law and Parliament
Picciotto: International Business Taxation
Reed: Internet Law: Text and Materials
Richardson: Law, Process and Custody
Roberts & Palmer: Dispute Processes: ADR and the Primary Forms of Decision-Making
Scott & Black: Cranston™s Consumers and the Law
Seneviratne: Ombudsmen: Public Services and Administrative Justice
Stapleton: Product Liability
Tamanaha: The Struggle for Law as a Means to an End
Turpin: British Government and the Constitution: Text, Cases and Materials
Twining: Globalisation and Legal Theory
Twining: Rethinking Evidence
Twining & Miers: How to Do Things with Rules
Ward: A Critical Introduction to European Law
Ward: Shakespeare and Legal Imagination
Zander: Cases and Materials on the English Legal System
Zander: The Law-Making Process
Atiyah™s Accidents,
Compensation and the
Law
Seventh Edition



Peter Cane

Research School of Social Sciences
Australian National University
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521689311

© Cambridge University Press 2006


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of
relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place
without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published in print format 2006

eBook (EBL)
ISBN-13 978-0-511-34855-6
ISBN-10 0-511-34855-X eBook (EBL)
paperback
ISBN-13 978-0-521-68931-1
paperback
ISBN-10 0-521-68931-7




Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls
for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not
guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
Contents




Preface xiv
List of abbreviations xvii
List of tables xxii
Table of legislation xxiii
Table of cases xxviii

Part One: The Issues in Perspective
1 Introduction: surveying the ¬eld 3
1.1 Compensation for accidents 3
1.2 Natural and human causes 6
1.2.1 The issue 6
1.2.2 Society™s ˜responsibility™ for human causes 8
1.2.3 Protecting reasonable expectations 9
1.2.4 Egalitarianism and the problem of drawing the line 10
1.3 Mixed systems in a mixed society 11
1.4 Some facts and ¬gures 18
1.4.1 Accidents causing personal injury or death 18
1.4.2 Death and disability from other causes 20
1.4.3 The prevalence of disability 21
1.4.4 The e¬ect of disability on income 21
1.4.5 Distribution and sources of compensation 22
1.4.6 The more serious and the less serious 25

Part Two: The Tort System in Theory
2 Fault as a basis of liability 33
2.1 The conceptual basis of tort law 33
2.2 Negligence as a basis of liability 34
2.3 The fault principle 35
2.4 Negligence as fault 36
2.4.1 A question of fact? 36
2.4.2 The nature of negligence 40

vii
viii Contents

2.4.3 Probability of harm 42
2.4.4 Likely magnitude of harm 43
2.4.5 The value of the activity and the cost of the
precautions needed to avoid harm 45
2.4.6 The function of the negligence formula 46
2.4.7 Foreseeability 47
2.4.8 The objective standard of care 48
2.4.9 Negligence in design and negligence in operation 50
2.5 Conduct of the claimant 53
2.5.1 Contributory negligence 54
2.5.2 Volenti non ¬t injuria 61
2.5.3 Illegality 65

3 The scope of the tort of negligence 68
3.1 The nature of the duty of care 68
3.2 Speci¬c duty situations 70
3.2.1 Common situations in which duties of care
have been imposed 70
3.2.2 The distinction between acts and omissions 72
3.3 Nervous shock 84
3.4 Family claims 89

4 Departures from the fault principle 92
4.1 Fault liability and strict liability 92
4.2 ˜Procedural™ devices 94
4.3 Breach of statutory duty 95
4.4 Contractual duties 99
4.5 Rylands v. Fletcher, nuisance and animals 100
4.6 Joint liability 101
4.7 Vicarious liability 102
4.8 Products liability 103
4.9 Proposals to extend strict liability 105
4.9.1 Dangerous things and activities 105
4.9.2 Railway accidents 106
4.10 Ex gratia compensation schemes 107
4.10.1 Vaccine damage 107
4.10.2 HIV 108
4.10.3 Hepatits C 108
4.10.4 Variant CJD 109

5 Causation and remoteness of damage 110
5.1 Introduction 110
5.2 Factual causation 111
Contents ix

5.2.1 Proving causation 111
5.2.2 Causing and increasing the risk of harm 112
5.2.3 Omissions 115
5.2.4 Multiple causal factors 116
5.3 Limits on the liability of factual causes 118
5.3.1 Legal causation 118
5.3.2 Damage not within the risk 125
5.3.3 Foreseeability again 127
5.4 Conclusion 129

6 Damages for personal injury and death 130
6.1 The lump sum: predicting the future 130
6.1.1 Personal injury cases 130
6.1.2 Fatal cases 132
6.1.3 Variation of awards after trial 135
6.1.4 Suitability of lump sums 137
6.1.5 Alternatives to lump sums 139
6.2 Full compensation 143
6.2.1 Interest 145
6.2.2 Lost earnings and support 146
6.2.3 Medical and other expenses 149
6.3 Full compensation for lost ˜earnings™: is it justi¬ed? 152
6.3.1 The earnings-related principle 152
6.3.2 The hundred-per cent principle 156
6.4 Full compensation: the commitment in practice 157
6.5 Intangible losses 161
6.5.1 Assessing intangible losses 161
6.5.2 The tari¬ system 166
6.5.3 Subjective factors 170
6.5.4 Should damages be payable for intangible losses? 171
6.6 Overall maxima 173
6.7 Punitive damages 173

7 An appraisal of the fault principle 175
7.1 The compensation payable bears no relation to
the degree of fault 175
7.2 The compensation bears no relation to the means of
the tortfeasor 177
7.3 A harm-doer may be legally liable without being
morally culpable and vice versa 179
7.3.1 Collective liability 179
7.3.2 The objective de¬nition of fault 180
7.3.3 Moral culpability without legal liability 182
x Contents

7.3.4 The fault principle and popular morality 183
7.4 The fault principle pays little attention to the conduct
or needs of the victim 183
7.5 Justice may require payment of compensation without fault 185
7.6 It is often di¬cult to adjudicate allegations of fault 187
7.7 The fault principle contributes to a culture of blaming and
discourages people from taking responsibility for
their own lives 192

Part Three: The Tort System in Operation
8 Claims and claimants 201
8.1 Accident victims and tort claimants 201
8.1.1 Cases reaching trial 201
8.1.2 Cases set down for trial 203
8.1.3 Actions commenced 203
8.1.4 All tort claims 204
8.2 Why do people (not) make tort claims? 206
8.2.1 Some research ¬ndings 206
8.2.2 Alternative remedies 207
8.2.3 Claims consciousness 209
8.3 Particular types of claims 214
8.3.1 Road accidents 214
8.3.2 Industrial injuries and illnesses 216
8.3.3 Public liability claims 218
8.3.4 Medical injuries 219
8.3.5 Group claims 221

9 Tortfeasors and insurers 222
9.1 Defendants 222
9.2 Individuals as tort defendants 222
9.3 Employers and corporations as tort defendants 228
9.4 Insurers 233
9.5 The nature of liability insurance 234
9.6 Some problems of liability insurance 239
9.7 First-party insurance for the bene¬t of others 244
9.8 The impact of liability insurance on the law 245
9.8.1 Statutory provisions 245
9.8.2 The impact of insurance on the common law 248
9.9 The Motor Insurers™ Bureau 255

10 Trials and settlements 260
10.1 The importance of settlements 260
10.2 Obtaining legal assistance and ¬nancing tort claims 261
Contents xi

10.3 The course of negotiations 268
10.3.1 Individual claims 269
10.3.2 Group claims 274
10.4 When negotiations break down 278
10.5 The time taken to achieve a settlement 281
10.6 The amount of compensation 284

Part Four: Other Compensation Systems
11 First-party insurance 291
11.1 Types of ¬rst-party insurance 291
11.2 First-party insurance compared with tort liability 295

12 Compensation for criminal injuries 300
12.1 Tort claims 300
12.2 Compensation orders 301
12.3 Other sources of compensation 303
12.4 Criminal injuries compensation scheme 304
12.4.1 Justi¬cations for the Scheme 304
12.4.2 The scope of the scheme 309
12.4.3 Comparison between the CICS and tort liability 316
12.4.4 Administration 324
12.4.5 Claims consciousness 326

13 The social security system 328
13.1 Foundations of the social security system 328
13.1.1 Workers™ compensation 328
13.1.2 National insurance 330
13.2 The Beveridge Report and the 1946 Acts 331
13.3 Developments since 1946 333
13.4 The industrial injuries system 338
13.4.1 The scope of the system 338
13.4.2 Accidents and diseases 340
13.4.3 Bene¬ts 342
13.4.4 Administration 351
13.4.5 The tort system and the IIS compared 355
13.5 Non-work-related disablement 355
13.6 Preferences within State provision for the disabled 356
13.7 Income-support bene¬ts 358
13.7.1 Bene¬ts 358
13.7.2 Administration 360
13.8 Fraud and abuse 360
xii Contents

14 Other forms of assistance 363
14.1 The taxation system 363
14.2 Social services 365
14.2.1 Employment 366
14.2.2 Mobility 369
14.2.3 Housing and residential accommodation 370
14.2.4 Other social services 371
14.3 Conclusion 372

Part Five: The Overall Picture
15 A plethora of systems 377
15.1 The concept of over-compensation 377
15.2 The choice of compensation system 378
15.3 Subrogation and recoupment 380
15.4 Tort damages and other compensation 385
15.4.1 General principles 385
15.4.2 Tort damages and sick pay 387
15.4.3 Tort damages and personal insurance 388
15.4.4 Tort damages and charitable payments 389
15.4.5 Tort damages and social security bene¬ts 390
15.5 Criminal injuries compensation 394

16 The cost of compensation and who pays it 395
16.1 The cost of tort compensation 395
16.2 Costs not paid through the tort system 402
16.2.1 The cost of social services 402
16.2.2 The cost of the social security system 403
16.2.3 Other sources of compensation 405
16.2.4 Costs in perspective 405
16.3 The cost of criminal injuries compensation 406
17 The functions of compensation systems 408
17.1 Compensation 408
17.1.1 Some preliminary questions 408
17.1.2 The meaning of ˜compensation™ 411
17.1.3 Compensation and compensation systems 414
17.2 Distribution of losses 415
17.2.1 What should be distributed? 415
17.2.2 How should it be distributed? 416
17.3 The allocation of risks 418
17.4 Punishment 419
17.5 Corrective justice 421
Contents xiii

17.6 Vindication or satisfaction 422
17.7 Deterrence and prevention 424
17.7.1 Rules and standards of behaviour 425
17.7.2 Accident prevention via insurance 433
17.8 General deterrence 439
17.8.1 The basic idea 439
17.8.2 Ascertaining the costs of an accident 442
17.8.3 Allocation of costs to activities 442
17.8.4 Responsiveness of price mechanism 446
17.8.5 Applying general deterrence criteria in practice 448
17.8.6 General deterrence and existing systems 448
17.8.7 An assessment of the value of the
general-deterrence approach 453
17.8.8 Conclusions about general deterrence 457

Part Six: The Future
18 Accident compensation in the twenty-¬rst century 461
18.1 Where we are now and how we got here 461
18.2 Basic issues 467
18.2.1 Strict liability or no-fault? 467
18.2.2 Limited or comprehensive reform? 468
18.2.3 Preferential treatment 472
18.2.4 Assessment of compensation 474
18.2.5 Funding 477
18.2.6 Goals of the system 478
18.3 Proposals and schemes 484
18.3.1 Road accident schemes 484
18.3.2 Other schemes 487
18.4 The way ahead 488
18.4.1 A social welfare solution 488
18.4.2 A private insurance solution 493
18.5 Damage to property 495
18.6 The role of the insurance industry and the legal profession 496
Index 499
Preface




The seven years since I wrote the preface to the sixth edition have been ones of rapid
and momentous change in the tort system, a¬ecting most particularly the ¬nancing
and settlement of personal injury claims. Some of these changes were foreshadowed
in the previous edition; but it was hard to predict the precise contours of the revolu-
tion that was about to be triggered by the abolition of legal aid for most personal
injury claims and the consequent growth of the claims management industry. Phrases
such as ˜compensation culture™, ˜blame culture™ and ˜insurance crisis™ have become
part of the common currency of public debate and political rhetoric in Britain. At the
same time, social security provision for the disabled and compensation for victims of
crime have continued to engage the concern and attention of the government and the
public, both being under review as I write. Nor is it only in Britain that personal
injury compensation looms large in legal and political debate. In the USA, for
instance, asbestos and medical malpractice litigation are matters of intractable and
acrimonious disagreement. In Australia, as a result of turmoil in the liability insur-
ance industry, ˜tort reform™ became, for several months in 2002, the hottest issue in
domestic politics, leading to the appointment of a committee to review personal
injury law and, in its wake, major legislation in all jurisdictions. Despite widespread
dissatisfaction with the tort system, the past decade has (ironically, perhaps) seen its
further entrenchment in the political economy of personal injury compensation.
Except at the margins, the thrust of public policy has been to make the tort system
work better (whatever that might mean), not to replace it with something better.
Changes to the law, both in the areas already mentioned and in others such as the
assessment of damages, have required substantial rewriting of various parts of the
book. The opportunity of a new edition has also been taken to relocate the discus-
sion of human and natural causes (which appeared in chapter 16 of the sixth
edition) into chapter 1 where (I think) it sits more comfortably. In this edition, too,
there is new discussion (particularly in chapter 4) of various forms of administra-
tive compensation arrangements bene¬ting victims of hepatitis-C, black lung,
vibration white ¬nger and other chronic externalities of modern industrial and
technological activities.
Moving away from law and procedure, undoubtedly the most important devel-
opment since the last edition has been the increasing availability of reliable statistics

xiv
Preface xv

about the tort system. The NHS Litigation Authority now publishes detailed infor-
mation about the number and cost of medical negligence (and other personal
injury) claims against NHS Trusts, and the Compensation Recovery Unit within
the Department of Work and Pensions “ as administrator of schemes for recoup-
ing the cost of social security bene¬ts and NHS treatment from payers of tort com-
pensation “ produces robust estimates of the total number of tort settlements. The
general picture that emerges is that tort claims have increased about threefold since
the 1970s (assuming that ¬gures produced by the Pearson Commission were
reasonably accurate). The impact of this new information is most obvious in
chapter 8; but its in¬‚uence pervades many parts of the book. As yet, intelligence
about the cost of compensation is more patchy and less reliable. In some areas “
criminal injuries compensation, for instance “ the facts are known. But the total
cost of the tort system, for example, is a matter of considerable speculation and dis-
agreement. Estimates of the total economic cost of personal injuries are even more
problematic. There seems little doubt, however, that the turnover of the compen-
sation ˜industry™ (broadly understood) runs into the tens of billions of pounds per
annum “ a signi¬cant amount by any standard.
As ever, the main aim of this book is to provide the reader with resources for
standing back from tort law and the tort system and viewing them in a larger legal
and social landscape. Whether placing tort at the centre of the picture in this way
continues to be desirable is a di¬cult question deserving of serious attention. From
the point of view of legal education, the approach still seems defensible because tort
law is the only aspect of the political economy of personal injuries that the typical
law student encounters. Whether the focus on tort has the same utility in the
context of public policy debates is contestable. Tort law has an immanent ideology,
and taking tort as a starting point may undesirably skew consideration of the basic
question of how risks of personal injury ought to be distributed. Tort law and the
tort system are (it seems) here to stay. The challenge is to imagine a dispensation to
which tort can make a positive contribution in partnership with other principles
and institutions of risk distribution. Only by doing this can we nurture the hope
that the various components of existing compensation arrangements can be held
in benign and creative tension. In the world of realpolitik the burning question is
not how to get rid of tort but how to live with it.
When a book has had as long a life as this one, the passage of time e¬ects much
more than the law discussed therein. This edition will appear under the imprint of
the third publisher of the Law in Context Series, in which this book was the ¬rst.
In 1970 academics used pens, typewriters and ˜dictaphones™ to produce their manu-
scripts. Fax machines had not been invented, let alone personal computers, email
and the internet. Thanks to the World Wide Web and other marvels of information
technology, much of the research required to prepare a new edition of this book is
more easily done at my desk in Canberra than it was a decade ago when I lived and
worked in England. Even so, the help of colleagues based in England “ especially
Professor Richard Lewis and Professor Nick Wikeley “ has been invaluable. Email
xvi Preface

has also enabled me to keep in frequent contact with Patrick Atiyah, whose char-
acteristically forthright and original observations and opinions continue to provide
inspiration and stimulation. The best form of thanks I can think of is to dedicate
this edition to him with a¬ection, admiration and respect.

Peter Cane
Canberra
April 2006
List of abbreviations



A Atlantic Reporter (USA)
AC Appeal Cases
All ER All England Law Reports
ALR Australian Law Reports
App Cas Appeal Cases (19th C)
ATE insurance after-the-event insurance
Australian Committee Report Compensation and Rehabilitation in Australia,
Report of the National Committee of Inquiry
(Australian Government Publishing Service,
Canberra, 1974)

Beveridge Report Social Insurance and Allied Services, Report by
Sir William Beveridge (Cmnd 6404, 1942)
BMLR Butterworths Medico-Legal Reports
BTE insurance before-the-event-insurance

C claimant
CA Claims assessor
Cal Rptr California Reporter
Can BR Canadian Bar Review
Cantley Committee Report Report of the Personal Injuries Litigation
Procedure Working Party (Cmnd 7476, 1979)
CFA Conditional Fee Arrangement
Ch Chancery Division Reports
CICA Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority
CICB Criminal Injuries Compensation Board
CICS Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme
Civil Justice Review Report of the Review Body on Civil Justice
(Cm 394, 1988)
CLR Commonwealth Law Reports (Australia)
Cm Command Paper (HMSO)
CMC Claims management company
Cmnd Command Paper (HMSO)

xvii
xviii List of abbreviations

CNST Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts
Conard, Automobile Accident A.F. Conard and others, Automobile Accident
Costs and Payments Costs and Payments (Ann Arbor, 1964)
CPR Civil Procedure Rules
CRU Compensation Recovery Unit

D defendant
DCA Department for Constitutional A¬airs
DH Department of Health
DLA disability living allowance
DLR Dominion Law Reports (Canada)
DPTC disabled persons tax credit
DSS Department of Social Security
DWA disability working allowance
DWP Department for Work and Pensions

ER English Reports

F Federal Reporter (USA)
FC Family Credit
F Supp Federal Supplement (USA)
Fisher Committee Report The Abuse of Social Security Bene¬ts (Cmnd
5228, 1973)

George V. George, Social Security: Beveridge and After
(London, 1968)
GLO Group Litigation Order

HC House of Commons
Harris 1984 Survey D.R. Harris and others, Compensation and
Support for Illness and Injury (Oxford, 1984)
HL House of Lords
HMSO Her Majesty™s Stationery O¬ce
How Much is Enough? Personal Injury Compensation: How Much is
Enough? Law Com. No. 225 (1994)
ICLQ International and Comparative Law Quarterly
ICR Industrial Cases Reports
IIAC Industrial Injuries Advisory Council
IIS Industrial Injuries Scheme
IPI Income protection insurance
IRLR Industrial Relations Law Reports
IS Income Support
Ison T.G. Ison, The Forensic Lottery (London, 1967)
List of abbreviations xix

J (after a surname) Mr/Ms Justice
J. Journal
JPIL Journal of Personal Injury Law
JSSL Journal of Social Security Law

KB King™s Bench Reports
KIR Knight™s Industrial Reports

Law. Com. Law Commission Report
LGR Knight™s Local Government Reports
LJ (after a surname) Lord/Lady Justice
LJ Law Journal
Lloyd™s Rep Lloyd™s Reports
LQR Law Quarterly Review
LR Law Review
LR . . . Ex Law Reports (Exchequer) (19th C)
LS Legal Studies
LSC Legal Services Commission

MIB Motor Insurers™ Bureau
MR Master of the Rolls
MVR Motor Vehicle Reports (New South Wales)

NE North Eastern Reporter (USA)
NHSLA National Health Service Litigation Authority
NI National Insurance
NSWLR New South Wales Law Reports
NW North Western Reporter (USA)
NY New York Reporter (USA)

Osgoode Hall Study A.M. Linden, Report of the Osgoode Hall Study
on Compensation for Victims of Automobile
Accidents (Toronto, 1965)
Osgoode Hall Study (Victims A.M. Linden, Report of the Osgoode Hall Study
of Crime) on Compensation for Victims of Crime
(Toronto, 1968)
OPCS Disability Survey Report 1: Martin, Meltzer and Elliott, The
Prevalence of Disability Among Adults (HMSO,
1988)
Report 2: Martin and White, The Financial
Circumstances of Disabled Adults Living in
Private Households
xx List of abbreviations

Report 3: Bone and Meltzer, The Prevalence of
Disability Among Children (HMSO, 1989)
Report 4: Martin, White and Meltzer, Disabled
Adults: Services, Transport and Employment
(HMSO, 1989)
Report 5: Smyth and Robus, The Financial
Circumstances of Families with Disabled
Children Living in Private Households (HMSO,
1989)
Report 6: Meltzer, Smyth and Robus, Disabled
Children: Services, Transport and Education
(HMSO, 1989)

P (preceded by date in square Probate Division Reports
brackets)
PAI Personal accident insurance
Pearson Report Report of the Royal Commission on Civil
Liability and Compensation for Personal Injury
(Cmnd 7054, 1978, 3 volumes)
Piercy Committee Report Report of the Committee of Inquiry on the
Rehabilitation, Training and Resettlement of
Disabled Persons (Cmnd 9883, 1956)
PMI Private medical insurance
PPO periodical payment order

Q. Quarterly
QB Queen™s Bench Reports
QBD Queen™s Bench Division Reports (19th C)
QdR Queensland Reports

R. Review
REA Reduced Earnings Allowance
RTR Road Tra¬c Reports
Robens Committee Report Report of the Committee into Safety and
Health at Work (Cmnd 5304, 1972)

SCR Supreme Court Reports (Canada)
SDA Severe Disability Allowance
SF Social Fund
SFO Social Fund O¬cer
SLT Scots Law Times
SSAT Social Security Appeals Tribunal
List of abbreviations xxi

SSCBA 1992 Social Security Contributions and Bene¬ts Act
1992
SSAA 1992 Social Security Administration Act 1992
SSP Statutory Sick Pay
Seebohm Report Report of the Committee on Local Authority
and Allied Personal Social Services (Cmnd
3703, 1968)

TRL Transport Research Laboratory
TRRL Transport and Road Research Laboratory
TSO The Stationery O¬ce

U. University
UCLALR University of California at Los Angeles Law
Review

WAR Western Australian Reports
WALR Western Australian Law Reports
WFTC working families tax credit
Wikeley, Ogus and Barendt™s N.J. Wikeley, Wikeley, Ogus and Barendt™s The
The Law of Social Security Law of Social Security, 5th edn (London, 2002)
Winn Committee Report Report of the Committee on Personal Injuries
Litigation (Cmnd 3691, 1968)
WLR Weekly Law Reports
WN(NSW) Weekly Notes (New South Wales)
WMA Widowed Mother™s Allowance
Woolf Reforms Changes to civil procedure introduced in 1999
and embodied in the Civil Procedure Rules
(CPR)
WP Widow™s Pension
Woodhouse Report Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on
Compensation for Personal Injuries in New
Zealand (Government Printer, New Zealand,
1967)
List of tables




Table 1 Numbers of disabled persons in Great Britain by age and
degree of disability (thousands) 22
Table 2 Sources of income of family units containing a disabled
adult by severity of disability (per cent) 23
Table 3 Numbers of injured persons obtaining compensation
from di¬erent sources 23
Table 4 Cost of compensation paid from di¬erent sources to
injured persons and administrative costs of payments, average over
1971“6 (1977 currency values) 24
Table 5 Court waiting times in personal injury actions 202




xxii
Table of legislation




Administration of Justice Act 1970........................................................................226
Administration of Justice Act 1982 ...............................................................89n, 462
s.1 .......................................................................................................................90n
s.2 ...........................................................................................................149n, 382n
s.5.................................................................................................349n, 390n, 393n
Animals Act 1971......................................................................................72, 101, 248
s.2(2)(b) ...........................................................................................................101n
s.6 .....................................................................................................................101n
Attachment of Earnings Act 1971........................................................................226n

Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970..................................................365
s.2........................................................................................................................370
Civil Evidence Act 1995
s.10......................................................................................................................158
Civil Liability (Contribution) Act 1978.................................................................102
Civil Partnership Act 2004 .....................................................................................89n
Civil Procedure Act 1997
s.7 .....................................................................................................................187n
Coal Industry Act 1975 ........................................................................................357n
Companies Act 1989
s.141 .................................................................................................................253n
Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 .............................57, 72, 246, 462
Consumer Protection Act 1987.....................................................71, 103, 104, 105n,
124, 219
Part I ................................................................99n, 103, 143n, 462, 467, 476, 489
s.4(1)(e) ...........................................................................................................104n
Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 ...................................................244“5
Courts Act 2003
s.95“s.96...........................................................................................................302n
s.100 .................................................................................................................142n
Courts and Legal Services Act 1990
s.58(4)(c) .........................................................................................................265n

xxiii
xxiv Table of legislation

Criminal Damage Act 1971
s.1(1)“(2) .........................................................................................................311n
Criminal Injuries Compensation Act 1995 ...................................303, 307, 309, 381
s.7A“s.7D ...........................................................................................................303
Criminal Justice Act 1988.......................................................................................308
Criminal Justice Act 1991
s.18“s.21...........................................................................................................178n

Damages Act 1996 ................................................................................................159n
s.2 .....................................................................................................................142n
Damages (Scotland) Act 1976........................................................................90, 172n
Defective Premises act 1972
s.4..........................................................................................................................72
Disability Discrimination Act 1995 .......................................................368, 369, 370
Part IV ................................................................................................................370
s.1(1) ..................................................................................................................368
Disability Living Allowance and Disability Working Allowance Act 1992 ..........335
Disabled Persons (Employment) Act 1944............................................367, 368, 369
Domestic Proceedings and Magistrates™ Courts Act 1978
s.3(2) ................................................................................................................155n
Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004
s.59 ...................................................................................................................303n

Employers™ Liability Act 1880 ............................................................................328“9
Employers™ Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969...228n, 234, 246, 259, 297n

Factories Act 1961
s.14........................................................................................................................96
Fatal Accidents Act 1976........................57, 58, 89, 90, 91, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136n,
137n, 141n, 143, 146, 147, 148, 149, 162, 171, 172n,
240, 245, 253, 318, 320, 323, 351, 381, 393
s.1A.....................................................................................................................89n
s.3(3) ................................................................................................................134n
s.3(4) ................................................................................................................351n
s.4 ...................................................................................................144, 245n, 351n

Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 ..................................................................98
s.47(1)“(2) ...........................................................................................................98
Health Services and Public Health Act 1968.......................................................371n
Highways (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1961..............................................72, 191
Housing (Homeless Persons) Act 1977 .................................................................365
Human Rights Act 1998 .........................................................................................194
Table of legislation xxv

Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988
s.263 .................................................................................................................364n
s.265 .................................................................................................................364n
s.327 .................................................................................................................364n
Industrial Assurance and Friendly Societies Act 1948..........................................295
Industrial Injuries Act 1946 .....................................................................................98

Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945....................................36, 55, 245
Law Reform (Husband and Wife) Act 1962..........................................72, 245, 255n
Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1934..................36, 132, 147, 148, 245
Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1971
s.4........................................................................................................................240
Law Reform (Personal Injuries) Act 1948 .......................................36, 245, 391, 392
s.1(3) ................................................................................................................245n
s.2........................................................................................................................390
s.2(4) ................................................................................................................150n
Legal Aid Act 1988
s.13 ...................................................................................................................268n
s.16(6) ..............................................................................................................268n
s.17 ...................................................................................................................268n
Local Authority Social Services Act 1970 ..............................................................365
Lord Campbell™s Act 1846 ................................................................................91, 132

National Assistance Act 1948
Part III ................................................................................................................365
s.21“s.28...........................................................................................................371n
National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990
Part III..............................................................................................................371n
National Insurance Act 1911........................................................330, 331, 337, 343n
National Insurance (industrial Injuries) Act 1946................................................338

Occupiers™ Liability Act 1957 .....................................................................36, 72, 248
Occupiers™ Liability Act 1984 .............................................................................36, 72
O¬ences Against the Person Act 1861
s.34 ...................................................................................................................311n

Pneumoconiosis etc (Workers™ Compensation) Act 1979..................................357n
Policyholders Protection Act 1975.........................................................................242
Powers of Criminal Courts Act 2000 .....................................................................301
s.130“s.134.......................................................................................................301n

Race Relations Act 1976 .........................................................................................368
Riot (Damages) Act 1886 .............................................................................295, 305n
xxvi Table of legislation

Road Tra¬c Act 1988.......................234, 246, 247, 248, 253n, 256, 257, 297n, 302n
s.144 .................................................................................................................233n
s.149(2) ..............................................................................................................61n
s.149(3) ....................................................................................................65n, 257n
s.151(4) ............................................................................................................257n
s.153....................................................................................................232, 246, 247
s.158 .................................................................................................................382n
Road Tra¬c (NHS Charges) Act 1999...........................................................382, 402

Sex Discrimination Act 1975 .............................................................................368“9
Social Security Act 1975 .........................................................................................334
Social Security Act 1985
s.23 ...................................................................................................................108n
Social Security Act 1986 .........................................................................................335
Social Security Act 1989 .................................................................................391, 392
Social Security Act 1990 .........................................................................................335
Social Security Act 1998 ...............................................................................352n, 360
s.29 ...................................................................................................................355n
Social Security Administration Act 1992 ................................................334, 351“2n
Part IV ................................................................................................................391
s.10(1)(b) ...........................................................................................................340
Social Security (Contributions and Bene¬ts) Act 1992 ................................334, 344
s.94(3) ..............................................................................................................339n
s.99 ...................................................................................................................338n
s.101............................................................................................................339, 340
Sch.6.................................................................................................................344n
Social Security (Incapacity for Work) Act 1994....................................................336
Social Security (Recovery of Bene¬ts) Act 1997 ................................359n, 381, 383,
384, 393
s.17 ...................................................................................................................393n
Supreme Court 1981
s.32A.................................................................................................136, 142, 283n

Tax Credits Act 2002
s.10 ...................................................................................................................358n
Third Parties (Rights Against Insurers) Act 1930 .................................232, 246, 247

Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977..............................................................62, 244, 248
s.2..........................................................................................................................61
s.11(4) ..............................................................................................................248n

Vaccine Damage Payments Act 1979 .............................................................108, 381
Table of legislation xxvii

Welfare Reform and Pensions Act 1999 ......................................................336, 347n
Workman™s Compensation Act 1897 .............................................................328, 330
Secondary legislation
Civil Procedure Rules......................................................................................354n
Part 19 ...........................................................................................................276
Part 36 ...........................................................................................................280
Part 45.........................................................................................................265n
Part 46.........................................................................................................266n
Part 72.........................................................................................................225n
Damages (Variation of Periodical Payments) Order 2005............................142n
European Communities (Rights Against Insurers) Regulations 2002..........246n
High Court and County Courts Jurisdiction Order 1991.............................201n
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
reg.22(1) .......................................................................................................98n
Motor Vehicles (Compulsory Insurance) (Information and Compensation
Body) Regulations 2003
reg.11 ..........................................................................................................256n
reg.13 ..........................................................................................................256n
Social Security (Claims and Payments) Regulations 1979
reg.25 ..........................................................................................................355n
Social Security Commissioners (Procedure) Regulations 1999....................354n
Social Security (General Bene¬t) Regulations 1982
Sch.2............................................................................................................344n
Social Security (Recovery of Bene¬ts) Regulations 1997 ..............................393n
reg.2(2)(a) ..................................................................................................351n
Vaccine Damage Payments Act 1979 Statutory Sum Order 2000.................108n
Working Tax Credit (Entitlement and Maximum Rate) Regulations 2002
reg.4(1) .......................................................................................................358n
European legislation
Compensation of Crime Victims Directive 2004/80/EC.................................312
European Convention on Human Rights ........................................................194
Art.3 ..............................................................................................................70n
Art.6 ....................................................................................................70, 82, 83
Art.13 ........................................................................................................70, 83
European Convention on the Compensation of Victims of Violent Crime...312
Fifth Motor Insurance Directive 2005............................................................297n
Product Liability Directive................................................................................489
Working Time Directive .................................................................................396n
New Zealand legislation
Accident Compensation Act 1972..................................................16n, 153n, 156
Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2001
s.122 ............................................................................................................467n
Table of cases




AB v British Coal Corporation [2004] EWHC 1372 ..........................................286n
AB v John Wyeth & Brother Ltd [1994] PIQR P109 ..........................................277n
Adamson v Motor Vehicle Insurance Trust (1957) 58 WALR 56.......................182n
Airedale NHS Trust v Bland [1993] AC 789 .......................................................170n
Albert v MIB [1972] AC 301 ..................................................................................259
Alcock v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire [1992] 1 AC 310...................87n, 88n
Allen v Distillers Co (Biochemicals) Ltd [1974] 2 All ER 365 ...........................137n
Arnold v Teno (1978) 83 DLR (3d) 609 ................................................................77n
Ashton v Turner [1980] 3 All ER 890; [1981] QB 137 ...............................66n, 258n
Attia v British Gas [1988] QB 304...............................................................85n, 316n
Austin v Zurich Insurance Co [1945] KB 250 ....................................................381n

Baker v Willoughby [1970] AC 476...........................................................116n, 380n
Banque Keyser Ullman v Skandia Insurance [1990] 1 QB 665............................74n
Barker v St Gobain Pipelines plc [2004] EWCA Civ 545 ...................................114n
Barnett v Chelsea and Kensington Hospital Management Committee [1969]
1 QB 428 .............................................................................................................78n
Barrett v En¬eld LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 ...........................................................70, 82n
Barrett v Ministry of Defence [1995] 1 WLR 1217 ..............................................80n
Berina (1888) 13 App Cas 1 ...................................................................................57n
Beswick v Beswick [1968] AC 58.........................................................................258n
Bevan Ashford v Geo¬ Yeandle (Contractors) Ltd [1998] 3 All ER 238 ...........273n
Biesheuvel v Birrell [1999] PIQR Q40.................................................................173n
Bird v Pearce [1979] RTR 369................................................................................77n
Bolitho v City and Hackney HA [1998] AC 232...................................................39n
Bolton v Stone [1951] AC 850 .................................................................43n, 45, 186
Bond v Chief Constable of Kent [1983] 1 All ER 456 ........................................303n
Bradburn v Great Western Railway (1874) LR 10 Ex 1 ......................................388n
Bradley v Eagle Star Insurance Co Ltd [1989] AC 957.......................................253n
Bretton v Hancock [2005] EWCA Civ 404..........................................................247n
Brice v Brown [1984] 1 All ER 997......................................................................127n
Broome v Cassell [1972] AC 1027 .......................................................................419n

xxviii
Table of cases xxix

Brown v Roberts [1965] 1 QB 1 ............................................................................82n
Buckley v John Allen & Ford Ltd [1967] 1 QB 637 ............................................134n
Burmah Oil Co v Lord Advocate [1965] AC 75 ....................................................117
Burns v Edman [1970] 2 QB 541.........................................................................318n
Bux v Slough Metals Ltd [1974] 1 All ER 262 .......................................................115

Caparo Industries plc v Dickman [1990] 2 AC 605..............................................68n
Capital & Counties plc v Hampshire CC [1997] QB 1004...................................79n
Capps v Miller The Times 12 December 1988.......................................................55n
Carmarthenshire County Council v Lewis [1955] AC 549 ..................................179
Cassidy v Ministry of Health [1951] 2 KB 343.................................95n, 180n, 232n
Caswell v Powell Du¬ryn Collieries [1940] AC 152...................................54n, 111n
Cavanagh v Ulster Weaving Co [1960] AC 145 ....................................................38n
Chadwick v British Railways Board [1967] 1 WLR 912...............................83n, 88n
Chaplin v Boys [1971] AC 356...............................................................................254
Charlton v Forest Printing Ink Co [1978] IRLR 559..........................................301n
Chester v Afshar [2005] 1 AC 134 .......................................................................115n
Chief Adjudication O¬cer v Faulds [2002] 2 All ER 961 ..................................341n
Chorlton v Fisher [2002] QB 578 ........................................................................247n
Clark v National Insurance Corporation [1963] 3 All ER 375...........................237n
Clarke v Vedel [1979] RTR 26..............................................................................257n
Clunis v Camden and Islington Health Authority [1998] 3 All ER 180 ..............67n
Cole v South Tweed Heads Rugby Football Club Ltd (2004) 217 CLR 469 ........79n
Colledge v Bass Mitchells & Butlers Ltd [1988] 1 All ER 536 ............................388n
Connelly v RTZ Corporation plc [1998] AC 854 ...............................................168n
Cooke v United Bristol Healthcare NHS Trust [2004] 1 WLR 251 ...................160n
Cookson v Knowles [1979] AC 556 ..................................................133, 145n, 159n
Cooper v MIB [1985] QB 575 .............................................................................257n
Cor¬eld v Groves [1950] 1 All ER 488...................................................................258
Corrigan v Bjork Shiley Corp (1986) 227 Cal Rptr 247 .....................................168n
Cox v Hockenhull [1999] 3 All ER 577 ...............................................................132n
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Litigation; Group B Plainti¬s v Medical Research
Council (1997) 41 BMLR 157............................................................................87n
Crocker v Sundance Northwest Resorts Ltd [1988] 1 SCR 1186 .........................79n
CSR Ltd v Eddy [2005] HCA 64 ..........................................................................149n
Cutter v Eagle Star Insurance Co Ltd [1998] 4 All ER 417.................................247n

Daly v General Steam Navigation Ltd [1980] 3 All ER 696................................149n
Davie v New Merton Board Mills [1959] AC 604 .................................................249
Davies v Eli Lilley & Co [1987] 1 WLR 1136 ......................................................267n
Davies v Swan Motor Co [1949] 2 KB 291............................................................55n
Davies v Taylor (No 2) [1973] 1 All ER 959........................................................279n
Davies v Whiteways Cyder [1975] QB 262............................................................143
xxx Table of cases

Davis Contractors v Fareham UDC [1950] AC 696 .............................................38n
Deep Vein Thrombosis and Air Travel Group Litigation (Re) ................................3
Deyong v Shenburn [1946] KB 227.......................................................................75n
Dillon v Twin State Gas & Electric Co (1932) 163 A 111 ...................................116n
Dimond v Lowell [2002] 1 AC 384......................................................................265n
Dodds v Dodds [1978] QB 543................................................................................57
Donnelly v Joyce [1974] QB 454 .........................................................................151n
Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562..............................................................68, 71
Dooley v Cammell Laird [1951] 1 Lloyd™s Reports 271 .......................................88n
Doughty v Turner Manufacturing Co [1964] 1 QB 518.......................................126
DP & JC v UK (2003) 36 EHRR 183 .....................................................................70n
Dunne v NW Gas Board [1964] 2 QB 806..........................................................419n
Dunnett v Railtrack plc [2002] 1 WLR 2434 ......................................................274n

Eagle v Chambers (No 2) [2004] 1 WLR 3081 ...................................................137n
Eley v Bedford [1972] 1 QB 155 ..........................................................................391n

Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd [2003] 1 AC 32..............................113n
Finlay v Railway Executive [1950] 2 All ER 1969................................................280n
Fitzgerald v Lane [1989] AC 328 ...........................................................................59n
Fletcher v Autocar Ltd [1968] 2 QB 322 .............................................................251n
Flynn v Commonwealth of Australia (1988) 6 MVR 186 ....................................50n
Fontaine v Insurance Corporation of British Columbia......................................94n
Froom v Butcher [1976] QB 268 .............................................................................55
Frost v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire [1999] 2 AC 455 .....................87n, 88n

Gaca v Pirelli General plc [2004] 1 WLR 2683 .........................................388n, 389n
Gale v Motor Union Insurance Co Ltd [1928] 1 KB 359 ...................................378n
Gardner v Moore [1984] AC 548 ....................................................258n, 315n, 379n
Gaskill v Preston [1981] 3 All ER 427 .................................................................391n
Giambrone v JMC Holidays Ltd (No 2) [2004] 2 All ER 891 ............................151n
Goldman v Hargrave [1967] 1 AC 645 ..............................................................83, 84
Goodburn v Thomas Cotton Ltd [1968] 1 QB 845 ............................................133n
Gorris v Scott (1874) LR 9 Ex 125 .........................................................................126
Gray v Barr [1970] 2 QB 626 ...............................................................................319n
Gray v CICB (1998)..............................................................................................313n
Green v Russell [1959] 2 QB 226.........................................................................244n
Gregg v Scott [2005] 2 WLR 268 .................................................................114n, 117
Gregory v Kelly [1978] RTR 426............................................................................64n
Gri¬ths v British Coal Corporation [2001] 1 WLR 1493..................................393n
Gri¬ths v Brown The Times 23 October 1998......................................................79n
Groves v Wimborne [1898] 2 QB 402.........................................................96n, 328n
Gurtner v Circuit [1968] 2 QB 587........................................................................258
Table of cases xxxi

Gwilliam v West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust [2003] QB 443.....248n, 250n

H v Ministry of Defence [1991] w QB 103 .........................................................166n
Haigh v Ireland [1974] 1 WLR 43............................................................................98
Haley v London Electricity Board [1965] AC 778 ................................................42n
Hall (Arthur JS) & Co v Simons [2002] 1 AC 615................................................69n
Hall v Brooklands Auto Racing Club [1933] 1 KB 205 ........................................64n
Halsey v Milton Keynes General NHS Trust [2004] 1 WLR 3002 .....................274n
Hamilton v Al Fayed (No 2) [2003] QB 1175 .....................................................263n
Hardy v MIB [1964] 2 QB 745.............................................................................319n
Harman v Crilly [1943] 1 KB 68..........................................................................248n
Hartley v Birmingham CC [1992] 1 WLR 968 ...................................................233n
Harvest Lane Motor Bodies, Re [1969] 1 Ch 457 ...............................................253n
Hatton v Sutherland [2002] 2 All ER 1 .................................................................87n
Hay v Hughes [1975] 1 All ER 257 ......................................................................147n
Hayden v Hayden [1992] 1 WLR 986..................................................................255n
Heil v Rankin [2001] QB 272 ..............................................................................165n
Henderson v Merrett Syndicates Ltd [1995] 2 AC 145.........................................78n
Hepburn v Tomlinson [1966] AC 451 ................................................................244n
Hewson v Downs [1970] 1 QB 93 .......................................................................391n
Hill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire [1989] AC 53 ....................53n, 82n, 301n
Hinz v Berry [1970] 2 QB 40 .................................................................................85n
Hodges v Harland & Wol¬ [1965] 1 WLR 523 ...................................................166n
Hodgson v Imperial Tobacco [1998] 2 All ER 672 .............................................275n
Hodgson v Trapp AC 807.....................................................................................391n
Hollis v Dow Corning Corp (1995) 129 DLR (4th) 609 ....................................115n
Holmes v Syntex Laboratories Inc (1984) 202 Cal Rptr 773..............................168n
Home O¬ce v Dorset Yacht Co [1970] AC 1004...............................52n, 81n, 301n
Horsley v MacLaren (The Ogopogo) [1971] 2 Lloyd™s Reports 210............76n, 79n
Hosie v Arbroath Football Club Ltd [1987] SLT 122 ...........................................83n
Hotson v East Berkshire HA [1987] AC 750...............................................113n, 117
Houghton v Hackney BC (1961) 3 KIR 615 .......................................................301n
Hudson v Ridge Manufacturing Co [1957] 2 QB 348..........................................81n
Hunt v Severs [1994] 2 AC 350 ...............................................151n, 158n, 255, 389n
Hunter v British Coal Corporation [1988] 2 All ER 97........................................88n
Hussain v New Taplow Paper Mills [1988] AC 514 ............................................388n


ICI v Shatwell [1965] AC 656 ......................................................................64n, 184n
IRC v Hambrook [1956] 2 QB 641......................................................................379n


Jaensch v Co¬ey (1983“4) 155 CLR 549 ...............................................................87n
Je¬ord v Gee [1970] w QB 130 ............................................................................145n
xxxii Table of cases

Jobling v Associated Dairies Ltd [1982] AC 794.......................................118n, 380n
Jones v Dennison [1971] RTR 174 ......................................................................181n

Kars v Kars (1996) 187 CLR 354..........................................................................255n
Kent v Gri¬ths [2001] QB 36................................................................................79n
Kingston v Chicago & NW Railway (1927) 22 NW 913.....................................116n
Kirkham v Chief Constable of Manchester [1990] 2 QB 283..............66n, 67n, 79n
Kralj v McGrath [1986] 1 All ER 54 ....................................................................174n

Lamb v Camden LBC [1981] QB 625 .................................................................128n
Lamb v Cotogno (1987) 164 CLR 1 ....................................................................174n
Lane v Holloway [1968] 1 QB 379.......................................................................319n
Larner v British Steel plc [1993] ICR 551 .............................................................96n
Leakey v National Trust [1980] QB 485 ................................................................83n
Lee v Lee™s Air Farming Ltd [1961] AC 12 ..........................................................338n
Lefevre v White [1990] 1 Lloyd™s Rep 569...........................................................232n
Leversley v Thomas Firth [1953] 1 WLR 1206 .....................................................97n
Lim Poh Choo v Camden Health Authority [1979] QB 196; [1980]
AC 174 ..................................................................................143, 148n, 252n, 416n
Lincoln v Hayman [1982] 1 WLR 488 ................................................................391n
Lister v Romford Ice & Cold Storage Co Ltd [1957] AC 555 232n, 249n, 254, 381n
Longden v British Coal Corporation [1998] AC 653 .........................................388n
Lowe v Guise [2002] QB 1369 .............................................................................149n
Lubbe v Cape ple [2000] 1 WLR 1545.................................................................168n

McCa¬erey v Datta [1997] 1 WLR 870 ...............................................................280n
McCamley v Cammell Laird Shipbuilders Ltd [1990] 1 WLR 963....................388n
McGhee v National Coal Board [1972] 3 All ER 1008 .......................................112n
McGlinchey v UK (2003) 37 EHRR 41 .................................................................70n
McHale v Watson (1964) 111 CLR 384 ...............................................................181n
McKew v Holand and Hannen and Cubitts (Scotland) Ltd [1969] 3 All ER
1621.................................................................................................121n, 122, 128n
McNealy v Pennine Insurance Co [1978] RTR 285 ............................................233n
McWilliams v Sir William Arrol & Co [1962] 1 All ER 623 .........................115, 117
Mahony v J. Kruschich (Demolitions) Pty Ltd (1985) 156 CLR 522.................122n
Mallett v McMonagle [1970] AC 168..................................................................159n
Meah v McCreamer (No 1) [1985] 1 All ER 367..............................67n, 123n, 300n
Meah v McCreamer (No 2) [1986] 1 All ER 943 ........................................67n, 300n
Medlin v State Government Insurance Commission (1995) 182 CLR 1...........122n
Metropolitan Police Commissioner v Reeves [2000] 1 AC 360 ...........................79n
Miller v Jackson [1977] QB 966...................................................................186n, 446
Mitchell (George) Ltd v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd [1983] 2 AC 803 .......................62n
Mitchell v Mulholland [1971] AC 666 ........................................................136, 159n
Table of cases xxxiii

Monk v Warbey [1935] 1 KB 75 ..........................................................................247n
Moriarty v McCarthy [1978] 1 WLR 155............................................................161n
Morley v United Friendly Insurance plc [1993] 1 WLR 996..............................237n
Morrell v Owen The Times 12 December 1993.....................................................44n
Morris v Ford Motor Co [1973] QB 792 ..................................................251n, 381n
Morris v KLM Royal Dutch Airlines [2002] 2 AC 628 .......................................168n
Morris v Murray [1991] 2 QB 6.............................................................................64n
Morris v West Hartlepool Steam Co [1956] AC 552 ............................................38n
Mt Isa Mines Ltd v Pusey (1970) 125 CLR 383 ....................................................88n
Mulcahy v Ministry of Defence [1996] QB 737....................................................69n
Mulligan v Co¬s Harbour City Council [2005] HCA 63.....................................81n
Murphy v Brentwood District Council [1991] 1 AC 398.....................................82n
Murphy v Culhane [1977] QB 94 ..........................................................................319
Murphy v Stone Wallwork Ltd [1969] 2 All ER 949 ...........................................135n
Murray v Haringey Arena [1951] 2 KB 529 ..........................................................64n

Nabi v British Leyland (UK) Ltd [1980] 1 WLR 529..........................................391n
Nagle v Rottnest Island Authority (1993) 177 CLR 423.......................................81n
Naylor v Payling [2004] EWCA 560 ....................................................................250n
Nettleship v Weston [1971] 2 QB 691.........................................................49n, 250n
Newton v Edgerley [1959] 1 WLR 1031................................................................81n
Ng Chun Pui v Lee Chuen Tat [1988] RTR 298....................................................94n
Nimmo v Alexander Cowan & Sons Ltd [1968] AC 107 .............................96n, 97n

O™Dwyer v Leo Buring Wines [1966] WAR 67 .....................................................50n
Oliver v Birmingham & Midland Omnibus Co [1933] 1 KB 35..........................57n
OLL Ltd v Secretary of State for Transport [1997] 3 All ER 897 .........................79n
Osman v UK (2000) 29 EHRR 245..........................................................................70
Owens v Brimmell [1977] QB 859 ................................................................55n, 64n

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155 ..................................................................................87n
Palfrey v Greater London Council [1988] ICR 437 ............................................391n
Paris v Stepney Borough Council [1951] AC 367 ...................................................43
Parry v Cleaver [1970] AC 1 ........................................................................387, 388n
Paterson v Chadwick [1974] 2 All ER 772 ..........................................................233n
Performance Cars v Abraham [1961] 3 All ER 413 ............................................116n
Persson v London Country Buses [1974] 1 All ER 1251 ....................................257n
Phillips v Britannia Hygienic Laundry [1923] 2 KB 832......................................96n
Phillips v William Whitely [1938] 1 All ER 566....................................................65n
Photo Production Ltd v Securicor Transport Ltd [1980] AC 827 .......................62n
Pickett v British Rail Engineering Ltd [1980] AC 136........................................148n
Pickett v Motor Insurers™ Bureau [2004] 1 WLR 2450 .......................................257n
Pigney v Pointer™s Transport Services Ltd [1957] 1 WLR 1121 .........................127n
xxxiv Table of cases

Pitts v Hunt [1991] 1 QB 24........................................................63n, 65n, 66n, 258n
Polemis, Re [1921] 3 KB 560..................................................................................127
P™s Curator Bonis v CICB (1996).........................................................................309n

R (Factortame) v Secretary of State for Transport, Local Government and
the Regions (No 8) [2003] QB 381..................................................................262n
R v CICB, ex parte Clowes [1977] 1 WLR 1353..............................................310“11
R v CICB, ex parte Ince [1973] 3 All ER 808 ......................................................317n
R v CICB, ex parte Kent and Milne [1998] PIQR Q98.......................................317n
R v CICB, ex parte Lain [1967] 2 QB 864 ...........................................................307n
R v CICB, ex parte Thompstone [1984] 1 WLR 1234 ........................................318n
R v CICB, ex parte Webb [1986] QB 184; [1987] QB 74 (CA)........310n, 311, 313n
R v Criminal Injuries Compensation Appeal Panel, ex parte Wade (2000)......313n
R v Daly [1974] 1 All ER 290 ...............................................................................302n
R v Horsham Justices, ex parte Richards [1985] 2 All ER 1114 .........................303n
R v Industrial Injuries Commissioner, ex parte Amalgamated Engineering
Union (No 2) [1966] 2 QB 31 .........................................................................340n
R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Fire Brigades™
Union [1995] AC 513.......................................................................................309n
Rance v Mid-Downs Health Authority [1991] 1 QB 487.....................................66n
Randall v MIB [1968] 1 WLR 1900 .....................................................................257n
Rees v Darlington Memorial Hospital NHS TRust ..............................................69n
Reeves v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis [1998] 2 WLR 401.............67n
Re¬ell v Surrey CC [1964] 1 WLR 358................................................................429n
Regan v Williamson [1976] 1 WLR 305....................................................134n, 147n
Reid v Rush & Tompkins [1990] 1 WLR 212 ...................................74n, 228n, 250n
Revill v Newbery [1996] QB 567 ...................................................................65n, 318
Roberts v Ramsbottom [1980] 1 All ER 7.....................................................49, 182n
Robinson v Post O¬ce [1974] 2 All ER 737 .......................................................128n
Rookes v Barnard [1964] AC 1129..................................................174n, 419n, 420n
Rootes v Shelton (1967) 116 CLR 383...................................................................64n
Rylands v Fletcher.....................................................................................34, 100, 418

St Helen™s Colliery Ltd v Hewitson [1924] AC 59...............................................338n
Sarwar v Alam [2002] 1 WLR 125.......................................................................264n
Saunders v Edwards [1987] 1 WLR 1116..............................................................66n
Sayers v Perrin [1966] QdR 89.............................................................................127n
Schuster v New York (1958) 154 NE 2d 534 ...................................................52n52n
Scottish Omnibuses v Wyngrove The Times 24 June 1966...................................50n
Selfe v Ilford & District Hospital Management Committee The Times
26 November 1970 .............................................................................................78n
Shiels v Cruickshank [1953] 1 WLR 533.............................................................155n
Sidaway v Governors of Bethlem Royal Hospital [1985] AC 871 ........................39n
Table of cases xxxv

Smith v Arndt (1997) 148 DLR (4th) 48.............................................................115n
Smith v Baker & Sons [1891] AC 325 .........................................................63n, 328n
Smith v BEA [1951] 2 KB 893..............................................................................245n
Smith v Leech Brain [1962] 2 QB 405.......................................................117n, 127n
Smoker v London Fire and Civil Defence Authority [1991] 2 AC 502..............389n
Stapley v Gypsum Mines [1953] AC 663 ..............................................................55n
State Rail Authority of New South Wales v Wiegold (1991) 25 NWSLR 500 ...123n
Stephen v Scottish Boatowners Mutual Insurance Association [1989]
1 Lloyd™s Reports 535 .......................................................................................237n
Stovin v Wise [1996] AC 923 .................................................................................79n
Sturges v Bridgman (1879) 11 Ch D 852...............................................................445
Suosaari v Steinhardt [1989] 2 QdR 477...............................................................50n

Tame v New South Wales (2002) 211 CLR 317 ....................................................89n
Tan Chye Choo v Chong Kew Moi [1970] 1 All ER 266.......................................96n
Taylor v Bristol Omnibus Co [1975] 1 WLR 1054 .............................................393n
Thomas v Quartermaine (1887) 18 QD 685.........................................................54n
Thompson v Price [1973] QB 838.......................................................................134n
Thurston v Todd (1966“7) 84 WN (NSW) (Pt 1) 231 .........................................160
Tomlinson v Congleton BC [2003] UKHL 47 ......................................................81n
Topp v London Country Bus (South West) Ltd [1993] 1 WLR 976..................125n
TP & KM v UK (2002) 34 EHRR 42......................................................................70n
Transco plc v Stockport MBC [2004] 2 AC 1......................................................100n

Union Carbide Corporation Gas Plant Disaster in India in December 1984,
Re (1987) 809 F 2d 195 ....................................................................................168n
US v Carroll Towing Co (1947) 159 F 2d 169.......................................................41n

Vairy v Wyong Shire Council [2005] HCA 62 ......................................................81n
Van Oppen v Clerk to the Bedford Charity Trustees [1990] 1 WLR 235...250n, 293n
Versic v Connors (1969) 90 WN (NSW) (Pt 1) 33 .............................................128n
Vincent v Lake Erie Transportation Co (1910) 124 NW 221 .......................185, 186
Vowles v Evans [2003] 1 WLR 1607 ....................................................................250n

W v Meah [1986] 1 All ER 935 ............................................................................300n
Wagon Mound (No 1) [1961] 1 AC 388................................................................127
Wagon Mound (No 2) [1967] 1 AC 617 ...............................................................43n
Waite v North Eastern Railway (1858) El, Bl & El 719; 120 ER 679 ....................57n
Ward v James [1966] 1 QB 273............................................................................166n
Warren v King [1963] 3 All ER 993n...................................................................137n
Warren v Scruttons [1962] 1 Llloyd™s Rep 497....................................................127n
Warriner v Warriner [2002] 1 WLR 1703 ...........................................................159n
Watson v British Boxing Board of Control [2001] QB 1134..............................250n
xxxvi Table of cases

Watson v Powles [1968] 1 QB 596.......................................................................144n
Waugh v James Allan Ltd [1964] 2 Lloyd™s Reports 1.........................................182n
Wells v Wells [1999] 1 AC 345...................................................................158n, 159n
West v Shephard [1964] AC 326 ............................................................................171
White v MIB [2001] 1 WLR 481..........................................................................257n
Widdowson v Newgate Meat Corporation [1998] PIQR P138............................94n
Williams v BOC Gases Ltd [2000] ICR 1181 ......................................................389n
Williams v Grimshaw (1967) 3 KIR 610 .............................................................301n
Wilsher v Essex AHA [1988] AC 1074 ................................................................113n
Wilson v Ministry of Defence [1991] ICR 595 ...................................................136n
Winward v TVR Engineering Ltd [1986] Business and Trading Law Cases
366.......................................................................................................................50n
Wise v Kaye [1962] 1 QB 638.......................................................................170n, 171
Withers v Perry Chain Co [1961] 1 WLR 1314 ....................................................65n
Wood v Bentall Simplex Ltd The Times 3 March 1992.........................................50n
Wooldridge v Sumner [1963] 2 QB 43..................................................................64n
Wright v British Railways Board [1983] 2 AC 773 .............................................145n
Wringe v Cohen [1940] 1 KB 229 ..........................................................................101
Wyong Shire Council v Vairy [2004] NSWCA 247...............................................81n

X v Bedfordshire County Council [1995] 2 AC 633.............................................82n

Yuen Kun Yeu v Attorney-General of Hong Kong [1988] AC 175.......................82n

Z v UK (2002) 34 EHRR 97 ...................................................................................70n
Part 1

The issues in perspective
1

Introduction: surveying the ¬eld




1.1 Compensation for accidents
This book deals with certain kinds of misfortune, and in particular with injury and
damage arising from accidents. Although the term ˜accident™ is a convenient one, its
meaning is not straightforward, and some further explanation of the way it is used
in this book is necessary. First, the word ˜accident™ will be used to cover injury and
damage in¬‚icted intentionally (as when, for example, one person deliberately
assaults another), even though neither the in¬‚icter nor the victim may consider the
injury to be ˜accidental™ in the normal sense. Secondly, the term will not be con¬ned
to the technical legal sense “ in this sense, injury or damage would be accidental
only if it was not a foreseeable consequence of a deliberate or negligent act.
Thirdly, we are sometimes reluctant to refer to injury or damage resulting from
natural causes as accidental: we might hesitate to say that a house, the roof of which
was blown o¬ by a hurricane, was damaged ˜by accident™ (although we might say
that a person hit by the debris su¬ered an accident); or we might hesitate to say of
a person who died of leukaemia that they died accidentally (although if a person,
while on holiday, contracts a rare viral disease and dies soon after, we might call the
death an accident). Fourthly, the term ˜accident™ is often used to refer to injury and
damage which is caused by a sudden, non-repetitive, traumatic occurrence; and in
this sense it is contrasted with illness or disease, which often develops gradually and
has no easily identi¬able starting point. The distinction between ˜traumatic™ acci-
dents and ˜non-traumatic™ diseases is of considerable practical and theoretical
importance in the law,1 and it will be mentioned at various points.
The scope of this book is not limited to any of these narrower senses of the word
˜accident™, although its primary focus is on injury and damage for which the law
provides some compensation. As we will see, the law distinguishes in many ways,

. 1
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