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claims conciliation 274
actions commenced 203“4 conditional fee arrangements (CFAs) 213, 214,
all tort claims 204“5 223, 263“7, 463
cases reaching trial 201“3 conduct 53“4, 183“5
cases set down for trial 203 contributory negligence 36, 53, 54“61, 245,
costs of tort compensation 395“402, 405“6 251, 432, 449
criminal injuries compensation 300“1 assessment 58“9
defendants see defendants di¬erences from negligence 56
Index 501

family cases and 57“8 corporations
fault system and 54, 59“60 corporate defendants and intangible losses
usefulness of doctrine 60“1 172
volenti non ¬t injuria (voluntary defunct 253
assumption of risk) and 62“4 insurance 228“9, 230, 232
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme reorganization plans 231
and 317“19 as tort defendants 228“32
duties to control the conduct of others 81“3 vicarious liability 93, 95, 102“3, 222, 229“32
illegality 53“4, 65“7 see also industrial injuries/diseases
legal causation and 122“3 corrective compensation 411
rules and standards of behaviour corrective justice 421“2, 479
avoiding injury to self 432“3 cost-bene¬t analysis 163
causing injury to others 425“32 costs
volenti non ¬t injuria (voluntary assumption administrative 27“8, 194, 324, 451, 483
of risk) 53, 61“5 criminal injuries compensation 406“7, 452
agreement not to sue and 61“2 externalization of costs 443, 453
contributory negligence and 62“4 general deterrence theory see general
standard of care and 64“5 deterrence
congenital defects 72, 246 industrial injuries 395, 399, 403“4, 452
compensation for 16 insurance 399, 400
contributory negligence 57 legal see legal costs
statistics 21 medical negligence claims 399, 401
consciousness of claims 209“14 no-fault compensation schemes 486“7
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme production costs 439“40
326“7 public liability 401
consent reforms 490“1
consent orders 142 road accidents 396, 399“401, 443, 446, 447,
defence to trespass/assault 62 448“9
constant attendance allowance 348 social security 403“5
consumer choice 454 social services 402“3
contact sports 62 tort system 395“402, 405“6
contractors, vicarious liability and 229“30, 248 usage costs 440
contracts county courts 201, 202, 203, 204, 281
contractual duties 99“100 courts
exclusion clauses 61, 62 actions commenced 203“4
insurance 234 cases reaching trial 201“3
privity 71 cases set down for trial 203
undertakings 78 county courts 201, 202, 203, 204, 281
contribution, joint liability and 102 court orders 225“6
contributory negligence 36, 53, 54“61, 245, 251, criminal injuries compensation 301“3
432, 449 Crown Courts 302
assessment 58“9 group litigation orders (GLOs) 276“7
di¬erences from negligence 56 High Court 201, 202, 203, 204, 281
family cases and 57“8 litigation procedures 269“70
fault system and 54, 59“60 payment into court 280
usefulness of doctrine 60“1 representative actions 276
volenti non ¬t injuria (voluntary assumption crime
of risk) and 62“4 compensation for criminal injuries 303“4
coroners™ inquests 270 compensation orders 301“3
502 Index

crime (cont.) commitment in practice 157“61
compensation for criminal injuries (cont.) general damages 144
costs 406“7, 452 interest 145“6
over-compensation 394 lost earnings and support 146“9, 152“61
tort claims 300“1 medical and other expenses 149“52
see also Criminal Injuries Compensation special damages 144
Scheme instalment payments 225
criminal proceedings 270 intangible losses 286, 410
illegality and negligence 53“4, 65“7 assessing intangible losses 161“6
prevention of 52“3, 82 justi¬cation 171“3
statistics 19 subjective factors 170“1
violent 310“13, 409 tari¬ system 166“70
domestic violence 315“16 lump sum
Criminal Injuries Compensation alternatives to lump sums 139“43
Board/Authority (CICB/CICA) 300 fatal cases 132“5
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme 4“5, personal injury cases 130“2
6, 7, 14, 27, 36, 53, 301, 379“80, 409 suitability of lump sums 137“9
administration 324“6 variation of awards after trial 135“7
awards 303 workers™ compensation claims 329“30
claims consciousness 326“7 maxima 173
comparison with tort liability 316“24 negotiation on 270“1
assessment of compensation 319“24 out of court settlement 284“7
conduct of claimant 317“19 over-compensation see over-compensation
mental distress/nervous shock 316“17 periodical payments 140, 142“3
costs 406“7, 452 arguments against 139
hundred-per-cent principle 156 punitive damages 172, 173“4, 410, 419“21
justi¬cation for 304“9 structured settlements 141“2
over-compensation 394 dangerousness, strict liability and 105“6
scope 309“16 deceased persons
accidental injuries 314“15 claims against 245
crimes of violence 310“13, 409 contributory negligence 57
exclusions 315“16 negligence by 36
subrogation rights 383 see also fatal injuries
crisis in insurance 195“7, 242“3, 463 deductibles (excess) 296, 435
critical illness insurance 292 defamation 212“13
Crown Courts 302 defective premises 72
Crown indemnity 17 defective products see product liability
culture of compensation/blame 192“8, 269 defendants 222
cumulation 377 bankruptcy 225, 230“1, 246“7
corporations/employers 228“32
Dalkon Shield 212 enforcement of judgments against 225“7
damage to property 4, 62, 207 individuals 222“7
insurance and 5 repeat 269
war property damage compensation 10, 117 see also funding issues
damages 23, 24, 239“40, 410“11 delays 283
aggravated damages 420 interest on damages awards and 145“6
for bereavement 89“90, 162, 169, 413 postponement of trial/settlement 131“2
contributory negligence and 58“9 demand, elasticity of 446“7
full compensation 143“52 Denmark, subrogation rights 385
Index 503

dependants discount rate 158“9, 396
claims for fatal injuries 132“5 discrimination
loss of earnings and 146“7 disability and 368“9, 370
dependency culture 192 preferential treatment 472“3
design, negligence in 50“3, 191 disease 3, 6
deterrence 479 causation 6“7
as function of compensation systems 424“58, distributional issues 12
482“3 distribution of losses 415“18, 454
general deterrence 424, 439“58 how should it be distributed 416“18
allocation of costs to activities 442“6 what should be distributed 415“16
application in practice 448 redistributive compensation 411“12
ascertaining costs of accident 442 strict liability and 479“80
assessment of value of general-deterrence domestic violence 315“16
approach 453“6 double compensation 161
basic idea 439“41 Dow-Corning 212
conclusions on 457“8 drugs
insurance and 443“4, 452“3, 455 elasticity of demand 446
responsiveness to price mechanism 446“7 product liability 103“4, 219, 467
social security system and 452 side e¬ects 114, 220
tort system and 448“51 Thalidomide case 16, 20, 105, 285, 461, 467
punitive damages as 174 vaccine damage 107“8
rules and standards of behaviour 425“33 dual systems 470“2, 491“2
avoiding injury to self 432“3 duties
causing injury to others 425“32 breach of statutory duty 95“9, 126
development risk defence 104 care see duty of care
disability 468“9, 474“5 contractual duties 99“100
causation 7 duty of care 34, 69“70
costs of social services 402“3 distinction between acts and omissions
discrimination on grounds of 368“9, 370 72“84
e¬ects on income 21“2 control over property 83“4
employment and 21“2, 366“9 duties of physical protection 78“81
housing and residential accommodation duties to control the conduct of others
370“1 81“3
mobility schemes 369“70 undertakings 77“8
other social services 371“2 situations where duty of care has been
protecting reasonable expectations 9“10 imposed 70“2
responsibility for human causes 8“9
social security and 6, 7, 335“6, 355“8 earnings see wages and salaries
income support 359 economic torts 34
long-term incapacity from industrial e¬ciency, distribution of losses and 418
injuries 344“50 egalitarianism 10“11
preferences in State system 356“8 elasticity of demand 446“7
reform proposals 488“93 emergency services, duty of care and 79
social services 402“3 employment
social services and 365“72 common employment doctrine 36, 245, 328
statistics on 21“2 disability and 21“2, 366“9
tax reliefs 364 duty of care 78, 80
unemployment and 367, 369 employers as defendants 228“32
disclosure of evidence 270 negligence of employees 36
504 Index

employment (cont.) contributory negligence and 57“8
sick pay 209, 293“4, 343“4, 379 see also spouses
over-compensation and 387“8 fatal injuries
vicarious liability 93, 95, 102“3, 222, 229“32 bereavement bene¬ts 350“1
see also industrial injuries/diseases bereavement damages 89“90, 162, 169, 413
enforcement of judgments 225“7 Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme
equality 472 320, 322“3
fault principle and 177“9 full compensation damages 143“4, 149
equivalent compensation 412“13 inquests 270
European Convention on Human Rights 194 intangible losses 162, 163, 171
evidence loss of earnings and 146“7
collection of 270, 275 lump sum damages 132“5
disclosure 270 fault 3, 14, 35“6, 235, 250“1
problems with 271 appraisal of fault principle 175
ex gratia compensation schemes 107“9, 307 avoidance of responsibility 192“8
hepatitis C 108“9 compensation bears no relation to degree
HIV infection 108 of fault 175“7
vaccine damage 107“8 compensation bears no relation to means
variant CJD 109 of tortfeasor 177“9
excess 296, 435 contribution to culture of blame 192“8,
exclusion clauses 269
contracts 61, 62 di¬culty of adjudicating allegations of
insurance 61, 62, 248 fault 187“91
exemplary (punitive) damages 172, 173“4, 410, fault principle pays little attention to
419“21 conduct or needs of victim 183“5
expectations justice may require compensation without
equivalent compensation and 412“13 fault 185“6
protecting reasonable expectations 9“10 legal liability without moral culpability
expenses, full compensation damages and and vice versa 179“83
149“52 moral culpability without legal liability
expert evidence, nervous shock 85 182“3
externalization of costs 443, 453 contributory negligence and 54, 59“60
de¬nition 180“2, 187
facts of the case 36“9 departures from fault principle
factual causation 111“18 breach of statutory duty 95“9, 126
causing and increasing risk of harm 112“15 contractual duties 99“100
limits on liability of factual causes 118“29 ex gratia compensation schemes 107“9
damage not within the risk 125“7 joint liability 101“2
foreseeability 125, 127“9 procedural devices 94“5
legal causation 118“25 product liability 103“5
multiple causation 116“18 proposals to extend strict liability 105“6,
omissions 115“16 467“8
proving 111“12 Rylands v. Fletcher rule 100“1
faculty, loss of 161“2 strict liability 92“4, 105“6, 467“8
failure to act see omissions vicarious liability 102“3
fairness 408 proof of 94, 187“8
fair hearing right 70 see also negligence
family cases ¬nance see funding issues
negligence 89“91 ¬res 207, 208
Index 505

¬re brigades 433, 434 no-win-no-fee 263, 264
insurance 4, 295 claims assessors (CAs) 224“5, 262, 272
legal causation 125 claims management companies 224, 262
multiple causation 116 conditional fee arrangements (CFAs) 213,
statistics 19 214, 223, 263“7, 463
¬rst-party insurance 235“8, 378, 475 Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme
for bene¬t of others 244“5 325
compared with tort liability 295“9 reform proposals 477“8
compensation reform proposals 493“5 trade unions 213, 261“2, 279
general deterrence theory and 452“3 see also insurance
over-compensation and 388“9 future of compensation system see reform
types 291“5 proposals
Fisher Committee 361
foreseeability 47“8, 68“9, 125, 127“9 general damages 144
Forum of Insurance Lawyers 269 general deterrence 424, 439“58
fraud allocation of costs to activities 442“6
social security 360“1 application in practice 448
tort system 361“2 ascertaining costs of accident 442
front-loading 270, 281, 396 assessment of value of general-deterrence
full compensation damages 143“52 approach 453“6
commitment in practice 157“61 basic idea 439“41
general damages 144 conclusions on 457“8
lost earnings and support 146“9 insurance and 443“4, 452“3, 455
earnings-related principle 152“5, 475“6 responsiveness to price mechanism 446“7
hundred-per-cent principle 156“7 rules and standards of behaviour 425“33
justi¬cation 152“7 avoiding injury to self 432“3
medical and other expenses 149“52 causing injury to others 425“32
special damages 144 social security system and 452
functions of compensation systems tort system and 448“51
allocation of risks 418“19 Germany 488
corrective justice 421“2 goals of system see functions of compensation
criteria for success 414 systems
de¬nition of compensation 4, 411“14 government and the State
deterrence 424“58, 482“3 compensation schemes and 11“12, 13, 477“8
general deterrence 424, 439“58 war property damage compensation 10
rules and standards of behaviour 425“33 legal system 13“14
distribution of losses 415“18, 454 public sector 453
how should it be distributed 416“18 see also social security
what should be distributed 415“16 group claims 212, 221, 267
preliminary questions 408“11 negotiation 274“8, 286
prevention 424“39 group litigation orders (GLOs) 276“7
punishment 419“21
vindication or satisfaction 422“3 haemophilia, HIV infection and 108
funding issues 223“5, 261“8, 483 health and safety 98
legal aid 17, 213, 223, 247, 263, 264, 275 see also industrial injuries/diseases
costs and 278“9 health insurance 292
costs of 402 hedonic value of life 162
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme hepatitis C infection 108“9
325 High Court 201, 202, 203, 204, 281
506 Index

highways, failure to repair 72 workers™ compensation 328“30, 331“3,
hit-and-run accidents 36, 255“9 390, 456
HIV infection 108 statistics 19, 193, 205, 216“18
home accidents 207“8, 211 inequalities 11
homicide, statistics 19 earnings-related principle and 155
hotels, duty to control conduct of others 81“2 in¬‚ation 241“2, 331
household services, fatal injury awards and social security and 334
147“8 information disclosure 270
housing 370“1 inquests 270
human capital 163 instalment payment of damages 225
human rights issues 70, 82“3, 194 insurance 5, 11, 13“14, 59, 178“9, 186, 222, 233
accident insurance 292, 293
identi¬cation doctrine 57 accident prevention and 433“9
ignorance of law 210“11, 427 encouraging/requiring loss prevention
illegality, negligence and 53“4, 65“7 measures 433“5
incapacity bene¬t 6, 336 risk-related premiums and similar
income see wages and salaries techniques 435“9
income distribution see distributional issues after-the-event (ATE) 223, 224, 264, 265, 463
income support 14, 22, 337, 358“60 captive insurers 228“9
administration 360 claims crisis 195“7, 242“3, 463
indemnities 232, 254 compensation reform proposals 493“5
Crown indemnity 17 compulsory 12, 14, 36, 96, 234, 246
individualism 12“13, 192 corporations 228“9, 230, 232
individuals costs 399, 400
negotiation of individual claims 269“74 earnings-related principle and 154“5
as tort defendants 222“7 excess (deductibles) 296, 435
industrial injuries/diseases 111, 216“18, 413 exclusion clauses 61, 62, 248
asbestos mesothelioma 20, 113, 193, 212, ¬re insurance 4, 295
231, 241 ¬rst-party insurance 235“8, 378, 475
breach of statutory duty 95“9 for bene¬t of others 244“5
cases reaching trial 202, 203 compared with tort liability 295“9
claims consciousness 213 compensation reform proposals 493“5
costs 395, 399, 403“4, 452 general deterrence theory and 452“3
damage not within the risk 126 over-compensation and 388“9
deterrence 431“2 types 291“5
insurance 234, 246 general deterrence theory and 443“4, 452“3,
risk-related insurance premiums 437“9 455
multiple causation 117“18 impact of liability insurance on the law 245“55
omissions 115“16 common law 248“55
over-compensation and 388“9 statutory provisions 245“8
social security and 6, 332“3 industrial injuries 234, 246
accidents and disease 340“2 risk-related insurance premiums 437“9
administration 351“5 ˜knock-for-knock™ agreements 238, 385
bene¬ts 342“51 legal expenses (before-the-event) insurance
bereavement bene¬ts 350“1 223, 263, 264
long-term incapacity 344“50 Motor Insurers™ Bureau (MIB) scheme 36,
scope of system 338“40 255“9, 279, 315, 379, 400“1
short-term incapacity 343“4 mutuals 228
tort system compared 355 nature of liability insurance 234“8
Index 507

New Zealand national accident insurance legal costs 213, 239, 278“81, 397, 398
scheme 16, 461, 469, 470, 471, 473, 475, losing party 223, 278“9
476, 477, 481, 483, 485, 491 legal expenses (before-the-event) insurance
no-claims bonuses 436“7 223, 263, 264
over-compensation and 388“9 legal profession see barristers; solicitors
problems of liability insurance 239“43 Legal Services Commission (LSC) 263
property 5, 291, 298“9, 495“6 legal system 13“14
¬re insurance 4, 295 see also common law; statutory law; tort law
reform proposals and insurance profession level crossing accidents 40
496“8 life expectancy 162
road accidents 154, 234, 235“6, 246 full compensation damages and 148
risk-related insurance premiums 436“7 intangible losses and 165
self-insurance 228 life insurance 291, 295
solvency of insurance companies 13 litigation procedures 269“70
intangible losses 286, 410, 474“5 local authorities 82
assessing intangible losses 161“6 residential accommodation 371
insurance and 297“8 see also social services
justi¬cation 171“3 Lockerbie bombing 212
subjective factors 170“1 long-tail liability 240“1
tari¬ system 166“70 long-term care insurance 292
intention 35 loss
interest de¬nition of 4, 415
damages awards and 145“6 distribution of losses 415“18, 454
discount rate 158“9, 396 how should it be distributed 416“18
Investigative Help 263 what should be distributed 415“16
investment intangible see intangible losses
lump sum damages 137“8 social loss 451
real rates of return 159 valuation 415
structured settlements and 141 loss of earnings 132, 146“9
fatal injuries 132
joint liability 101“2 full compensation damages 146“9
Journal of Personal Injury Law 194 earnings-related principle 152“5, 475“6
judgments, enforcement 225“7 hundred-per-cent principle 156“7
justice 408, 410, 490 justi¬cation 152“7
corrective justice 421“2, 479 insurance against 292, 293, 294“5, 296
dual systems and 471 lump sum damages 137
no-fault compensation and 185“6 road accidents 379
lump sum damages
˜knock-for-knock™ agreements 238, 385 alternatives to lump sums 139“43
arguments against abandoning lump-sum
last opportunity rule 55 system 139“40
Law Society 269 early proposals 140“1
lead cases 277 periodical payments 140, 142“3
legal advice scheme 213 structured settlements 141“2
legal aid 17, 213, 223, 247, 263, 264, 275 fatal cases 132“5
costs and 278“9 personal injury cases 130“2
costs of 402 suitability of lump sums 137“9
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme 325 variation of awards after trial 135“7
legal causation 118“25 workers™ compensation claims 329“30
508 Index

Macfarlane Trust 108 motor vehicles
magistrates™ court, criminal injuries construction and use 96
compensation orders 301“3 see also road accidents
malingering 131 multi-party claims see group claims
Malta 254 multiple causation 116“18
manufacturers, liability of see product liability multiple defendants 230
marginal utility of money 162, 163 multiplier/multiplicand 146, 157
market system 11
mass torts 212 National Health Service (NHS) 17, 149“51, 206,
means testing 337, 358, 476 209, 248, 252, 365“6
mediation 274 complaints scheme 263, 464, 465
medical expenses expenditure 397
conditional fee arrangements (CFAs) 267 Redress scheme proposal 464“6, 470
full compensation damages and 149“52 subrogation/recoupment rights 382, 396,
medical negligence 38“9, 42, 69, 176, 219“21, 451, 463
252, 464 National Insurance 14, 298, 330“1, 334, 336
claims consciousness and 210 negligence 33, 34, 35, 36“53, 175“6, 180,
costs of tort compensation 399, 401 249“50, 297, 449
defensive medicine and 430“1 as basis of liability 34
foreseeability of injury 129 conduct of claimant 53“4
legal aid for claim 263 contributory negligence 36, 53, 54“61, 245
legal causation 121“2, 124 illegality 53“4, 65“7
NHS Redress scheme proposal 464“6, 470 volenti non ¬t injuria 53, 61“5
reasons for claiming 206“7 contributory negligence 36, 53, 54“61, 245,
res ipsa loquitur and 95 251, 432, 449
statistics 19, 20, 27, 193, 205, 208, 219“21 assessment 58“9
actions commenced 203, 204 di¬erences from negligence 56
cases reaching trial 201, 202, 203 family cases and 57“8
medical profession 429 fault system and 54, 59“60
defensive medicine 430“1 usefulness of doctrine 60“1
duty of care 78 volenti non ¬t injuria (voluntary
expert evidence 85 assumption of risk) and 62“4
negligence see medical negligence damage not within the risk 125“7
medical technology 194“5, 210, 396 in design 50“3, 191
mental illness, Criminal Injuries Compensation deterrence 426“32
Scheme and 313 duty of care 34, 69“70
mental injury see psychiatric damage distinction between acts and omissions
mesothelioma 20, 113, 193, 212, 231, 241 72“84
misfeasance 72“3 situations where duty of care has been
mistake 176, 185 imposed 70“2
mitigation of loss 157 family cases 89“91
mobility schemes 369“70 contributory negligence and 57“8
Monckton Committee (1946) 98, 390 foreseeability 47“8, 68“9, 125, 127“9
morality, fault principle and popular morality joint liability 101“2
183 medical see medical negligence
mortgages, insurance 291, 295 nature of 40“2
Motability 369“70 negligence formula 41, 46“7
Motor Insurers™ Bureau (MIB) 36, 255“9, 279, likely magnitude of harm 43“4
315, 379, 400“1 probability of harm 42“3
Index 509

value of activity and cost of precautions duties of physical protection 78“81
needed to avoid harm 45“6 duties to control the conduct of others 81“3
nervous shock 84“9 factual causation and 115“16
in operation 50 legal causation 124
punitive damages and 174 undertakings 77“8
question of fact 36“9 operation, negligence in 50
standard of care 48“50 opinions on compensation 408“9
negotiation 260, 261 Opren 267“8
breakdown of 278“81 out of court settlements 260“1
claims assessors (CAs) 262, 272 amount of compensation 284“7
course of 268“78 negotiation 260, 261, 268“78
group claims 274“8, 286 breakdown of 278“81
individual claims 269“74 claims assessors (CAs) 262, 272
time taken 281“4 group claims 274“8, 286
transfer of costs and 445 individual claims 269“74
neighbour principle 68 time taken 281“4
nervous shock see psychiatric damage Part 36 o¬ers 279“81
New Deal 366“7 time taken to achieve 281“4
New Zealand workers™ compensation claims 329
earnings-related principle in 153 over-caution 429“31
hundred-per-cent principle in 156 over-compensation 377“8
national accident insurance scheme 16, 461, criminal injuries compensation 394
469, 470, 471, 473, 475, 476, 477, 481, general principles 385“7
483, 485, 491 subrogation and recoupment 156, 204, 380“5
no-claims bonuses 436“7 tort damages and charitable payments
no-fault compensation schemes 17, 93“4, 389“90
185“6, 409, 462 tort damages and personal insurance 388“9
costs 486“7 tort damages and sick pay 387“8
dual systems 470“2, 491“2
goals of system 480“4 Part 36 o¬ers 279“81
New Zealand 16, 461, 469, 470, 471, 473, 475, payment into court 280
476, 477, 481, 483, 485, 491 Payne Committee 226
reform proposals 467“8, 469“70 Pearson Royal Commission 15, 17, 461“2
road accident scheme proposals 484“7 pensions 294, 334
nonfeasance see omissions perfect competition 439, 440, 455
non-pecuniary losses see intangible losses periodical payments 140, 142“3
not-for-pro¬t organizations 372 arguments against 139
no-win-no-fee 263, 264 permanent health insurance 292
claims assessors (CAs) 224“5, 262, 272 persistent vegetative state 170“1
claims management companies 224, 262 personal accident insurance (PAI) 292, 293
conditional fee arrangements (CFAs) 213, personal injury lawyers 194“5
214, 223, 263“7, 463 physical protection, duties of 78“81
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme 325 Piper Alpha 212, 276
nuisance 100“1 post-traumatic distress disorder (PTSD) 88,
172, 278, 341“2
occupiers™ liability 36, 72, 205, 218“19, 248 predictions, lump sum damages and
Ogden tables 158, 159 fatal cases 132“5
omissions (failure to act) 72“84 personal injuries 130“2
control over property 83“4 preferential treatment 472“3
510 Index

prevention of accidents 5“6, 45“6, 189“90 Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme
as function of compensation systems 424“39 and 316“17
general deterrence theory and 441 post-traumatic distress disorder (PTSD) 88,
insurance and 433“9 172, 278, 341“2
encouraging/requiring loss prevention railway suicides and 310“12
measures 433“5 public inquiries 40, 111, 275
risk-related premiums and similar public interest 40
techniques 435“9 public liability 218“19
road accidents 12, 44 costs of claims 401
prevention of crime 52“3, 82 public opinion
prices, general deterrence theory and 446“7 on compensation 408“9
prisons on pro¬t 453“4
duty of care towards prisoners 79 public policy 40, 125
negligence in design 51“2 public sector 453
suicide in 67 public transport, duty to control conduct of
privity of contract 71 others 82
probability 188“9 public vindication, as function of
balance of probabilities 114, 117 compensation systems 422“3
product liability 71, 99“100, 103“5, 111, 211, punitive (exemplary) damages 172, 173“4, 410,
458 419“21
drugs 103“4, 219, 467
legal causation 124 Queen™s Bench Division 201
res ipsa loquitur and 94“5
production costs 439“40 railway accidents 40, 106
professionals, duty of care 78 Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme
pro¬t, public opinion on 453“4 and 311“12
proof reasonableness, reasonable persons 37“8, 39
burden of 271 recklessness 35
shifting 94“5 recoupment see subrogation and recoupment
of fault 94, 187“8 redistributive compensation 411“12
problems with 271 reduced earnings allowance (REA) 347
proving factual causation 111“12, 188 reform proposals 195, 196, 467“98, 470“2,
property 178 491“2
bankruptcy and 225 basic issues 467“84
compulsory purchase 185“6 assessment of compensation 474“6
control over 83“4 funding 477“8
damage to 4, 62, 207 goals of system 478“84
insurance and 5 limited or comprehensive reform 468“72
reform proposals 495“6 no-fault schemes 467“8, 469“70
road accidents 207, 495“6 preferential treatment 472“3
war property damage compensation 10, strict liability 105“6, 467“8
117 other schemes 487“8
defective premises 72 private insurance solution 493“5
insurance 5, 291, 298“9, 495“6 property damage 495“6
¬re insurance 4, 295 road accident schemes 484“7
see also occupiers™ liability role of insurance industry and legal
protection, duties of 78“81 profession 496“8
psychiatric damage (nervous shock) 84“9 social welfare solution 488“93
compensation neurosis 131 remoteness of damage 118, 127
Index 511

repeat defendants 269 subrogation rights 382
representative actions 276 uninsured drivers 36, 247, 255“9
res ipsa loquitur 94“5, 103, 112 Robens Committee 16
rescuers 74, 83“4 Royal Commission on Legal Services 213
residential accommodation 371 rules and standards of behaviour 425“33
responsibility, avoidance of 192“8 avoiding injury to self 432“3
retailers, liability of 99 causing injury to others 425“32
retroactive legislation 240 Rylands v. Fletcher rule 100“1
risks
allocation of 418“19 salaries see wages and salaries
attitudes to 48 satisfaction, as function of compensation
damage not within the risk 125“7 systems 422“3
foreseeability 47“8, 68“9, 125, 127“9 self-insurance 228
risk-related insurance premiums 435“9 services, liability for 94, 104
volenti non ¬t injuria (voluntary assumption settlements
of risk) 53, 61“5 out of court see out of court settlements
agreement not to sue and 61“2 structured settlements 141“2
contributory negligence and 62“4 sick pay 209, 293“4, 343“4, 379
standard of care and 64“5 over-compensation and 387“8
road accidents 61“2, 176, 189, 214“16 sickness bene¬ts 6, 209, 293“4, 330“1, 336
cases reaching trial 202, 203 silicone breast implants 278
contributory negligence and 55, 56, 57, 58, Skipton Fund 109
432“3 smoking tobacco 231, 278, 432, 446
costs 396, 399“401, 443, 446, 447, 448“9 Social Fund (SF) 358
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme social loss 451
and 315 social responsibility 8“9, 478“84, 480“2
deterrence 426“8 social security 6, 7, 11, 14, 16, 236, 378“89, 462,
driving ability and 176“7 469
duty of care and 79 administration 260“1
enforcement of judgments 226 Beveridge Report and 1946 Acts 331“3
fatal injuries, lump sum damages 134 compensation for criminal injuries and 303,
full compensation awards 160 304
hit-and-run accidents 36, 255“9 compensation reform proposals and 488“93
imposition of duty of care 70“1 costs 403“5
insurance 154, 234, 235“6, 246 dependency culture 192
risk-related insurance premiums 436“7 developments since 1946 333“7
intangible losses 164 disability and 6, 7, 22, 335“6, 355“8
joint liability 101“2 income support 359
legal causation 119, 120, 121“2, 123, 124, 125 long-term incapacity from industrial
loss of earnings 379 injuries 344“50
multiple causation 116 preferences in State system 356“8
negligence in design 50“1, 52, 191 reform proposals 488“93
negotiation of claims 270 earnings-related principle 153“4, 334“5,
no-fault compensation schemes 484“7 475“6
prevention 12, 44 ¬‚at-rate principle 153
property damage and 207, 495“6 foundations of system
society™s responsibility 8 National Insurance 330“1
statistics 19, 188“91, 193, 205, 214“16 workers™ compensation 328“30, 331“3,
strict liability and 93 390, 456
512 Index

social security (cont.) negligence and 57“8, 72
fraud and abuse 360“2 suing other spouse 245“6, 253“4
general deterrence theory and 452 standard of behaviour see rules and standards
hundred-per-cent principle 156 of behaviour
income support 14, 22, 337, 358“60 standard of care 48“50
administration 360 volenti non ¬t injuria (voluntary assumption
industrial injuries and 6, 332“3 of risk) and 64“5
accidents and disease 340“2 State see government and the State
administration 351“5 state-of-the-art defence 104
bene¬ts 342“51 statistics 18, 455
bereavement bene¬ts 350“1 accidents causing personal injury/death
long-term incapacity 344“50 18“20
scope of system 338“40 actions commenced 203“4
short-term incapacity 343“4 cases reaching trial 201“3
tort system compared 355 cases set down for trial 203
workers™ compensation 328“30, 331“3, death and disability from other causes
390, 456 20“1
means testing 337, 358, 476 distribution and sources of compensation
pensions 294, 334 22“5
recovery of bene¬ts 156, 204, 381, 384, e¬ects of disability on income 21“2
390“4, 396 home accidents 208
redistribution and 411 industrial injuries 19, 193, 205, 216“18
sickness bene¬ts 6, 209, 293“4, 330“1, 336 medical negligence 19, 20, 27, 193, 205, 208,
taxation and 364 219“21
tribunals 352, 353“4, 497“8 actions commenced 203, 204
social services 365“72 cases reaching trial 201, 202, 203
costs 402“3 prevalence of disability 21
employment-related 366“9 road accidents 19, 188“91, 193, 205, 214“16
housing and residential accommodation seriousness 25“9
370“1 tort claims 192“3
mobility 369“70 use of lump sum damages awards 138
other services 371“2 statutory duty, breach of 95“9, 126
society statutory law
collective liability 179“80 impact of liability insurance 245“8
mixed society 11“18 retroactive legislation 240
social responsibility 8“9, 478“84, 480“2 stress 341
see also government and the State post-traumatic distress disorder (PTSD) 88,
solace, compensation as 412, 414 172, 278, 341“2
solicitors 262“3, 268“9 strict liability 71, 92“4, 235, 475, 479“80
negotiation by see negotiation breach of contractual duties 99“100
reform proposals and 496“8 breach of statutory duty 95“9, 126
reluctance to consult 213 joint liability 101“2
special damages 144 product liability 99“100, 103“5
sports 62, 64 proposals to extend 105“6, 467“8
spouses dangerous things and activities 105“6
bereavement bene¬ts 350“1 railway accidents 106
bereavement damages 89“90, 162, 169, 413 Rylands v. Fletcher rule 100“1
fatal injuries claims 132“5, 147, 149 vicarious liability 102“3
remarriage and 133“4 structured settlements 141“2
Index 513

subrogation and recoupment 380“5 class actions 276
National Health Service (NHS) 382, 396, corporate defendants 231
451, 463 defensive medicine 430
social security bene¬ts 156, 204, 381, 384, full compensation awards 159
396 general deterrence theory in 457“8
substitute, compensation as 412, 413“14 insurance claims crisis 243
success fees 223, 265“6 intangible losses 166, 168“9
suicide, Criminal Injuries Compensation medical negligence 208
Scheme and 310“12 no-fault compensation 185, 484, 485
survival actions 132“3, 147 product liability in 458
Sweden 488 public opinion on compensation 408
punitive damages 174, 420
tari¬ system tobacco industry claims 278
Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme tort reform 195
320“4 workers™ compensation in 456
intangible losses 166“70 unpaid work, full compensation damages and
taxation 363“5, 452 149
earnings-related principle and 153 usage costs 440
periodical payments and 142 utility companies, strict liability and 93
State compensation schemes and 12
taxis, duty of care and 79 vaccine damage 107“8
test cases 277 valuation of loss 415
Thalidomide 16, 20, 105, 285, 461, 467 variant CJD su¬erers 109
third party debt orders 225“6 variation of awards
time limits 283 lump sum damages 135“7
tobacco 231, 278, 432, 446 periodical payments 142
tort law 4, 5 vicarious liability 93, 95, 102“3, 222, 229“32
conceptual basis 33“4 animals 93, 248
see also individual topics contractors 229“30, 248
trade unions 390 vicissitudes principle 117“18
funding of claims by 213, 261“2, 279 victims of accidents 201
tranquillizer cases 219 vindication, as function of compensation
trespass 72 systems 422“3
consent to 62 violent crime 310“13, 409
tribunals, social security 352, 353“4, 497“8 domestic violence 315“16
Vioxx 219“20
undertakings 77“8 volenti non ¬t injuria (voluntary assumption of
unemployment 468, 474 risk) 53, 61“5
disability and 367, 369 agreement not to sue and 61“2
unfair terms in contracts 61, 62, 248 contributory negligence and 62“4
uninsured defendants standard of care and 64“5
enforcement of judgments 225“7 voluntary organizations 372
funding of legal action 224“5
uninsured drivers 36, 247, 255“9, 315, 379, wages and salaries
400“1 attachment of earnings order 226
United States of America bankruptcy and 225
accident prevention in 433“4 disability and 21“2
Brandeis brief 42 earnings-related principle in social security
claims consciousness 210 153“4, 334“5, 475“6

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