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see delegated legislation
freedom of information decisions and, 132
primary,
improper purpose and,
see primary legislation
see improper purpose
subordinate, 24, 54, 137, 138, 202, 348
judicial bias and,
legislative intention, 25, 270
see bias
implied, 268
justiciability and,
legislative power,
see justiciability
see statutory power
knowledge and, 188
legitimate expectation, 32, 51, 64“66, 266,
limits to, 187
267, 315, 342
no evidence rule and,
concept of, 308“311
see no evidence rule
substantive,
prerogative power and, 149“151, 201
see substantive unfairness
privative clauses and,
Teoh and Lam cases and, 300“301,
see privative clauses
307“308
procedural fairness and,
see procedural fairness merits review, 21, 22, 23, 54, 55, 58, 60,
proportionality and,
74, 77, 83, 85, 226, 297
see proportionality
definition of, 89
public power and,
of administrative action, 83
see public power
ministerial responsibility, 5, 124, 254, 256,
reasonableness and,
258, 262, 263
see reasonableness
reasons for administrative decisions and, natural justice,
174, 176 see procedural fairness
right of individuals to seek, 58 no evidence rule
standing and, Australian common law position and,
see standing 239“241
substantive unfairness and, developments under English law,
see substantive unfairness 238“239
as vessel of administrative law, 21“23 as basis for judicial review
jurisdictional error error of law on the face of the record
contexts and meanings of, 331“334 and, 236“238
death of pure theory of, jurisdiction and, fact finding and errors of law and,
339“341 234“236
definition of, 335, 350 law versus facts distinction and, 233“234
modern catalogue of, 335“338 as other ground of review, 241“242
nullity and, 333, 334, 337 statutory regimes of judicial review and
privative clauses and, 347, general error of law ground, 244
350“352 no evidence limb, first, 245“247
values as rules in, 341“343 no evidence limb, second, 247“250
jurisdictional fact doctrine, 237, 239, 240, relationship between error of law and no
241, 245 evidence, 244“245
jurisdictional fact review, 340 relationship between expression of error
justiciability, of law ground and two limbs,
see also non-justiciability 250“251
definition of, 143 specific no evidence ground, 243“244
469
INDEX


non-judicial power, 7, 8, 77, 318 future of, 363“367
identification of, 349“350
non-justiciability,
see also justiciability immigration and refugee law and,
concept of, 144“145 360“363
core meaning of, 145“147 importance of context and, 356
current state of in Australia, 151“152 industrial relations law and, 356“360
separation of powers and, 154“156 interpretative approach to, 352“356
short history of, 147“149 judicial review and, 345“347
subject matter immunities and, 152“154 jurisdictional error and, 350“352
non-statutory power, 213 overview of, 348“352
as public power, 34 purported decisions and, 359, 363
exercise of, 37 procedural fairness, 22, 26, 27, 31“33, 60,
monopolistic, 48 146, 311,
see also substantive unfairness, procedural
official power, unfairness
breach of, 93, 241, 336, 339
see public power
Ombudsman, 59 consideration of evidence and, 91
Commonwealth, 13, 51, 70“75 essential requirements of, 265
conceptualisation period, 1968“1976, hearing rule and
101“104 application of, 266“268
consequences of breach, 277“279
new theories era, 2003 onwards,
111“113 exclusion or limitation of, 268“271
requirements of, 271“277
pattern setting and creative responses
period, 1976“1989, 104“107 legitimate expectations and,
307“308
reacting and response period,
1900“2002, 108“110 meaning, 311“312
reasonableness and, 212“214
review of freedom of information decisions
and, 131 reasons for administrative decisions and,
State, 113“114 172“173, 180
separation of powers and substantive
decisions and, 281“282
parliamentary committees
delegated legislation and, 142 procedural unfairness, 55, 242, 267, 307,
scrutiny of Bills by, 51, 67“69 315,
parliamentary intention see also substantive unfairness, procedural
determination of, 201, 263 fairness
persona designata doctrine, 7“9 practical injustice and, 312“314
polycentric decisions, 147, 151, 154, 156, proportionality, 51, 52, 294, 342
174 meaning of, 215
power of executive detention, 210 reasonable exercises of discretion and,
prerogative power, 147“149, 268 229“230
discretionary, 201 public law, 1, 2, 15, 16, 51, 52,
executive government and, 148 158
judicial review and, 201 human rights law and, 55“58
open to judicial review, 149 justiciability and, 144
Peko-Wallsend case and, 151“152 non-justiciability and, 144
primary legislation, 134 writs, standing and, 170
Henry VIII clauses and, 137 public power, 26, 58
principle of fairness, 317 as monopoly power, 48
principle of impartiality, 317 judicial review and, 35
principle of legality, 26, 52, 61, 99, limitations to, 2“4
341 tests for, 35
private law, 16, 35, 57, 292 Australian, 39“46
human rights law and, 55“58 English, 36“39
privative clauses, 12, 52, 331 theory of state and, 46“48
470 INDEX


legislation and, 163, 170“171
rational uncertainty
seeking public law writs and, 169“170
finding grounded in rationally probable
evidence, 219“220 sufficient interest and, 166“169
statutory interpretation, 24“28
finding reasonably open on the evidence,
220“221 statutory power, 19, 25, 28, 40, 268, 376
management of, 223“225 fairness and, 311
good faith and, 28
rational consideration of evidence and,
221“222 proper purpose of, 198
rule of restraint and, 218, 223 rationality, 29
rationality, 16, 23, 25, 29“31 reasonableness and, 213
definition of, 214 substantial purpose test, 207
lack of, 24 substantive unfairness,
reasonableness, 214, see also procedural unfairness
Coughlan and formulation of, 285“287
see also Wednesbury test of
unreasonableness in United Kingdom before Coughlan,
fact finding and, 216“222 283“285
reasonable exercises and discretion and, preference of UK or Australian position on,
225“231 297“298
test for, objective or subjective, 215“216 separation of powers and procedural
why legally required, 212“214 unfairness and, 281“282
responsible government, 6, 16, 47, 116, substantive legitimate expectations
254 doctrine in Australia and, 295“297
role of, 4“5 use of doctrine post-Coughlan, 287“295
rule of law, 14, 16, 23, 25, 112, 148, 155,
214, 274, 341, 347 Wednesbury test of unreasonableness, 31,
administrative law and, 17“20 52, 54, 55, 91, 193, 215, 220, 225,
226, 228, 229, 232, 242, 281, 285,
286, 297, 342,
scrutiny, degrees of, reasonable exercises of
discretion and, 229“230 see also reasonableness
separation of powers, 2, 6“10, 14, 18, 75, writs
214, 306, 341, 365 certiorari, 20, 21, 149, 158, 169, 200,
administrative tribunals and, 77 236, 237, 238, 331, 334, 335, 343,
delegated legislation and, 135 350, 353, 357, 358, 370, 371, 372,
limits on judicial power and, 10“11 373, 374, 376, 378
non-justiciability and, 146, 154“156 constitutional, 232, 334, 351
habeas corpus, 20, 53, 158, 169
procedural unfairness and substantive
unfairness and, 281“282 injunction, 335, 369
reasonableness and, 215, 225 mandamus, 18, 20, 163, 200, 263, 271,
substantive unfairness and, 281 331, 335, 351, 365, 370, 371, 377,
378
standing
Attorney-General and, 158“159 of summons, 369, 371
community values and, 162, 166 prerogative, 21, 236, 339, 369, 370,
definition of, 158 371, 372, 373
definition of stranger and, 169 prohibition, 11, 18, 21, 158, 163, 169,
236, 331, 335, 350, 351, 357, 370,
injunctions, declarations and orders under
371, 373, 377, 378
the Judicial Review Acts and,
159“170 quo warranto, 158, 169

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