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trans. Great Britain: The Humanities Press, 1974.
Index



aesthetic appreciation, 50ff., 56ff., 65, casuistry: and alienation, 172ff.; and
190ff., 205ff.; knowledge of the common sense, 102ff.; controversies
goodness of, 179ff.; objects of, 56, 204ff. in 80ff.; and incommensurability,
and religion, 195ff. 104“5; methodology of, 68, 80ff.;
alienation, 6“7, 14, 16, 28, 115, 172ff., Moore™s diagnosis of the errors of,
198 80, 85, 179ff., 206“7; Moore™s
analysis, 40, 43, 48, 50, 83, 104; see also nonredemptive casuistry, 172ff., 198“9;
political-historical casuistry, 83ff., 181ff.;
definition
animism, 178 and the radicalizing of philosophy,
200ff.; role of ideals in, 83, 182ff.,
a posteriori mode of the cognition of
good, 61“2, 66 198“9; second branch of, 80; and
approval, 23n, 67 skepticism, 208“9
class-concepts, 42
a priori mode of the cognition of good,
61“2, 66, 89 coherence theory of moral truth, 77
argument, begging the question, 31“2, 35; common sense, 34, 81, 92n, 93ff., 102ff.,
and phenomenological reflection, 31, 112, 113, 118, 172, 204; attitude toward
34ff., 90ff.; and proof, 6, 11“12, 33n, rules, 146, 149, 151, 154, 168, 170;
36, 38, 51, 67“8, 138 changes in the beliefs of, 92n, 178;
Aristotle, 10, 12, 21, 71, 85, 160 danger of philosophy to, 63ff., 177ff.,
Art, 205 204; ideology of, 193; limits of, 76“7;
art: and alienation, 194ff.; Moore™s theory of the self, 125, 138, 145, 147,
nonrepresentational theory of, 193ff.; 149
political-historical theory of, 190ff. “The Conception of Intrinsic Value,” 44ff.,
“Art, Morals, and Religion,” 195ff. 57, 108, 192
autonomy, 11ff., 147, 165, 167 conceptual identity, 41ff.
Ayer, A. J., 2 consciousness, Moore™s theory of, 5, 35,
40, 66, 113, 121, 194“5
Baldwin, Thomas, 4n, 26n, 70n, 91n, 113 conservatism, aesthetic, 51“2; as expressed
Ball, Stephen W., 31, 34“5 in casuistry, 80ff.; cosmic, 172ff., 190,
Beautiful World Argument, 53, 91, 124 194; metaphysical-epistemological, 10;
beauty: cognition and ascription of, 49ff., philosophical, 10, 14, 34, 64, 86, 111,
206ff.; definition and knowledge of, 118, 204; political 10ff., 84, 148ff.,
22“3, 53, 194; intrinsic value of (the 151ff.; relation of political to cosmic,
appreciation of), 91, 196ff.; 173; revolutionary, 61, 106, 112, 172,
philosophy™s relation to, 202ff.; 184
physicality of, 187 cosmic pessimism, 149
belief, 54, 58
Bell, Clive, 205 Darwall, Stephen, 4n, 8n, 9n
biology, 110 Davis, Miles, 56
Bloomsbury™s Prophet, 4, 147 “A Defence of Common Sense,” 32, 76n
Bolshevism, 84 definition, of beauty, 22“3; Moore™s
Bradley, F. H., 28 unofficial kind of 2, 22“3, 25, 43; part-
Broad, C. D., 44ff., 52, 57 whole (parsing), 18ff., 23, 48“9, 53“4;
Brunius, Teddy, 205n 193; real (analytic) and verbal, 17, 20
Butchvarov, Panayot, 16n, 44n, 49n, 53n, description, 48ff., 55, 57, 74
72n, 78n, 83n, 91n, 109n, 181n “Does Moral Philosophy Rest on a
Butler, Joseph, 11, 18 Mistake?,” 136n
216 index

Edel, Abraham, 10n, 190n 123; comparison of to yellow, 72ff., 90;
The Elements of Ethics, 4n, 64, 70, 72n, 106, as a determinable universal, 47“8;
134n, 175n, 188n, 204 development of the awareness of, 98ff.;
emotivism, 3, 49, 88, 90 epistemic relation between good and
empiricist philosophy, 27 the good, 16, 44, 60, 75, 81, 103ff., 173;
enjoyment, 48 Human Good, 183; indefinability of, 11,
epistemology, 10, 44, 58, 60, 94, 100, 16, 28ff., 70ff.; indivisibility of, 77, 122,
103ff., 110“11, 193 133, 135, 175; intrinsic and
escapist philosophy, 190 instrumental, 53, 59, 68, 80, 109, 180,
ethical egoism: and common sense, 76“7, 193; modes of cognition of, 49, 61“2,
118“19, 145; distinction between 67, 70; nonaturalness of, 26ff., 34, 38ff.;
individual and universal, 120; as a nonprivacy of, 121“2; ontological
doctrine of means, 163; and Humean independence of, 17, 24, 26ff., 39ff.;
accounts of the self, 113; and relation of to beauty 22“3; relation of to
metaphysical accounts of the self, 114ff., the will, 93ff.; simplicity of, 22“3, 70ff.;
Moore™s argument against, 9, 118ff.; strategies concerning the definition of,
Moore™s diagnosis of, 131ff.; Sidgwick™s 24ff.; ultimacy of, 17, 23, 54; Universal
account of, 118“19, 131ff. Good, 121, 126ff., 141
ethical particularism, 166ff. Green, T. H., 88
ethical theory: methodology of, 82ff.;
Moore on the history of, 3, 8, 27“8, hallucination, 36, 37“8
87ff.; 106; Moore™s effect on the history Hamlet, 164
of, 3, 5, 90; nonprogressivist features in Hampshire, Stuart, 34n, 90n
Moore™s, 78“9, 86, 199; progress in, 88; happiness, 25, 156; ontological relation of
relation of to biology, 110 to good, 132“3; and self-interest,
Ethics, 55, 63n, 66, 151 118“19
“Ethics in Relation to Conduct,” 64, 67, health, definition of, 103ff.; as an intrinsic
140, 146 property of an organism, 108;
evil, 81, 174“6, 181, 188, 197“8 knowledge of the goodness of, 44
evolutionary ethics, 8, 109 hedonism, 42, 63, 76, 86“7, 192; and
The Executioner™s Song, 64n egoism, 118“19, 121; origins of, 28, 67,
existence, 27“8, 34, 40“1, 55, 114“15 180; sexual hedonism and religion,
existentialism, 63 188“9
Hegel, Georg, 207
false consciousness, 156 Hegelianism, British, 24, 43, 193
fatalism, 116, 197 Hill, John, 3n, 62n, 71n, 92n
feminism, 83 history: effect of on casuistry, 82ff.; as a
Field, G. C., 70n, 72n, 74n, 106n model for ethical theory, 85; role of in
Foot, Philippa, 52, 128 the determination of objects, 52ff.,
Frankena, William, 3n, 6, 16n, 38n 190ff.
Frazier, Joe, 2 Homer, 203
freedom, 13; value of, 14“15, 83, 92, 180 Hume, David, 113, 136
French Revolution, 84
friendship, 9, 21, 52, 59, 140; definition “The Ideal,” 65, 79, 80“1, 103, 172, 179ff.,
of, 80; errors in the evaluation of, 198ff.
180“1, 183“4; knowledge of the idealism, 6, 17, 35, 40, 43, 93“4
goodness of, 75, 110; and religion, ideal observer theory, 87
185ff.; value of the goodness of, 59 ideals, 20, 103; and actuality, 168, 198;
Fumerton, Richard, 30n alienating effects of, 183, 198; different
functional objects, 52ff. kinds of, 182“3, evaluation of, 82ff.;
198; as representational artifacts, 207“8
G. E. Moore™s Analysis of Beauty, 205 “Identity,” 39, 41ff., 72
Gibbard, Allan, 4n, 8n, 9n incommensurability, 10, 77, 89, 105, 187
God, 28, 131, 181, 195; value of a indefinability, 16, 18; of good, 16, 28ff.,
relationship with, 185ff., 196 70ff.
good: Absolute Good, 183, 186; indivisibility, of good, 77, 122, 175
innocence, 1, 9, 35ff., 90, 201, 174ff., 179,
comparison of (the perception of) to
(the perception of) truth, 94“5, 100, 190, 198ff.
index 217

intrinsic properties, natural and Meinongianism, in Moore™s theory of art,
nonnatural, 44ff. 55, 194
intuition, 90ff.; linguistic, 32, 62 “Metaphysical Ethics,” 85
irony, 1“2, 7, 15, 84, 88, 200, 203 “metaphysical” philosophy, 28, 34, 55, 66,
“Is It a Duty to Hate?,” 145 186, 195; the attractiveness of egoism to,
122; on the connection of the will to
justice, 106, 170 good, 93ff.; on the nature of the self,
112ff.; on substance, 116“17
Kantian philosophy, 71, 93ff. method of isolation, 58, 102, 180
Kant, Immanuel, 28, 55, 56, 93, 144, 165, method of negative synthesis, 87
177 Methods of Ethics, 77, 118n, 119n
Keynes, John Maynard, 1, 2, 9, 111, 174 Mill, John Stuart, 9n, 28, 31, 88
King Lear, 65 mixed goods, 197
knowledge: of beauty, 23, 194“5; casuistic monism, 24, 42, 170, 193
knowledge, 16, 85, 172, 179; of the moral blindness, 37“8, 72
external world, 6, 204; of facts relevant moral individualism, 90, 102
to aesthetic appreciation 56, 58, of good moral inquiry, 89ff.
61“2, 95; of the goodness of friendship, moral judgments: unproveableness of, 12,
110; of the goodness of health, 108ff.; 36, 90
Mother Theresa, 162, 183
historical knowledge and aesthetic
appreciation, 56“7, 205ff.; innate Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 161
knowledge, 100; intrinsic value of, 65, murder, 65, 148ff.
200, 207“8; intuitive knowledge, 90ff.; multiculturalism, 82, 170
˜my interest,™ 140ff.
knowledge of good engendering and
engendered by resistance, 200; ˜my own good,™ 120ff.
knowledge of the good, 179ff.; of
linguistic principles, 33; local “natural,” definition of, 107
knowledge, 166, 170; of moral natural goods, 44, 60, 110, 193
obligations, 148ff.; of moral truths, naturalistic ethics, 46, 104ff.
11ff.; of reality, 7, 195; relation between naturalistic fallacy, 17, 27, 31, 34, 36, 69,
71, 86“7, 101, 102, 106, 119, 133, 136,
knowledge of good and knowledge of
the good, 44, 60, 75; relation between 138, 194
naturalistic philosophy, 27, 111, 113, 116
knowledge of verbal meaning and
knowledge of analytic meaning, 32; “The Nature of Judgment,” 39ff., 55, 66,
121, 193“4
relation between ordinary (practical)
necessity, analytic and synthetic, 21ff., 110,
knowledge and philosophical
(theoretical) knowledge, 32, 63ff., 71“2, 130
76“7, 102ff.; relation of philosophy to, Nietzsche, Friedrich, 90, 187
202ff.; self-knowledge, 180, 204; nominalism, 41ff.
systematic knowledge, 20, 182, 202ff. nonnaturalness, 17, 99, 101; of good,
26ff., 34, 39ff.
Lenin, Vladimir, 191“2
Levy, Paul, 34n, 145n objectivism, 1, 2, 9, 76, 88, 92, 180, 181,
liberalism, 83 200
liberationist ethics, 9, 147, 163 ontological independence, 16, 26, 58,
“The Limits of Ontological Analysis,” 49n 70“1
logical independence, 26 ontological reducibility, 44, 53
love, 157, 184, 186, 188“9; see also Open Question Argument, 3“4, 28ff.,
61ff., 94
friendship
Lowry, Malcolm, 56 organic unities, principle of, 13, 81, 84,
102, 108, 110, 175, 180, 182, 183, 193
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 3, 89ff., 102“3, 105,
157 paradox of analysis, 31
Mailer, Norman, 13n, 64, 189n paradox of ethics, 61ff., 132
Marxism, 174 paradox of innocence, 175ff.
McGwire, Mark, 54 Philosophical Investigations, 2n, 201n
“Meaning of “natural”,” 19n; 44ff. philosophy: dangers of, 7“8, 13“14, 18,
Medlin, Brian, 120, 132 26, 35“6, 63ff., 177ff., 204; end or
218 index

self: Humean theories of, 112“13;
philosophy (cont.)
reconceptualization of, 13, 177, 202“3; “metaphysical” theories of, 112ff.
ideal relation of to society, 65; self-sacrifice, 132, 136, 138, 140ff.
nonproblematizing, 177ff.; paradox in Sellars, Wilfred, 75
Moore™s, 175; reactionary, 14, 64; Shakespeare, William, 107, 108
therapeutic, 6; three kinds of, 114“15; Sidgwick, Henry, 7, 36, 64, 77, 84, 86, 91,
value of, 14, 36“7, 65, 176“7 99, 104, 113, 118“19, 125ff., 183
The Philosophy of G. E. Moore, 44 simplicity, 16; and generality, 20; of good,
philosophy of history, 207 70ff.
philosophy of science, 19ff., 77 skepticism, 2, 5, 9, 10, 13ff., 17, 66,
Plato, 1, 2, 7, 65, 106, 136, 170, 191, 198, 169, 172, 176ff., 184, 186, 194“5,
207 200ff., 206
Platonism, 4, 20, 41 Skepticism in Ethics, 181n
pleasure, 25“6, 29, 46ff., 136, 137, 188; Snare, Frank, 31, 34“5
consciousness of pleasure, 48, 91, 180, social-cultural objects, analysis of, 82ff.
181; and self-interest, 118“19 socialism, 84
possibility, different kinds of, 45, 183, 192, Socrates, 1, 14, 51, 209
198“9 “The Socratic Theory of Virtue,” 63
prescriptivism, 49, 88 Some Main Problems of Philosophy, 24n, 177ff.
Presley, Elvis, 56 Stevenson, C. L., 2
Prichard, H. A., 136n states of affairs, 55ff.
privacy, metaphysical, 121“2, 137, 145 subjectivism, 45
Private Language Argument, 28 “The Subject Matter of Psychology,” 121,
proof, 33ff. 137
psychological egoism, 11, 98 substance, 23, 116“17
suffering, 139
Railton, Peter, 4n, 8n, 9n “supersensible” reality, 28, 114
rap music, 51 Sylvester, Robert, 3n, 61, 89, 91
redemption, 174, 200 sympathy, 140
reflective equilibrium, 91 Symphonie Pathetique, 191ff.
reform, 155, 167ff., 172, 181
“The Refutation of Idealism,” 6, 35, 40, Taylor, A. E., 87
55, 121, 193 Tchaikovsky, Peter, 191
Regan, Tom, 3n, 4, 6, 11ff., 102n, 146ff., temperance, 160
153ff., 157ff., 196 Thrasymachus, 1, 164
regret, 175 toleration, 83
“Toward Fin de siècle Ethics,” 4, 8, 9
religion: and aesthetic appreciation,
195ff.; and casuistry, 181“2; and Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 176, 201
friendship, 185ff.; and hedonism, 188“9 tragedy, 7, 175, 198
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 92 truth, 12, 37, 108, 121; awareness of the
rules: ideal of, 155, 163, 168; local rules, property of, 100“1; comparison of
162ff., and motivation, 165; necessary (the perception of) to (the perception
rules found in all societies, 148ff.; of) good, 94“5, 100, 123; contribution
necessary rules not found in all societies, of to the value of acts of aesthetic
156“7, nonnecessary rules, 151ff.; appreciation 57, 194, 205ff.; distinction
peoples™ ability to obey, 161ff.; and between fundamental and important
reform, 161, 168ff.; role of in shaping truths, 181; relation of to philosophy,
human behavior, 162ff.; and the 78“9, 202ff.; theory of in “The Nature of
standard of general obedience, 159ff.; Judgment,” 40
three defenses of, 156“7; three kinds of,
146 ultimacy, 17, 23
Russell, Bertrand, 6, 147, 201n Under the Volcano, 56
Ryle, Gilbert, 32 universals, determinate and determinable,
42“3, 47“8, 54; determinative and
sadomasochism, 187 nondeterminative, 42, 72
Saint Augustine, 188 utopias, 84
science, as a model for ethical theory, 12, will: connection of to good, 93ff.; Socratic
78, 82, 85 theory of, 101
index 219

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 2n, 6ff., 13, 75, 176, virtues: as intrinsic parts of mixed
201ff. goods, 197; value of, 81“2, 98, 151,
162“63
“The Value of Religion,” 178, 185, 196,
197 “The White Negro,” 13n, 64, 189n
verificationism, 12 will to power, 84, 91

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