<<

. 6
( 7)



>>

include details speci¬c not to South Africa but to the Boer War “
charges of Boer treachery, or stories of high-ranking British pigheaded-
ness. Neither the characters nor the landscapes of the stories are pecu-
liar to South Africa. Unlike the southern African stories of his friend
Haggard, Kipling™s South Africa stories attempt to do imperial duty, and
±
The imperial imaginary
they are evidence that imperial stories are impossible. In fact there is no
single, identi¬able concept marked ˜˜empire.™™
Sara Suleri, in discussing Kim, has written, ˜˜If one of the manifesta-
tions of the anxiety of empire is a repression of the con¬‚ictual model
even where economic and political con¬‚ict is at its most keenly operat-
ive, then Kipling™s transcriptions of such evasion point to his acute
understanding of the ambivalence with which empire declares its uni-
tary powers™™ (Rhetoric of English India ±±µ). Kim, Edward Said argued,
featured no con¬‚ict of loyalties for the title character because it was clear
that to be ruled by England was India™s destiny. Suleri, however, points
us toward Kipling™s irony “ the basic ˜˜anarchic disempowerment™™ that
lies just below the surface of imperial mechanisms of control (±±µ). If we
apply Suleri™s construction to Kipling™s Boer War writings, we can
reexamine what has been described as Kipling™s crude jingo support for
the war.
Kim, which Kipling ¬nished early in the war, is no happy tale of a
benevolent colonialism, despite generations of readers™ and critics™ de-
sires to read it as such. Indeed, Suleri asserts that the novel provides ˜˜an
ineradicable example of the futility represented by empire™™ (Rhetoric
±µ). Kipling™s deep familiarity with the workings of colonial administra-
tion in India allowed for the moral ambiguity Suleri ¬nds in Kim and, in
fact, for the narrative complexity that all acknowledge in the novel. But
Kipling did not have the luxury of creating a Kim out of South Africa.
The Boer republics at war with Britain “ white nations against white
nation “ bore little relation to the situation with which Kipling had
come of age in India. Nevertheless, public understanding of empire
called for the erasure of individual political and economic circumstances
for the sake of maintaining a vision of One Empire.
In Kim, Kipling transcribes an evasion of the con¬‚ict model of empire,
according to Suleri, because he sees the empire™s declaration of ˜˜unitary
power™™ as ambivalent, at best. The model of empire Kipling found in
South Africa was quite di¬erent from that in India “ ill-suited to a
narrative of loyalty and service to a benevolent ruling power. Kim leaves
us with a morally suspect British rule, displayed by the very invisibility of
the con¬‚icts everyone knew were there.
It is one thing to create a Kim without moral scruples about working
in support of the government that holds in thrall the country he loves.
But what could be a South African equivalent? How could Kipling™s
¬ction treat the imposition of imperial rule in white republics? And yet
Kipling™s various publics were calling for just that. The net result “ short
±·° Gender, race, and the writing of empire
stories that contain no moral ambiguity and no South Africanness,
polemic that rants, and poetry that angered a good percentage of its
readers “ pleased few. The public that had constructed Kipling as the
laureate of empire had failed to understand the e¬ect of a white-on-
white war in laying bare the mechanisms of imperialism in such a way as
to prevent a morally astute writer such as Kipling from making work-
able truly imperial art. And yet, as we shall see, Kipling was able to
create a Kim-like moral ambiguity in certain of his Boer War poems,
when what was at stake was more than empire alone.
In his South African writings, Kipling is unable to create even the
illusion of a smoothly functioning unitary power because it is impossible
to achieve the repression of the economic and political con¬‚ict of the
region that Suleri sees in Kim. Such con¬‚icts rise to the surface in
Kipling™s Boer War writing. In one case, this makes for rather screech-
ing polemic, when Kipling™s Imperial South Africa Association propa-
ganda simply demonizes Cape Colony Afrikaners. In another case, the
con¬‚icts take over the ¬ction, such as when Kipling in ˜˜The Compre-
hension of Private Copper™™ ventriloquizes his and Haggard™s resent-
ment of Colonial O¬ce policy of leniency after the ¬rst Boer War.
Con¬‚icts surface in a productive way in Kipling™s Boer War writing in
his fables for the troops, written for the Bloemfontein Friend. Here Kipling
is not attempting to create an image of empire; he is simply talking to his
troops, addressing issues internal to the army. He does not need to
smooth anything over about the army because the ideological stability
of the army is never in question, for Kipling or his readers. What get
repressed in that genre of writing are the issues of empire itself, the
raison d™etre for the war. Perhaps the most complex example in Kip-
ˆ
ling™s Boer War writing of the elision of imperial issues for the purposes
of producing a coherent narrative is in certain of Kipling™s poems,
especially those published in The Times. In ˜˜The Islanders™™ and ˜˜The
Lesson,™™ Kipling speaks to Britain about Britain, in relation not to the
empire but to the war. The issues behind the war are unimportant to
these poems, in which taking the British to task about their support for
the army is more important than trying to ¬‚atten the entire empire into
a unity. Empire lurks behind those poems, but the poems themselves
skirt, rather than deliberately repress (as does Kim) the moral issues of
empire.
The celebration of empire that is most marked in Kipling™s Boer War
writing is his portrait of the a¬ection between Colonial troops and their
British counterparts. ˜˜The Parting of the Columns,™™ for example, starts
±·±
The imperial imaginary
with a news item from ˜˜any newspaper, during the South African War,™™
that describes the cheers of British troops for their Colonial brethren
returning home. The glory of empire comes in the acknowledgement by
the British to the Colonials that ˜˜You ™ad no special call to come, and so
you doubled out,/And learned us how to camp and cook an™ steal a
horse and scout™™ (·). The Australians and New Zealanders and
Canadians were recognized as superior in bush-¬ghting, and one of the
aspects of the Boer War that pleased Kipling the most was the imperial
loyalty demonstrated by the Colonies in sending so many crack troops
to ¬ght with the British.
Despite some of his poetry™s depiction of imperial unity by way of
¬ghting together, the most poignant depiction of the importance of
empire in Kipling™s Boer War poetry is his portrait of a returned
working-class soldier whose a¬ection for Britain has been replaced by
an a¬nity for the new colonies in which he has been ¬ghting. Of all
Kipling™s Boer War writing, perhaps ˜˜Chant-Pagan: English Irregular,
Discharged™™ comes closest to doing what Suleri describes Kim as doing:
repressing political and economic circumstances to produce a rather
ambivalent imperial narrative. The imperial solidarity created by the
poem, however, is the solidarity of working-class soldiers, Briton and
Boer. The returning soldier who narrates ˜˜Chant-Pagan™™ is a working
man, changed by the war. After having ˜˜been what I™ve been™™ and
˜˜gone where I™ve gone,™™ he is no longer content to ˜˜roll[ ] ™is lawns for
the Squire,/Me!™™ (µ). This soldier, who ˜˜lay down an™ got up/Three
years with the sky for my roof,™™ turns Kipling™s Boer War writing into
writing about empire. His experience has made the working-class man
see ˜˜That the sunshine of England is pale,/And the breezes of England
are stale,/An™ there™s something gone small with the lot™™ (°) for a man
who returns with ˜˜¬ve bloomin™ bars on my chest™™ (°) only to have to
touch his hat to ˜˜the parson an™ gentry™™ (µ).
Empire has provided an option for this soldier (as well as for the
˜˜˜Wilful-Missing™: Deserters of the Boer War™™ of the poem of that name
[°]). Empire o¬ers opportunities that are denied this working-class
soldier back in England, and the narrator of ˜˜Chant-Pagan™™ contem-
plates ˜˜a sun an™ a wind,/and some plains and a mountain be™ind,/An™
some graves by a barb-wire fence™™ (°). The scenery of ˜˜Chant-
Pagan™™ is the scenery of war, where stars are navigational aids and skies
are discussed in terms of heliographs blinking messages. The poem is
not a paean to South Africa but to empire as a refuge, as an opportunity
for a man whose sacri¬ces remain unappreciated in his homeland
±· Gender, race, and the writing of empire
because of his class but whose experience and talents have value in a
place ˜˜Where there™s neither a road nor a tree /But only my Maker an™
me.™™ The narrator decides that back in England ˜˜it™s ™ard to be™ave as
they wish/(Too ™ard, an™ a little too soon)™™ (°). The former enemies
are now imperial subjects, and there is ˜˜a Dutchman I™ve fought ™oo
might give/Me a job were I ever inclined.™™ So it is worth taking a
chance on returning to South Africa, for ˜˜I think it will kill me or
cure,/So I think I will go there and see./Me!™™ (±). The poem is an
imperial poem in the sense that it idealizes the opportunities provided
by the empire, but its scope is limited to the character with which
Kipling was the most familiar and comfortable in his Boer War writing:
the working-class Tommy. Likewise ˜˜The Return: All Arms™™ features a
discharged soldier returning to Hackney, a working-class borough of
east London: ˜˜Peace is declared, an™ I return/To ™Ackneystadt, but not
the same™™ (). This soldier, too, has been altered by his experience: ˜˜I
started as a average kid,/I ¬nished as a thinkin™ man.™™ The poem is
more ambivalent than ˜˜Chant-Pagan™™ about criticizing England, pro-
viding the back-handed compliment of a chorus that declares, in italics,
˜˜If England was what England seems,/An™ not the England of our dreams,/But
only putty, brass, and paint,/™ow quick we™d drop ™er! But she ain™t!™™ (, ).
England is not what she seems to the returning soldier: ˜˜only putty,
brass, and paint™™; she is more than that “ she is part of an empire. The
˜˜makin™s of a bloomin™ soul™™ (, ) felt by the soldier happened in
the recognition that he was part of an empire:
˜˜An™ men from both two ™emispheres
Discussin™ things of every kind;
So much more near than I had known,
So much more great than I ™ad guessed
An™ me, like all the rest, alone
But reachin™ out to all the rest!™™ (“)
The poem has little of South Africa in it, but it has much of empire, in
this celebration of imperial fellowship. Still, the poem remains doubtful
about working-class life in London: ˜˜But now, discharged, I fall away/
To do with little things again . . ./Gawd, ™oo knows all I cannot
say,/Look after me in Thamesfontein!™™ ().
Whereas much of Kipling™s Boer War poetry focused so speci¬cally
on the soldier and technical details of war that it held no larger imperial
resonance (˜˜M.I.: Mounted Infantry of the Line,™™ ˜˜Boots,™™ ˜˜Columns:
Mobile Columns of the Boer War™™), the poems of returning soldiers,
especially ˜˜Chant-Pagan,™™ but also including ˜˜The Return,™™ celebrate
±·
The imperial imaginary
empire in the context of the working-class man who is ill-served by the
mother country. Such poems make a far more complex picture of
working-class attitudes to empire than the charges of jingoism leveled
against both Kipling and the late-Victorian working classes have allow-
ed for.
The laureate of empire struggled under his image, trying in many
di¬erent genre to provide what was expected of his art but was ultimately
impossible “ to ¬‚atten the whole of the British empire into a unity.
Kipling achieved various things in his South African poetry “ he made
political and military points about British unpreparedness and indi¬er-
ence to the army (˜˜The Lesson,™™ ˜˜The Islanders™™), and he celebrated
Tommies in various categories and states (˜˜M.I.,™™ ˜˜The Married Man:
Reservist of the Line™™). But it was in poems that recognized the import-
ance of class in relation to empire that Kipling was able to make
something approaching imperial art out of the Boer War, art that
submerged the many di¬erences that made up the empire in exchange
for o¬ering an unproblematic idea of empire as a haven for the soldiers
celebrated in his other poetry. In ˜˜Chant-Pagan™™ and ˜˜The Return,™™
South Africa o¬ers hope and self-awareness to the working-class soldier
from England. The South Africa of those poems is not the South Africa
of Kipling™s other Boer War works “ the speci¬c, Boer War South Africa
of individual landscape details that serve only to illustrate points about
Tommy Atkins. Instead, the South Africa of the returning soldier poems
moves into the abstract and becomes Empire “ a free, open place
without the obstructions of social class. The indigenous people of South
Africa do not appear in Kipling™s Boer War writing, to be sure, and
Kipling is not doing in South Africa what Said charges him with in India,
for it is not an idealized, exoticized South Africa for which his narrators
are nostalgic. But neither is it simply the experience of war which they
miss. Instead, it is an idealized, essential notion of empire that provides
these working-class men with what they need. That this empire does not
exist is irrelevant; what matters is that Kipling creates that empire,
ignores actual political and economic conditions, and provides an ab-
straction that distracts readers from some of the real issues of imperialism
in order to create a space for working-class British men.

¬ ©     ¦ © § µ  ®¤    · 
In a letter to the Westminster Gazette on  March ±°°, political philos-
opher Auberon Herbert asked:
±· Gender, race, and the writing of empire
Why is it that in all countries, whenever there is war, or a fair chance of making
war, those most excellent gentlemen who instruct the nation by means of the
Press are the most belligerent and bloodthirsty of us all? . . . We all know that
literary nerves, like musical nerves, are apt to be in a state of hyper-excitation
and imperfect control; and that the literary brain has always a large share of the
feminine element in it “ the perceiver, not the doer. The pleasure that our
literary people give us is due to their keen perceptions and ¬nely-shaded
appreciations; and all this means delicately-strung nerves “ it may be paren-
thetically said that this is the reason why women have taken so easily their high
place in literature . . . So perhaps we ought not be surprised, if our literary
friends ˜˜see red™™ more quickly than others, that they give way to certain ¬ne
frenzies, when the blood is stirred by the wild emotions of war, and that they are
the least able among us to resist the in¬‚uence of the strong wine. ()
Herbert™s con¬‚ation of the ˜˜Press™™ with the ˜˜literary™™ is a fascinating
one, as is his association of the literary with the feminine with the jingo. Is
the press to which he refers the newspaper press, in which his own letter
appears, or is it literary publishing? The letter points up the fact that the
two were the same “ overheated literary jingoism often appeared ¬rst in
the newspapers. Herbert is responding to literary jingoism like that of
Algernon Swinburne, whose Boer War messages of inspiration, all
published in The Times, included a call for England ˜˜To scourge these
dogs, agape with jaws afoam,/Down out of life™™ (). The equation of
such bloodthirstiness with femininity, with ˜˜delicately-strung nerves™™
links the high emotion of the jingo with the female-associated phenom-
enon of hysteria, and the connection serves to discredit female authors,
for whom literary fame, because of their supreme sensitivity, comes
˜˜easily.™™ The critique of literary jingoism on such grounds di¬ers from
that mounted by Robert Buchanan™s ˜˜The Voice of the Hooligan,™™
which also links journalism, imperialism, and literature, but which
focuses on jingoism™s ˜˜vulgarity™™ and Kipling™s correspondence with it:
˜˜Savage animalism and ignorant vainglory being in the ascendant, he is
hailed at every street-corner and crowned by every newspaper™™ ().
Kipling represents popular passion and the sentiment of the everyday
jingo, while Swinburne represents the extremes to which the e¬ete
literary man can be pushed by the emotional demands of war.
The celebrity of the Victorian literary ¬gures with whom this book
has dealt was a celebrity that arose in the speci¬c historical conditions of
late-Victorian imperial Britain. The quality and popular press, propa-
ganda, and government publications together established a public dis-
course of imperialism in which such writers as Kipling, Haggard, Doyle,
and Schreiner had prominent places that were not available earlier in
±·µ
The imperial imaginary
imperial history. The positions of literary ¬gures within that discourse
were part and parcel of the dependence of the ideology of imperialism
on the imaginary, even though the primary contributions of these
writers to the Boer War were not imaginative literature.
Other critics have explored the psychoanalytic dimensions of im-
perial literature²¹ and even the psychological implications of imperial-
ism itself.²² This chapter has aimed to explore the position that emerged
for authors in an imperial culture that needed such writers to help
sustain its sense of imperial mission. The di¬erences between the indi-
vidual circumstances of Haggard, Kipling, and the writers examined in
the previous two chapters are less important than the fact of their
privileged positioning within the public discourse of imperialism at the
turn of the century. Arthur Conan Doyle™s writings on the Boer War
prompted John M. Robertson to write, initially in the New Age, then
reprinted as a pamphlet, The Truth About the War: An Open Letter to Dr. A.
Conan Doyle. Robertson points to the problematic nature of the authority
vested in the literary ¬gure writing on military matters:
You avow some di¬dence as to your ¬tness for the task, and you well may.
Military men have pronounced you incompetent to discuss operations of war;
all men know how you have thought a war to be ¬nished in the middle; and any
careful reader of your History could see how little trouble you commonly took
either to ¬nd facts or to weigh them. But in a country which is in large part
content to take its sociology from Mr. Kipling, its morals from Mr. Chamber-
lain, and its code of statesmanship from Lord Milner, you may, I grant, fairly
assume that the study of military causation is in the scope of the creator of
Brigadier Gerard, and the imbroglio of a long political strife amenable to the
methods which constructed Sherlock Holmes. ()
The credibility of the literary ¬gure as commentator on empire was
clearly not universally granted. Nevertheless, press commentators on
imperialism throughout the Boer War emphasized the importance of
literary ¬gures in bucking up the nation in support of empire, and on
that point I want to return to Edward Said™s assertion that culture ˜˜was
mysteriously exempted from analysis whenever the causes, bene¬ts, or
evils of imperialism were discussed™™ (Culture ±). From even before the
analysis of Hobson, culture, especially popular culture, has been recog-
nized as inseparable from imperialism. In time of war, the connection is
strengthened even further, as the controversy over Kipling™s ˜˜The
Islanders™™ makes plain.
The Boer War was an imperial war with a di¬erence, fought against a
white settler population. Because of this, it was di¬cult to portray the
±· Gender, race, and the writing of empire
con¬‚ict as a step down the road of civilizing the Dark Continent. But the
imperial imaginary played a more important role in the Boer War than
it had in any earlier imperial con¬‚ict, as the newspaper column inches
devoted to literary ¬gures reveal. Imagination was essential to the
imperial vision, and creators of imaginative literature had an important
voice in imperial public discourse “ discourse within which the New
Journalism reinforced ideology that was so important to the New
Imperialism. But there could be no seamless ideology of imperialism for
those writers to reinforce, just as there was no single British public for
them to address. The coverage of the siege and relief of Mafeking, of the
concentration camps scandal, of the debate about the sexual honor of
the British soldier, and Olive Schreiner™s working out of racial ideology
in relation to South Africa are all occasions during which public dis-
course reveals deep, structural problems with the gender and racial (and
sometimes class) ideologies that functioned within the more all-en-
compassing political and economic program of British imperialism.
Rider Haggard refused to take the logical step of becoming a propa-
gandist for empire during the Boer War; he wrote letters to The Times,
published a novel, and reissued his old history of the Transvaal before
the war began. Haggard recognized a shift in the way empire was
perceived by the British public, and even though he had been a colonial
administrator, he for the most part kept his views, military and political,
to himself. Kipling, on the other hand, obliged the British public™s sense
of him as the laureate of empire by jumping into the war e¬ort whole-
heartedly, ¬rst by writing ˜˜The Absent-Minded Beggar,™™ then by writ-
ing anti-Afrikaner articles for the Imperial South Africa Association,
editing a troop newspaper, and writing ˜˜foolish yarns about the war
which may or may not do some good™™ (in Pinney Letters ). Kipling™s
huge popularity made it natural that the colonial public in South Africa
should expect him to write of them, but the racial and political circum-
stances of South Africa, and his own lack of familiarity with the region,
meant that Kipling was unable to engage with the colonial project in
South Africa in a straightforward way. As Olive Schreiner™s and Rider
Haggard™s writings make clear, Boer War South Africa was a compli-
cated mix of peoples, but it was more Afrikaner than English and more
African than Afrikaner. The Africans were not dependably loyal to
Britain, the Boers were an independent and threatening political and
economic entity, and the ¬ction that Kipling produced from the war
ended up being more about war than about a uni¬ed concept of ˜˜South
Africa™™ or, in the end, of ˜˜empire.™™ Haggard™s South African writing
±··
The imperial imaginary
focused on the days of southern African exploration and then stopped;
Kipling did not pick up where Haggard left o¬.
The strains on Haggard and Kipling during the Boer War and their
inability or refusal to do the ideological work that was expected of them
re¬‚ect the changing concept of the public in Britain at the turn of the
century. The newspaper press™s changing place in ˜˜public opinion,™™ as
readership extended across class and gender lines, was part of the
changing publics for journalism, propaganda, and literature about im-
perialism. Public discourse about the war revealed, in controversy after
controversy, that the new crises about gender, sex, race, and class were
creating what Alan Sin¬eld calls ˜˜faultlines™™ in imperial ideology (˜˜Cul-
tural Materialism™™ ±). Haggard refuses to address the war, Kipling
cannot create a uni¬ed cultural sense of empire, Arthur Conan Doyle
resorts to historical romancing in the guise of history, and Schreiner
cannot pull the public together on the anti-war side because she cannot
create racial categories about South Africa that can win the sympathy or
approval of the British public. The concentration camps controversy,
because it was recognized as a large public scandal when it broke,
perhaps represents best the kind of faultlines running through a culture
of imperialism at the turn of the century: gender, race, class were all
read di¬erently by the di¬erent sides of the controversy. All three were
contested; none was fully doing the job of supporting imperial ideology
because the notion of a single public that supported the imperial project
was false. There was no single public, independent of such factors as
gender and class, and attempts to address British readers as if they were
a single public inevitably resulted in failure, whether such attempts were
made by The Times or by Haggard or Kipling.
Still, Haggard™s and Kipling™s inabilities to create a uni¬ed British
imperialist public are not simply the personal failures of individual
literary ¬gures. The positions of Haggard and Kipling during the war,
together with the controversies in the press about the concentration
camps, the Doyle-Stead debates about the sexual honor of the British
soldier, and Schreiner™s attempts to construct a new South African race,
re¬‚ect structural instabilities in the culture of imperialism during the
Boer War. The racial categories of Boer and Briton and African Black
were in ¬‚ux; gender roles were being rewritten; and the press was
courting and creating new and di¬erent publics with wildly di¬erent
relations to government than those upon which earlier concepts of
public opinion had been based. This volume has been concerned not
with the economic or national-political manifestations of British imperi-
±· Gender, race, and the writing of empire
alism but with imperialism in the public sphere, in its cultural manifesta-
tions. Of course the cultural expressions of imperialism, in literature or
in the press, do not exist independent of economics and party politics.
But when we trace the workings of gender, racial, and class politics
within the ideology (or, in the case of the concentration camps, the
direct military applications) of imperialism, we see how dependent Boer
War-era imperialism was on these other, constituent ideologies.
The new popular press contributed greatly to the making of the
variety of publics that took shape at the turn of the century, but so did a
wider range of writing, including pamphlets, histories, periodical ar-
ticles, and poetry. There existed no single concept of the press nor a
single concept of the public but instead an interaction among many
kinds of discourse and the readers and writers of those discourses, as the
New Journalism developed alongside the New Imperialism. The result
was close to consensus on the idea of imperialism but much less hegem-
ony for the concepts of gender and race that worked as part of that
imperialism.
The Boer War, which lost its place in public memory in Britain after
the more sweeping tragedy of the Great War, still has much to teach us
about the workings of imperialism in an empire that was at the turn of
the century struggling with new understandings about race, about the
identity of ˜˜the public,™™ and about gender. The erasure of the Boer War
in British history is not paralleled in South Africa, however, where the
war has an entirely di¬erent set of political and social associations, and a
study of the signi¬cance of the war in the histories of the two countries
awaits another cultural historian. ˜˜The last of the gentlemen™s wars™™
changed the rules of war, confusing the categories of combatant and
noncombatant, and introducing such concepts as the concentration
camp system and the wholesale burning of farms and personal property.
Public discourse in Britain about the Boer War helped to remake the
public image of war itself. All public writing in Britain about the war had
to work with changing notions of gender and race within an ideology of
imperialism. Whether its medium was Blue-book, newspaper, essay, or
poetry, the public discourse on the Boer War examined in this volume
carries a recognition that not even an imperial war could produce what
was being demanded of public o¬cials, military leaders, and literary
¬gures alike “ a single, coherent, workable notion of a British Empire.
Notes




±  ·       
± Although British enthusiasm about imperial events had been rising, es-
pecially since the media build-up to the death of Gordon, the street scene on
Mafeking Night was an entirely new kind of public expression, as many
contemporary commentators, such as T. Wemyss Reid in the Nineteenth
Century, discussed below, and Rudyard Kipling noted (quoted in Pinney
Letters ±).
 For an overview of the mid-Victorian periodical press, see Walter
Houghton™s ˜˜Periodical Literature and the Articulate Classes™™ (“·).
 Kipling to William Alexander Fraser,  May ±°°, in Pinney Letters ±.
 The war is described as such in J. F. C. Fuller™s account of his war
experience, The Last of the Gentlemen™s Wars (±·). Fuller™s version was
published, of course, well after the First World War had forever altered
notions of the ˜˜gentleman™s war.™™
µ What Antonio Gramsci describes as a ˜˜[t]raditional popular conception of
the world “ what is unimaginatively called ˜instinct,™ although it too is in fact
a primitive and elementary historical acquisition™™ Prison Notebooks ±.
 As Christopher Lane has noted of the twentieth century, ˜˜we can never
disband the colonial project without disengaging the imaginary dimension
of imperialism™™ (Ruling Passion ).
· For an exploration of the myth of the Victorian military hero, see Graham
Dawson, Soldier Heroes.
 Ian McAllan, ˜˜XXth Century Men/XVIII “ Co. Baden-Powell, in Com-
mand of Mafeking,™™ ± October ±, p. .
 For more information on Lady Sarah at Mafeking, see Gardner Mafeking.
±° See, for example, Tim Jeal™s Baden-Powell, published in the US as The
Boy-Man.
±± Comaro¬ Mafeking Diary °. See also Pakenham Boer War, chapter .
± ˜˜Mafeking Celebrations™™  May ±°°, p. .
± ˜˜Mafeking Celebrations™™  May ±°°, p. .
± ˜˜Concertina™s Deadly Work in the Trenches/Music as an Adjunct to
Sharpshooting™™ (from our war correspendent),  March ±°°, p. µ.


±·
±° Notes to pages “
±µ For more on the complicated image of the Jew in relation to imperialism,
see Cheyette Constructions of ˜˜The Jew,™™ especially µ.

    ®  ®    © ®    °   ®       ®¤   °  
± For an example, see parliamentary coverage of ± February ±°±, recounted
in this chapter. See also Brown, Victorian News and Newspapers, especially
chapter seven, ˜˜Handling the News,™™ and Koss, Rise and Fall of the Political
Press, vol. ©, ±µ.
 William Haslam Mills, in The Manchester Guardian: A Century of History, refers
to the Boer War ritual of ˜˜giving up the Guardian,™™ which was ˜˜performed
with great pomp and circumstance™™ ˜˜in ¬rst-class carriages running into
Manchester™™ (±°).
 Lord Milner to Mrs. Ward (copy),  June ±°±, Chamberlain Papers JC
±/±/±µ.
 Lord Milner to Joseph Chamberlain,  June ±°±, Chamberlain Papers JC
±/±/±µ.
µ The Times, for example, countered its report of Hobhouse™s ¬ndings with an
attack on Hobhouse from ˜˜Reverend™™ Adrian Hofmeyr, who claimed to
have visited numerous camps. The Daily News ran a letter from ˜˜A Journal-
ist,™™ pointing out the ˜˜facts concerning Mr. Hofmeyr,™™ which ˜˜entirely
discredit any evidence whatsoever coming from such a quarter™™ (p. ), and
the leader page reminded its readers that Hofmeyr had been dismissed from
the ministry of the Dutch Reformed Church for ˜˜immorality™™ years before,
though he still credited himself with the title of ˜˜Reverend™™ (˜˜Adrian
Hofmeyr Again™™ · June ±°±, p. ). Even J. A. Hobson got into the fray,
writing in the Daily News on  June that The Times should have known
better than to print Hofmeyr™s assertions, since Hobson had had a letter
printed in that paper in November ±°° ˜˜stating the charge to which you
make reference™™ (p. ). Hobson also noted that in Hofmeyr™s book, The Story
of My Captivity, Hofmeyr ˜˜claimed the distinction of being ˜a Times corre-
spondent.™™™
 Joseph Chamberlain to Lord Milner (copy), µ November ±°±, Chamber-
lain Papers JC ±/±/±.
· Joseph Chamberlain to Lord Milner (copy), µ November ±°±, Chamber-
lain Papers JC ±/±/±.
 Lord Milner to Joseph Chamberlain, ±· January ±°±, Chamberlain Papers
JC ±/±/±±; On · February ±°±, Chamberlain reassured Milner that
there would be no ˜˜wobble,™™ ˜˜provided that our policy is ¬rm, clear, and
consistent, and that in carrying it out we do not raise new questions of a
deeply controversial character™™ (±/±/±±). The camps would prove to be
the most serious threat Chamberlain would encounter during the war.
 Lord Milner to Joseph Chamberlain, · December ±°±, Chamberlain
Papers JC ±/±/°.
Notes to pages °“ ±±
±° Emily Hobhouse to Lord Ripon, ° July ±°±, Ripon Papers, BM Add. MS.
,.
±± Lord Ripon to Kate Courtney, µ July ±°±, Ripon Papers, BM Add MS.
,, f. .
± The Times, hereafter cited as T, ± January ±°±, p. ; Daily Mail, hereafter
cited as DM, ± January ±°±, p. µ.
± ˜˜Parliament,™™ T ± February ±°±, p. .
± DM ± February ±°±, p. µ.
±µ Herbert Gladstone to Campbell-Bannerman, ±µ January ±°±, Campbell-
Bannerman papers, BM Add. MS. ±,±, ¬. “·.
±  December ±°°, p. , leader; p. , letter, signed K. E. Farrer, F. W.
Lawrence.
±· ˜˜The South Africa Conciliation Committee,™™ Daily News, hereafter cited as
DN, ± January ±°±, p. ·, signed S. H. Swinny, Secretary, South Africa
Conciliation Committee.
± The ¬rst such letter appeared on ° February ±°±, p. , headed ˜˜South
African Women and Children™s Distress Fund™™ and signed K. E. Farrer,
Hon. Treas., and Fred. W. Lawrence, Hon. Secty.
± ˜˜Proclamation by Lord Kitchener,™™ T  December ±°°, p. .
° ˜˜The Alleged Ill-Treatment of Boer Women,™™ T ± December ±°°, p. ±.
± See also, for example, ˜˜The Concentration Camps,™™ T  March ±°±, p. µ.
 ˜˜Rosewater War,™™ DM ± April ±°±, p. ; ˜˜War in Earnest,™™ ±· April ±°±,
p. ; ˜˜War in Earnest,™™ ± May ±°±, p. .
 ˜˜War in Earnest,™™ DM ±· April ±°±, p. .
 See, for example, T  September ±°±, · September ±°±; DM  July ±°±,
p. .
µ ˜˜A ˜Vrouwen Congress™ in Cape Colony,™™ (from our own correspondent),
dateline Paarl, November ±°, appeared  December ±°°, p. .
 ˜˜The Outlook in Cape Colony and Natal “ The Army and British Colon-
ists,™™ (from our own correspondent) Capetown, dated  November, ap-
peared ± December ±°°, p. .
· T · February ±°±, p. µ.
 For example, see T · February ±°, p. .
 ˜˜Proclamation by Steyn and De Wet,™™ T  February ±°±, p. µ.
° ˜˜The African Prison Camps/Terrible Rate of Mortality/Deaths at the
Johannesburg Racecourse/Details for Two Weeks,™™ DN ± June ±°±, p. µ.
Two days later, ± June ±°±, p. , leader: ˜˜The ˜Pall Mall Gazette™ cavils at
our ¬gures on the ground that we deduce an annual rate of mortality from a
period of epidemic. But there are, unhappily, conditions of life which
produce a permanent state of infection, and therefore of epidemic . . .™™
± According to David Ayerst, in The Manchester Guardian: Biography of a News-
paper, Arnold learned Dutch during the war in order to provide the Guardian
with translations of stories from Dutch newspapers from the Boer side. He
was a practicing physician in Manchester and had been the medical spokes-
± Notes to pages “µ
man on a deputation to the Lord Mayor of Manchester to plead for action
on the issue of the camps (µ).
 DM ± June ±°±, ˜˜Some War Topics,™™ p. .
 T ± June ±°±, pp. “·; DM ± June ±°±, ˜˜Pro-Boer Fiasco,™™ p. µ.
 T ± June ±°±, pp. “·, .
µ T ± June ±°±, p. .
 T ± June ±°±, p. .
· DM ± June ±°±, ˜˜On a False Scent Again,™™ p. .
 The untitled leader appeared on p. µ.
 ° June ±°±, p. µ.
° T ° June ±°±, ˜˜The Refugee Camps,™™ p. µ.
± DM ± June ±°±, ˜˜On a False Scent Again,™™ p. .
 T ° June ±°±, ˜˜The Refugee Camps,™™ p. µ.
 T ± November ±°±, ˜˜The Blue-book on the Refugee Camps,™™ p. .
 T  November ±°±, p. ±.
µ MG ± November ±°±, leader, p. .
  November ±°±, p. µ.
· ± November ±°±, p. ·.
 DM ° January ±°, ˜˜Justifying the Camps,™™ p. µ.
 T · July ±°±, ˜˜The Refugee Camps,™™ p. ·;  February ±°±, p. ±±.
µ° T ± December ±°±, ˜˜Austria-Hungary and the War,™™ p. .
µ± DM ± May ±°±, ˜˜Blacks as Guards for Boers,™™ p. µ; DM ± December
±°±, ˜˜Boer Murders of Ka¬rs,™™ p. µ. Examples abound of both these kinds
of stories during the war.
µ This is a view that had been, as Peter Warwick points out, sustained through
historians™ neglect. See Warwick, chapter ±, ˜˜Myth of a White Man™s War,™™
Black People and the South African War, and see also Mohlamme, ˜˜Black People
in the Boer Republics.™™
µ See Warwick, chapter , ˜˜The War in the Cape,™™ Black People and the South
African War, and Pakenham, Boer War, pp. ±±“°.
µ T µ November ±°±, p. µ.
µµ For more on sexualized descriptions of African women by European men in
this period, see Sander L. Gilman™s ˜˜Black Bodies, White Bodies,™™ pp. “
±.

 §  ®¤  © ¤  ¬  §   © ¬ ©  ° ¬©  “
     ° ,  ® © ® µ  ¤
± Kitchener to Brodrick, Kitchener Papers, PRO °/µ·, , f. y/.
 The anti-war Manchester Guardian had calmly pointed this out in early
December ±°° but had not protested. ˜˜A ˜Vrouwen Congress™ in Cape
Colony,™™ from our own correspondent, dateline Paarl, ±° November ±°°,
appeared  December ±°°, p. .
 Kitchener to Brodrick, · March ±°±, Kitchener Papers, PRO °/µ·, , f.
y/°.
Notes to pages µ“· ±
 ˜˜House of Commons,™™ T,  February ±°±, p. . The Daily News transcrip-
tion of the exchange di¬ered in subtle ways. It reported that after Brodrick™s
˜˜They are not prisoners of war,™™ Dillon asked, ˜˜Are they prisoners at all?
Are they not guarded by sentries with bayonets?™™ In addition, where The
Times reported Ellis being ˜˜received with loud Ministerial cries of ˜Order,™™™
on his rising to pursue the issue further, the Daily News reported ˜˜Ministerial
cries of ˜Oh™ and Opposition cheers,™™ p. .
µ ˜˜Imperial Parliament,™™ DN  February ±°±, p. .
 Brodrick to Kitchener, Kitchener Papers, PRO °/µ·, , f. Y/.
· ˜˜News from the Camps in South Africa,™™ p. ±°.
 Leader, ± June ±°±, p. ·.
 Brodrick to Kitchener,  April ±°±, Kitchener Papers, PRO °/µ·, .
±° Brodrick to Kitchener  May ±°±, Kitchener Papers, PRO °/µ·, .
±± Kitchener to Brodrick  May ±°±, Kitchener Papers PRO °/µ·, .
± Brodrick to Kitchener, ±± May ±°±, Kitchener Papers, PRO °/µ·, , f.
Y/µ.
± This argument is made by Brodrick in Parliament on µ February ±°±, T
 February ±°±, p. .
± ˜˜House of Commons,™™ T ± June ±°±, p. .
±µ Leader, T ± June ±°±, p. .
± See, for example, Etherington, ˜˜The Black Rape Scare.™™
±· A phenomenon discussed in Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara
Smith, All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave:
An Anthology of Black Women™s Studies.
± For more narratives by Boer women, see Hobhouse™s War without Glamour.
± ˜˜The Native Question,™™  August ±°±, p. µ. By no means am I denying that
Boers were cruel to Africans. British reporting of Boer maltreatment of
Africans, however, especially in the halfpennies, which were not known for
their negrophilism, usually focused on the fact that the Africans concerned
were ˜˜loyal coloured subjects™™ of the Crown.
° ˜˜Woman “ The Enemy,™™ ± August ±°±, p. .
± Ripon to Spender, BM Add. MS ,,  June ±°±.
 ˜˜House of Commons,™™ T ± February ±°±, p. ·.
 Letter from Hobhouse to Lady Hobhouse,  January ±°±, van Reenen
Hobhouse Letters µ.
 · July ±°±, p. .
µ ± June ±°±, p. ±°.
 Manchester Guardian ° October ±°±, p. .
· Rowntree said ˜˜The Colonel is evidently a humane man, desirous to act for
the best on the limited means allowed him™™ DN ˜˜A South African Diary “
The Boer Women and Children™s Camps “ Prisoners of War™™ (By an
Englishman in South Africa) R.M.S., o¬ Durban, · February, appeared µ
May ±°±, p. µ. Hobhouse™s view, expressed in a letter from C. Thomas
Dyke Acland, was, ˜˜Though many o¬cers in charge of the di¬erent places
are really kind, and do what they can to help, frequently the women are in
± Notes to pages ·“·
want of almost the absolute necessities of life, DN ˜˜South African Women
and Children™s Distress Fund,™™  April ±°±, letter from C. Thomas Dyke
Acland, Chairman, April °, ±°±, quoting ˜˜an eye-witness,™™ Hobhouse.
 DN ˜˜South African Women and Children™s Distress Fund.™™  April ±°±,
p. µ.
 Letter from Hobhouse to Lady Hobhouse,  January ±°±, van Reenen
Hobhouse Letters µ°.
° In fact, the group was not o¬cially a Royal Commission but a less o¬cial
Committee. It was referred to in the press as a Commission, however.
± Barbara Cain, ˜˜Millicent Fawcett: The Question of Liberal Feminism,™™
seminar at the Institute of Historical Research, University of London, µ
February ±.
 ˜˜The Concentration Camps in South Africa,™™  July ±°±, p. .
 Fawcett™s South African concentration camp diary, Diary, Millicent Fawcett
Papers °B/, dated ° July ±°±.
 Diary , Fawcett Papers °B/.
µ It is important to note that turn-of-the-century British studies of infant
mortality and child welfare in Britain consistently blame poor and working-
class mothers for their infants™ deaths and bad health, even while the reports
list numerous other factors that could be to blame. Anna Davin notes that
the Parliamentary Committee investigating physical deterioration in ±°
made ¬fty-three recommendations about such environmental conditions as
overcrowding, smoke, pollution, and insanitary conditions, as well as rec-
ommendations about such other aspects of working-class life as unemploy-
ment, lack of child care, and working conditions. But, Davin points out,
˜˜overwhelmingly, in the discussion which followed publication of the re-
port, most of that range was ignored. The recommendations which were
quoted and endorsed were those concerning the instruction of girls and
women in cooking, hygiene, and child care™™ (˜˜Imperialism and Mother-
hood™™ ). It was much easier to blame the women for being ignorant of
proper household skills than to address the social and economic conditions
at the root of the problem.
 Mrs. Arthur Lyttleton to Millicent Fawcett,  February ±°, Millicent
Fawcett Papers, vol. C.
· Leader discussing ˜˜philanthropists™s™™ ideas about the goal of the war,
Manchester Guardian ± October ±°±, p. ·.
 See, for example, Davin ˜˜Imperial Motherhood™™ ±.
 ˜˜Boer Women in South Africa and Portugal,™™ µ March ±°, p. µ.
° Letter to Lady Hobhouse,  August ±°, van Reenen Hobhouse Letters µ.
± Letter to Lady Hobhouse, ± July ±°, van Reenen Hobhouse Letters °.
 ± October ±°±, p. ·.
 Report on the Concentration Camps Fawcett™s personal copy, annotated and with
photos a¬xed. This photo appeared on a page inserted between pp. ±
and ±·.
Notes to pages °“±±± ±µ
   ® ® ©  ¬  « ® ©§  “   µ  ¬  ® ©®  
°  ° § ® ¤  ¦    µ   ® ® ¤   ¬  ® ¤ · . .    ¤
± Many critics and historians have addressed the question of Victorian
medievalism. See, for example, Alice Chandler™s A Dream of Order and Mark
Girouard™s Return to Camelot.
 ˜˜The Return,™™ cited from Rudyard Kipling, Complete Verse: De¬nitive Edition
(New York: Anchor, ±), p. .
 For a treatment of the signi¬cance of Empire for British male sexuality, see
Hyam Empire and Sexuality.
 Campbell-Bannerman Papers, British Library Add. MS ±,µ, f. ±, 
January ±°°.
µ War Against War in South Africa, hereafter cited as WAW, ° October ±,
p. µ.
 Of course, the corollary to this was that if a man™s honor failed, it was
because ˜˜a woman™s hand™™ had ˜˜brace[d] it loosely™™ (±°µ). Woman™s
function was not action or intellectual work but ˜˜praise.™™ While woman
was to be ˜˜protected from all danger and temptation™™ by man, to stay
within her sphere, the home, she was also to blame if her man did not
remain honorable in his ˜˜rough work in open world™™ (±°).
· WAW January ±°°, p. ±°.
 WAW  December ±, p. ±°.
 ˜˜War Letters,™™ DN ± July ±°°, p. .
±° The line between boy and man proved di¬cult for both Doyle and Hag-
gard: Doyle™s The Lost World is dedicated with a verse: ˜˜I have wrought my
simple plan/If I give one hour of joy/To the boy who™s half a man,/Or the
man who™s half a boy.™™ And Haggard™s King Solomon™s Mines is dedicated ˜˜to
all the big and little boys who read it.™™

µ ©®   °   © ®§  µ   ¦ ©       ©  © ® “
 ¬ ©      © ®  ,      , ® ¤  ¦  ©  ® 
± See, for example, Monsman Olive Schreiner™s Fiction, Barash Olive Schreiner
Reader, Showalter Literature of their Own, DuPlessis Writing Beyond the Ending,
Gilbert and Gubar No Man™s Land.
 See, for example, McClintock Imperial Leather, Walkowitz City of Dreadful
Delight, and Bland Banishing the Beast.
 Dubow has pointed out that among historians of South Africa, ˜˜liberals™™
have ˜˜den[ied] the existence of any intrinsic relationship between capital-
ism and apartheid™™ and ˜˜have sought to avert largely justi¬ed accusations
that English speakers “ some of whom formed part of an identi¬able South
African liberal tradition “ played an instrumental role in the formation of
segregationist ideas earlier this century™™ (Scienti¬c Racism ). What is ironic
about Schreiner is that although she can be seen as part of that liberal
tradition because of her links to evolutionist ideas about Africans, she is
± Notes to pages ±±±“±°
nevertheless signi¬cant in her early attention to the absolute connection
between capitalism and racial segregation. Preben Kaarshom has called
Schreiner™s Boer War writing ˜˜a historically unique mixture of imperialist
ideology (e.g. in the form of evolutionism, racism, and eugenicism) and
critique of ˜commercial imperialism™ as it manifests itself in the war™™
(Imperialism and Romantic Anti-Capitalism ).
 For work on the racializing of various white European groups in this period,
see, for example, Sander Gilman Di¬erence and Pathology. Anne McClintock
Imperial Leather discusses the racializing of the Irish.
µ Schreiner™s journalism has received little critical attention. The best work
on Schreiner™s essays on race and South Africa is Joyce Avrech Berkman™s
The Healing Imagination of Olive Schreiner.
 Letter from Schreiner to her brother, W. P. Schreiner, December ±, in
Rive Olive Schreiner Letters .
· Schreiner once wrote that when she had an attack and thought she was
dying, ˜˜the one thought that was with me was ˜Peter Halket™™™ (quoted in
First and Scott Olive Schreiner ±).
 Letter to Betty Molteno, ° July ±, in Rive Olive Schreiner Letters ·.
 See Dubow Scienti¬c Racism and Ranger ˜˜Race and Tribe in Southern
Africa.™™
±° Anne McClintock describes the Victorian preoccupation with degeneration
and its ties to class and ethnicity in Britain (Imperial Leather “µ±), and Saul
Dubow outlines twentieth-century South African fears about ˜˜poor whites™™
and degeneracy (Scienti¬c Racism ±“±°). For more on Victorians and
degeneration see Daniel Pick Faces of Degeneration.
±± Schreiner had been stung by an article in Ons Land, the leading Afrikaner
newspaper, which objected to her having used as her example for Boer
character the ˜˜despised white frontiersman,™™ the backward up-country
farmer, rather than the educated town-dweller. Schreiner wrote to her
brother Will, then Attorney General of the Cape Colony,
I have just got the copy of Ons Land you sent me. The leader ¬lls me with
astonishment and I may add pain. How any human creature could so
misread such an article [˜˜The Boer™™] is di¬cult for me to understand. I
don™t think I have ever felt so deeply wounded by any criticism which has
been made in the ¬fteen years I have been writing. It is as though you came
to a man™s help when a big man was trying to get him down, and he planted
you a blow between the eyes! ( April ±, in Rive Olive Schreiner Letters ·)
Schreiner™s defense of the Boer was unpopular in a Britain gearing up for a
war over South Africa, and the lack of Afrikaner support for her seemed to
leave her without a constituency. She wrote to a friend, ˜˜I did expect all the
English papers to attack me and say I was playing into the hand of the
Dutchman, but that the Dutch papers should attack me about it seems to me
impossible™™ (Letter to Mary Sauer, µ April ±, in Rive Olive Schreiner
Letters ·).
± Schreiner expresses a similar sentiment in her essay, ˜˜The Englishman,™™
Notes to pages ±±“± ±·
which Cronwright-Schreiner does not date, and which never appeared in
print until the ± collection.
± For the in¬‚uence of Spencer on Schreiner, see, for example, Berkman
Healing Imagination.
± See, for example, Greta Jones™ discussion of Social Darwinism and English
Thought: The Interaction Between Biological and Social Theory, Douglas Lorimer™s
Colour, Class and the Victorians and ˜˜Theoretical Racism in Late-Victorian
Anthropology, ±·°“±°°,™™ and Nancy Stepan™s The Idea of Race in Science:
Great Britain ±°°“±°.
±µ See Dubow Scienti¬c Racism.
± For an examination of the ways Britons categorized Africans by racial type
throughout the late nineteenth century, see Ranger ˜˜Race and Tribe in
Southern Africa.™™
±· Schreiner found herself unable to remain long in London and continually
returned to South Africa, especially to the karroo landscape she found so
inspirational.
± Other white writers concerned with the ˜˜native question™™ likewise deplored
miscegenation. Schreiner was unusual in her focus on white men™s sexual
exploitation of black women rather than the spectre of black men raping
white women. See, for example, M. J. Farrelly, an advocate of the Supreme
Court of Cape Colony, in ˜˜Negrophilism in South Africa™™ in ±°. For
more on the uses of the image of black men raping white women see my
chapters three and four, as well as Jenny Sharpe Allegories of Empire and
Brantlinger Rule of Darkness.
± For a thorough discussion of Schreiner as ˜˜unique in the comprehensive-
ness of her critique of social Darwinism,™™ see Berkman, The Healing Imagin-
ation of Olive Schreiner, chapter three.

   ©  °  ©  ¬ ©  §© ®    “    °     ,  ° ©  ,
 ® ¤   ¬ ©      ¦ © §µ  
± For a discussion of the divergence of ˜˜Literature™™ from ˜˜journalism™™ at the
end of the nineteenth century, see Laurel Brake (Subjugated Knowledges), to
whom I am indebted for conversations on the richness of the Victorian
periodical press.
 For Swinburne, see Beerbohm (˜˜No.  The Pines™™ µ), and for Ouida see
Bigland (Ouida “).
 Many recent studies have examined Haggard™s imperial ¬ction. See, for
example, Brantlinger Rule of Darkness, Chrisman ˜˜Imperial Unconscious?™™,
Gilbert and Gubar No Man™s Land, Katz Rider Haggard, Lane Ruling Passion,
Low White Skins/Black Masks, McClintock Imperial Leather. Few have even
mentioned his non-¬ctional contributions to public debate on South Africa.
 Much valuable work has been done on imperialism and adventure novels;
see, for example, Castle Britannia™s Children, Brantlinger Rule of Darkness,
Bristow Empire Boys, and Green Dreams of Adventure.
± Notes to pages ±“±·
µ Times  October ± ˜˜Colonists and the Mother Country,™™ p. .
 ˜˜Mr. Rudyard Kipling at the Anglo African Writers™ Club / His Views on
South Africa,™™ African Review ± May ±, p. ±.
· ˜˜The South African Crisis “ An Appeal,™™ ± July ±, p. ±.
 ˜˜Commandant-General Joubert and Mr. H. Rider Haggard,™™  Septem-
ber ±, p. .
 ˜˜Recent History in the Transvaal,™™ South African, µ October ±, p. .
±° ˜˜The South African Crisis “ An Appeal,™™ p. ±.
±± ˜˜Commandant-General Joubert and Mr. H. Rider Haggard™™  September
±, p. .
± The Times ± July ± ˜˜The South African Crisis “ An Appeal,™™ p. ±.
± These historical conditions of course include the changes in the publishing
industry explored by Norman Feltes in Modes of Production of Victorian Novels
and Literary Capital and the Late Victorian Novel, such as new marketing tech-
niques, the formation of authors™ associations and authors™ use of literary
agents, and changes in international copyright law. Feltes points out, in
Literary Capital, that by Kipling™s heyday in the ±°s, ˜˜the ideologies of
˜literary value™ encompassed not only the traditional but the very recent, not
only the exceptional but the ˜personal™ association, not only the ˜best™ but
the accessible or attainable™™ ().
± Rudyard Kipling, Complete Verse, De¬nitive Edition (NY: Anchor, ±), ·.
Unless otherwise cited, all subsequent references to Kipling poetry will be to
this edition.
±µ The Times  January ±°, p. .
± ±µ January ±°, p. ±.
±· ˜˜Rudyard Kipling and South Africa,™™ African Review, ± May ±, p. ±.
± ˜˜With Number Three/No. IV. “ By Rudyard Kipling,™™ µ April ±°°, p. .
± ˜˜With Number Three “ By Rudyard Kipling,™™ ± April ±°°, p. .
° ˜˜Fables for the Sta¬/The Elephant and the Lark™s Nest,™™ Bloemfontein Friend
 March ±°°, p. . From Kipling™s personal copy of the newspaper, File
µµ, British Library.
± See, for example, Gilbert and Gubar No Man™s Land, Low White Skins/Black
Masks, and McClintock Imperial Leather.
 See, for example, Hyam Empire and Sexuality and, to an extent, Lane Ruling
Passion.
Works cited




Allett, John. New Liberalism: The Political Economy of J. A. Hobson. University of
Toronto Press, ±±.
Amery, L. S. The Times History of the South African War. London: The Times, ±°.
Arata, Stephen. Fictions of Loss in the Victorian Fin de Siecle. Cambridge University
`
Press, ±.
Ayerst, David. The Manchester Guardian: Biography of a Newspaper. Ithaca, N.Y.:
Cornell University Press, ±·±.
Barash, Carol. An Olive Schreiner Reader: Writings on Women and South Africa.
London: Pandora, ±·.
Beerbohm, Max. ˜˜No.  The Pines.™™ In Clyde K. Hyder (ed.), Swinburne: The
Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, ±·°. “.
Beeton, Ridley. Facets of Olive Schreiner: A Manuscript Sourcebook. Human Sciences
Research Council Publication Series No. ±. Cape Town: Donker, ±·.
Bennett, Tony. ˜˜Introduction: Popular Culture and the ˜Turn to Gramsci.™™™ In
Tony Bennett, Colin Mercer, and Janet Woollacott (eds.), Popular Culture
and Social Relations. Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press,
±·.
Berkman, Joyce Avrech. The Healing Imagination of Olive Schreiner: Beyond South
African Colonialism. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, ±.
Olive Schreiner: Feminism on the Frontier. Monographs in Women™s Studies. St.
Albans, Vt.: Eden, ±·.
Bigland, Eileen. Ouida: The Passionate Victorian. London: Jarrolds, ±µ°.
Birbalsingh, Frank. ˜˜An Interview with Richard Rive.™™ Southern African Review of
Books (/) (February/May ±°): “.
Birkenhead, Lord. Rudyard Kipling. New York: Random House, ±·.
Bland, Lucy. Banishing the Beast. London: Penguin, ±.
Bolt, Christine. Victorian Attitudes to Race. London: Routledge, ±·±.
Boggs, Carl. The Two Revolutions: Antonio Gramsci and the Dilemmas of Western
Marxism. Boston: South End Press, ±.
Boyce, George. ˜˜The Fourth Estate: The Reappraisal of a Concept.™™ In
George Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline Wingate (eds.), Newspaper
History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day. Beverly Hills: Sage, ±·.
±“°.

±
±° Works cited
Boyce, George, Curran, James, and Wingate, Pauline (eds.). Newspaper History
from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day. Beverly Hills: Sage, ±·.
Brake, Laurel. Subjugated Knowledges: Journalism, Gender, and Literature. Macmillan:
London, ±.
Brake, Laurel, Jones, Aled, and Madden, Lionel (eds.). Investigating Victorian
Journalism. London: Macmillan, ±°.
Brantlinger, Patrick. Crusoe™s Footprint: Cultural Studies in Britain and America. New
York: Routledge, ±°.
Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism ±°“±±. Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, ±.
Bristow, Joseph. Empire Boys: Adventures in a Man™s World. London: Unwin
Hyman, ±±.
Brown, Lucy. Victorian News and Newspapers. Oxford: Clarendon, ±µ.
Buchanan, Robert. ˜˜The Voice of the Hooligan.™™ In Roger Lancelyn Green
(ed.), Kipling: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, ±·±. “.
Buchanan-Gould, Vera. Not Without Honour: The Life and Writings of Olive
Schreiner. London: National Book Association, ±.
Burdett, Carolyn. The Hidden Motives of Olive Schreiner. London: Macmillan,
forthcoming.
Butler, Judith. ˜˜Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of ˜Post-
modernism.™™™ In Judith Butler and Joan W. Scott (eds.), Feminists Theorize
the Political. New York: Routledge, ±. “±.
Carby, Hazel V. ˜˜˜On the Threshold of Woman™s Era™: Lynching, Empire,
and Sexuality in Black Feminist Theory.™™ In Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
(ed.), ˜˜Race,™™ Writing, and Di¬erence. University of Chicago Press, ±.
°±“.
Carr, John Dickson. The Life of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. London: John Murray,
±.
Castle, Kathryn. Britannia™s Children. Manchester University Press, ±.
Cecil, Violet. ˜˜Female Emigration II: The Needs of South Africa.™™ Nineteenth
Century µ± (April ±°): “.
Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. The Empire Strikes Back: Race and
Racism in ·°s Britain. London: Hutchinson, ±.
Chandler, Alice. A Dream of Order: The Medieval Idea in Nineteenth-Century English
Literature. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, ±·°.
Cheyette, Bryan. Constructions of ˜˜The Jew™™ in English Literature and Society: Racial
Representations, ±·µ“±µ. Cambridge University Press, ±.
Chrisman, Laura. ˜˜The Imperial Unconscious? Representations of Imperial
Discourse.™™ Critical Quarterly () (Autumn ±°): “µ.
Clarke, Tom. My Northcli¬e Diary. London: Victor Gollancz, ±±.
Clayton, Cherry, (ed.) Olive Schreiner. Southern Africa Literature Series No. .
Johannesburg: McGraw, ±.
Comaro¬, John. ˜˜Prologue.™™ In Sol T. Plaatje, Mafeking Diary: A Black Man™s
View of a White Man™s War. John Comaro¬ (ed.) with Brian Willan and
Andrew Reed. Cambridge: Meridor Books, ±°. ±µ“.
±±
Works cited
Cronwright-Schreiner, S. C. The Letters of Olive Schreiner ±·“±°. ±. Pion-
eers of the Women™s Movement Series. Westport, Conn.: Hyperion, ±·.
The Life of Olive Schreiner. Boston: Little, ±.
Curran, James. ˜˜The Press as an Agency of Social Control: An Historical
Perspective.™™ In George Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline Wingate
(eds.), Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day. Beverly
Hills: Sage, ±·. µ±“·µ.
Curtin, Philip. The Image of Africa: British Ideas and Action, ±·°“±µ°. Madison:
University of Wisconsin Press, ±.
Darragh, J. T. ˜˜The Native Problem in South Africa.™™ Contemporary Review ±
(January ±°): ·“±°.
Davey, Arthur. The British Pro-Boers ±··“±°. Cape Town: Tafelberg, ±·.
David, Deirdre. Rule Britannia: Women, Empire, and Victorian Writing. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, ±µ.
Davido¬, Leonore, and Hall, Catherine. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the
English Middle Class, ±·°“±µ°. University of Chicago Press, ±·.
Davin, Anna. ˜˜Imperialism and Motherhood.™™ History Workshop  (Spring
±·): “µ.
Dawson, Carl, and Pfordresher, John. Matthew Arnold, Prose Writings: The Critical
Heritage. London: Routledge, ±·.
Dawson, Graham. Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire and the Imagining of
Masculinities. London: Routledge, ±.
Doyle, Adrian Conan (ed.). Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Centenary, ±µ“±µ. London:
John Murray, ±µ.
Doyle, Arthur Conan. ˜˜The Doctors of Hoyland.™™ In Round the Red Lamp.
London: Methuen, ±. “±µ.
The Great Boer War. ±°°. Anglo-Boer War Reprint Library Vol. ±. Cape
Town: C. Struik, ±·.
The Great Boer War. Complete Edition. London: Smith, Elder, ±°.
˜˜An Incursion into Diplomacy.™™ Cornhill Magazine µ (June ±°): ·“µ.
The Lost World. Oxford University Press, ±µ.
Memories and Adventures. ±. London: Greenhill, ±.
Micah Clarke. London: Longmans, ±.
The White Company. London: Smith, Elder, ±±.
The War in South Africa, Its Cause and Conduct. New York: McClure,Phillips, ±°.
The War in South Africa, Its Cause and Conduct. New Edition. London: Smith,
Elder, ±°.
Dubow, Saul. Scienti¬c Racism in Modern South Africa. Cambridge University
Press, ±µ.
DuPlessis, Rachel Blau. Writing Beyond the Ending: Narrative Strategies of Twentieth-
century Women Writers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ±µ.
Durbach, Renee. Kipling™s South Africa. Plumstead, South Africa: Chameleon,
±.
Eby, Cecil Degrotte. The Road to Armageddon: The Martial Spirit in English Popular
Literature. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, ±.
± Works cited
Eley, Geo¬. ˜˜Nations, Publics, and Political Cultures: Placing Habermas in the
Nineteenth Century.™™ In Nicholas B. Dirks, Geo¬ Eley, and Sherry B.
Ortner (eds.), Culture/Power/History: A Reader in Contemporary Social Theory.
Princeton University Press, ±.
Ellis, Peter Berresford. H. Rider Haggard, a Voice from the In¬nite. London: Rout-
ledge, ±·.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War. New York: Basic Books, ±·.
Ensor, R. C. K. England, ±·°“±±. Oxford: Clarendon, ±.
Etherington, Norman. ˜˜The Black Rape Scare of the ±·°s.™™ Journal of Southern
African Studies ±µ (October ±): “µ.
Rider Haggard. Boston: Twayne, ±.
Farrelly, M. J. ˜˜Negrophilism in South Africa.™™ Fortnightly Review · (±°):
°±“°.
Fawcett, Millicent Garrett. What I Remember. New York: Putnam, ±µ.
Report on the Concentration Camps in South Africa by the Committee of Ladies Appointed
by the Secretary of State for War; Containing Reports on the Camps in Natal, the
Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal. London: HMSO ±°, ±°, Cd. .
Feltes, N. N. Literary Capital and the Late Victorian Novel. Madison: University of
Wisconsin Press, ±.
First, Ruth, and Scott, Ann. Olive Schreiner. New York: Schocken, ±°.
Olive Schreiner. London: Women™s Press, ±.
Friedmann, Marion V. Olive Schreiner: A Study in Latent Meanings. Johannesburg:
Witwatersrand University Press, ±µµ.
Fuller, J. F. C. The Last of the Gentlemen™s Wars: A Subaltern™s Journal of the War in
South Africa ±“±°. London: Faber, ±·.
Gagnier, Regenia. Subjectivities: A History of Self-Representation in Britain, ±“±°.
New York: Oxford University Press, ±±.
Gardner, Brian. Mafeking: A Victorian Legend. New York: Harcourt, ±.
Garrett, Edmund F. ˜˜The Inevitable in South Africa.™™ Contemporary Review ··
(October ±): µ·“±.
Garrison, William Lloyd. ˜˜Preface.™™ Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an
American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Signet, ±.
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. ˜˜Introduction: Writing ˜Race™ and the Di¬erence It
Makes.™™ ˜˜Race,™™ Writing, and Di¬erence. University of Chicago Press, ±.
±“°.
Gibson, John Michael, and Green, Roger Lancelyn (comp.). The Unknown Conan
Doyle: Letters to the Press. London: Secker and Warburg, ±.
Gilbert, Sandra M., and Gubar, Susan. No Man™s Land: The Place of the Woman
Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. : Sexchanges. New Haven: Yale Univer-
sity Press, ±.
Gilman, Sander. ˜˜Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of
Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine, and Litera-
ture.™™ In Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (ed.), ˜˜Race,™™ Writing, and Di¬erence.
University of Chicago Press, ±. “±.
Di¬erence and Pathology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, ±µ.
±
Works cited
Girouard, Mark. The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman. New
Haven: Yale University Press, ±±.
Gordimer, Nadine. ˜˜Introduction.™™ In Ruth First and Ann Scott, Olive Schreiner.
London: The Women™s Press, ±.
Gramsci, Antonio. Selections from Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and
Wishart, ±.
Green, Martin. Dreams of Adventure, Deeds of Empire. London: Routledge, ±°.
Green, Roger Lancelyn. Kipling: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, ±·±.
Gunn, J. A. W. Beyond Liberty and Property: The Process of Self-Recognition in
Eighteenth-Century Political Thought. Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen™s
University Press, ±.
Haggard, H. Rider. King Solomon™s Mines. ±µ. Oxford University Press, ±±.
The Days of My Life: An Autobiography. London: Longmans, ±.
The Last Boer War. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co., ±°°.
¨
Swallow, A Tale of the Great Trek. London: Longman, ±.
Cetywayo and His White Neighbours: Or, Remarks on Recent Events in Zululand, Natal
and Transvaal. London: Trubner, ±.
¨
Hall, Catherine. ˜˜Competing Masculinities: Thomas Carlyle, John Stuart Mill,
and the Case of Governor Eyre.™™ White, Male, and Middle-Class: Explorations
in Feminism and History. London: Routledge, ±. µµ“µ.
Hall, Stuart. ˜˜Race, Articulation, and Societies Structured in Dominance.™™ In
UNESCO, Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism. Paris: UNESCO, ±°.
°µ“.
Hall, Stuart, and Schwartz, Bill. ˜˜The Crisis in Liberalism.™™ In Stuart Hall, The
Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left. London: Verso,
±.
Hamilton, J. Angus. The Siege of Mafeking. London: Methuen, ±°°.
Harris, Michael, and Lee, Alan (eds.). The Press in English Society from the ±·th to
±th Centuries. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, ±.
Headlam, Cecil (ed.). The Milner Papers. London: Cassell, ±±“±.
Hennessy, Rosemary, and Mohan, Rajeswari. ˜˜The Construction of Woman
in Three Popular Texts of Empire: Towards a Critique of Materialist
Feminism.™™ Textual Practice ()(Winter ±): “µ.
Herd, Harold. The March of Journalism: The Story of the British Press from ± to the
Present Day. London: Allen, ±µ.
Hobhouse, Emily. The Brunt of the War and Where It Fell. London: Methuen,
±°.
Report of a Visit to the Camps of Women and Children in the Cape and Orange River
Colonies. London: Friars, [±°].
War Without Glamour: Women™s War Experiences Written by Themselves, ±“±°.
Bloemfontein: Nasionale Pers Beperk, ±.
Hobsbawm, Eric. Nations and Nationalism Since ±·°: Programme, Myth, Reality.
Cambridge University Press, ±±.
Hobson, J. A. Confessions of an Economic Heretic: The Autobiography of J. A. Hobson.
±. Hamden, Conn: Anchor, ±·.
± Works cited
The Evolution of Modern Capitalism: A Study of Machine Production. New York:
Scribner™s, ±°.
Imperialism: A Study. New York: Pott, ±°.
The Psychology of Jingoism. London: Richards, ±°±.
The War in South Africa: Its Causes and E¬ects. New York: Macmillan, ±°°.
Hofmeyr, Adrian. The Story of My Captivity During the Transvaal War ±“±°°.
London: Arnold, ±°°.
Houghton, Walter. The Victorian Frame of Mind, ±°“±·°. New Haven: Yale
University Press, ±µ·.
˜˜Periodical Literature and the Articulate Classes.™™ The Victorian Periodical
Press: Samplings and Soundings. Leicester University Press, ±. “·.
Huebner, Count. ˜˜Appendix.™™ In Arthur Conan Doyle, The War in South Africa:
Its Cause and Conduct. Bernhard Tauchnitz: Leipzig, ±°. ·°“·±.
Hull, Gloria, Scott, Patricia, and Smith, Barbara (eds.). All the Women Are White,
All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: An Anthology of Black Women™s
Studies. Old Westbury, N.Y.: Feminist Press, ±.
Husband, Charles. ˜˜Introduction: ˜Race,™ the Continuity of a Concept.™™
˜˜Race™™ in Britain: Continuity and Change. London: Hutchinson, ±. ±±“.
Hyam, Ronald. Empire and Sexuality. Manchester University Press, ±±.
Hyder, Clyde K. (ed.). Swinburne: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge,
±·°.
Ja¬e, Jacqueline. Arthur Conan Doyle. Twayne™s English Author Series. Boston:
Twayne, ±·.
Jeal, Tim. Baden-Powell. London: Pimlico, ±±.
Jones, Greta. Social Darwinism and English Thought: The Interaction Between Biological
and Social Theory. Sussex: Harvester, ±°.
Jordan, Winthrop. White over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, ±µµ°“±±.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ±.
Judd, Denis. The Boer War. London: Hart-Davis, ±··.
Kaarsholm, Preben. Imperialism and Romantic Anti-Capitalism: Four Papers on Culture
and Ideology c. ±°°. Kultur og Samfund ±/, Institut VI, Roskilde Univer-
sitetscenter, ±.
Katz, Wendy. Rider Haggard and the Fiction of Empire: A Critical Study of British
Imperial Fiction. Cambridge University Press, ±·.
Kipling, Rudyard. The Complete Verse. De¬nitive Edition. New York: Anchor,
±.
The Sin of Witchcraft. London: Imperial South Africa Association, ±.
Something of Myself: For My Friends Known and Unknown. London: Penguin,
±·.
The Writings in Prose and Verse of Rudyard Kipling. New York: Scribner, ±,
±°·“±.
Kitchin, F. Harcourt. The London ˜˜Times™™ Under the Managership of Moberly Bell: An
Uno¬cial Narrative. New York: Putnam, ±µ.
Koss, Stephen. The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain. Vol. ±, The Nineteenth
Century. London: Hamilton, ±±.
±µ
Works cited
Koss, Stephen (ed.). The Pro-Boers: The Anatomy of an Antiwar Movement. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, ±·.
Kruger, Rayne. Good-bye Dolly Gray: The Story of the Boer War. Philadelphia:
Lippincott, ±°.
Lake, Brian. British Newspapers: A History and Guide for Collectors. London: Shep-
pard Press, ±.
Lane, Christopher. The Ruling Passion: British Colonial Allegory and the Paradox of
Homosexual Desire. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, ±µ.
Lawrence, Errol. ˜˜Just Plain Common Sense: The Roots of Racism.™™ In
Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (ed.), The Empire Strikes Back:
Race and Racism in ·°s Britain. London: Hutchinson, ±. ·“.
Le Bon, Gustave. The Psychology of Peoples. New York: Macmillan, ±.
Lee, Alan J. Origins of the Popular Press ±µµ“±±. London: Croom Helm,
±·.
Lellenberg, Jon L. (ed.). The Quest for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: Thirteen Biographers in
Search of a Life. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, ±·.
Lenin, V. I. Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. ±±. Peking: Foreign
Languages Press, ±·µ.
Lenta, Margaret. ˜˜Racism, Sexism, and Olive Schreiner™s Fiction.™™ Theoria ·°
(October ±·): ±µ“°.
Lippmann, Walter. Public Opinion. New York: Macmillan, ±µ.
Lorimer, Douglas A. Colour, Class, and the Victorians. Leicester University Press,
±·.
˜˜Theoretical Racism in Late-Victorian Anthropology, ±·°“±°°.™™ Victorian
Studies ±() (Spring ±): °µ“°.
Low, Gail Ching-Liang. White Skins/Black Masks: Representation and Colonialism.
London: Routledge, ±.
MacDonald, Robert H. The Language of Empire: Myths and Metaphors of Popular
Imperialism, ±°“±±. Manchester University Press, ±.
Macdonell, John. ˜˜The Question of the Native Races in South Africa.™™
Nineteenth Century and After  (February ±°±): ·“·.
MacKenzie, John M. Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of British Public
Opinion, ±°“±°. Manchester University Press, ±.
MacKenzie, John M. (ed.). Imperialism and Popular Culture. Manchester Univer-
sity Press, ±.
McClelland, J. S. The Crowd and the Mob: From Plato to Canetti. London: Unwin
Hyman, ±.
McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest.
New York: Routledge, ±µ.
Mills, William Haslam. The Manchester Guardian: A Century of History. London:
Chatto and Windus, ±±.
Moers, Ellen. Literary Women. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, ±·.
Mohlamme, Jacob Saul. ˜˜Black People in the Boer Republics During and in
the Aftermath of the South African War of ±“±°.™™ Ph.D. Diss.
University of Wisconsin-Madison, ±µ.
± Works cited
Monsman, Gerald. Olive Schreiner™s Fiction: Landscape and Power. New Brunswick,
N.J.: Rutgers University Press, ±±.
Neilly, J. Emerson. Besieged with B.-P.: Complete Record of the Siege and Relief of
Mafeking. London: Pearson, ±°°.
Odendaal, Andre. Vukani Bantu! The Beginnings of Black Protest Politics in South
Africa to ±±. Cape Town: David Philip, ±.
Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. New York: Random House, ±·.
Palmer, Michael. ˜˜The British Press and International News, ±µ±“: Of
Agencies and Newspapers.™™ In George Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline
Wingate (eds.), Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day.
Beverly Hills: Sage, ±·. °µ“±.
Parry, Ann. The Poetry of Rudyard Kipling: Rousing the Nation. Buckingham: Open
University Press, ±.
Phillips, Richard. Mapping Men and Empire. London: Routledge, ±·.
Pick, Daniel. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. ±“c.±±. Cambridge
University Press, ±.
Pinney, Thomas (ed.). The Letters of Rudyard Kipling, Vol. III, ±°°“±±°. Univer-
sity of Iowa Press, ±.
Plaatje, Sol. T. Mafeking Diary: A Black Man™s View of a White Man™s War.
Cambridge, England: Meridor, ±°.
Porter, A. N. The Origins of the South African War: Joseph Chamberlain and the
Diplomacy of Imperialism, ±µ“. New York: St. Martin™s, ±°.
Porter, Bernard. Critics of Empire: British Radical Attitudes to Colonialism in Africa
±µ“±±. London: Macmillan, ±.
Poovey, Mary. ˜˜The Abortion Question and the Death of Man.™™ In Judith
Butler and Joan W. Scott (eds.), Feminists Theorize the Political. New York:
Routledge, ±. “µ.
Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England.
University of Chicago Press, ±.
Price, Richard. An Imperial War and the British Working Class: Working-Class
Attitudes and Reactions to the Boer War, ±“±°. Studies in Social History.
London: Routledge, ±·.
Pykett, Lyn. ˜˜Reading the Periodical Press: Text and Context.™™ In Laurel
Brake, Aled Jones, and Lionel Madden (eds.), Investigating Victorian Journal-
ism. London: Macmillan, ±°. “±.
Ranger, T. O. ˜˜Race and Tribe in Southern Africa: European Ideas and
African Acceptance.™™ In Robert Ross (ed.), Racism and Colonialism. The
Hague: Martinus Nijho¬, ±. ±±“.
Read, Donald. The Age of Urban Democracy: England ±“±±. Rev. edn. Lon-
don: Longmans, ±.
Rive, Richard (ed.). Olive Schreiner Letters ±·±“±. Cape Town: David Philip,
±·.
Robertson, John M. The Truth About the War: An Open Letter to Dr. A. Conan Doyle.
London: New Age Press, ±°.
Ross, Edward. Diary of the Siege of Mafeking October ± to May ±°°. Ed. Brian P.
±·
Works cited
Willan. Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society, ±°.
Ruskin, John. ˜˜Of Queen™s Gardens.™™ Sesame and Lilies. ±µ. London: George
Allen, ±°. ·“±.
Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism. London: Chatto, ±.
Schottler, Peter. ˜˜Historians and Discourse Analysis.™™ History Workshop Journal
· (Spring ±): ·“µ.
Schreiner, Olive. An English-South African™s View of the Situation. London: Hodder
and Stoughton, ±.
Closer Union: A Letter on the South African Union and the Principles of Government.
London: Fie¬eld, ±°.
Woman and Labour. London: Unwin, ±±±.
From Man to Man. ±·. Chicago: Cassandra-Academy, ±··.
The Story of an African Farm. ±. New York: Schocken, ±·.
Thoughts on South Africa. ±. Johannesburg: Africana Book Society, Africana
Reprint Library Vol. X, ±·.
Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland. ±·. Johannesburg: Donker, ±·.
Schreiner, Olive, and Cronwright-Schreiner, C. S. (sic). The Political Situation.
London: Unwin, ±.
Scott, Joan Wallach. Gender and the Politics of History. New York: Columbia
University Press, ±.
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial
Desire. New York: Columbia University Press, ±µ.
Sharpe, Jenny. Allegories of Empire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
±.
Shattock, Joanne, and Wol¬, Michael. ˜˜Introduction.™™ The Victorian Periodical
Press: Samplings and Soundings. Leicester University Press, ±. xiii“xix.
Showalter, Elaine. A Literature of their Own: British Women Novelists from Bronte to
Lessing. Princeton University Press, ±··.
Simons, Jack, and Simons, Ray. Class and Colour in South Africa ±µ°“±µ°.
London: International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, ±.
Sin¬eld, Alan. ˜˜Cultural Materialism, Othello, and the Politics of Plausibility.™™
In Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan (eds.), Literary Theory: An Anthology.
Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, ±. °“.
Smith, Iain. The Origins of the South African War, ±“±°. Origins of Modern
Wars. London: Longman, ±.
Solomos, John, Findlay, Bob, Jones, Simon, and Gilroy, Paul. ˜˜The Organic
Crisis of British Capitalism and Race: The Experience of the Seventies.™™
In Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, The Empire Strikes Back: Race
and Racism in ·°s Britain. London: Hutchinson, ±. “.
Spies, S. B. Methods of Barbarism? Roberts and Kitchener and Civilians in the Boer
Republics, January ±°°“May ±°. Cape Town: Human and Rousseau,
±··.
The Origins of the Anglo-Boer War. The Archive Series. London: Arnold, ±·.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics. New
York: Methuen, ±·.
± Works cited
Stead, W. T. Shall I Slay My Brother Boer? London: Review of Reviews, ±.
The Truth about the War. London: Review of Reviews, ±°°.
How Not to Make Peace. London: Review of Reviews, ±°°.
Methods of Barbarism. London: Review of Reviews, ±°±.
Stead, W. T. (ed.). War Against War in South Africa. ° October ±“ January
±°°. London: Review of Reviews (BL P.P. ±°.f.).
Stepan, Nancy. The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain ±°°“±°. London:
Macmillan, ±.
Stirling, Monica. The Fine and the Wicked: The Life and Times of Ouida. London:
Victor Gollancz, ±µ·.
Stokes, Eric. ˜˜Kipling™s Imperialism.™™ In John Gross (ed.), Rudyard Kipling: The
Man, His Work, and His World. London: Weiden¬eld and Nicolson, ±·.
°“.
Storey, Graham. Reuters: The Story of a Century of News Gathering. New York:
Crown, ±µ±.
Suleri, Sara. The Rhetoric of English India. University of Chicago Press, ±.
Sussman, Herbert. Victorian Masculinities. Cambridge University Press, ±.
Swinburne, Algernon. The Complete Works of Algernon Charles Swinburne Vol. VI.
Bonchurch edition. Ed. Edmund Gosse and Thomas James Wise. Lon-
don: Heinemann, ±µ.
Symons, Julian. Conan Doyle: Portrait of an Artist. New York: Mysterious Press,
±·.
Thompson, Leonard. The Political Mythology of Apartheid. New Haven: Yale
University Press, ±µ.
Thornton, A. P. The Imperial Idea and Its Enemies: A Study in British Power. London:
Macmillan, ±µ.
UNESCO. Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism. Paris: UNESCO, ±°.
van den Boogaart, Ernst. ˜˜Colour Prejudice and the Yardstick of Civility: The
Initial Dutch Confrontation with Black Africans, ±µ°“±µ.™™ In Robert
Ross (ed.), Racism and Colonialism. The Hague: Martinus Nijho¬, ±.
“µ.
van Reenen, Rykie (ed.). Emily Hobhouse™s Boer War Letters. Cape Town: Human
and Rousseau, ±.
Van Wyk Smith, M. Drummer Hodge: The Poetry of the Anglo-Boer War (±“±°).
Oxford: Clarendon, ±·.
Wahrman, Dror. Imagining the Middle Class: The Political Representation of Class in
Britain, c. ±·°“±°. Cambridge University Press, ±µ.
Walkowitz, Judith. City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late
Victorian London. University of Chicago Press, ±.
Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. New York: Cam-
bridge University Press, ±°.
Wallace, Edgar. The Four Just Men. New York: Dover, ±.
Walvin, James. Black and White: A Study of the Negro in English Society ±µµµ“±µ.
London: Allen Lane, ±·.
±
Works cited
Warwick, Peter. Black People and the South African War, ±“±°. African Studies
Series No. °. Cambridge University Press, ±.
Warwick, Peter (general ed.), Warwick, Peter and Spies, S. B. (advisory ed.). The
South African War: The Anglo-Boer War ±“±°. London: Longmans, ±°.
Willan, Brian. Sol Plaatje, African Nationalist ±·“±. London: Heinemann,
±.
Williams, Raymond. Problems in Materialism and Culture. London: Verso, ±°.
˜˜The Press and Popular Culture: An Historical Perspective.™™ In George
Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline Wingate (eds.), Newspaper History from the
Seventeenth Century to the Present Day. Beverly Hills: Sage, ±·. ±“µ°.
Wilson, Angus. The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Works. London:
Secker and Warburg, ±··.
Wilson, C. Usher. ˜˜A Situation in South Africa: A Voice from the Cape
Colony.™™ Nineteenth Century  (November ±): µ±“.
Winks, Robin (ed.). The Historiography of the British Empire-Commonwealth; Trends,
Interpretations, and Resources. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, ±.
Wirgman, A. Theodore. ˜˜The Boers and the Native Question.™™ Nineteenth
Century · (April ±°°): µ“°.
Woods, Katharine Pearson. ˜˜The Evolution of an Artist.™™ Bookman  (June
±): µ°“µ.
Woods, Oliver and Bishop, James. The Story of the Times. London: Michael
Joseph, ±.
Woolf, Virginia. Three Guineas. London: Hogarth, ±.
Worcester, Robert M. British Public Opinion: A Guide to the History and Methodology
of Public Opinion Polling. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, ±±.

® · °  °    ® ¤ °   © ¤ ©  ¬ 
Daily Mail
Daily News
Manchester Guardian
The Times
The Bloemfontein Friend
Westminster Gazette

   ©     ® ¤ ° ©    °  °  
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman Papers, British Library
Joseph Chamberlain Papers, University of Birmingham
Kate Courtney Papers, London School of Economics
Millicent Fawcett Papers, Fawcett Library
Herbert Gladstone Papers, British Library
Kitchener Papers, Public Record O¬ce, Kew
Kitchener-Marker Correspondence, British Library
°° Works cited
Milner Papers, New College, Bodleian Library, Oxford
Solomon T. Plaatje Papers, University of London, School of Oriental and
African Studies
Ripon Papers, British Library
Olive Schreiner Papers, Micro¬lm, University of York Southern African Stu-
dies Archives
War O¬ce records, Public Record O¬ce, Kew
Colonial O¬ce records, Public Record O¬ce, Kew
Index




Bristow, Joseph, ±
Africans, images in Britain, ±“°, ±“
British soldiers as rapists, “±°±
Allett, John, 
Amery, Leo, ± Brodrick, War Secretary St. John (see also War
O¬ce), , , , ·; and the camps, ·,
Arata, Stephen, ±·
µ; and Millicent Fawcett, ·; and Emily
Arnold, Matthew, ±±, ±±
Hobhouse, °, ±, °; worried about
Arnold, F. S., 
public opinion on camps, °, µ·, ,
Arnold, W. T., , 
·°
Brown, Lucy, , 
Baden-Powell, Colonel Robert, ·, ±“±; and
the Scouts, ±µ, ±, ±; image created by Buchanan, Robert, ˜˜The Voice of the
Hooligan™™ ±·
Lady Sarah Wilson, ±µ“±; manipulates
Burdett, Carolyn, ±±µ
news of siege of Mafeking, ±“±;
Burnett, Frances Hodgson, ±
statements on Africans during siege,
Bushman, ±“
±“°; policies towards Africans at
Butler, Josephine, 
Mafeking, ±·“°
Butler, Judith, 

<<

. 6
( 7)



>>