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Child bearing, 14, 335 Dairying, 53, 62, 121, 157À8
effect on gender division of labor, 171À2 Dame schools,
effect on human capital investment, 120 see Schools, private
fertility, 173 Davidoff, Leonore, 4, 30, 173, 242,
Child care, 179, 313, 318 298, 306, 309
by relatives, 177 Davies, David, 86, 173
children left alone, 176À7 Day-laborers, agricultural, 311
children taken to work, 177 see also Agriculture
costs, 178, 179À80 D™Cruze, Shani, 30, 279
dame schools, 178À9 Defoe, Daniel, 48, 63
effect on occupational sorting, 180À4 Denman, Richard, 235
gender division of labor, 175 Derby, 315
hired care givers, 178 commercial directory, 38
use of laudanum, 183À4 framework knitters, 258
Church of England, 298 Devonshire, lace factory, 46
Clark, Alice, 296 DeVries, Jan, 321
Cleanliness, 321À2 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 332
Clergy, 298À300 Discrimination
Clough, Robert of Keighley, 160, 269, 270 consumer, 274À7
Coal mining crowding, 342
see mining employer, 240À3
Collier, Mary, 59, 177 statistical, 148
Combination Acts, 243À4, 258 wage, 87À93, 102À3, 131,
Combs, Mary Beth, 284 187, 342
Commercial directories, 28À38, 307 Dissenters, in teaching, 301
measurement problems, 28À30 Distributional coalition, 14, 15, 273
Commons, 54 Doraszelski, Ulrich, 81
Comparative advantage, 112, 137, 159, Dorset, button industry, 50
173, 225 Drake, Barbara, 245
see also Gender division of labor, models of Drapers, 277, 316
Competition, 13, 15, 137, 221, 328À9 Dressmakers, 38, 225, 226
and discrimination, 92À3, 242, 274 Duncan index, 314À15
and guilds, 234 see also Occupational segregation
in professions, 305 Dunlop, James, of Glasgow, 1À2, 242,
schools, 301À3 253, 314
Competitive market model, wages, 80 Dunlop, O. Jocelyn, 234, 235
Compositors, 248
Conspicuous consumption, 323 Earle, Peter, 60, 225, 308
Cornwall, mining, 63 Eden, F.M., 48, 72, 99, 166, 296
Cotton spinning, Edinburgh, 8, 67
see Spinning compositors, 249
372 Index
Education brewing, 286À8
see Human capital, Literacy, Schooling changes over time, 145À7, 153
Edwards, Albe, 83 child care, 175
Elasticity cottage industry, 182À4
cross-price, 188À9, 196À7, 343 effect of capital requirements, 286À8
of complementarity, 189 effect of professionalization, 289À91
of substitution, 189À90 effect of schooling, 289
Ellis, S., 323 effect on the wage gap, 145
Employers framework knitting, 161À2
see Discrimination, Gender ideology, garment trades, 275
M™Connel and Kennedy Germany, 329
Enclosures, 54, 56 handloom weaving, 42, 159,
Engels, Friederich, 6, 175, 306 170À1, 257
Estcourt, Thomas, 261 individual characteristics, 163
mining, 260
Factories models of, 138À51
managers, female, 67 regional, 165À9
owners, female, 65À6 skilled vs. unskilled work, 228
regional pattern, 44 skilled work, 221À7
textile, 42À3 spinning, 40À1, 169À70
Factory Acts, 229, 230À1 staymaking, 224À5
Family gap, 333 tailors, 267, 268
Family wage, 231, 246 textiles, 158À61, 169À70
see also Gender ideology unions, role of, 244, 270
Family, where not explained by strength,
as a source of discrimination, 274, 289 221À3, 225
effects on women™s opportunities, woolcombing, 269
283, 284, 285 Gender ideology, 4À10, 15, 227,
see also child care, child-bearing 231À3, 322À5
Farm laborers, angel of the house, 231
see Agricultural laborers as determinant of the division
Farm servants, 56À7 of labor, 171
Arthur Young data, 191, 193 as response to observed wages,
employment, determinants of, 194À6 133À5
Farmers, attitude of employers, 233, 240
female, 51À2 child care, 174
wives of , 52À4 family wage, 231, 246
Feinstein, Charles, 318 skill, 82À3
Felkin, William, 161 use by unions, 246
Feme covert women as dependents, 83
see couverture women™s wages, 82À3
Feme sole, 278, 279À80 see also Wages, customary
outside London, 279, 280 Gielgud, Judy, 11, 104, 112, 152, 155
Field-Hendrey, Elizabeth, 101, 102 Gilboy, Elizabeth, 155
Framework knitting Glasgow, 44
see Knitting, framework mule-spinners, 92, 248, 266
Freeman, Richard, 189 Gleaning, 56
Freifeld, Mary, 11, 104, 266 Glove industry, 48À9
wages in, 49
Garment trades, gender division Godfrey™s cordial, 183À4
of labor, 275 Goldin, Claudia, 81, 87, 100, 320
see also Dressmakers, Milliners, Tailors, Goodman, Jordan, 61
Staymakers Government regulation, occupational
Gender division of labor, 154À63 barriers, 228À31
agriculture, 155À8 Grant, James, 189
Index 373
Guilds, 68, 233À9 Huberman, Michael, 90
Germany, 233 Hudson, Pat, 110, 125
strength of, 238À9 Human capital, 225, 227
Gullickson, Gay, 105, 151, 170 see also Schooling, Literacy
Humphries, Jane, 7, 110, 164, 241, 246,
Haegeland, Torbjorn, 102 308, 315, 319, 320
Hall, Catherine, 4, 30, 173, 242, 298, 309 Hunt, E.H., 44, 201, 202
Hamermesh, Daniel, 189 Hutton, Diane, 238
Hammond, J. and B., 120, 125, 258, 268
Handloom weavers, 42, 84, 183, 247 Ideology
apprenticeship, 239 see Gender ideology
attempts at unionization, 255À7 Industrious revolution, 321
flax, 159 Inheritance, 281
gender differences in piece rates, 90À2 Irish
gender division of labor, 42, 170À1, 257 exclusion of, 247
Knaresborough, 256 in handloom weaving, 255
Lancashire, 256 Irregularity of employment, 24À5
Leeds, 256
minimum wage petition, 125 Jacoby, Hanan, 101
Scotland, 255 Jenny
skill, 42, 254À5 see Spinning jenny
southwest, 256À7 John, Angela, 229
strength requirements, 152, 158, 159 Johnson, Paul, 126
Harrison, Brian, 104 Jordan, Ellen, 154, 249
Hartmann, Heidi, 5, 14, 174 Joshi, Heather, 334
Harvesting, 156À7, 311À12
strength requirements, 104, 112, 156 Kelsall, Keith, 124
wage ratios, 157 Khan, Zorina, 278
wages of strong women, 164 Klette, Tor Jakob, 102
Hatters, exclusion of women, 245 Knitting, framework, 62, 88, 111, 182
Hatton, Timothy, 18, 201, 270, 307 attempts at unionization, 258
Heathcoat, John, 46 gender division of labor, 161À2
see also Lace industry Nottingham, 258
Heavy industries, 154À5 skill level, 257
Hellerstein, Judith, 102 strength requirement, 161
Hicks, J.R., 250 Kussmaul, Ann, 56
Higgs, Edward, 18, 21À2, 57
Hill, Bridget, 8, 83 Labor force participation, female
Hoeing, 157 effect of ideology, 322À5
Honeyman, Katrina, 61 effect of income, 320
Hopkinson, James, 68, 118, 300, 309 effects on women™s well-being, 325À6
Horrell, Sara, 308, 319, 320 married women, 306À7, 308
Hosiery industry, trends, 33À4
see Knitting Labor mobility, 202
Houldsworth, Henry, 87 Lace industry, 45À8, 122
Hours of work effect on women™s employment in
affect on wages, 86À7, 94À5 agriculture, 166À8
agriculture, 94À5 female employers, 67
laundry, 95 mechanization, 45À7
see also Factory Acts wages, 45, 46, 47À8, 133
Housework, 333À4 Lacey, Kay, 279, 286, 295
effect on wages, 183 Lancashire, 44
effect on schooling, 118 see also Manchester
gender division of labor, 174 Land, Hilary, 232
see also Child care Lane, Joan, 104, 110, 225, 235, 277
374 Index
Lane, Penelope, 123, 130 Milliners, 38, 225, 275
Laudanum, 183À4 Miners™ Association of Great Britain and
Laundry, 59, 162À3 Ireland, 260
gender division of labor, 162À3 Mines Act of 1842, 63, 229À30
hours of work, 95 Mining, 62À3, 111, 229À30
strength requirements, 162 gender division of labor, 164À5, 260
Lawyers, 291À3 hewing, 165
exclusion of women, 292 northern England, 259
Lee, W. R., 110, 125 Scotland, 260
Leicester, framework knitters, 258 unionization, 259À60
Lindert, Peter, 187, 318 Mitch, David, 116
Literacy Mitchell, James, 86, 134, 159, 183
effect on occupation, 117, 120 Mokyr, Joel, 321
gender differences, 116 Monopoly and discrimination, 242À3
Loder, Robert, 295 Morris, R., 281
Luddism, 258À9 Mule spinners, 40À1, 104, 111, 147, 314
see also Knitting, framework Barcelona, 265
Glasgow, 1À3, 242, 245, 247, 248, 266
Managers, female, 67 Manchester, 245
Manchester self-actor, 41, 248, 265À6, 279
commercial directories, 31À2, 33 skill, 266
index of segregation, 315 strength requirements, 265
mule spinners, 89, 245 union, 41, 93, 244, 245, 247, 266
Margo, Robert, 81 wages, 89
Married women
data limitations, 16À17 Nail-making, 64
guilds, 235 see also metal goods industry
invisibility of, 68 Napoleonic Wars
legal position, 277À81 effect on industry, 45, 48
participation in husband™s business, effect on women™s wages, 132
309À10 Neumark, David, 102
partnerships, 279 Nottingham, framework knitters,
property, 280À1, 284, 331À2 258
seamen™s wives, 280 Nursing, 60
social expectations, 322À5 Nye, John Vincent, 102, 343
work, 30À1
see also Labor force participation Occupational barriers, 14
Married Women™s Property Act, 284 Occupational segregation, index of,
Marshall, William, 157 314À15
Mayhew, Henry, 59, 162 Coventry, 315
McKay, John, 307 Manchester, 315
McMurray, Sally, 52 Occupational sorting, 25À8, 33, 154À63
M™Connel and Kennedy, 90, 240, 265 effect on wage gap, 145
Medical Act of 1858, 294 models of, 138À51
Medicine, 293À8 where not explained by strength,
female employment, 69À70 221À3, 225
see also Midwives, Physicians, Surgeons, Ogilvie, Sheilagh, 105, 233, 238, 329
Apothecaries Olmstead, Alan, 100
Merrilees, William, 190 Olson, Mancur, 14, 15, 252, 273
Metal goods industry, 63À4 Osterud, Nancy, 161, 182
Methodists, 299À300 Overseers of the poor, female, 65
Midwives, 7, 30, 69, 295À7 Overton, Mark, 312
Milking, 158
see also Dairying Paci, Pierella, 334
Miller, C., 8, 23 Painters-Stainers Company, 254
Index 375
Paper industry, 65 Rule, John, 250
Pasteur, effect on female labor force Rural Queries, 205À8
participation, 321
Patriarchal power, 246 Samuel, Raphael, 111
Perkin, Harold, 290 Sanderson, Elizabeth, 8, 31, 67
Phillips, Nicola, 67, 278, 280 Sax, Leonard, 11
Physicians, 30, 289, 294 Schofield, R.S., 116
see also Medicine Scholliers, Peter, 125
Pillow-lace Schooling
see Lace industry effect on occupational sorting, 289
Pinchbeck, Ivy, 53, 182, 324 gender differences, 115À16, 118, 288À9
Pinker, Steven, 10, 13 grammar schools, 115
Pin industry, 64 university, 115
Pipe-makers, unionization, 247À8 Schools
Place, Francis, 110, 267 fees, 179, 180, 301, 302
Plowing, 112, 151, 152, 155 infant and dame, 178À9
Poor law, effect on labor mobility, 202 private, 301À3
Postan, M. 283 private, quality of, 302À3
Potato ground, 56 straw-plaiting, 178
Pottery industry, 64À5 Schwarz, Leonard, 125, 285
Powerloom weaving, 42 Screw industry, 63
Glasgow, 247 see also Metal goods industry
Priot, Mary, 280 Scythe
Productivity differences by gender, 87, see Harvesting
98À102 Segregation
Chinese agriculture, 101 see Crowding, Occupational segregation,
estimates from production function, Occupational sorting, Gender
101À2 division of labor
French manufacturing, 102 Self-actor, 41, 248, 265À6, 268, 279
mule spinning, 89À90 see also Mule spinners
Peruvian agriculture, 101 Self-interest, 14
skills, 115À23 Separate spheres, 306
twentieth-century manufacturing, 102 see also Gender ideology
US manufacturing, 102 Servants
US slaves, 100À1 census data on, 21À3
see also Strength domestic, 57À9
Professionalization, 289À91 in-kind payments, 95À7
see also Clergy, Lawyers, Medicine, see also Farm servants
Teaching Sexual morality, concerns about, 232, 241
Sharpe, Pamela, 12, 81, 105, 123, 125,
Quakers, 298 126, 131, 153, 165, 280, 312
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh, 23
Ramas, Maria, 12, 172, 182 Sheffield, commercial directory, 34
Reaping Shopkeepers, 316
see Harvesting Shorter, Edward, 104
Retail trade, 65 Sickle,
Rhode, Paul, 100 see Harvesting
Ribbons, 159 Silk industry, 89, 178
Richards, Eric, 306 exclusion of women, 245
Roach, John, 115 strength requirements, 159À60
Roberts, Elizabeth, 105, 112 Simonton, Deborah, 9, 82, 105, 152,
Roberts, Michael, 5, 82, 131, 156 234, 237, 246
Rose, Sonya, 9, 61, 81, 82, 83, 93, 123, Single women
134, 161, 172, 230, 241, 246 legal position of, 278
Roy, A.D., 138 property ownership, 284À5
376 Index
Skill Textiles
decline in demand for women™s, 122 gender division of labor, 43, 146À7,
gender ideology, 82À3 158À61, 169À70
spinning, 121 see also Spinning, Handloom weavers,
Smith, Adam, 202, 269 Mule spinners, Powerloom weaving,
Snell, K.D.M., 311 Wool
Sokoloff, Kenneth, 81, 100 Thompson, William, 113
Speechley, Helen, 88 Thomson, Christopher, 303
Spenceley, G.F.R., 47 Toman, J., 101, 145
Spinning jenny, 40, 132 Training, 295
Spinning, 310 see also Apprenticeship, Human capital,
gender division of labor, 40À1, 111, Schooling
169À70 Troske, Kenneth, 102
hand, 39À40, 41, 121, 122 Trusts, 284, 285
machinery, 40
wages, 89 Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, 145, 153
see also Mule spinners Unemployment
Spitalfields effect on women™s wages, 214
see Silk industry Unions, 243À73
Spitalfields Acts, 89 agricultural laborers, 253, 260À4
Staffordshire, pottery industry, 64À5 bookbinders, 245
Statute of Artificers, 120, 124, 234, 239 coal mining, 259À60
Staymakers, 224À5, 276À7 Combination Acts, 243À4
Stephens, Henry, 99 compositors, 248
Straw-plaiting industry, 48, 121, 132 exclusion of women, 244
wages, 48 framework knitters, 161, 258
schools, 178 handloom weavers, 255À7
Strength, 13 hatters, 226, 245
effect on productivity, 110À13 house painters, 254
effect on gender division of labor model of strikes, 250À1
today, 332 mule spinners, 89, 93, 104, 244, 245,
effect on wages, 113À14 247, 266
farm work, 57 pipe makers, 247À8
gender differences, 106À10, 140 position on piece-rates, 92À3
mule spinning, 40À1 potters, 232
treatment by historians, 11À12, power, 249
104À6 restrictions on employment, 244
trends in the need for, 110À12 role in occupational segregation, 228
Strikes shearmen, 244
see Unions silk weavers, 245
Substitutability skilled vs. unskilled, 249, 251À3
of males and females, 188À9, 190, tailors, 226, 266À8
199, 205 twentieth-century US, 271À2
of women and boys, 215 use of violence, 253
Surgeons, 294 woolcombers, 247
see also Medicine University education, as occupational
Swing riots, 253, 261À2 barrier, 289
Ure, Andrew, 250
Tailors, 226, 314
gender division of labor, 267, 268 Valenze, Deborah, 52, 83, 132À3, 188
unionization, 266À8 Vaughn, Henry, 99
Teaching, 38, 68À9, 300À4 Veblen, Thornstein, 323
professionalization, 303 Verdon, Nicola, 8, 23, 54
wage discrimination, 102À3 Veterinary surgeons, female, 70
see also Schools Vickery, Amanda, 4, 309, 325
Index 377
Wage discrimination, 131, 187 nursing, 60
and competition, 92À3 persistence, 128
French manufacturing, 102 piece-rate, 73, 84À93
piece-rate wages, 87À93 pin-making, 64
school teaching, 102À3 reaping, 87
workhouse administrators, 103 regional patterns, 209
Wage gap, 72À3 responsiveness to supply and demand,
agricultural laborers, in 1768À70, 203 125À30
agriculture, 310 straw-plaiting industry, 48
agriculture, in 1860À61, 216 threshing, 153
by age, 79 trend, 318À19
causes of, 83À4 uniformity of female wages, 150À1
cultural explanations of, 81À4 weaving, 88
economic interpretation of, 79À81 weaving broadcloths, 158
effect of occupational sorting, 145 weaving stuffs, 158
French agriculture, 218 Waldfogel, Jane, 333
in 1833, 207 Walker, Andrew, 23
in-kind payments, 95À7 Water frame, 40
mis-measurement, 84À5, 93À8 Weaving
piece-rate wages, 84À93 see Handloom weavers, Powerloom
teaching, 301 weaving
twentieth-century, 331, 333 Webb, Sidney, 92À3, 233, 254
weaving broadcloths, 158 Webb, Beatrice, 233, 254
see also Hours of work, Productivity Welch, Finis, 189
differences Wesley, John, 299
Wages West Riding of Yorkshire, 44
agricultural day laborers, 126, 203À4 Widows, 285
bondagers, 98 guilds, 235
button industry, 50 Wiesner, Merry, 11, 104
charring, 59 Williamson, Jeffrey, 44, 81, 187, 201, 202,
correlation of male and female, 200À20 318
customary, 123À35 Wollstonecraft, Mary, 113, 115, 305
economic model of, 79À81 Woodward, Donald, 82, 124, 125
flexibility, 123À4, 126À8 Wool industry
framework knitting, 88 effect of cotton machinery, 40
glove industry, 49 gender differences in piece-rates, 90À2
government regulation, 124À5 spinning, 39
in-kind, 95À7, 206 Woolcombers, 105
lace industry, 45, 46, 47À8 gender division of labor, 269
laundry, 95, 162, 163 unionization, 247, 268
midwives, 69 Workhouse administrators, 103
mining, 63 Wyman, A.L., 69, 297
mule spinners, 89
nail- and screw-making, 64 Young, Arthur, 39, 45, 47, 49, 51, 63, 97,
needle-making, 64 158, 190À1, 203, 312

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