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timelike, 115, 116, 152, 153
acceleration phase, 429“30
zero-length, 61“2
deceleration phase, 428“9
see also basis vectors; four-vectors; tangent
vs. contraction, 186, 188
vectors; three-vectors; unit vectors;
general dynamical behaviour, 393“7
wavevectors
geometry, 401
velocity addition in special relativity, 18“19
homogeneity, 355“6
Venus, photon path deflection, 237“9
isotropy, 355“6
Venus“Earth time-delay measurements, 239
radiation energy density, 388
very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), 235
static models, 186, 407
maser studies, 281
structural origins, 442
Very Small Array (VSA), 460
Viking lander, 239
V404 Cyg, 279
Virgo, 355
vacuum
volume
energy density of, 187, 386, 389, 393
finite or infinite, of non-Euclidean
energy“momentum tensor, 187“8
three-dimensional spaces, 42
models, 389
in Friedmann“Robertson“Walker geometry,
true, 438
374“6
variational derivative, 530
manifolds, 38“42
variational principles
proper, 10
electromagnetism from, 536“9
and general relativity, 524“49 volume“redshift relation, 413“14
572 Index
wave equations, 474, 475, 498 worldlines, 9, 12, 123, 125“6
wavevectors dust, 190
comoving, 446 fixed emitter and receiver, 204
see also four-wavevectors in arbitrary coordinates, 144
weak-field metric, 467“70 in curved spacetime, 150, 152
Weber, Joseph (1919“2000), 518 of centre of mass, 170
Weyl™s postulate, 356“7 of fundamental observers (galaxies), 356a
white dwarf, 155, 288 see also particle worldlines; photon
electron degeneracy pressure in, 259 worldlines
in binary system, 277, 278 wormhole, 270
white hole and Einstein“Rosen bridge, 271“4
definition, 258 dynamic structure, 272
existence of, 258“9, 270
X-ray telescope, 260
singularities, 258, 270
X-rays, emitters of, 240
see also black hole; wormhole
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
zero-rank tensor, 93
(WMAP), 460

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