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pragmatics The study of those aspects of meaning determined by the context in
which language is used (e.g., time and place of an utterance; attitudes, beliefs, and
assumptions of speakers and hearers).
predicative An element used as a predicate is said to be predicative (e.g., the
adjective klein ˜little™ in Die Kinder sind klein ˜The children are little™; the noun
¨ ¨
Arztin ˜doctor™ in Meine Frau ist Arztin ˜My wife is a doctor™).
pre¬x An af¬x that is attached to the beginning of its base (e.g., un- in unklar
˜unclear™).
preposition A category of word typically used to designate location in time or space
(vor ˜before™, hinter ˜behind™); it precedes the NP with which it forms a
prepositional phrase (e.g., vor dem Konzert ˜before the concert™).
pronoun A category of word that can be used to substitute for a noun phrase (e.g., es
˜it™, sie ˜she™).
prosodic phonology Aspects of phonology such as pitch, loudness, and tempo, which
are not properties of individual sounds.
proto-language A reconstructed language for which there are no preserved records;
presumed to be the ancestor of one or more known languages.
realization The physical expression of an abstract linguistic unit (e.g., the morph
/fra…8/ is a realization of the morpheme {frau}˜woman™).
reduction (morphology) A noun that is a shortened (reduced) version of a complex
noun or a phrase (e.g., Demo, from Demonstration ˜demonstration™).
reduction (phonology) A cover term for phonological processes that “reduce”
sounds (e.g., the shortening of long vowels; centralization, which reduces tense
vowels to their lax counterparts).
reduplication A process of af¬xation that makes use of an af¬x created by repeating
part (or all) of the base to which it is attached (e.g., Pinkepinke ˜dough™, from
Pinke ˜money™).
reference time The time from which an event is viewed.
re¬‚exive pronoun A pronoun used to refer back to the subject of a sentence or clause
(e.g., sich in Er verteidigte sich ˜He defended himself™).
register A variety of language used when dealing with a speci¬c subject matter or
when engaged in a particular activity (e.g., the technical register of legal
language).
relative clause A clause embedded in an NP that modi¬es the head noun (e.g.,
den sie f¨ hrt ˜that she drives™ in der Wagen, den sie f¨ hrt ˜the car that she
a a
drives™).
Glossary 291

root The portion of a word form that is left when all af¬xes have been removed (e.g.,
st¨ r in Zerst¨ rung ˜destruction™).
o o
root modality A type of modality that contrasts with epistemic modality; expresses
notions like obligation, permission, and ability.
round A feature that characterizes sounds made by protruding the lips (e.g., […] in
muss ˜must™ is [+round], [©] in ich ˜I™ is [’round])
rounded Sounds that are produced with the lips protruding (e.g., […], [”]).
schwa The name for the vowel [™], a mid central lax unrounded vowel, which never
occurs in a stressed syllable in German (e.g., the ¬nal vowel in bitte ˜please™).
scrambling The movement of a constituent in a clause from its normal position to
further forward in the clause (e.g., in Dann holte mich mein Vater ab ˜Then my
father picked me up™, the direct object, mich ˜me™, has been scrambled from its
normal position following the subject to a position preceding it).
semantic loan A type of borrowing in which an existing word acquires a new,
secondary meaning on the basis of another meaning that its translation has in the
lending language (e.g., the extension of the meaning of feuern ˜to ¬re, shoot™ to
include the meaning ˜to let go [from a job]™ on the basis of this meaning of
English ¬re).
semantics The study of meaning in language.
simplex word A word that has no af¬xes and is not part of a compound (e.g., Frau
˜woman™, Wagen ˜car™).
singular The value for the grammatical category of number that indicates one entity.
sociolect A language variety that can be de¬ned according to the social group to
which its speakers belong.
sociolinguistics The study of the relationship between language and society; the
investigation of the way in which language functions in social contexts.
sonorant A feature that characterizes sounds produced when air ¬‚ows smoothly
through the vocal tract. Vowels, nasals, and liquids are [+sonorant].
source The thematic role of the entity from which a motion takes place (e.g., the role
of dem Auto ˜the car™ in Die Frau steigt aus dem Auto ˜The woman gets out of the
car™).
speci¬er A word that makes the meaning of its head more precise and marks a phrase
boundary (e.g., the determiner diese ˜these™ in diese B¨ cher ˜these books™).
u
speech time The time of an utterance.
spirant Another term for “fricative.”
spread glottis A feature that characterizes sounds with an active glottal opening
gesture. Stops that are [+spread glottis] are often aspirated.
standard language The prestige, supraregional variety of a language used by the
government and mass media, taught in schools and to foreigners.
stem The portion of a word form that serves as a base for in¬‚ectional af¬xes (e.g.,
missversteh in missversteht ˜misunderstands™).
stop A type of consonant (also known as “plosive”) produced by a complete closure
in the vocal tract (e.g., [p], [t], [k]).
stress The degree of force used in the production of a syllable; syllables that are
stressed are perceived as more prominent than other syllables. Factors that can
play a role in determining prominence include length, loudness, and pitch.
stress-timed A term used to describe the pronunciation of a language in which
stressed syllables recur at regular intervals of time (e.g., English and German).
292 Glossary

style A variety of a language that differs from another in its level of formality.
subcategorization The assignment of a lexical item to a subclass (subcategory) of the
syntactic category to which it belongs, typically with respect to the types of
phrases with which it can occur (e.g., the verb verteidigen ˜to defend™ is
subcategorized for an NP complement).
subjunctive The mood used to mark a clause as expressing something other than a
statement of what is certain.
subordinate compound A compound in which one element modi¬es the other (e.g.,
Kaffeem¨ hle ˜coffee grinder™, where Kaffee ˜coffee™ describes the kind of
u
grinder).
suf¬x An af¬x that is attached to the end of its base (e.g., -lich in monatlich ˜monthly™).
suppletion A situation in which two forms in the paradigm of a lexeme show no
phonological similarity (e.g., good and better; gut ˜good™ and besser ˜better™).
surface structure The structure at the level of the spoken language rather than at a
deeper or more abstract (underlying) level.
syllable A unit of speech built around a peak of sonority (the nucleus), typically a
vowel. The additional parts of a syllable are the onset and coda.
syllable-timed A term used to describe the pronunciation of a language in which each
syllable takes up approximately the same amount of time (e.g., French).
syncretism Identity between two forms in the paradigm of a lexeme (e.g., studiert
˜studies™, a third person singular form of studieren ˜to study™, and studiert
˜studied™, the past participle).
synonyms Two words that have the same meaning in some or all contexts (e.g., couch
and sofa; Nomen ˜noun™ and Substantiv ˜noun™).
syntax The study of the structure of sentences.
synthetic A type of language in which words are typically composed of more than
one morpheme.
tag question A question formed by attaching a tag, and interrogative fragment, to the
end of a statement (e.g., in German, the tag question Sie kommt, nicht wahr?
˜She™s coming, isn™t she?™ is formed with the tag nicht wahr).
telic A term used to refer to events that have a clear endpoint (e.g., ein Haus bauen ˜to
build a house™, durchs Ziel gehen ˜to cross the ¬nishing line™).
tense (feature) A feature used to distinguish between (1) tense and lax vowels; (2)
¬nite and non-¬nite verbs and clauses.
tense (verb) A morphosyntactic category of the verb that is used to express the time
at which the action denoted by the verb takes place.
tense vowel In German, a vowel that is produced further from the mid-central
position of the vowel area than its lax counterpart (e.g., the vowels in nie ˜never™,
¨
fr¨ h ˜early™, Schuh ˜shoe™, Schnee ˜snow™, Ol ˜oil™, Sohn ˜son™).
u
thematic role The semantic role played by an entity involved in a situation or event
(e.g., agent, patient, goal, location).
theme The thematic role of the entity that is moved by an action or whose location is
described (e.g., the role of das Gem¨ lde ˜the painting™ in Das Gem¨ lde h¨ ngt jetzt
a a a
in meinem Zimmer ˜The picture is hanging in my room now™).
topicalization The movement of a constituent to the front of a sentence so that it can
function as a topic, the person or thing about which something is said (e.g., the
movement of the direct object, day passes, to sentence-initial position in Day
passes you can buy online).
Glossary 293

topological model An approach to German sentence structure that divides a sentence
up into ¬elds (the Vor-, Mittel-, and Nachfeld).
trace An empty element (marked by the symbol t) that is left behind in syntactic
structure in each position out of which a constituent moves.
transitive verb A verb that takes a direct object (e.g., schlagen ˜to hit™, verteidigen ˜to
defend™).
tree diagram A diagram that represents the internal hierarchical structure of a phrase
or sentence.
trill A sound produced by holding an articulator loosely close to another articulator,
so that the airstream sets it in vibration.
umlaut The partial assimilation of a vowel to a vowel in a following syllable (e.g., the
fronting of OHG a in lang ˜long™ to e in lengiro ˜longer™ because of the in¬‚uence
of the following front vowel i). A vowel alternation used to signal grammatical
distinctions that is the result of assimilation to a following vowel is also known as
umlaut (e.g., the vowel alternation used to signal the plural in nouns, as in Fuß
˜foot™ and F¨ ße ˜feet™).
u
underlying structure The structure generated by phrase structure rules; a more
abstract level than surface structure.
utterance A stretch of speech.
uvula The small piece of soft tissue that hangs down from the rear portion of the
velum.
valency The number and type of arguments that occur with a verb (e.g., the verb
schlafen ˜to sleep™ requires a subject and thus has a valency of 1; the verb
schlagen ˜to hit™ requires a subject and direct object and thus has a valency
of 2).
velum The soft area at the back of the roof of the mouth; also called the soft palate.
verb A category of word that is used to describe actions and states; in German it is
in¬‚ected for person, number, tense, etc. (e.g., laufen ˜to run™, sein ˜to be™).
vocal cords The two pairs of folds of muscle and ligament attached to the inner sides
of the thyroid cartilage at the front of the larynx and to the two arytenoid
cartilages at the back of the larynx.
vocal tract The air passages above the larynx.
voice (feature) A feature that distinguishes between voiced and voiceless sounds.
voice (grammatical) A grammatical category that allows a speaker to alter the pairing
of thematic roles with grammatical functions; the main distinction is between
active and passive voice. In the active sentence Sie reparierte den Wagen ˜She
repaired the car™, the patient, Wagen, is a direct object; in the passive sentence,
Der Wagen wurde repariert ˜The car was repaired™, the patient is a subject.
voiced A glottal state in which the vocal cords are brought close together, but not
completely closed, so that the air passing through them causes them to vibrate
(e.g., [a], [v], and [l] are voiced).
voiceless A glottal state in which the vocal cords are spread apart and the airstream
passes freely through the space between them (e.g., [p], [f], and [c] are voiceless).
¸
Vorfeld The portion of a German sentence that precedes the ¬nite verb in a main
clause.
vowel A speech sound produced without a closure of the mouth or a narrowing of the
speech organs to a degree that would produce audible friction when the airstream
passes through the mouth (e.g., [©], [a], […]).
294 Glossary

wh-phrase A phrase containing a wh-word, a word that (in English) begins with wh
(who, what, which, where, when), or a word with a similar syntax (how); German
wh-words typically begin with w rather than wh (wer ˜who™, was ˜what™, welch
˜which™, wo ˜where™, wann ˜when™, wie ˜how™).
Word and Paradigm A model of morphology that takes the lexeme and its paradigm
of word forms as its starting point; the different word forms are derived by
processes or operations that apply to the lexeme.
word form The smallest stretch of speech that can occur in isolation; the form
(orthographic or phonological) in which a lexeme occurs (e.g., Mutter, M¨ tter,
u
and M¨ ttern are the word forms that realize the lexeme mutter ˜mother™).
u
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Index




abbreviation 102, 258“260 analytic language 111n.45, 199
ablaut 57, 75, 80, 88, 97, 107, 113n.72, 186 anaphor 142
(Der) Abrogans 188 Anglo-Americanism 275“276
A.c.I. construction 143 antonymy 150“152
acronym 102“104 apex 12
address, forms of 252“255 approximant 13, 48n.6
in FWG 270 arytenoid cartilages 4“5, 50n.36, 211n.15
history of 252“253 aspect 153“155
adjective 90, 116, 119, 259 habitual 122, 155
attributive 71, 110n.33, 124 imperfective 153“154
and case 120“122 perfective 153
comparative form 71, 150“151, 190 progressive 155, 161“163, 216
in¬‚ection of 70“75 aspiration 11, 21, 23“24, 49n.16, 184“185,
predicative 71“72, 110n.33, 111n.35, 241n.1
124“125 Aspiration (rule) 23“24
strong endings 72 assimilation 21, 26, 190, 248
superlative form 71, 111n.35 in colloquial German 246
weak endings 72“73 see also Nasal Assimilation, Velar Fricative
see also compound Assimilation, voicing assimilation
adjective phrase 63, 124“125, 193“194 Auslautverh¨ rtung, see Final Fortition
a
extended 125, 278n.10 Auslautsgesetze (laws of ¬nals) 212n.33
adjunct 128 Austrian Standard German (ASG) 224“228
adjunction 135“136, 141“142 grammar 226“227
adverb 92, 116, 124“126, 141“142, 146n.15, legal language 279n.21
250“251; see also compound pronunciation 225“226
adverb phrase 124“126, 176“177 vocabulary 227“228
af¬x 55“56, 99, 106, 212n.29 auxiliary verb 85, 113n.78, 116, 129, 197, 199,
derivational 90, 108n.3 251, 270
in¬‚ectional 56, 90, 98“99, 108n.3, 223, future 179n.14, 192
227 in¬‚ection of 81, 82
af¬xoid 99“100 passive 172
affricate 18“19, 188“189, 212n.38, 236 in perfect tenses 77, 160, 161, 178n.11,
agent thematic role 169“170, 172“173, 176 179n.16, 192, 217, 227
Alemannic dialects 189, 194, 201, 222, 224, in past subjunctive 83“84, 85
u u¨
232“235; see also Swabian, Z¨ rit¨ utsch position of 139, 227, 270
allomorph 55
allophone 15 back feature 26“27, 30“31
alpha notation 32 base 56
alveolar ridge 5 Bavaro-Austrian dialects 224, 233, 235“237
ambisyllabicity 34 bene¬ciary thematic role 146n.11
analytic form 111n.45, 187, 192, 197“199, Benrath line (Benrather Linie) 231, 232,
208 237“239

310
Index 311

Binding Theory 148n.42 nominal 100
blade of the tongue 12 subordinate 42, 98, 100“101
blend 106 verbal 101
breathy voice 211n.15 compounding 98“100, 103, 223, 227, 264;
see also compound
case 56, 62“66, 69, 71“75, 119“123, 139, 141, consonantal feature 50n.31
183, 186, 187, 191, 239 Consonantal Realization of /r/ 30“31
accusative 92, 120“121, 146n.8, 173, 175 consonant 10“14
accusative“dative distinction 217 phonemes in German 18“19
dative 62“63, 120“123, 180n.32, 214“215, sounds in German 10
250 constituent 146n.21
genitive 62, 110n.26, 121“123, 146n.8, 208, immediate 147n.29
214“215, 229, 250 continuant feature 49n.20
instrumental 186, 211n.24 converses 151“152
nominative 119“120, 130, 191 conversion 96“98, 113n.65, 125, 259, 264
vocative 186, 191, 211n.23 copula 119, 146n.17, 266, 270
see also adjective coronal feature 50n.31
Central German dialects 231, 232, 237“238 CP, see complementizer phrase
and Diphthongization 201, 235, 237“238 creaky voice 28, 50n.36
and High German Consonant Shift 237
and Monophthongization 201, 232, 235, de¬nite article 63“64, 192“193, 250
237“238 De¬niteness Constraint 142
circum¬x 56, 88“89 deletion 247“248; see also Schwa Deletion
circum¬xation, see derivation demonstrative determiner 64“65
circumposition 123 demonstrative pronoun, see pronoun
clipping, see reduction derivation 89“90, 99, 102“103
coda 16, 33 circum¬xation 95“96
in German 33, 36“38 implicit 97“98
cognate 212n.30 in Jugendsprache 263“264
colloquial German 214“218, 232 pre¬xation 90“93
grammar 121“122, 154, 158, 214“218, 224, suf¬xation 93“95
227, 249“252 see also conversion
pronunciation 196, 216, 226, 246“248 determiner 63, 116, 119, 122, 146n.9
vocabulary 150, 218, 248“249 and adjectival in¬‚ection 72“75
colloquial language in Austria 224“225 in¬‚ection of 63“66
COMP, see complementizer pronominal use of 69
comparative, see adjective determiner phrase (DP) 145n.3
complement 116 dialect 214“215, 244, 278n.3
in AdvP 126 use in Austria 224“225
in AP 124“125 use in Germany 232“233
in CP 130 use in Switzerland 219“220
in IP 129 see also Central German, Upper German,
in NP 118 Low German
in PP 123“124 diglossia 218“220
in VP 126“128, 133, 135, 147n.29 diminutive 109n.14, 223, 234“235, 237
complementaries 150 diphthong 9, 16, 18, 39
complementary distribution 15, 25, 50n.30, diphthongization, see Central German dialects,
51n.42 Early New High German, Low German
complementizer 130“134, 138, 183 dialects, Upper German dialects
complementizer phrase (CP) 118, 130, dual 183, 186, 191, 211n.7, 212n.34, 235, 236
132“139
compound 39, 42, 105“106, 114n.81 e-Epenthesis 78“81, 88
adjectival 100“101, 229 Early New High German 199“206
adverbial 101“102 Diphthongization 201
copulative 42, 98, 100“101 Monophthongization 201
312 Index

Early New High German (cont.) gender, representation of in German 255“262
morphology 203“205 abbreviation 258“260
orthography 202“203 alternatives to splitting 259
phonology 201“203 in legal language 259“260
syntax 205“206 principles for linguistic equality 257
East Franconian 194, 233, 235 in print media 260“262
Eastphalian 238, 239 splitting 257“258
eastern Germany, German in 228“231 unequal treatment 255“256
in the German Democratic Republic generative grammar 2, 142
228“230 generative-transformational grammar 115
post-reuni¬cation 230“231 Germanic 40, 182, 184“187, 199, 272
Eifel Barrier 231, 237 accent shift 184, 186, 191, 195
Elsewhere Principle 59“60 branches of 184
event time 156, 160 morphology 186“187
evidentiality 168“169 phonology 184“186, 201, 212n.38
experiencer thematic role 170“171 syntax 187
extended adjective construction, see adjective Germersheim Line 231, 233, 237
phrase glottal stop 11“12, 19, 28“29
extraposition 193, 212n.36 Glottal Stop Insertion 28“29
Extraposition 135“137 glottis 4, 5, 12
goal thematic role 146n.11, 169“170,
features 15“16 174
distinctive 16 Gothic script (Frakturschrift) 213n.41
Final Fortition 196“197 Gottfried von Straßburg 194
¬nite verb 113n.78, 119, 143 gradable antonyms 150“151
in¬‚ection of 76, 79 equipollent antonyms 150“151
position of 89, 127, 129“131, 133“134, overlapping antonyms 150“151
138“139, 193, 205, 271 polar antonyms 150“151
First Sound Shift, see Grimm™s Law Grammatischer Wechsel 185“186
Focus Constraint 142 Grimm, Jacob 186, 207, 211n.14, 211n.26,
foot 16, 28“29, 44 212n.37
Foreign Worker German (FWG) 269“271 Grimm™s Law 184“185
foreign workers 268“269
formal German 214, 245 Hartmann von Aue 194
grammar 110n.26, 110n.31, 122, 123, 125, head 116
249 High German 187“188, 213n.46, 214, 231
pronunciation 246 High German Consonant Shift 188“190
vocabulary 150, 218, 248“249 and German dialects 231“232
fortis 21 homorganicity 51n.45
Fortition 22“24, 50n.35 Hunsr¨ ck Barrier 231, 237
u
free variation 15, 51n.42 hyponymy 152“153
fricative 12“13, 19, 22“28
Fricative Devoicing 25, 89 imperative 86“87, 132, 193
front feature 26“27, 51n.43 imperfect 112n.51
(Die) Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft 178n.1, inde¬nite article 65, 70
206 inde¬nite pronoun, see pronoun
future 158“160, 198 indicative 81“82, 83“84, 86, 87, 111n.44, 165
Indo-European 110n.34, 182
Gastarbeiter, see foreign workers in¬nitive 76, 87“88, 113n.78, 165“166, 227,
Gastarbeiterdeutsch, see Foreign Worker 251
German conversion of 113n.70
(Das) Gemeine Deutsch 200, 206 form of 75, 78, 80“81, 88, 237
gender, grammatical 57“58, 61, 63“67, 69, in future tense 158, 198
71“75, 91, 93, 102, 178n.7, 183, 186, in FWG 269
218, 223“224, 227 and imperative 86, 87
Index 313

in¬nitive (cont.) loanword 10, 149, 194“195, 206“207, 272
position of 127, 227, 251 Celtic 272
and Subjunctive I 83 English 274
in w¨ rde-construction 86
u Greek 272“273
in¬nitival clause 143“144, 162“163 Italian 273
In¬‚ 129, 131, 139, 147n.33 Latin 272“273
in¬‚ection 56“57, 183, 187, 191“192, 195, 197, Netherlandic 273
203“205 location thematic role 146n.11, 170, 171
contextual 56, 71 Low German dialects 184, 188, 190, 213n.46,
inherent 56, 70“71 215, 232, 238“240
see also adjective, determiner, noun, and Diphthongization 201, 232, 239
pronoun, verb and High German Consonant Shift 189,
in¬‚ection phrase (IP) 129“130, 132, 134, 138, 238“239
141“142 and Monophthongization 201, 239
instrument thematic role 169“171 Luther, Martin 200, 203
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) 6, Luxemburgish 1
48n.5, 49n.16
inter¬x 113n.74 manner of articulation 10, 246
intonation 44“46 Mecklenburgish-West Pomeranian 238“240
falling pattern 44“46 meronymy 153
level pattern 46 Merseburger Zauberspr¨ che 188
u
rising pattern 44“46 middle (construction) 173, 175“177
in Swiss Standard German 222 Middle High German 191, 194“199
intonational phrase 23“24, 28, 45 morphology 197“198
IP, see in¬‚ection phrase orthography 212n.38
Item and Arrangement (IA) 56“57 phonology 195“197
Item and Process (IP) 57 syntax 199
middle voice 175, 183, 186
jargon 244, 262 minimal pair 15, 17“19, 24, 26
Jungendsprache (youth language) 244, modal verb 113n.78, 158, 270
262“268 in¬‚ection of 75, 78“79, 81, 83“84, 88“89,
discourse 267“268 227
intensi¬ers 266“267 meaning 159, 164“169
vocabulary 263“266 position of 227
modality 159, 164“168
Kurzwort, see reduction epistemic 164“169
root 166“168
language society (Sprachgesellschaft) 178n.1, monophthong 9
206 monophthongization, see Central German
laryngeals 210n.5, 211n.19 dialects, Early New High German, Low
larynx 4“5 German dialects, Upper German dialects
lateral 13 mood 81, 147n.33, 179n.21, 183, 192; see also
velarized (dark) 13 imperative, indicative, subjunctive
lenis 21 morph 55
lexeme 55, 57, 71, 99 bound 55
and compounding 98 free 55
and derivation 89“90, 96, 97, 108n.3 morpheme 55, 212n.29
and in¬‚ection 56, 108n.3 morpheme constancy 111n.47
lexical semantics 149 morphology 54, 57, 112n.59
lips 6 morphosyntactic category 57, 75
rounded 6“8 morphosyntactic feature 57
linking element 98“99 Mosel Franconian 1, 237
liquid 19, 48n.14, 49n.22
loan rendition 274 Nasal Assimilation 32
loan translation 194, 273“274, 280n.33 nasal cavity 5, 10
314 Index

nasal consonant 13, 19, 48n.4 percept thematic role 170
nasal sound 5 periphrasis 77, 84, 111n.46
natural class 16 person 56, 66, 76
neologism 206, 276 personal pronoun, see pronoun
New High German 206“208 pharynx 4, 5
Nibelungenlied 194“195 phone 14
node 116, 145n.5 phoneme 14“16, 20
Notker Labeo 188 phonemic transcription 15, 20, 49n.17
noun 116 phonetic transcription 6, 15, 20, 49n.17
in¬‚ection of 57“63, 183, 186, 191, 197, phonetics 4“6
202“204 acoustic 4
see also compound articulatory 4
noun phrase 63, 117“119 auditory 4
nucleus (intonation) 44“46 phonological rules 20
nucleus (syllable) 16 of German 20“32
number 57, 58, 63“66, 69, 71, 76 phonological word 22“24, 26, 28“29, 49n.19
phonology 14“16
obstruent 24“25, 30, 35“38 phonotactics 32
Old High German 113n.76, 187“194, 196, of German 32“38
198, 199 phrase 116
morphology 191“192 phrase structure rule (PS-rule) 117“118, 127,
phonology 188“191 129, 131, 147n.25
syntax 192“193, 210n.2 pidgin 279n.31
Old Saxon 184, 188, 190 pitch 38, 44, 46, 182, 186, 222
onset 16, 32, 33 place of articulation 10“13, 23, 32, 246
in German 32“36 plural formation 58“62, 204, 217“218
oral cavity 5, 48n.6, 49n.20, 50n.31 portmanteau morph 57, 76
oral sound 4“5 possessive determiner 66
Ostmitteldeutsch 200, 206“207 postposition 123
Otfrid von Weissenburg 188 pre¬x 56
inseparable 41, 91
Palatalization 196 nominal and adjectival 90“91, 95, 263“264,
palate, hard 5, 6 280n.34
palate, soft, see velum stress 41“42
passive 172“175, 186, 192 separable 91
impersonal 129“130, 133, 173“175 variable 91
personal 173“175 verbal 91“93, 263
past 78, 84, 160“161, 165, 186, 218 pre¬xation, see derivation
form 57, 75, 79“81, 86, 89, 111n.45, preposition 64, 92“93, 113n.67, 116, 123,
186 142“143, 187
meaning 77, 155“158, 161 and case 120“123, 146n.11
in periphrastic tenses 161, 179n.16 prepositional phrase 123“124, 172
in word formation 98, 113n.70 present 160, 165, 198
see also Subjunctive I, Subjunctive II forms 76“79, 83, 86“87, 205, 235, 239
past participle 76, 87, 179n.14 historic 154“155
conversion of 97, 125, 259 meaning 154“156, 160, 161, 192
form of 56, 75, 80“81, 88“89, 113n.69, 186, in periphrastic tenses 77, 178n.11, 179n.14,
227 198
in passive 172, 192 see also Subjunctive I, Subjunctive II
in periphrastic tenses 77, 84, 85, 160“161, present participle 76, 87“88, 90, 198
178n.11, 179n.16, 198 conversion to adjective 97, 125, 259
position of 127, 205 present perfect 77, 155“158, 160“161,
past perfect 160“161, 198, 212n.35, 218 178n.11, 198, 218
double past perfect 160“161 double present perfect 161, 218
patient thematic role 169, 170“171, preterite 112n.51, 186, 191“192, 197“198,
172“174 204“205, 208, 212n.35, 213n.42, 213n.43
Index 315

PRO 143“144, 147n.24 sentence stress 43“44
progressive, see aspect sociolinguistics 244
pronoun 66, 118“119, 124, 142“144, 186, sonorant feature 49n.20
192 sonorant consonant 31, 35“38, 49n.22
demonstrative 69“70, 192, 250, 252 sonorant sound 26
inde¬nite 70, 199 Sonorant Syllabi¬cation 31“32
in¬‚ection of 66“70, 191 source thematic role 146n.11, 169, 170
personal 66“68, 87, 197, 252 South Franconian 233
position of 141 South Hessian 237
re¬‚exive 67“68, 142“144, 175, 180n.35 SOV word order 146n.20, 183, 187, 193“194
relative 68“69, 134, 183, 252 Spec 130“135, 138, 147n.36
see also address Speci¬er 116, 124, 126, 129, 130
Proto-Germanic, see Germanic speech time 156“157, 160
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) 181“183 spelling reform 207“208, 225
morphology 182“183 Speyer Line 243n.26

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