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phonology 182 spread glottis feature 21, 50n.33
syntax 183 Standard German 1, 28, 161, 214“215,
pseudo comparative 150“151 232“233
standardization, of German 194“195,
r-Vocalization 31“32, 221 199“200, 206“208
reduction (Kurzwort) 102“107 pronunciation 208
clipping 103“105, 107, 264 stem 56
multi-segmental 103“104 stop 10“12, 18, 21“25
partial 104 in PIE 182
in word formation 104“106 representation of 48n.5, 49n.16
reduction (in pronunciation) 246“248 stress 7, 18, 23, 38“43
reduplication 106“107, 265 in Austrian Standard German 226
reference time 156“157, 160 in complex words 40“42
re¬‚exive pronoun, see pronoun in compound words 42“43
register 244, 278n.6 contrastive 45
private register 229 penultimate 39“42
public register 229“230 in Proto-Indo-European 182
relative clause 68“69, 118, 125, 134, 136“137, primary 7, 38, 43“44, 52n.59
251“252, 259 secondary 38
relative pronoun, see pronoun in simplex words 39“40
rheme 139“140, 142 in Swiss Standard German 221
Rhenish fan 237 see also sentence stress
Rhenish Franconian 189, 237; see also South stress-timed language 44
Hessian, Westpf¨ lzisch
a style 150, 218, 244“252
Ripuarian 237 stylistic variation
root 55“56 in grammar 249“252
rules, notation in 20, 32, 59“60, 117“118 in pronunciation 245“248
runic inscription 187 in vocabulary 248“249
subcategorization 146n.7
schwa 9, 17, 23“24, 26, 29“30, 59“60, subcategorization frame 117, 127“128
109n.15, 110n.22, 113n.75, 191, 195, 226 subject 129, 146n.10, 192
Schwa Deletion 29“32, 247“248 CP as 135, 137
schwache Formen, see weak forms of in¬nitive 147n.24
Schweizerdeutsch 219 in¬‚ection 56, 62, 76, 119
scrambling 132, 141“142 of middle 175
Second Sound Shift, see High German position of 140
Consonant Shift and re¬‚exive pronoun 67, 142“144
semantic change 263, 274“275 thematic role of 170“171
semantic loan 274“275 subjectless clause 129“130, 133
semantic role, see thematic role subjunctive 82“83; see also Subjunctive I,
semantics 149 Subjunctive II, w¨ rde-construction
u
316 Index

Subjunctive I 82, 165 trill 13“14
past 84 true comparative 150“151
present 83, 213n.43
Subjunctive II 82“83, 165, 204 umlaut 8“9, 57“58, 60“61, 71, 78, 84, 91,
past 85“86 113n.71, 190“191, 203“205, 212n.38,
present 84“86, 112n.58, 213n.43 213n.42, 228
suf¬x 56 Primary Umlaut 190, 196
derivational 52n.57, 242n.16 Secondary Umlaut 190“191, 195“196
in¬‚ectional 40 West Germanic i-Umlaut 190
nominal and adjectival 58, 63, 93“94 underlying structure 127, 130“131, 135“137,
and noun class 61 145n.2
stress 40“41 Upper Franconian dialects 233“236; see also
verbal 95 East Franconian, South Franconian
suppletion 71, 81 Upper German dialects 231“237
surface structure 130, 131, 136, 145n.2 and Diphthongization 201, 232
Swabian 233“235 and the High German Consonant Shift 233
Swiss Standard German (SSG) 219“224 and Monophthongization 201
legal language 260 and Palatalization 196
morphology 222“223 Upper Saxon 232, 237
¨ ¨
orthography 222 Urdingen Line (Urdinger Linie) 231, 237, 239
pronunciation 220“222 uvula 5, 6
vocabulary 223“224
syllabi¬cation principles 33“34 valency 92
syllable structure 16 variety, of language 244
German 32“33 Velar Fricative Assimilation 26“27, 30
syllable-timed language 44 Velar Spirantization 27“28
syncretism 55, 64, 111n.37 velum 4“6, 10
synonymy 149“150 verb
syntactic category 115“116 in¬‚ection of 75“89, 113n.65, 183, 186“187,
functional category 116 191“192, 197“198, 204“205
lexical category 116 mixed 75, 78, 80“81, 84“85, 88“89
syntax 57, 112n.59, 115 non-¬nite 76, 87“88, 111n.42, 127, 132,
synthetic form 111n.45, 191, 139, 205
208 phrasal 41, 53n.65, 89, 91, 93, 95, 114n.80,
synthetic language 111n.45, 187, 270
192 strong 57, 75, 78“80, 84“86, 88, 109n.6,
186, 190, 204
tag question 44, 53n.68 weak 75, 77“79, 84“86, 88, 186“187
taxonomy, lexical 152“153 see also auxiliary verb, compound, ¬nite
tense 76“77, 147n.33, 153“154, 166, 183, verb, modal verb
186“187, 191“192, 198; see also future, verb-¬nal clause 134, 138, 183, 193, 199
past, past perfect, present, present perfect verb-¬rst clause 132, 138, 193
thematic role 146n.11, 169“172 Verb Movement 130“136
theme (in discourse) 139“140, 147n.27 verb phrase 126“128
theme thematic role 169“171 Verb-Second Constraint 132“133
Thuringian 237 verb-second clause 132, 134“135, 138, 193,
thyroid cartilage 4“5 199, 205, 251“252, 271
tongue 5 Verner™s Law 185“186
height 6 vocal cords 4, 10, 11, 50n.36, 211n.15
position 6“7 vocal tract 4“6, 10, 13, 49n.20, 50n.31
topicalization (process) 183 voice 172, 183; see also middle voice, passive
Topicalization 130“132, 135“137 voiced sound 4, 11
topological model 138“139 voiceless sound 4, 11
trace 131 voicing contrast 21, 24“25
tree diagram 116“117 voicing assimilation 21, 36, 246
Index 317

Vowel Shortening 20“21, 38, 246 function 53n.71
vowel 6“10 grammatical 54“55
lax 7 lexical 53n.71
length 7, 18, 20“21 simplex 38
nasalized 9“10 see also compound, lexeme, phonological
parameters for describing 6“7 word
phonemes in German 17“18 Word and Paradigm (WP) 57
sounds in German 7 word form 54“55
tense 7 word order, German
comparison with English 128
Wackernagel™s Law 183 in colloquial language 251“252
Wallis German 234 constraints 139“142; see also Verb-Second
Walther von der Vogelweide 194 Constraint
weak forms (schwache Formen) 247“248 in CP 130“138
weak masculine noun 63, 74“75, 119 in IP 129
Westphalian 238“239 see also SOV word order
Westpf¨ lzisch 237“238
a w¨ rde-construction 86, 208
u
wh-phrase 132, 134, 138, 147n.30
wh-question 132“134 youth language, see Jugendsprache
Wolfram von Eschenbach 194
word 54“55 zero-derivation, see conversion
u u¨
complex 38“39 Z¨ rit¨ utsch 234“235

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