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mixed-integer programming (MIP), problem (NRP), 249, 252, 265,
274, 279, 281, 296
19, 76, 79, 80, 90, 97, 99, 316
problem with capacity and length
mode of transportation, 11
constraints (NRPCL),
modem, 6
265“267, 269, 270
moving average method, 29, 48
problem with multiple use of
multi-
vehicles, 297
command cycle, 164
problem-set covering (NRPSC),
objective analysis, 15
268, 296
period problem, 74
problem-set partitioning
stop consolidation, 11
(NRPSP), 267, 268
stop route, 11, 322
noninstantaneous resupply, 123, 124
type problem, 74
nonlinear programming (NLP), 19,
multicommodity
137
inventory management problem,
normal distribution, 72, 144
123
North America Free Trade
minimum-cost ¬‚ow (MMCF)
Agreement (NAFTA), 1
problem, 208, 209
NP-hard, 19, 79, 99, 108, 114, 123,
multigraph, 207
184, 186, 226, 253, 258, 282, 287
multiple
load retrieval system, 164
objective function, 78, 85, 91, 113,
regression, 29, 32, 69
131, 136, 170, 173, 182, 188, 209,
stocking point, 123, 149
218, 225, 226, 234, 240, 260, 280,
multiple-echelon
320, 328, 332, 333
location problem, 75 obsolescence cost, 122
multiple-commodity problem, 76, occurrence time, 293
77 off-line
multiplier, 85 heuristic, 187“189, 191
multitrailer, 311 problem, 187
on-line
National Motor Freight Classi¬cation heuristic, 187, 188
(NMFC), 201 problem, 187
nearest-neighbour heuristic, 261 one-dimensional bin packing (1-BP)
neighbourhood, 263, 279, 280 problem, 187, 189, 194, 196, 197,
network 325
¬‚ow (NF) problem, 206 operating cost, 1, 7, 14, 77“79, 88,
simplex, 210, 211, 215, 218, 220, 90“93, 97, 165, 212, 224, 240, 310
241 operational
neural networks, 29, 62 constraint, 201, 248, 250, 252,
Newsboy Problem, 141 265, 267, 272, 327, 331
next day service, 325 decision, 18, 165, 180, 224, 294
node routing problem, 204, 248
and scheduling problem with time operations research, 18
windows (NRSPTW), 273“275 opportunity cost, 122




TLFeBOOK
INDEX 347

optimization, 19, 294 pick-up
and delivery, 11, 17, 163, 199,
method, 20, 334
247, 248, 250
model, 20
point, 200, 201, 212, 241“243,
problem, 19, 184, 206
248, 317, 326
order
route, 328“330
-cycle time, 6, 14“16
zone, 171
-to-picker system, 162, 163
picker, 159, 162“164, 169“174, 181,
-up-to-level, 22, 143, 145
182, 184
picker routing, 184
picker-to-
pickers, 18, 19, 160, 162 belt system, 162
picking, 8, 18, 157 product system, 162
processing, 6 picking, 158“160, 162, 171, 172,
size, 123, 124, 127, 128, 132“134, 182, 183, 328
136“138, 140, 151, 153, 155 piecewise linear, 77, 79, 90, 92, 96,
origin, 11, 12, 81, 200, 201, 206, 207, 132
212, 240, 322, 324, 326 pipeline, 11, 12
“destination, 200, 204, 224, 230, pivot, 210, 211
planning horizon, 18, 74, 123, 152,
247, 317, 318, 326, 327
204, 207, 221, 234, 240, 242, 295,
outbound
296
¬‚ow, 8, 75, 77
plant, 2, 3, 5“7, 14, 18, 73, 98, 116,
transportation cost, 9
117, 199, 200, 207, 248, 305, 308
outgoing arc, 215, 281
Points Of Presence In The Territory
(POPITT), 17
p-centre problem, 108 Poisson probability distribution, 153
p-median problem, 83 policy robustness, 153
packaging, 28, 158, 166, 300, 301 polynomial time, 85, 184, 282, 287
port, 3, 180, 199, 236, 243, 310, 311,
packing problem, 185“187, 267
331
pallet, 2, 8, 11
terminal, 4
Pareto
portainer, 311
curve, 149, 150
post-distribution crossdocking, 8
optimal, 15
potential facility, 77“79, 84, 91“94,
principle, 149
112
patching heuristic, 254
power-of-two policy, 154
penalty, 112, 114, 122, 333
pre-distribution crossdocking, 8
performance price, 7, 11, 25, 77, 121“123, 134,
measure, 1, 19, 236 141, 142, 204, 220, 221, 321, 324
ratio, 189 pricing out, 330
periodic review policy, 145 primal problem, 101, 211
perishable goods, 8, 9 private transportation, 9, 200, 204
person-aboard AS/RS, 162 probability, 28, 33, 66, 110, 123,
P¬zer Pharmaceuticals Group, 2, 302 142“146, 152, 153, 169




TLFeBOOK
348 INDEX

density function, 14, 15 raw material, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 16, 25, 77,
distribution, 14, 154 121, 199, 300
Procter and Gamble, 22 reach stackers, 311
procurement cost, 121 real-time, 165, 248, 291“293
product allocation, 174 receiving, 122, 158, 159, 165, 166,
production 236, 237
cost, 129, 132 door, 236, 239
planning, 4, 19 zone, 160, 304
plant, 5, 74, 77, 89, 97, 104, 105, recycling facility, 3, 312
314, 316 reduced cost, 210, 211, 215, 330
process, 7, 88, 122, 321 regional
scheduling, 25 disposal system, 3, 312
warehouse, 157 distribution centre (RDC), 4, 14,
public 18, 73, 74, 78, 118, 157, 306,
carrier, 200, 201 314“317
sector, 73, 107 warehouse, 77, 306
service, 107 regression analysis, 69, 252
warehouse, 14, 74, 158 regular demand, 25
pull system, 4 reorder
purchasing cost, 122 cost, 122
push system, 4 cycle, 141
cycle policy, 145
qualitative
decision, 22, 141
analysis, 118, 165, 315, 327
level, 22, 141
method, 28
level policy, 146
quantitative
point, 130, 143
analysis, 18
repair service, 247, 293
method, 29
replenishment, 5, 123, 124, 130, 136,
quantity-discounts-on-all-units, 132,
138, 139, 142, 160, 171, 172, 248,
133
294, 330, 331
rate, 124, 127
rail, 11, 157, 160, 166, 196, 199, 200,
time, 124, 160
236, 237
required
transportation, 3, 11, 203, 307
arc, 249, 281, 286, 288
Railion, 3, 307“309
edge, 249
railroad, 11, 311
vertex, 249, 252
railway station, 3, 310, 311, 318
reserve zone, 160, 174
random
reserve/forward storage system, 171
storage policy, 167
residual variation, 34, 35
variable, 11, 14, 28, 34, 47, 141,
retail
144, 146, 295
chain, 8, 144
rate, 11, 15, 32, 33, 75, 123, 124,
goods, 8
165, 175, 195, 201, 203, 237, 243,
location, 76, 200
244, 292, 295, 296, 321




TLFeBOOK
INDEX 349

salvage value, 122, 141, 142, 152
outlet, 1, 3, 8, 73, 76, 199, 206,
savings heuristic, 271
247, 254, 273
sea carrier, 308
retailer, 4“6, 8, 10
seasonal
retailer-managed system, 6
effect, 35“37, 40, 41, 44, 45, 50,
revenue, 14, 21, 239“241, 303, 306
54“56, 58, 61, 67
reverse logistics, 17, 22
index, 36, 37, 40, 43, 56, 57, 60,
review period, 145
61
revised exponential smoothing
item, 7, 121
method, 56“58
product, 7
risk
variation, 34“36, 65
interval, 145
second day service, 325
pooling, 9
semi-¬nished
road
goods, 1, 16, 121
connection, 108
parts, 3
haulage, 3
product, 5, 12, 199, 235
network, 76, 111, 249, 251, 254,
service
285
level, 7, 14“17, 20, 21, 73, 78, 88,
segment, 249, 251
108, 116, 121, 123, 144, 204,
transportation, 12
292, 315“317
travelling salesman problem
network, 204
(RTSP), 184
network design, 224, 231, 244
roll packing, 324
shape of terminal, 237
root vertex, 258
shelves, 4, 6, 8, 160, 170, 305
rounding error, 212
ship, 11, 13, 14, 184, 199, 200, 311,
route ¬rst, cluster second, 270
330
rural postman problem (RPP), 249,
ship“truck (¬shyback) transportation,
281, 286, 287
13
S-shape heuristic, 184, 185 shipment, 8, 18
safety stock, 7, 9, 26, 144“146, 167, carrier, 11
168 centres (SCs), 326“330
sales consolidation and dispatching,
agent, 10 233, 300
cost, 122 cost, 201
data, 71 schedule, 11, 204
district, 74, 75, 87, 88, 90, 91, size, 7
94“96, 105, 117, 149, 215, shipper, 11, 199“201, 308
216, 315 shipping
force assessment, 28 documentation, 6
forecast, 20, 68, 69, 312 door, 236, 237, 244
improvement, 70, 71 line, 199, 308
of¬ce, 158, 322 zone, 160, 161, 165, 182, 183, 304
versus level of service, 15 short-haul
volume, 14, 15, 21, 25, 44 freight transportation, 20, 199, 247




TLFeBOOK
350 INDEX

(s, S)
short-term forecasts, 26, 28, 318
method, 22
shortage costs, 122, 125, 141, 148
policy, 141“143, 146, 147
shortcuts method, 262, 288, 290
standard deviation, 11, 12, 22, 28, 47,
shortest path, 132, 254, 256
66, 67, 144, 146
problem, 108, 132, 155, 206, 254,
static traf¬c assignment problem, 206
256
statistical method, 31, 72
simple plant location (SPL), 80, 83
stochastic
simplex method, 210, 212, 220
model, 123, 141
simulated annealing, 19
program, 165
simulation
stock
method, 20
keeping unit (SKU), 157, 160
model, 19, 29, 62, 165, 173, 182,
level, 7, 17, 124, 145, 295, 306,
236
321
single
stocking point, 18, 21, 121, 124, 151,
-commodity problem, 74
169
-echelon location problem, 75, 79
stopping criterion, 85, 219
-echelon single-commodity
storage
(SESC) problem, 76, 77, 79,
allocation, 18
80, 84, 90, 95, 99
location, 157, 159, 162, 163, 167,
-period problem, 74
169, 171, 172, 175“183, 185
-type location problem, 74, 75
media, 160
assignment property, 83, 316
zone, 160, 161, 165, 166, 168,
commodity, 77, 99, 116, 123, 130,
169, 184“186, 304
141, 209, 218, 223, 241
storage/retrieval transport
cycle, 163, 211, 215
mechanism, 165, 166
stocking point, 123, 130, 136
straddle carrier, 311
slow-moving
strategic
item, 123, 152 alliance, 5, 16
item model, 152 decision, 18
product, 152 strict order picking, 164
smoothing constant, 48, 49 strong continuous relaxation, 228,
Socal, 332 231
solid waste subcircuit elimination constraints,
collection system, 3, 312 253, 296
management, 312 subcycle elimination constraints, 258
spanning tree, 210, 211, 215 subgradient
spare parts, 1, 18 algorithm, 85, 220, 223
spot method, 87, 219, 260, 261
carrier, 331 procedure, 99, 219
pricing, 204 supplier, 3, 22, 122, 134, 141, 294,
295, 336
square-root law, 149




TLFeBOOK
INDEX 351

train, 2, 11“14, 301, 308, 311
supply
train“truck (piggyback)
chain, 2“4, 7, 14, 22, 26, 121, 199,
transportation, 13
294, 304
tramp cargo shipping, 200
channel, 5
transfer station, 3, 312
supply chain operations reference
transit time, 11“13
(SCOR), 19, 20
transportation
symmetric travelling salesman
cost, 9, 75, 77“82, 88, 90, 91, 96,
problem (STSP), 252, 257“259,
97, 104, 105, 117, 122,
264, 265, 269, 270, 288, 290, 296
199“201, 205, 206, 213, 216,
systematic error, 65, 67
221, 225, 226, 232, 241, 254,
tabu search, 19, 274, 278 257, 270, 294, 316, 317, 319,
tactical decision, 18, 174, 294 320, 324, 332
tank, 8, 159, 308, 331, 332 link, 4, 294
temporal consolidation, 11 mode, 18, 22, 185, 203
terminal, 1, 9 planning, 9, 25, 199, 203
third-party problem, 103, 174, 199, 201, 206,
logistics (3PL), 5, 306 241, 247, 283, 291
plant, 2, 302 service, 1, 2, 11, 13, 149, 199,
warehouse, 122 201, 204, 206, 207, 224, 225,
three-dimensional bin packing 247, 316
(3-BP) problem, 193, 194 terminal, 1, 4, 229
tight, 117 transshipment
time facility, 8
-expanded directed graph, 207, hub, 3, 308
234, 239, 240, 244 point, 1, 207
consuming, 5, 6, 19, 28 travelling salesman problem (TSP),
interval, 26, 28, 36 184, 249, 252
period, 28, 30, 207 trend, 16, 34
window, 250, 273 triangle inequality, 252
time series, 35, 314 truck, 2, 8, 11, 12
decomposition, 34 carrier, 4
extrapolation, 29, 33, 312 line, 4
tolerance value, 85, 102 truckload (TL), 12, 200, 201, 203,
top“down, 27 239, 241“243, 314, 315
tour, 184, 200, 247, 249, 252, 253, twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU), 3,
281, 282, 287, 296 309“311
tracking signal, 65“67 two-bin policy, 147, 149
traf¬c two-dimensional bin packing (2-BP)
assignment problem (TAP), 206 problem, 190, 194, 195, 325
class, 200, 207 two-echelon
trailer, 2, 7, 81, 204, 238, 239, 241, distribution system, 74
311 multicommodity (TEMC) location
on ¬‚atcar, 13 problem, 95, 97“102, 119




TLFeBOOK
352 INDEX

tyre industry, 10 vertex
-arc incidence matrix, 210
undirected location property, 108
Chinese postman problem, 285, set, 131, 207, 252, 265
290 vertical integration, 5
graph, 108, 257, 265, 282, 287, vessel, 308, 310, 311
288, 290 virtual warehouse, 17
rural postman problem, 290
unit load retrieval system, 163 Wagner“Within model, 131
upper bound (UB), 76, 80, 85, 87, 99, walk/ride and pick system (W/RPS),
102, 107, 117, 118, 165, 173, 187, 163, 184
219, 250, 315, 320, 323, 329 warehouse, 1, 3, 8, 9, 77, 157
US Food and Drug Administration, cost, 7, 122, 124, 127, 129, 132,
300 158, 159, 321
US Navy, 330“332 design, 157, 165
usage rate, 295 layout, 18
waste management, 3, 312
variable cost, 91, 93, 96, 121, 125, waste-to-energy facility, 3, 312
147, 148, 172, 205, 232 waterborne transport, 3
vehicle Waterworld, 324, 325
allocation problem (VAP), 239, weak continuous relaxation, 226
240, 244 what-if, 19
and crew scheduling problem, what-is-best, 19
201, 203 wholesaler, 10, 118, 305, 306, 308
capacity, 12, 204, 265, 280, 295 Winters method, 58, 61, 72
dispatching, 18 Wolferine, 321
¬‚eet, 197, 248 work shift, 173, 200, 247, 248, 250,
route, 76, 200, 248, 250, 265, 292, 266, 333, 334
299 work-in-process, 5, 6, 321
routing and dispatching problem workload, 173, 174, 182, 236, 237,
(VRDP), 248, 291“293 333, 334
routing and scheduling problem worst-case error, 117
(VRSP), 248, 250
routing problem (VRP), 184, 249, yard, 308, 310, 311
250, 252, 295, 296 management, 308, 310
routing problem with backhauls,
zero inventory ordering (ZIO), 129,
250
131, 155
vendor, 6, 7
zone picking, 164
-managed
distribution system, 248
inventory routing, 294
resupplying (VMR), 5, 248,
294, 295
system, 6




TLFeBOOK

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