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Nations Schmid/Lador-Lederer proposal 52“4
cooperation 8, 399“424 Schmitt, Carl 69“71, 73, 74“5, 76“7, 81
EU see European Union security see national security
role 5 Security Council Resolution 1267 (1999),
SAARC 351, 354 financing 180, 370
religion Security Council Resolution 1373 (2001)
Japan 330, 334 compliance 146, 371“3, 434, 464, 537
martyrdom 31“2 criminalization 4, 133, 135, 180, 530
motives/causation 3, 137 financing/freezing property 188“9, 371,
Ressa, Maria 318, 319 371“3, 440
risk perception human rights 185
aviation security 232 international regime 555“9
disproportionate fear 109 lists of terrorists 7
European Union (EU) 430 maritime terrorism 267
heuristics 109 third parties 135
judicial review 120“1 Security Council Resolution 1390 (2002),
ordinary judgments 111“13 terrorist organizations 371
populism 107, 108“14 Security Council Resolution 1441 (2002), Iraq
probability neglect 109 421
psychological factors 6, 109“10 Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004),
social amplification 109, 110“11 maritime terrorism 267“8
strong emotions 109 self-defence
Roach, Kent 129“51, 385, 511“33, collective self-defence 340“1
583, 587 state terrorism 20
Rome Statute self-determination
negotiations 41, 54 Africa 558
terrorism 56“7, 58“60 decolonization 41“2
Roque Jr., H. Harry L. 307“26 international armed conflict 321
rule of law South Africa 565, 630
asylum seekers 157, 160, 177“8 UNGA resolutions 42
Australia 535“7 separation of powers
Canada 630 Business as Usual model 78, 79
constitutional constraint 155“8 constitutionality 78“81
delegated discretion 79 legal theory 74, 77
England 66 Special Immigration Appeals Commission
formal tradition 155 (SIAC) 81“3, 171
INDEX 647

shifting designations normal/exceptional 67“8, 69, 73, 74“7, 78, 81
combatants 26 permanence 67
terrorism 20“1 rule of law 72, 73“4, 75, 83“9
Simon, Jonathan 132 Singapore 288“93
Sin Boon Ann 122 sovereignty 73
Singapore United Kingdom 473“5, 625“6
anti-terrorism policy 273“94 state measures see counter-terrorism
executive power 117 state terrorism
habeas corpus 282, 285 counter-terrorism compared 14
Islam 417“18 self-defence 20
law and terror 273“94 state-sponsored terrorism
national security 5 individual responsibility 39, 40
preventive detention 121, 277“88 political controversy 38“40
state of emergency 288“93 states of emergency, Malaysia 288“93
US foreign relations 407“8, 411 Stohl, Michael 20
Slovak Republic, persecution 163 Sukarnoputri, Megawati 413, 416, 417
Slovic, Paul 109, 111 Sunstein, Cass 109, 110“1, 112
Somalia, persecution 161 surveillance technology
South Africa counter-terrorism 199“224
accomplice liability 566“7 Echelon system 221“2
anti-terrorism policy 561“2, 563“70 identity cards 203, 204, 219“20
constitutionality 568“70 international dimension 216“24
forfeiture 568 United Kingdom 216“21
penalties 567“8 United States 199“216
prevention 563“5 uses 205“7
self-determination 565, 630 Syria, anti-terrorism policy 594“6
terrorism defined 565“6, 630“1
terrorism offences 565“7 Tan, Alan Khee-Jin 225“47
trial 565“8 Tan Hisien Li 399“424
South Asian Association for Regional Tanzania
Cooperation (SAARC) 351, 354 anti-terrorism policy 570“3
Southeast Asia see Association of Southeast penalties 575“6
Asian Nations (ASEAN) terrorism defined 574
sovereignty torture 561
Parliament 93 targets
state of emergency 73 demands 30
Soviet Union, ZAPU 17, 20 immediate target 28
Spain, Madrid attacks see Madrid attacks symbolic targets 28“9
(2004) target audience 29“30
state of emergency Taskhiri, Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad ™Ali
Accommodation model 67, 80 18“19
Business as Usual model 67, 68, 78, 79 Tay, Simon S. C. 399“424
chaos and rules 67“74 terrorism
constitutionality 68, 77 above/below 14, 17“18
deliberation 72 additional qualities 30“2
Extra-Legal Measures model 6, 68“9, 69“70, ancient roots 16
71, 80, 82, 91“3, 97, 99, 100“1, 104“6 broader audience 23
functional test 69, 70, 71 civil populations subdued 16“17
legal theory 65“89 colonialism 16
Legality model 6, 81, 83“4 Comprehensive Convention (draft) 37, 40“1
legitimacy 71“3 counter-terrorism distinguished 32“5
INDEX
648

terrorism (cont.) constituents 25
crimes against humanity 52“8 international humanitarian law (IHL)
delegitimation 24“5 312, 322
discourse 13“36 New Zealand 549
domestic law enforcement 45“6 Philippines 308“9, 310“11, 311“17
essential qualities 22“8 Security Council Resolution 1390 (2002) 371
fear 23 strength 26
instrumental aspect 27 United Kingdom 137
international law 37“63, 556“8 United States 186“7
intimidation 27 Thailand
jurisdictional rules 46, 49 Independent Commission for National
methods 44“5 Reconciliation 632“3
multilateral conventions 45“7, 63“4 US foreign relations 411
no safe haven principle 46“7, 134, 153 torture
non-combatants 24“6 absolute prohibition 84
otherness 22“3, 28 admissibility of evidence 174, 470
Philippines 308“11 deportees 625
place in history 16“18 ECHR (1950) 162, 165“6, 463, 466, 467, 477
political nature 24 Tanzania 561
public opinion 448 tribunals
purposefulness 24 independence 122
quasi-warfare 347 institutional culture 122
root causes 408, 414“18 national security 121“4
shifting designations 20“1 rule of law 81“3, 121
suspicion 139, 158“9, 173“4 Special Immigration Appeals Commission
targets 28“30 (SIAC) 81“3, 121, 159, 170“1, 172,
victims 25“6 173“5, 468“76
violence 22, 30 Tunisia, anti-terrorism policy 603“6
wave theory 21
terrorism defined Uganda
Arab States 587“8, 588“91 anti-terrorism policy 560, 561, 570“3
Australia 539 burden of proof 575
Canada 513 extradition 578
European Union (EU) 433 forfeiture 576
existing definitions 2“3, 15“32, 18“22 penalties 575
generic definition 37“63 rebel forces 560
India 354“5 terrorism defined 574
international law 557“8 UN, ASEAN states 413
Kenya 573“4 UN Charter
New Zealand 548“9 mandatory provisions 133
political/religious motives 3, 433 use of force 39“40, 340, 346“7
South Africa 565“6, 630“1 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
Tanzania 574 (UNCLOS) (1982), maritime security 252,
terrorist activity 182 257, 258, 259, 261
Uganda 574 UN Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) 4,
United Kingdom 3, 460 133, 373
terrorist organizations UN General Assembly resolutions
ASEAN states 415 self-determination 42
Australia 539“40 terrorism 37, 44
Canada 115, 184, 186, 511“12 UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 52,
charities 184“5, 193, 196 558
INDEX 649

United Kingdom special terrorism offences 461“2
al Qaeda threat 472, 475, 476, 478“9, 481, 627 standard of proof 469“70
anti-terrorism policy 216“21, 455“89 state of emergency 473“5, 625“6
ATCSA (2001) 217“19, 457“8, 463“88, suspected international terrorists 158“9,
625, 626, 627 173“4, 465, 477, 478
burden of proof 140, 462, 626 terrorism defined 3, 460
Carlile review 479, 483“6 terrorist organizations 137
certification 465“6, 468“9 wrongful convictions 130, 139
communications interception 217“18 United States
control orders 626“7 9/11 see attacks of 9/11
counter-terrorism 459“79 administrative subpoenas 493
criminal law 459“62 Advanced Passenger Information (API) 239
cyber-attacks 206 al Qaeda threat 491
deportation 463 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
detention provisions 465“7, 625“8 493
ECHR see European Convention on Human anti-terrorism policy 200“4, 318, 490“510,
Rights (1950) 631“2
evidence 470“1, 484“5 ASEAN states 399, 407“8, 409“14, 422“4
financing of terrorism 184 aviation security 201, 207, 210“14, 226“7
forfeiture 189 bilateral security agreements 399, 407“8
habeas corpus 457 bilateral ship-boarding agreements 260“1
Human Rights Act (1998) 7, 158, 175, 476 Bureau for Customs and Border Protection
identity cards 219“20 (CBP) 213, 239
immigration law 143, 627 CAPPS II 201, 207, 210“14, 215, 239,
indefinite detention 465, 625 240“1, 498
interpretation 458 communications interception 200, 216
Islam 456 Container Security Initiative (CSI) 254“5
Joint Committee on Human Rights 462, counter-terrorism, technology 199“224
466, 474, 475, 481, 483, 484, 489 data sharing/analysis 207“14
legal challenges 468“76 death penalty 134, 442
margin of discretion 474 Department of Homeland Security 201,
mens rea 461 209“10
natural justice 471 due process 85, 142, 145, 149
Newton Committee 143, 479, 480“7 Electronic Privacy Information Center
passports 158 (EPIC) 214
policy options 455“9 fair trial 442
political/religious/ideological cause 137 Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) 235,
preventive detention 119, 455, 456, 463“79, 236
625“8 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 201,
proscription-related offences 460“1 202, 203, 492“3
reactive legislation 131, 133 Federal Communications Commission
reasonable grounds 469“70 (FCC) 203
refugee status 160“4 Federal Flight Deck Officer Program
review of legislation 479“88 (FFDOP) 233
right to silence 139 First Amendment (1791) 631
RIPA (2000) 217, 484 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)
˜snoopers™ charter™ 217, 218, 220 investigations 493“4
special advocates 471 forfeiture 189, 190
Special Immigration Appeals Commission Fourth Amendment (1791) 493, 494, 499
(SIAC) 81“3, 121, 159, 172, 173“5, freedom of information 213, 214“16
468“76 General Accounting Office (GAO) 211
INDEX
650

United States (cont.) Transportation Security Administration
Gilmore Commission 508“9 (TSA) 210, 211, 212, 215, 235, 239
Guantanamo Bay detention 141, 142, 148“9, trust in government 117
442, 495“8, 581, 585, 632 Use of Force Resolution (2001) 492, 496, 497
habeas corpus 85, 142, 148, 495“6, 497 Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator
homeland defence 498“500 Technology (US-VISIT) 238
human rights 421“2 World Trade Center bombing (1993) 29,
Ku Klux Klan 17 131, 134, 141, 318
law and government 207“16 US foreign relations
legal landscape 491“2 ASEAN states 399, 407“8, 409“14,
maritime terrorism 248 422“4
military, domestic role 502“5 European Union (EU) 440“3
military commission, detention and trial Indonesia 401, 408
495“8 Malaysia 401, 402, 411
militias 34 Philippines 313“15, 318, 407
National Security Agency (NSA) 221 Singapore 407“8, 411
Native Americans 17 Thailand 411
NORTHCOM 502“3
NSI Guidelines 202 Vietnam War 17, 20
Oklahoma City bombing (1995) 131, 134 Vijayakumar, V. 351“67
passports 203
Patriot Act (2001) 133“4, 139, 189, 190, 192, weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
200“1, 492“4, 631 dual use equipment 257
Patriot Act II (proposed) 134, 139, 202“3 Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)
policy changes 498“505 255“60
Posse Comitatus Act (1978) 504 proposed offences 264
post-9/11 responses 207“14, 226“43, 248“9, Security Council Resolutions 267“8
421“2, 490“510 Welchman, Lynn 581“608
pre-emptive action 500“2 Williams, George 534“52
preventive detention 7, 84“6, 115, 119, 123, Wilmshurst, Elizabeth 59
123“4 Wilson, Richard J. 59
proxy groups 17, 20 Wong, Mary W. S. 199“224
terrorism offences 131, 133“4
Terrorist Information Awareness (TIA) Young, Simon N. M. 368“95
Program 201, 207, 209 Yousef, Ramzi Ahmed 318
terrorist organizations 186“7
Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) Zimbabwe 17, 20
253 Zionist terrorism 20

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