<<

. 10
( 11)



>>

1873 1.07 1.19 0.34
Sauza Blanco MEX Allied Domecq UK

Note: Amounts stated in millions of 9-L cases.
Table a11.3. Leading brands in beer

Date Brand Country of
Launched / Origin of Country of Total Sales, Total Sales, Total Sales,
1990 1997 2002
Brand Name Foundation the Brand Owner Owner

1876 60.5 54.7 50.1
Budweiser US Anheuser-Busch US
1982 14.0 30.5 45.6
Bud (range) US Anheuser-Busch US
1964 6 15 32.3
Skol BRA Ambev BRA
1925 10.6 19.4 26.7
Corona MEX Grupo Modelo / US
Anheuser-Busch
1864 15.5 18.8 22.9
Heineken NL Heineken NL
1993 14.4 17.8 21.6
Coors Light US Coors US
1987 14.3 21.7 21.1
Asahi Super Dry JPN Asahi Breweries JPN
1975 23.4 19.8 18.8
Miller Lite US Miller US
1888 18.4 23.0 18.0
Brahma Chopp BRA Ambev BRA




262
1955 11 16.1 16.5
Busch (range) US Anheuser-Busch US
1895 6.4 15.0 13.8
Castle Lager SA SABMiller SA
1941 10.2 13.9 11.8
Polar (range) VEN Cerveceria Polar VEN
1870 9.7 10.8
Amstel NL Heineken NL n/a
1847 9.5 9.5 10.7
Carlsberg DEN Carlsberg DEN
1890 13.1 11.7 10.4
San Miguel PHIL San Miguel Corp. PHL
1941 7.0 10.3
Beijing Beer CHN Beijing Yanjing CHN n/a
1759 8 8.8 10.2
Guinness Stout IRE Guinness IRE/UK
1982 6.8 11.7 9.2
Kaiser BRA Molson CAN
1990 2.9 9.1
Baltika RUS Baltic Beverages RUS n/a
Holding
1880 4.9 8.85
Stella Artois BEL Interbrew BEL n/a

Note: Amounts stated in millions of hectoliters.
Sources: For 1990, Impact International; for 1997 and 2002, Plato Logic Limited.
Bibliography




Primary Sources

Annual Reports
When available, annual reports were obtained from the ¬rms in question. Where annual reports
were not readily available from the ¬rms, alternatives sources were used. The annual reports
deposited at Companies House and Guildhall Library proved especially valuable for the British
¬rms, and the annual reports deposited in the Baker Library at Harvard Business School
were particularly useful, especially for ¬rms where direct access had not been possible. The
annual reports analyzed, when available, included the period from 1960 to 2000 and the ¬rms
researched were as follows:

Adoph Coors
Allied Domecq from 1995 / Allied Lyons from 1982 / Allied Breweries from 1963/ Ind. Coope
Tetley Ansell Limited
Ambev
Anheuser-Busch
Arthur Bells
Asahi Breweries
Bacardi
Bass
Bavaria
Braueri Beck from 1979 / Haake Beck-Brauerei
Brown Forman
Carlsberg from 1987 / United Breweries
Carlton United Breweries
Companhia Cervejeira Brahma
Companhia Antarctica Paulista
Constellation Brands from 2001 / Canandaigua
Courage
Diageo
Distillers Company
Doosan
E. & J. Gallo
Fortune Brands from 1997 / American Brands from 1969 / American Tobacco Company
Foster™s Group from 2001 / Foster Brewing from 1991 / Elders IXL from 1982 / Elder Smith
Gold
G. Heileman Brewing
Gilbeys




263
264 Bibliography
Grand Metropolitan
Guinness
Heineken
Heublein
Hiram Walker
Holsten
Inbev from 2004 / Interbrew
International Distillers & Vintners
Jim Beam
John Labbatt
Kirin
Liggett & Myers
Miller Brewing and also Phillip Morris (since it acquired Miller in 1970)
Modelo
Mo¨ t & Chandon
e
Mo¨ t Hennessy
e
Lion Nathan
Louis Vuitton Mo¨ t-Hennessy
e
Molson
Molson-Coors
National Distillers
Orkla
Pabst Brewing
Pernod
Pernod Ricard
R´ my Cointreau
e
San Miguel
Sapporo
Schenley
Schlitz Brewing
Scottish & Newcastle
Seagram from 1975 / Distillers Corporation“Seagram Ltd.
SABMiller from 2002 / South African Breweries
Stroh
Suntory
Teachers
Truman
Tsingtao
Tuborg
Watney Mann
Whitbread

Archives
Research was conducted in the con¬dential corporate archives of the following companies:
Allied Domecq (statistics department)
Carlsberg (only the noncon¬dential material)
Diageo
Distillers Company
Heublein (Diageo)
Hiram Walker (information department)
Mo¨ t & Chandon
e
265
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Library).
Suntory (information department)


Interviews
Allied Domecq (Portugal): David Orr, Finance and Tax Director of Cockburn (Oporto, 2 Nov.
1998).
Allied Domecq (United Kingdom): Michael Jackaman, former Chairman of Allied Domecq
and also former Chairman of the Wines, Spirits and Soft Drinks Division of Allied Domecq
(Somerset, 8 December 1998; Somerset, 19 June 2000).
Allied Domecq (United Kingdom): Phil Taylor, Insight and Analytics Director (Bristol,
19 January 1999).
Bacardi (Bermuda): Jos´ Louis Martin, President of Bacardi-Martini Spain (Barcelona, 22 July
e
1999).
Bacardi (Bermuda): Salvador Guedes, Partner in the alliance Bacardi Martini and Sogrape and
President and CEO of Sogrape (Oporto, 26 November 1998).
Bacardi (Bermuda): Xavier Serra, General Manager Bacardi-Martini Spain (Barcelona, 22 July
1999).
Brown Forman (United States): Ian Kennedy, former brand manager of Jack Daniels in the
United Kingdom, through the agency contract Brown Forman had with International Dis-
tillers and Vintners (London, 4 February 2004).
California Wine Institute (United States): Interview with John de Lucca, President of the
California Wine Institute (San Francisco, 20 March 2001).
Carlsberg (Denmark): Andrew Arnold, Director of Corporate Communications (1 May
2002).
Carlsberg (Denmark): Bajrne Maurer, Corporate Communications (Copenhagen, 18 May
2001).
Cobra (India): Karan F. Bilmaria, Chairman and CEO of Cobra Brewing (Reading, 1 March
2002).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Andy Fennell, President of Global Marketing for Smirnoff and
Captain Morgan (Connecticut, 13 January 2004).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Chris Searle, Brand Manager that launched Piat D™Or (London,
22 January 2004).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Chris Searle, Global Marketing Manager for Bombay Sapphire “
Bacardi (London, 22 January 2004).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Jack Keenan, former CEO of Diageo and former Deputy Chief
Executive of Guinness/UDV (Cambridge, 14 May 2003; London, 3 June 2003; Oxford,
5 August 2003).
Diageo (United Kingdom): John Potter, Guinness Brand Manager (London, 21 January
2004).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Peter Dee, Global Marketing Director for Johnnie Walker, Diageo
(London, 14 January 2005).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Peter O™Connor, Brand Manager of Baileys Irish Cream (London,
22 January 2004).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Richard Watling, Scotch Whisky Global Marketing Director for
Diageo (London, 5 February 2004; London, 8 March 2004).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Steve Wilson, former Brand Innovation Manager at International
Distillers and Vintners (London, 17 February 2004).
Diageo (United Kingdom): Steve Wilson, Global Brand Innovation Manager, Diageo (London,
17 February 2004).
266 Bibliography
Grand Metropolitan (United Kingdom): Chris Nadin, former Marketing Manager at Grand
Metropolitan (London, 10 December 2003).
Grand Metropolitan (United Kingdom): Sir George Bull, former CEO of Grand Metropolitan
and Diageo (London, 19 November 2003).
Grand Metropolitan (United Kingdom): Tim Ambler, former consultant from Grand Metropoli-
tan (London, 12 July 2000).
Heineken (The Netherlands): Jan Beijerinck, former Worldwide Client Service Director (Utrecht,
10 March 2000; 26 November 2001).
Inbev (Interbrew): Charles Adrianssen, Member of the Board of Directors of Interbrew and
family member (London, 11 June 2004).
Inbev (Interbrew): Philippe Spoelberch, Member of the Board of Directors of Interbrew and
family member (Brussels, 5 July 2004).
International Distillers and Vintners (United Kingdom): James Espey, former Chairman of IDV-
UK (Wimbledon, 23 February 2000).
LouisVuitton Mo¨ t-Hennessy (France): Colin Campbell, Director of Mo¨ t Hennessy (Paris,
e e
22 November 1999).
Pedro Domecq (Spain): Jos´ Isasi-Isasmendi y Adaro, former President of Pedro Domecq and
e
also family member (Madrid, 18 July 2000).
Pernod Ricard (France): Julie Massies, Business Development Manager, Pernod Ricard (Paris,
11 June 2003).
Pernod Ricard (France): Thierry Jacquillat, former CEO of Pernod Ricard and family member
(London, 22 October 2003; London, 20 January 2004).
Sandeman (United Kingdom): John Jones, former Director of Sandeman London (London,
18 April 2000).
Scottish & Newcastle (United Kingdom): Interview with Tony Frogatt, CEO of Scottish &
Newcastle (Edinburgh, 11 July 2004).
Seagram (Canada/United States): George Sandeman, Managing Director of Seagram Iberia and
Chairman of the House of Sandeman (Oporto, 19 January 2000).
Seagram (Canada/United States): James Espey, former Chairman of Seagram Distillers
(Wimbledon, 3 December 1999).
Seagram (Canada/United States): Tony Frogatt, President of Seagram Europe and former pres-
ident of Cinzano and IDV Europe (London, 10 February 1999).
Suntory (Japan): Kozo Chiji, Manager of Corporate Planning Department (Tokyo, 16 September
1999).
Suntory (Japan): Kunimasa Himeno, Manager International Division of Suntory (Tokyo,
16 September 1999).
Suntory (Japan): Yoshi Kunimoto, Executive Vice President of Suntory-Allied (Tokyo,
16 September 1999).
United Distillers/Guinness Plc (United Kingdom): James Espey, former Managing Director
(Wimbledon, 4 September 2000).
William Grant (United Kingdom): David Grant, family member of William Grant and Market-
ing Director (London, 7 January 2004).


Magazines and Newspapers
Drinks International Bulletin
Evening Standard
Financial Times
Fortune
Hoover.com
Impact International
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Index




7 Crown, 230 trade, 102
types, 118, 122
Absolut, 103, 140, 150, 151, 173, 221 alliances, 8, 9, 12, 32, 37, 54, 56, 58, 87, 88,
acquisitions, 8, 19, 30, 31, 32, 37, 38, 47, 59, 90, 93, 94, 96, 99, 103, 139, 159, 160,
96, 115, 123, 136, 141, 142, 144, 160, 183, 187, 220, 223, 237, 238, 251
183, 220, 223, 225, 227. See also and barriers to entry, 90
and barriers to trade, 93
mergers and acquisitions
adaptation versus standardization, 2 and economies of scale and scope, 88
and marketing knowledge, 238
advantages
competitive, 3 and reciprocal transactions, 91
cost, 61 as alternatives to markets and hierarchies,
¬rm-speci¬c, 16, 60, 62, 64, 65, 254, 256 12
¬rst-mover, 14, 45, 60, 61 as learning experiences, 104
internalization, 3, 17 de¬nition, 12
location, 3, 17 formation, 8, 12, 37, 93, 95, 99, 100,
nonscienti¬c, 75 103, 104, 106, 123, 137, 166, 240,
ownership, 3, 17, 44, 53, 108 254, 256
advertising, 3, 29, 38, 96, 120, 135, 151, 158, in distribution, 2, 4, 21, 51, 56, 57, 87, 91,
166, 169, 172 93, 99, 101, 103, 106, 117, 127, 140,
Africa, 23, 111, 139, 146, 192, 234 232, 256
agents, 36, 76, 93, 96, 98, 104, 121, 182, in emerging markets, 100
232, 234, 235, 236, 238, 240 in production, 54, 56, 91
Aguila, 30 interlocking, 102
long-term, 105, 168
alcoholic beverages
alliances, 105, 106 multiple, 37, 41, 99, 117, 168, 231
and distribution, 105 nature of, 91
and multinationals, 3, 4, 18, 20, 23, 28, risk of failure, 105
56, 95, 99, 101, 106, 116 strategic, 230
branded, 125 termination, 92
businesses, 19, 20, 29, 64, 99, 104, 118, types, 56, 105, 106, 238, 239
123, 124 with competitors, 4, 32, 56, 88, 99, 101,
consumption, 50 106, 140, 144, 159, 160, 166, 225, 241,
diversi¬cation, 122, 125, 126 256
focus, 124 with local partners, 99, 102, 139, 147, 154
Allied, 112, 115, 123, 130, 134, 141
industry, 1, 2, 4, 14, 15, 28, 60, 65, 66, 75,
Allied Breweries, 31, 53, 89, 111, 123, 134,
78, 79, 81, 82, 84, 85, 94, 104, 113, 115,
135, 136, 137, 141, 218
118, 119, 120, 124, 126, 127, 128, 130,
Allied Domecq, 18, 23, 31, 59, 102, 112,
146, 180, 184, 187, 255
126, 135, 140, 143, 146, 151, 152, 166,
production, 57
170, 218, 221, 227
regulations, 123


287
288 Index
Allied Lyons, 29, 60, 61, 96, 99, 100, 101, Baileys Irish Cream, 97, 156, 157, 175, 221
140, 141, 152, 170 Ballantines, 141, 172, 218, 227
sale of Lyons business, 112, 141 Baltic Beverages Holding, 230
Ambassador Scotch, 92 banks and banking, 14, 15, 84, 85, 106
Ambev, 29, 32, 123, 145, 223 Baron Philippe de Rothschild, 91, 104
American Brands, 71, 101, 140, 142, 221. Barton & Guestier, 158
Barton™s Blue Wave, 221
See also Fortune Brands
American Tobacco Company, 221 Baskin & Robbins, 111
Amstel, 31, 136, 223 Bass, 32, 35, 36, 90, 111, 115, 125, 134, 144,
Angola, 230 153, 169, 220, 225
Anheuser & Co, 150 Bass Brewery, 115, 191

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