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Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy
Networks in International Politics (Ithica, 1998)
Samir Khalaf, Cultural Resistance. Global and Local Encounters in the Middle East
(London, 2001)
David C. Korten, Globalizing Civil Society. Reclaiming our Right to Power (New
York, 1998)
Ira M. Lapidus, History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge, 1998)
Emmanuel Levinas, On Thinking-of-the-Other (London, 1998)
Ronnie D. Lipschutz and Judith Mayer, Global Civil Society and Global Environ-
mental Governance. The Politics of Nature from Place to Planet (Albany, 1996)
Edward Luttwak, Turbo-Capitalism. Winners and Losers in the Global Economy (New
York, 1999)
William H. McNeill, The Rise of the West. A History of the Human Community
(Chicago and London, 1963)
C´ lestin Monga, The Anthropology of Anger. Civil Society and Democracy in Africa
e
(Boulder and London, 1996)
Joseph S. Nye and John D. Donahue (eds.), Governance in a Globalizing World
(Washington, DC, 2000)
Aihwa Ong, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality (Durham,
1999)
Dianne Otto, ˜Nongovernmental Organizations in the United Nations System:
The Emerging Role of International Civil Society™, Human Rights Quarterly,
18 (1996), pp. 107“41
Anthony Pagden, Lords of All the World. Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and
France c. 1500“c.1800 (New Haven and London, 1995)
Victor M. Per´ z-Diaz, The Return of Civil Society. The Emergence of Democratic
e
Spain (Cambridge, MA and London, 1993)
Victor M. P´ rez-Diaz, ˜La formacion de Europa: nacionalismos civiles e inciviles™,
e ´
Claves (Madrid), 97 (November 1999)
Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik, The World That Trade Created. Society,
Culture, and the World Economy, 1400 to the Present (London, 2002)
John Rawls, The Law of Peoples (Cambridge, MA, 1999)
David Reynolds, One World Divisible. A Global History Since 1945 (London, 2000)
T. Risse-Kappen (ed.), Bringing Transnational Relations Back In. Non-State Actors,
Domestic Structures and International Institutions (Cambridge, 1995)
Further reading 213

James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel (eds.), Governance Without Govern-
ment: Order and Change in World Politics (Cambridge and New York, 1992)
Yoshikazu Sakamoto, ˜An Alternative to Global Marketization™, in Jan Nederveen
Pieterse (ed.), Global Futures: Shaping Globalization (London and New York,
2000)
Martin Shaw, Theory of the Global State. Globality as an Un¬nished Revolution
(Cambridge, 2000)
Hernando de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West
and Fails Everywhere Else (London, 2000)
Ignatius Swart, ˜Toward a Normative Politics of Global Transformation: Synthe-
sizing Alternative Perspectives™, www.uai.org/uiata/swart1.htm
Charles Taylor, ˜Civil Society in the Western Tradition™, in E. Grof¬er and
M. Paradis (eds.), The Notion of Tolerance and Human Rights: Essays in Honour
of Raymond Kilbanksy (Ottawa, 1991)
Bryan S. Turner, ˜Orientalism and the Problem of Civil Society in Islam™, in Asaf
Hussain et al. (eds.), Orientalism, Islam and Islamists (Brattleboro™, VT, 1984)
Robert B. J. Walker, ˜Social Movements/World Politics™, Millennium, 23:3 (1994),
pp. 669“700
Paul Wapner, ˜The Normative Promise of Nonstate Actors: A Theoretical Ac-
count of Global Civil Society™, in Paul Wapner and Lester Edwin J. Ruiz
(eds.), Principled World Politics. The Challenge of Normative International Re-
lations (Lanham, MD, 2000)
Tadashi Yamamoto (ed.), Emerging Civil Society in the Asia Paci¬c Community
(Singapore, 1995)
Danilo Zolo, Cosmopolis: Prospects for World Government (Cambridge, 1997)
Michael Zurn, ˜Democratic Governance Beyond the Nation-State™, European
¨
Journal of International Relations, 6:2 (2000), pp. 183“222
Index




Afghanistan 18, 119“22, 158, 159 Bobbio, Norberto 205
AIDS 140 Boli, John 46
al Jazeera 9 Bolingbroke, Henry St John 112
Albright, Madeleine 2 Boulding, Elise 2, 37“9
Alexander, Jeffrey C. 63, 74“7 Boyer, Robert 66
Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid 192 Braudel, Fernand 26, 44, 73
Althusius, Johannes 126 Brazil 5, 46, 60, 79, 100
Amnesty International 9, 11, 58, 154 Britain 34, 35, 45, 46, 50“3, 56, 57, 66“9,
Anheier, Helmut 4, 5, 6, 7“8, 23, 63, 175, 159
176 British Empire 28, 31
Annan, Ko¬ 2 Brown, Chris 94
anti-globalisation movements xii, 59, 61 Buchanan, Patrick 143
complex structures of 60 Bull, Hedley 22, 30, 96, 185
varieties of 59“60 Burma 18, 69, 100, 154
Aoki, Takaka 25 Buzan, Barry 10, 16, 22, 184
Appadurai, Arjun 62
Archibugi, Daniele 98, 122 Campaign for a More Democratic United
Arendt, Hannah xiii, 171, 201 Nations 116
Argentina 5 Canada 30, 35, 56
Aron, Raymond 27, 146 Cantankerousness, School of 179
ASEAN 100, 101 merits of 181
Asian Development Bank 2 weaknesses of 181“2
asylum seekers 19, 20 see also ethics
Aung San, Suu Kyi 9 CARICOM 100“1
Australia 24, 30, 46, 50“2 Castells, Manuel 81
Castles, Stephen 20
Bacon, Francis 93“125 Catholic Relief Services 9
Badie, Bertrand 56 Charnovitz, Steve 48
Bangladesh 60 Chatterjee, Partha 29, 37
Bass, Jonathan 56 Chechenya 18, 101, 158
Batatu, Hannah 34 Chile 46
Bauman, Zygmunt 199, 200 China 40, 42, 50, 73, 74, 100, 148, 157,
BBC World Service 169 158
Beck, Ulrich 7, 143“4 Choudry, Aziz 2
Belgium 50“2, 79 Christian Aid 9
Bello, Walden 122“4 Christian missionaries 28, 43, 46“7
Belo, Bishop Ximenes 9 Christianity 32, 41, 42, 43, 121
Berger, Peter 37 interaction between Islam and 44
Berlin, Isaiah 198 civic initiatives 18
B´ teille, Andr´ 37
e e see also civil society; global civil society
Bharein 100 CIVICUS 4
biomes 18 civil law 33

214
Index 215

civil liberties 6 de¬nition of 98
see also civil society; global civil society dominant power within 111“20
civil society forms of governmental linstitutions
arts and entertainment 79 within 101“2
as liberal ideal 177“8 global governance, school of 96“7
as Western ideal 29“30, 32“4, 39, 182 inner core 99“100
civility and 12“14, 30, 36, 50“3, 87 instabilities within 111“20
classical theory of 20 legal structures within 104“7
communications media 79 political entropy of 111“12
corporate social responsibility and 83“4 second zone 100
cultivation of intimacy 79 structuring principles 102“4
distinction between government and 21 third zone 100“1
early modern theories of 31“2 unaccountability within 111“16
ethic of 200“4 cosmologies 1
freedom 3, 172, 176 cosmopolitanism 21, 28, 119“20, 122
Gramscian view of 63, 66, 74, 75 Kant on 21, 28
morality of 196“8 limits of 123“5
Marxian accounts of 3 Council of Europe 99, 107
non-pro¬t associations within 25 Cox, Robert 90
plural meanings of 179 cruelty xiii, 171 see also violence
purist accounts 57, 64“5, 66 Cuba 46
reception of ideal in India 36“9 Czempiel, Ernst-Otto 96, 121
recreation 79
religious origins of 193 Dahrendorf, Ralf 22
sacred 79 Davos World Economic Forum 97
spread of ideal 27, 35“9 DAWN (Development Alternatives With
theories of xii“xiii Women for a New Era) 11“12
travelling potential of 178“9 de Soto, Hernando 71
types of institutions within 79 Democratic Republic of Congo 101, 150,
violence and 30“1 158“9
vulnerability of 205 denizens 20
within Islamic societies 32“4 Derrida, Jacques 196, 197
see also global civil society diasporas 6
civil war 150 Dicken, Peter 70
civility 12“14, 30, 36, 50“3, 87, 145“6,
149, 152“5, 198“200 Earth Summit 28, 111“16
early modern conception of 198“9 Earthwatch 60
moral ambivalence of 199 East India Company 28
moral language of 198 Eco, Umberto 8
plural meanings of 199 ecological movements 1
Clark, Ann-Marie 58, 111 Edwards, Michael 5, 20, 60, 126
CNN 169 Egypt 31
Coca-Cola 73 El Salvador 50“2
colonialism 31, 34, 50“3 Engels, Friedrich 32“8, 49, 70
civil resistance to 35 Environment Defense Fund 38
pre-/post-colonial dualism 37“8 ethics 185“6
Comaroff, Jean 36, 90 believers in First Principles 185“6
Comaroff, John L. 36, 90 natural law human consensus 186, 188
communications technology 45 neo-Humean approaches to 188
complexity theory 19, 24 neo-Kantian approaches to 190“1
Congo 46 theological approaches 189, 193 see also
contingency 16 Law of Unending Controversy
cosmocracy 21, 97, 100 weaknesses of conventional approaches
as an ideal-type 97“8 190“1
clumsy government within 107“11 see also First Principles
complexity within 111“18 Etzioni, Amitai 15, 196
216 Index

European Court of Human Rights 102, civility within 12“14, 30, 36, 50“3, 87
104 communications media within 166
European Court of Justice 107 complexity of 15“17, 175
European Union 5, 60, 101, 143 de¬nition of 8
distinction between market and 82
Falk, Richard 2, 113 elusiveness of 176
Falun Gong 9 empirical approaches 4
Fascism 1 ethical approaches to: believers in First
fatalism xi, 32, 125“8 Principles 160, 175; ethical language
Fern´ ndez-Armesto, Felipe 12
a of 175; natural law 188; human
Fichte, J. G. 187 consensus 186; neo-Humean
FIFA 9, 133, 173 approaches to 188; neo-Kantian
Finch, Henry A. 30 approaches to 190“191; theological
First Principles, believers in 185“6 approaches 189, 192; weakness of
human consensus 188 conventional approaches 189“91
natural law 186 freedoms within 3, 172, 176, 195, 198
First World War 44, 53“4, 70 free trade 78
Florini, Ann M. 64“5 governance of 94“7
Ford Foundation 4, 9 incivility within 12
Fortuyn, Pim 143 inequality within 140“1
Foucault, Michel 64“6 justice 3, 172, 176
Fourth World Conference on Women 62 languages, extinction and survival of 19
France 5, 24“5, 34, 42, 50“2, 57, 74, ma¬a 10
159 market inequalities within 74“7, 88
free trade 78 markets and 75
neo-liberal economics 2 markets, as an organising principle of 76
see also turbocapitalism mobility of people within 19“20
French Revolution 21 movements within 60
Friends of the Earth 58 non-foundationalist approach to
Fukuyama, Francis 15 194“209
origins of 35, 44“57
G-8 Summit 25 INGOs 2, 5, 8, 25, 36
al-Ghannouchi, Rashid pluralism within 14“15, 92, 142, 196
Galeano, Eduardo 167 poverty 6
Gates, Bill 9, 83, 84 power relations within 17, 171
Gaventa, John 60 principle threats to 138“41
Gellner, Ernest 39 protection of 204
George, Susan 61 protest organizations 18
Germany 5, 24, 55, 66, 74 purist views of 76
Ghandi, Mahatma 8, 50“3 religion 5
Global Action Project 60 Seattle protests and 59
global campaigns against landmines 6 share of wealth and income within 90
global cities 6 spaces of hope within 139
global civilisation, idea of 2 strategic approaches 3
global civil society traditions within 40“3, 78
activists within 58 see also civil society
analytic-descriptive usages of 3 global commodity chains 69
armed con¬‚ict and 149 uneven development of 70
as by-product of governmental action see also turbocapitalism
92 Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network 9
as categorical 202 global economy origins of 46
as ideal-type 8“20, 30 see also neo-liberal economics;
as precondition of pluralism 202 turbocapitalism
blurred boundaries within 24“5 Global Forum 111“16
campaigners perceptions of 62“3 global governance see cosmocracy
Index 217

global media xi Indigenous Peoples Bio-Diversity Network
as force for cosmopolitanism 168 9
see also global public spheres Indochina 25
global money laundering 113“14 Indonesia 100
global public spheres Inglehart, Ronald 7
as ideal type 169 INGOs 6, 7, 18, 32“8, 62, 173
as mechanism of accountability collaboration with government 109, 110
173“4 data on 6
and self-re¬‚exivity 172 early examples of 47
growth of 172 growth of 5, 48
vulnerability of 169 inequalities among 90
see also global media within Japan 25
global statistics agencies 6 see also civil society; global civil society
global summits 6 Inter-American Court of Human Rights
Goldstone, Richard 116 25, 107
Gramsci, Antonio 63 see also civil society; global civil society
Greene, Graham 31 International Airport Association 109
Greenpeace 57, 90 International Association of Religious
Gulf War 119“20 Freedom 93
International Bank for Reconstruction and
Habermas, Jurgen 56, 66
¨ Development 67
Haiti 35 international commissions 9
Hanson, Pauline 143 International Committee for the Relief of
Hardt, Michael 17, 62, 64“5, 82 Wounded Soldiers 154
Hassner, Pierre 146 International Court of Justice 97, 106
Hegel, G. W. F. 73 International Criminal Tribunal for the
Heidegger, Martin 170 Former Yugoslavia 102, 104
Held, David 68, 98, 122, 124 International League for the Rights of Man
higher education 129 54
as catalyst of global civil society 137 International Missionary Council 54
growth of 129 International Monetary Fund 20
Hobbes, Thomas 22, 55, 95, 180 International Olympic Committee 173“4
Hobsbawn, Eric 5, 45, 46, 50, 56, 66, International Postal Union 93
94“7, 121 International Red Cross 9, 93, 154
Hollingsworth, J. Rogers 66 International Society 22, 185
Honduras 50“2 Internet, access to 140“1
hubris xiii regulation of 106
Hugo, Victor 48 Iokibe, Makoto 36
human rights 187 Iran 100
ethic of 187“8 Iraq 148
humanitarian intervention, principle of Irony 35
171 Islam 1, 27, 32, 34, 35, 193
Hume, David 188“90 as force for cosmopolitanism 41“2
Hungary 24 interaction between Christianity and 44
origins of 40
ideology 138“45 technical innovations 9
free market 142“3 travel as worship 9
racist 144 universalising tendencies within 42“3
Ikenberry, John 121 Israel 148
IMF 5, 60, 67, 99 Italy 43, 50“3
Index on Civil Society 4
India 35, 42, 60, 73, 100, 148 James, Harold 128
constitutional democracy in 37 Japan 5, 24, 25, 35, 66, 74, 79, 99, 143,
James Mill on 32 158
the Raj 28 Jonas, Hans 206, 208
218 Index

Jubilee 2000 60 attacks on New York and Washington
Judaism 41, 42 171
Chernobyl 171
Kahler, Miles 68 Live-Aid 170“1
Kant, Immanuel 20, 21, 28, 123, 125, overthrow of Milosevic 171
133, 191, 197 Tiananmen massacre 171
cosmopolitanism and 21, 28 see also global public spheres
Kashmir 158 M´ dicins Sans Fronti` res 154
e e
Kaviraj, Sudipta 34, 35 Melucci, Albert 59
Kazakhstan 100 Mexico 30, 50, 60, 61, 73
Keck, Margaret 59 Mill, James 32
Kemal, Mustafa 34 Mittelman, James H. 92
Kerr, Clark 136, 191 Montesquieu 113
Khilnani, Sunil 35, 37 morality 196“8
Klein, Naomi 9, 59, 84, 92, Mouffe, Chantal 180, 181
125“92 Multilateral Agreement on Investments 69
Kleist, Heinrich von 23 Mussolini 54
Korten, David 66
Kosovo 119, 158, 159“61 Naidoo, Kumi 64
Kothari, Rajni 36, 37 Namibia 24
Kung, Hans 193“4
¨ Negri, Antonio 17, 64“5, 82
Kymlicka, Will 3 neo-liberal economics 2
Kyrgyzstan 100 see also turbocapitalism
Netherlands 5, 26, 34, 50“2
labour 78“9 News Corporation International 9
languages Nicaragua 50“3
extinction and survival of 19 Nigeria 35, 61, 100
Lapidus, Ira M. 32, 44 non-pro¬t associations
Law of Unending Controversy 194 within Japan 22
Le Pen, Jean-Marie 85, 143 within United States 25
Levi, Primo 9 see also global civil society
Lipschutz, Ronnie 2 North American Free Trade Agreement
literacy 6 69, 117
Locke, John 199 North Korea 69, 100, 148
Luhmann, Niklas 22 Northern Ireland 24
Luttwak, Edward 66“8, 81 Norton, Richard Augustus 35
Lyotard, Jean-Fran¸ ois 137
c Norway 45
nuclear weapons 147“9, 207“8
Macpherson, C. B. 89 Nye, Joseph 95, 96, 121
ma¬a 10
see also violence Offe, Claus 10, 186
Maguire, Joseph 5 O™Neill, Onora 191
Mamdani, Mahmood 27 Ong, Aihwa 86
margizens 20 OpenDemocracy.net 9
Marquand, David 193 Orwell, George 57
Marschall, Miklos 97 Oxfam 38, 154
Marshall, McLuhan 1
Martin Luther King 9 Pagden, Anthony 28
Marx, Karl 16“17, 32, 49, 64“5, 70 Paine, Thomas 36, 198
Marxism“Leninism 1 Pakistan 24, 100, 148
Matthews, Jessica T. 5 Parekh, Bhikhu 53, 188“90
McDonald™s 87 People™s Communication Charter 169
McNeill, William H. 30 Peoples Global Action 61
media events 170 Per´ z-Diaz, Victor M. 7, 77, 93
e
1989 revolutions 171 Peru 30
Index 219

Plato 111“17, 201 Anglo-Oriental Society for the Suppression
Poland 55 of the Opium Trade 54
Polanyi, Karl 78, 79 Sony 9
Portugal 43, 50“2 Soros, George 81, 82
post-modernism 201 South Africa 35, 50“3
poverty 6 South Korea 74, 99
protest organisations 18 Soviet Union 57, 67
public opinion Spain 5, 28, 40, 42, 43, 50, 54, 55
across borders xi, 6 St Augustine 11
see also global public spheres Stalin 54
Stockholm Declaration 1996 13
Qur™ an 32, 34, 41“2
¯ Sub-Saharan Africa 5, 35
Sudan 69, 149, 150, 154
Randeria, Shalini 37“9 Su¬ networks
Rawls, John 122“4 Naqshabandiyya 9
Reagan, Ronald 81 Qadiriyya 9
realism 95“6 Sweden 66, 74
see also cosmocracy Switzerland 5
refugees 19, 197
religion 5 Taiwan 74
see also Law of Unending Controversy Tajikstan 100
Risse-Kappen, Thomas 4, 192 taste chains 86“7
Robbins, Lionel 52 see also turbocapitalism
Robertson, Geoffrey 56 telephone traf¬c 6
Romania 54 terrorism xii, 10, 151
Rorty, Richard 184 aims of 152
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 33 Thailand 100
Ruckus Society 11, 61 Tilly, Charles 9
Russia 26, 35, 50, 100, 148, 158 Tocqueville, Alexis de 32
on civil society 36
Sahlins, Marshall 86 on colonialism 34
Sakamoto Yoshikazu 75, 76“7 trades unions 9
Salamon, Lester M. 5 Transparency International 9, 169
Saul, John Ralston 117“20 transportation 45, 48
Schapiro, Michael 107 and ¬nancial speculation 72
Schmitt, Carl 180 turbocapitalism xi, 65“74
Schroder, Gerhard 2
¨ and consumer advertising 85“6
Seattle protests 59 and ¬nancial speculation 72
Second World War 46, 56“66 and global labour pool 74
Sen, Amartya 89 and job creation 85, 143
Shack/Slum Dwellers International 9 and production 73“4
Shanghai Co-Operation Organisation 100 and wage differentials 74
Shelton, Dinah 104 as force for pluralism 167
Shils, Edward A. 30 de¬nition of 67
Shiva, Vandana 167 destructiveness of 89
Sierra Leone 18, 101, 150, 154 exchange value/prestige value 18, 19
Sikkink, Kathryn 59 free trade 78
Simone, Maliqalim 39 geographic bias 68
Singapore 74 Keynesian welfare state 67“8
Smith, Adam 70 neo-liberal economics 2
social injustice xiii novelty of 69
social movements xi, 6, 8, 18 poverty 6
see also anti-globalisation movements taste chains 86“7
socialism xi, 49 see also free trade; neo-liberal
society, de¬nition of 10“11 economics
220 Index

Turkey 24, 157 terrorism xii, 10, 151, 152
under Kemalist rule 34“5 war crimes 113“14
war criminals 12, 22
Uganda 47 see also cruelty
Uganda Debt Network 60 Virginia Company 28
uncivil society 155“8
see also violence Wagner, Adolph 68
UNESCO 110, 130 Wallas, Graham 44
UNICEF 96 Wallerstein, Immanuel 73
Union of International Associations 4 Waltz, Kenneth 96
United Nations xiii, 5, 6, 15, 25, 58, 104, Walzer, Michael 139, 189
107 Wapner, Paul 23, 64, 108“11
Declaration for the Elimination of war crimes 113“14
Violence Against Women 171 war criminals 12, 22
early catalytic effects of 110“11 Weber, Max 30, 45, 50
environmental programme 91 on ideal-types 30
Security Council 100, 102 on power 50
Universal Declaration of Human Rights WEED 60
119“22 Wight, Martin 22, 117“20
United States 32, 35, 45, 46, 50“2, 55, 56, Wilde, Oscar 204
57, 66, 74, 140“1, 143, 146, 148, Wittgenstein, Ludwig 7, 192
158“9, 173 Wombles
as dominant power 110, 118“20, 146 Women Living Under Muslim Laws 9
de¬cit-of-last-resort 187“8 Women™s Conference, Beijing 111
universities World Bank 2, 5, 60
as ivory towers 132 world civic culture 2
decline of 129 world civil society 20, 22
reaction to market pressures 134“5, World Court Project 106
147 World Economic Forum 84
Uruguay 46 World Health Organisation 110
Uzbekistan 100 World Passport initiative 9
world society 184
Varsavsky, Martin 83 world trade 74
Vattel, Emmerich de 20“1, 119“22 see also neo-liberal economics;
on cosmopolitanism 28 turbocapitalism
Vienna Conference on Human Rights World Wildlife Fund 90
111“18 WTO 2, 59, 69, 97, 100, 107
violence xi, xii, 10, 44, 53, 61, 176, 206
century of 50 Young, Oran R. 96
colonial 31 Yugoslavia 54, 55
public control of 155“8
state 36 Zaire 46, 47
totalitarian 1 Zambia 46
triangle of 145“51 Zhirinovsky, Vladimir 143
nuclear weapons 147“9 Zimbabwe 47, 100

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