. 12
( 20)


55. The ¬rst ¬gure is for percent of total production in 1917 and was provided by
Francesca Antolin, based on statistics found in Anuario Estad±stico de Espana.
´ ˜
The slightly higher ¬gure is based on a separate calculation for installed
capacity for major utilities and all hydroelectric facilities for the same period.
In terms of capital investment in tramways, the ¬gure would be 75 percent
foreign-owned; however, not all tramway companies generated electricity, so
this ¬gure undoubtedly overstates the importance of electricity production by
foreign-owned tramways. Philip S. Smith, Electrical Goods in Spain,
Appendix B 295

Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Special Agent Series, 197 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1920), 21“22, 54“56,
58“86, 131.
This ¬gure was provided by Francesca Antolin, based on Anuario Estad±stico ´
de Espana. ˜
In 1949, Juan March, with the help of the Spanish government, forced the last
remaining foreign-owned electric utility in Spain “ Barcelona Traction, Light
and Power Co. Ltd. “ into bankruptcy and seized control of the ¬rm. New
York Times, Dec. 19, 1948; Sept. 21, 1949; June 9, 1951.
There is no evidence of foreign ownership in Sweden. There was strong central
control, with the State Power Board having been created in 1909. Arne Kaijser,
˜˜From Local Networks to National Systems,™™ Fabienne Cardot, ed., Un Siecle `
´ lectricite dans le Monde, 1880“1980 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de
d™E ´
France, 1987), 15.
Schroter educated guess.
Schroter educated guess.
Schroter educated guess.
The lower ¬gures are based on percent of FDI for 1938 from Notel, ¨
˜˜International Credit and Finance,™™ 281. The higher ¬gure is from Ra ´nki,
˜˜Electric Energy in Hungary,™™ 159.
Educated guess provided by David Merrett, based on Commonwealth
Statistician, Production Bulletin (1906“1916 issues). The three foreign-
owned ¬rms were Melbourne Electric Supply Co., Adelaide Electric Supply
Co., and Kalgoorlie Power Corp.
Information provided by Kenneth Jackson.
Based on installed capacity from Garcke, 1914“1915, 1417“61. The only
foreign-owned ¬rm was the Auckland Electric Tramways Co. Ltd., which was
part of British Electric Traction Co. The municipality took over the tram
company in 1919. Garcke, 1928“1929, 1469.
With the exception of some small operations, electric utilities prior to
nationalization were all French- owned. Mohamed Messen, ˜˜Reseau ´
Electrique Algerien: Naisance et Croissance,™™ in Monique Trede, ed.,
´ ´´
´ lectricite et l™Electri¬cation dans le Monde (Paris: PUF, 1992), 261“74.
E ´
When electric utilities were nationalized in 1946“1947, shortly after they had
been in France, authorities created Electricite et Gaz d™Algerie (EGA) (http://
´ ´
www.winne.com/algeria3/to12frinter.html, accessed Dec. 19, 2005).
The state-owned Societe Nationale de l™Electricite et du Gaz (Sonelgaz) was
´´ ´
created in 1969 to replace EGA (http://www.sonelgaz.dz/Francais/FRANCAIS/
presentation/historique.htm, accessed Dec. 19, 2005).
Wilkins educated guess, based on Robert L. Tignor, State, Private Enterprise,
and Economic Change in Egypt, 1918“1952 (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1984), 19, 182“83. Most electric utilities and tramways were British or
Calculations from Garcke, 1928“1929, 1423“61, put the ¬gure at 95
Robert L. Tignor, Egyptian Textiles and British Capital 1930“1956 (Cairo:
American University in Cairo Press, 1989), 100, writes: ˜˜The campaign against
public utilities culminated in the passage of a stringent public utilities law in
Appendix B

1947.™™ Electric utilities were nationalized during the following period, the last of
which were those of Empain, which were nationalized in 1961. See Chapter 6
All ¬gures were provided by Segreto.
The Nairobi Electric Power and Lighting Co. Ltd. was registered in 1906.
Garcke, 1914“1915, 1351.
The East African Power and Lighting Co. Ltd., formed by the merger of
companies serving Nairobi and Mombasa, was registered in Nairobi, with
both Nairobi and London Boards of Directors. Garcke, 1928“1929, 1433“34.
Over the course of the following decade, this company became the monopoly
supplier of electricity to Uganda and Tanganyika as well. Robert L. Tignor,
Capitalism and Nationalism at the End of the Empire (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1998), 304.
The properties of East African Power and Lighting in Uganda were
nationalized in 1947“1948, but those in Kenya survived an attempt at
nationalization. Tignor, Capitalism, 305. An ad for the company can be found
in the New York Times, Jan. 20, 1964.
The government had a controlling interest in the East African Power and
Lighting Co. by 1971. Nicola Swainson, ˜˜State and Economy in Post-Colonial
Kenya, 1963“1978,™™ Canadian Journal of African Studies, 12 (1978), 373.
All ¬gures for Libya were provided by Segreto.
The ¬rst French-controlled company was established in 1913. Prior to
nationalization, all electric utilities were French-owned, although the
Moroccan government provided substantial assistance. Agnes d™Angio, `
´ lectri¬cation du Maroc Vue a Travers l™Action de la Societe Schneider
˜˜L™E ` ´´
et Cie (1907“1954),™™ in Dominique Barjot, Daniel Lefeuvre, Arnaud
Berthonnet, and Sophie Coeure, eds., L™Electri¬cation Outre-mer de la Fin
du XIXe Siecle aux Premieres Decolonisations (Paris : Publications de la
` ` ´
Societe Francaise d™Histoire d™Outre-mer, 2002), 317“29, and Samir Saul,
´ lectri¬cation du Maroc a l™Epoque du Protectorat,™™ in ibid., 491“512.

Electricity was nationalized, and the Of¬ce Nationale de l™Electricite was ´
created in 1963.
The large Cahora Bassa hydroelectric plant was constructed in the 1960s by a
foreign consortium led by Harry Oppenheimer™s Anglo American Trust. Upon
completion, it was controlled by Portuguese interests. It was transferred
to the government of Mozambique in 2005. In 1999, only 5 percent of
Mozambique™s households had access to electricity (http://www.eskom.co.
za/live/content.php?Item_ID=892 and http://www.mbendi.co.za/indy/powr/af/
mz/p0005.htm, accessed Feb. 2, 2005).
The ¬rst electric power station in Nigeria was constructed by the Lagos Public
Works Department in 1896. Marcel N. Azodo Manafa, Electricity Develop-
ment in Nigeria (1896“1972) (Yaba, Nigeria: Raheem Publishers, 1979), 14.
In 1923, Nigerian Power and Tin Fields Ltd., a British company, obtained the
rights to supply power to companies operating in northern Nigeria and
constructed a hydroelectric facility. In 1929, the company was reorganized and
the name changed to Nigerian Electricity Supply Corporation Ltd. (NESCO).
Most of the electricity produced was used in mining operations, but some bulk
power was sold to small utilities in Jos and in towns such as Vom and Buruku,
Appendix B 297

which is the basis of the estimate in the table. Manafa, Electricity, 24“28. U.S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Trade
Information Bulletin, 423, Central Light and Power Plants in Africa (July
1926), 2. Stock Exchange Of¬cial Intelligence (1929), 1195. Nigerian towns
were served by small, government-owned utilities that were not consolidated
into a separate branch of government until 1946. Tignor, Capitalism, 199.
NESCO remained in private hands. Manafa, Electricity, 27“31.
The centralized National Electric Power Authority was created in 1972,
although NESCO continued to exist. Its distribution system was not connected
with the national grid. Manafa, Electricity, 31 (http://www.nopa.net/Power_
and_Steel/messages/21.shtml, accessed Dec. 14, 2005).
The ¬gure is based on installed capacity, with estimates for some small
companies and excluding DeBeers and Randfontein mining operations.
Garcke, 1914“1915, 1339“58.
Wilkins educated guess and Richard W. Hull, American Enterprises in South
Africa (New York: New York University Press, 1990), 139.
In 1948, the Electricity Supply Commission of South Africa (ESCOM) took
over Victoria Falls and Transvaal Power Co., the last remaining large foreign
direct investment in public utilities. G. Boileau, ˜˜La Production Electricite en
´ lectri¬cation
Afrique du Sud (1880“1922),™™ in Dominique Barjot, et al., L™E
Outre-Mer (Paris: EDF, 2002), 476.
Garcke, 1928“1929, 1455“56. The Sudan Light and Power Co. Ltd. was formed
in 1925. It was registered in London but had a representative of the government
of Sudan on its board. Tignor notes that while the company™s capital was raised
privately, the assets of the company were considered the property of the
Sudanese government. Robert Tignor, ˜˜The Sudanese Private Sector: An
Historical Overview,™™ Journal of Modern African Studies, 25 (June 1987), 191.
Electricity was provided by the East African Power and Lighting Co. Tignor,
Capitalism, 304.
Nationalization occurred in 1947“1948. Tignor, Capitalism, 304“5.
Garcke, 1914“1915, 1464“65, 1482“84.
Rangoon Electric Tramway and Supply Co., now registered and controlled in
Rangoon (now Yangon). Utilities serving Mandalay remained British-owned.
Garcke, 1928“1929, 1574“75, 1604“5.
The largest electric utility in China served the international settlement in
Shanghai. It had been purchased from foreign investors in 1893 by the
municipal council. There was a foreign-owned ¬rm in Shanghai and a French-
Belgian tramway operating in Tientsin. The approximate percentage given here
is based on the relative size of these ¬rms in 1932. C. Yun, ˜˜A Statistical
Investigation of Electric Power Plants in China 1932,™™ Transactions of the
World Power Conference, Sectional Meeting, Scandinavia, 1933, vol. 2, 532.
Also see R. A. Lundquist, Electrical Goods in China, Japan, and Vladivostok,
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Special Agent Series, 172, (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1918), 62.
Figures are capacity, output, and investment, respectively. Capacity and output
are from Electric Utility Regulation Board, ˜˜Electric Power Development in
China,™™ Transactions, Third World Power Conference,. vol. 2, 108, and
investment is from Yun, ˜˜A Statistical Investigation,™™ vol. 2, 536. Yun™s paper
Appendix B

contains a list of power systems and industrial plants with annual output
exceeding 10 million kWh. Many of these, including the three largest
(Shanghai Power Co., South Manchuria Electric Supply Co., and Compagnie
´ ´
Francaise de Tramways et d™Eclairage Electrique) were foreign-owned.
This ¬gure is based on an estimate of capacity. Hongkong Tramways Ltd. was
British-controlled. Hongkong Electric Co. and China Light & Power (which
served Kowloon) were registered in Hong Kong and appeared to be controlled
by directors resident in Hong Kong. The capacity ¬gures for Hongkong
Tramways and Hongkong Electric are from Garcke, 1914“1915, 1474. The
China Light & Power ¬gure is based on a 1919 ¬gure for capacity from Nigel
Cameron, Power: The Story of China Light (Hong Kong: Oxford University
Press, 1982), 268. On Hongkong Electric, see Austin Coates, A Mountain of
Light: The Story of Hongkong Electric Company (London: Heinemann, 1977).
We included only Hongkong Tramways as British-controlled.
By 1922, Hongkong Tramways had ceased producing its own power and
was purchasing power from Hongkong Electric. Coates, A Mountain of Light,
59“60. Hongkong Electric was owned and controlled by Hong Kong residents.
In 1964, China Light & Power formed a joint venture with the American oil
company Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey), resulting in the creation of a
generating company, Peninsula Electric Power Co. Ltd., that was to generate
power that China Light & Power distributed. The company was 60 percent
owned by an af¬liate of the U.S. oil company. The ¬gure in the table is based
on generating capacity in 1976“1977. Cameron, Power, 200“11; Coates, A
Mountain of Light, 199.
Figures are from Garcke, 1914“1915, 1462“87. For several ¬rms, capacity was
estimated using assets or population of area served.
Garcke, 1928“1929, 1567“616. This ¬gure considers the very large Tata Sons
Ltd. enterprises (39 percent of total installed capacity in India) to be
domestically owned and controlled even though American & Foreign Power
Co. held substantial investments in the enterprise.
State electricity boards were created in 1948. James H. Williams and Navroz
K. Dubash, ˜˜Asian Electricity Reform in Historical Perspective,™™ Paci¬c
Affairs, 77 (Fall 2004), 419.
Schroter educated guess.
Schroter educated guess.
PLN was nationalized in 1950. Williams and Dubash, ˜˜Asian Electricity.™™
Wilkins, general knowledge. Although Japanese electric utilities issued a
substantial amount of debt in foreign nations, none of the Japanese electric
utilities was foreign-owned.
All central stations were Japanese-owned. The lighting plant and tramway in Seoul
were originally American owned, but by 1909 were controlled by a Japanese
syndicate. R. A. Lundquist, Electrical Goods in China, Japan, and Vladivostok,
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Special Agent Series, 172 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1918), 170, 175.
Samuel Pao-San Ho, ˜˜Colonialism and Development: Korea, Taiwan, and
Kwantung,™™ in Ramon H. Myers and Mark R. Peattie, eds., The Japanese
Colonial Empire, 1895“1945 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 374.
Appendix B 299

107. With the Japanese defeat in World War II, foreign ownership effectively
ceased. In 1948, the year in which the U.S. military government handed over
control of the country to an elected government, South Korea received 75
percent of its electric power from what became Communist North Korea.
˜˜Korea Power Threat Held to Be Political,™™ New York Times, April 19, 1948.
Also see Yang Jonghoe, ˜˜Colonial Legacy and Modern Economic Growth in
Korea: A Critical Examination of Their Relationships,™™ Development and
Society, 33 (June 2004), 1“24.
108. Williams and Dubash, ˜˜Asian Electricity,™™ 419. Electric utilities in South
Korea were nationalized in 1961.
109. There were government, including municipal, plants in Georgetown, Kuala
Lumpur, and Kampar. Garcke, 1914“1915, 1473, 1477; Muzaffar Tate, Power
Builds the Nation: The National Electricity Board of the States of Malaya and
Its Predecessors, I (Kuala Lumpur: National Electricity Board, 1989), 284. The
¬rst generating plants in Malaya were installed by foreign-owned tin-mining
companies, but they were limited to industrial power. Robert F. Kinloch, ˜˜The
Growth of Electric Power Production in Malaya,™™ Annals of the Association of
American Geographers, 56 (June 1966), 220“35, at 221.
110. The Perak River Hydro-Electric Power Co. Ltd., registered in 1926, was
British-controlled. Garcke, 1928“1929, 1585, 1592, 1602“3. According to
Kinloch, over 90 percent of the total power produced in the FMS was
consumed by tin-mining operations. If mining operations were included in
total utility production, the total foreign-controlled capacity would have been
approximately 85 percent.
111. This is an estimate based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. The war substantially reduced
operating capacity, but recovery began shortly thereafter. Muzaffar Tate, Power
Builds the Nation: The National Electricity Board of the States of Malaya and Its
Predecessors, 2 (Kuala Lumpur: Tenaga Nasional Berhad, 1991), 2“41.
112. This is an estimate based on increased capacity of government-owned plants
between 1949 and 1970. The Central Electricity Board was created in 1949,
but it was not until 1976 that the last privately owned (and foreign-controlled)
¬rm, Perak River Hydro-Electric Power Co. “ whose chairman was Hugh
Balfour at the time “ was purchased by the government. Tate, Power Builds the
Nation, vol. 2, 268“69, 453“55.
113. T. Tsukuda, ˜˜Electric Power Projects for Future Supply in Manchukuo,™™
Transactions, Third World Power Conference, vol. 5, 213.
114. By 1935, the percentages were 46 percent foreign, 54 percent joint Japanese-
Manchukuo ownership (with less than 1 percent pure domestic ownership).
Tsukuda, ˜˜Electric Power.™™
115. Charles M. Swift of Detroit, Michigan, received a 50-year franchise from the
Municipal Board of Manila in 1903 and established the Manila Electric
Railroad and Light Co. (Meralco; now Manila Electric Co.), which acquired
all existing franchises in Manila. Gabriel Y. Itchon, Perla A. Segovia, and
Arturo P. Alcaraz, A Short Story of the National Power Corporation (Quezon
City, Philippines: National Power Corporation, 1986), 1“3.
116. There were two small domestic utilities; otherwise, all utilities were owned by
the Associated Gas & Electric Corp. of the United States. McGraw Central
Appendix B

Station Directory (New York: McGraw-Hill Catalog and Directory Co.,
1929), 677 (hereafter cited as McGraw with appropriate date).
The ¬gures are for capacity in 1947. The National Power Corporation
(NAPOCOR) had been created in 1936 in a law that reserved all future
hydroelectric developments for the government-owned company. NAPOCOR
was about to complete its ¬rst hydroelectric facility when World War II broke out.
By 1956, the capacity of Meralco and NAPOCOR were about equal. Itchon,
Segovia, and Alcaraz, A Short Story, 14. Also see http://www.napocor.gov.ph/
historical_background.htm (accessed Jan. 16, 2006). In 1940, U.S. direct
investment in public utilities in the Philippines comprised nearly 40 percent of
total U.S. direct investment and was the largest single component of the total. By
1950, this proportion had fallen to 32 percent but remained the largest single
component. A. V. H. Hartendorp, History of Industry and Trade of the Philippines
(Manila: American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines, 1958), 730.
A syndicate of Filipino investors led by Eugenio Lopez purchased Meralco
(Manila Electric Co.) from its American parent in 1962. Itchon, Segovia, and
Alcaraz, A Short Story, 22. Also see http://www.benpres-holdings.com/
h-heritage.shtml (accessed Jan. 16, 2006). In 1978, the generating assets of
Meralco were purchased by the National Power Corp. (http://www.napocor.
gov.ph/historical_background.htm, accessed Jan. 16, 2006).
A municipal ¬rm distributed electricity produced by the British-owned
tramway company. Garcke, 1914“1915, 1462“87.
Garcke, 1928“1929, 1597, 1610“11. Singapore Traction Co. Ltd. remained
British-owned but did not produce electricity. With the exception of one small
plant, electrical plants were government owned. Frederick Brown, ˜˜Power
Resources, Development and Utilization,™™ Transactions, Third World Power
Conference, vol. 2, 239.
Garcke, 1914“1915, 1469“70.
Garcke, 1928“1929, 1581“82, 1591. The utilities in Colombo and Kandy were
taken over by the municipalities.
Most, if not all, of electrical development was ¬nanced with Japanese money.
The Taiwan Electric Power Co., organized in 1919 through the consolidation
of several smaller companies, was Japanese- owned, including 37 percent
ownership by the Japanese government. The company also had issued debt in
the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia. New York Times, Jan. 26, 1931.
Mark R. Peattie, ˜˜Introduction,™™ in Ramon H. Myers and Mark R. Peattie,
eds., The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895“1945 (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1984), 34.
Ho, ˜˜Colonialism,™™ 357, 374.
Taipower was nationalized in 1945. Williams and Dubash, ˜˜Asian Electricity.™™
There was one municipal and one foreign-owned (at one time Danish) private
plant of roughly equal size in Bangkok (http://ostc.thaiembdc.org/energy/egat.
html, accessed Oct. 3, 2005).
http://ostc.thaiembdc.org/energy/egat.html, accessed Oct. 3, 2005.
Virtually all electricity was provided by municipal and regional authorities
(http://ostc.thaiembdc.org/energy/egat.html, accessed Oct. 3, 2005).
Regional state enterprises were consolidated into the Electricity Generating
Authority of Thailand in 1969.
Appendix B 301

130. There was substantial foreign ownership of electric light and tramway companies
prior to World War I. The German Transatlantic Electricity Co. (Compan±a ˜´
Alemana Transatla ´ntica de Electricidad, formed in 1898), the Italo-Argentine
Electricity Co. (Compan±a Italo-Argentina de Electricidad, which commenced
operation in 1916), the Anglo-Argentine Electricity Co. (C±a. Anglo-Argentina de
Electricidad, formed in 1911), and the English company C±a. Electricidad de la
Provincia de Buenos Aires (1911) operated in and around Buenos Aires and in
Mendoza. The Compan±a Electricidad of Rosario was Belgian. The River Plate
Electricity Company of La Plata was English. The Cordoba Light and Power Co.
was American. Domestic companies existed in Corrientes, Bol±var, and R±o
´ ´
Gallegos. Frederic M. Halsey, Investments in Latin America and the British West
Indies, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Special Agent Series, 169 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1918), 68“70, 483“97.
131. Jose A. Gomez-Ibanez, ˜˜The Future of Private Infrastructure: Lessons from the
´ ´ ´˜
Nationalization of Electric Utilities in Latin America, 1943“1979,™™ Discussion
Paper, Taubman Center for State and Local Government, John F. Kennedy
School of Government, Harvard University (Jan. 1999), 8.
132. The ¬gure was 92 percent at the outbreak of World War II. By 1943, 38
percent of American & Foreign Power Company™s assets had been
expropriated or seized, leading to this estimate. Simon G. Hanson, Economic
Development in Latin America (Washington, DC: Inter-American Affairs
Press, 1951), 306“7. The Foreign Power System (New York: American &
Foreign Power Co., 1953), 10.
133. All major foreign utilities with the exception of the Swiss Compan±a Italo-˜´
Argentina de Electricidad (CIADE) had been nationalized by 1960. CIADE was
nationalized in 1979. Gomez-Iba ˜ ez, ˜˜The Future of Private Infrastructure,™™ 4, 9.
´ ´n
134. This is an estimate based on the 1928“1932 proportion. The Bolivian & General
Enterprise Co. (Ltd.), serving La Paz, was owned almost wholly by the French
¬rm Creusot & Schneider. Trams and lighting plants were operated by domestic
¬rms in Cochabamba and Sucre, Bolivia. A German-owned ¬rm served the tin-
mining district in Oruro. Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 110“11. Jose A. ´
Gomez-Iba ˜ ez, Regulating Infrastructure: Monopoly, Contracts, and Discretion
´ ´n
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 129.
135. The ¬gure excludes mining operations in Catari, Punutuma, and Uncia, which
represented approximately 60 percent of the total capacity installed in Bolivia
in 1929. Bolivian Power Company was now Canadian-owned, as was Oruro
Light & Power Company. McGraw, 1929, 766.
136. This estimate is based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. There was little change in the
structure of the Bolivian electric power sector between these dates. Gomez- ´
Iba ˜ ez, Regulating Infrastructure, 129“30.
137. This is an estimate. Bolivia established a state-owned electric utility in the
1950s to promote rural electri¬cation. Bolivian Light and Power remained
foreign-owned. It was never nationalized. Gomez-Ibanez, Regulating Infra-
´ ´˜
structure, 130“31.
138. The ¬gure is an estimate based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. The Canadian-
owned Brazilian Traction, Light and Power Ltd. was the largest and most
prominent utility company in Brazil. In addition, there were British-owned
lighting and tramway companies in Ceara, Santos, Recife, and Belem. There
´ ´
Appendix B

was a French-controlled electric utility in Curitiba and municipally owned or
local utilities in Bahia, Bello Horizonte, Nictheroy, and Rio Grande do Sul.
Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 164“73.
Generation was approximately 67 percent; installed capacity probably was
nearer 80 percent. Gomez-Ibanez, ˜˜The Future of Private Infrastructure,™™ 8.
´ ´˜
The ¬rst ¬gure is for capacity, the second is for output. Hanson, Economic
Development in Latin America, 302“3; Werner Baer and Curt McDonald,
˜˜A Return to the Past? Brazil™s Privatization of Public Utilities: The Case of the
Electric Power Sector,™™ Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 38 (Fall
1998), 509.
The ¬gure is for 1965. Baer and McDonald, ˜˜A Return.™™ By 1979,
nationalization was complete, and the ¬gure was 0. Gomez-Ibanez, ˜˜The
´ ´˜
Future of Private Infrastructure,™™ 9.
This is an estimate based on Ricardo Simpson, ˜˜Organization of Private Gas
and Electric Utilities,™™ Transactions, Third World Power Conference, vol. 5,
57“64. The ¬gure is for public utilities and excludes industrial enterprises. See
also Linda Jones, Charles Jones, and Robert Greenhill, ˜˜Public Utility
Companies,™™ in D. C. M. Platt, ed., Business Imperialism (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1977), 77“118. The Compan±a Alemana Transatla
˜´ ´ntica
¨ berseeische Elektrizitats Gesellschaft, Berlin) owned
(controlled by Deutsch-U ¨
an electric utility in Valpara±so, tramways in Valpara±so and Vina del Mar, and
´ ´ ˜
a large stake in the Santiago Electric Light & Tramway Co. Halsey,
Investments in Latin America, 243. Also see Philip S. Smith, Electrical
Goods in Bolivia and Chile, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce, Special Agent Series, 167 (Washington, DC:
USGPO, 1918), 38.
The ¬gure is for 1935. Simpson, ˜˜Organization.™™
Estimate based on Simpson, ˜˜Organization,™™ and Hanson, Economic
Rolf J. Luders, ˜˜Early, Massive, Broad, and Successful Privatizations: The Case
of Chile,™™ in Melissa H. Birch and Jerry Haar, eds., The Impact of Privatization
in the Americas (Miami: North-South Center Press, 2000), 13“49.
Gomez-Ibanez, ˜˜The Future of Private Infrastructure,™™ 12, asserts that there
´ ´˜
were no foreign investments in electric utilities in Colombia until 1927.
American & Foreign Power owned the utilities in Cali and Santa Marta.
Utilities in Medell±n and Bogota were municipally owned. McGraw, 1929,
´ ´
776“77. Also see Gomez-Iba ˜ ez, ˜˜The Future of Private Infrastructure,™™ 12.
´ ´n
The Cali property was nationalized in 1945, the remaining properties in 1961.
Gomez-Ibanez, ˜˜The Future of Private Infrastructure,™™ 9.
´ ´˜
Gomez-Ibanez, ˜˜The Future of Private Infrastructure,™™ 9, See also Joseph W.
´ ´˜
Mullen, Energy in Latin America (Santiago, Chile: United Nations, CEPAL,
1978), 65.
The Quito Electric Lighting & Power Co. was controlled by the British
company Ecuadorian Corp. Other lighting plants appeared to be municipally
or domestically owned. Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 290. The ¬gure
in the table is based on capacity as given in U.S. Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce, Special Agent Series, 154, Electrical Goods in Ecuador
and Peru (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1917), 11.
Appendix B 303

151. McGraw, 1929, 778“79. Quito, Guayaquil, and Riobamba were served by
U.S.-owned companies.
152. This estimate is based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. American & Foreign Power
retained its interests in Guayaquil and Riobamba. American & Foreign Power
Co., Annual Report 1952.
153. This is an estimate. The Basic Electri¬cation Law of May 1961 created the
Ecuadorian Electri¬cation Institute (INECEL), which gave the state exclusive
responsibility for electric power development, and eventually all electric power
was generated by government-owned utilities. While the foreign-owned
utilities of Guayquil and Riobamba (by this time owned by Boise Cascade)
were never nationalized, they became exclusively distributing utilities.
Ecuadoran Foundation for Energy and Environment, Economics of Green-
house Gas Limitations, Country Study Series, Ecuador, published by the
Centre on Energy and Environment, Technical University of Denmark
(Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, 1999), 47; Gomez-Ibanez,
´ ´˜
Regulating Infrastructure, 115, 124.
154. Asuncion Tramway, Light and Power Co. Ltd. was British-owned. Garcke,
1914“1915, 146. According to Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 312, the
company entered receivership in October 1914.
155. The ¬rm was then controlled by a Swiss-Argentine company, Compan±a ˜´
Americana de Luz y Traccion (http://www.ande.gov.py/Historia/historiade-
laelectricidad-py.htm, accessed July 28, 2006).
156. Nationalization occurred in 1948.
157. This is an estimate based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. The largest electrical
establishment in the country was a hydroelectric power plant constructed by
the Cerro de Pasco Copper Corp. The power was used exclusively for
industrial purposes. The electrical plant is described as being ˜˜owned by an
American company.™™ U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Special
Agent Series, 154, Electrical Goods in Ecuador and Peru (Washington, DC:
USGPO, 1917), 25“26.
158. McGraw, 1929, 779. Lima Light, Power & Tramways Co. (Empresas
Electricas Asociadas) was foreign-owned. The Cerro de Pasco plant comprised
ca. 20 percent of total electrical capacity in the country. For an excellent
history of Lima™s tramways, see http://www.tramz.com/pe/li/li00.html
(accessed April 24, 2006).
159. Lima™s tramways were taken over by the government in 1934. Moody™s
Manual (Utilities) 1937, 770. Empresa Publica de Electricidad del Peru
´ ´
(ELECTROPERU) was created in 1972 as a holding company to unify the
government™s activities in the electricity sector. The state became an owner or
majority shareholder for all previously held private concessions. Alfred H.
Saulniers, Public Enterprises in Peru (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988), 27.
160. The estimate is based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. The electric light plant of
Montevideo and other cities and towns was owned by the government. There
were two electric tramways in Montevideo, the British-owned United Electric
Tramways and the other controlled by Compan±a Alemana Transatlantica.
˜´ ´
Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 361“63. For a brief history of the state-
owned electric utility, which dated to 1912, see http://www.ute.com.uy/
empresa/informacion/historia.htm (accessed Jan. 26, 2006).
Appendix B

161. The Montevideo tramway was owned by the British Atlas Electric and General
Trust Ltd. Moody™s Manual of Banks, 1930, 2590. No other electric utility
was foreign-owned. McGraw, 1929, 780. The estimate is based on the capacity
of the tramway.
162. The Montevideo tramway company was sold to the state in 1947 (http://
members.tripod.com/˜lfu1/index-13.html, accessed Jan. 27, 2006).
163. The ¬gure is an estimate based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. The Canadian
International Light & Power Co. controlled the Venezuela Electric Light Co.
United Electric Tramways Co. of Caracas (Ltd.) appears to be British-owned.
Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 383, 529, 536.
164. There were several U.S. and Canadian-controlled utilities according to
Moody™s Manual (Utilities) 1930, 1502; see also Gregory Marchildon, ˜˜The
Limitations of the Free-Standing Utility,™™ in Mira Wilkins and Harm Schroter,
The Free-Standing Company in the World Economy 1830“1996 (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1998), 398. Gomez-Ibanez says that most electric
´ ´˜
utilities were owned by domestic investors. The ¬gure here is based on
McGraw, 1929, 780“82. There was a Canadian utility in Maracaibo, while the
Venezuela Electric Light Co., which served part of Caracas, was still listed as
British, although it was controlled by American & Foreign Power by this time.
165. This estimate is based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure. There was little change in the
structure of the electric utility sector between these dates.
166. The American & Foreign Power subsidiary serving part of Caracas was sold in
1964; the Canadian-owned Venezuelan Power Company, serving Maracaibo
and Barquisimeto, was nationalized in 1976. Gomez-Ibanez, Regulating
´ ´˜
Infrastructure, 125.
167. Costa Rica Electric Light and Traction Co. was British-owned. Garcke, 1914“
1915, 338. It is likely that some municipal ¬rms existed at the time.
168. Garcke, 1928“1929, 319. The utilities in San Jose and surrounding area
were purchased by American & Foreign Power in 1928. Moody™s Manual
(Utilities) 1929, 1437. A number of municipal ¬rms also existed. McGraw,
1929, 737“38.
169. Based on 1954 output, 40 percent of which was from government-owned
plants. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1955.
170. Arrangements were made in 1969 for government purchase of the remaining
foreign utility. Moody™s Manual (Utilities) 1968.
171. There was little electri¬cation and Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 447,
identi¬es no foreign-owned electric utilities.
172. The San Salvador Electric Co. was Canadian-controlled. McGraw, 1929, 753“54.
173. Nationalization occurred in 1945 (http://www.cel.gob.sv/insti_historia.htm,
accessed Jan. 25, 2006).
174. This is an estimate. Empresa Electrica de Guatemala was German-owned.
Under the urging of the United States, the company was con¬scated by the
Guatemalan government during World War I. Thomas F. O™Brien, The
Century of U.S. Capitalism in Latin America (Albuquerque: University of New
Mexico Press, 1999), 42“43.
175. The ¬gure excludes several coffee and sugar company generators. American &
Foreign Power controlled Empresa Guatemalteca de Electricidad, the largest
utility in Guatemala. McGraw, 1929, 739.
Appendix B 305

176. This estimate is based on American & Foreign Power™s continued ownership
(http://www.eegsa.com/historia.php, accessed Feb. 1, 2006).
177. In 1972, the concession of the company (now controlled by Boise Cascade)
expired, and within several years the government negotiated the purchase of
the company (http://www.eegsa.com/historia.php, accessed Feb. 1, 2006).
178. There were no tramways, and while several towns were electri¬ed, Halsey,
Investments in Latin America, 424“25, identi¬es no foreign-owned electric
179. Approximately 81 percent of the total installed generating capacity in
Honduras was controlled by two companies, Cuyamel Fruit Co. and New
York and Honduras Rosario Mining Co., but the electric power was used
predominantly for industrial purposes. A U.S. ¬rm controlled the electric
utility in San Pedro, Sula. McGraw, 1929, 740. Public Utilities Honduras
Corp. purchased Planta Electrica of San Pedro in 1930. Moody™s Manual
(Utilities) 1930, 1809.
180. The state-owned La Empresa Nacional de Energie Electrica (ENEE) was
created in 1957 (http://www.enee.hn/quienes.htm, accessed Feb. 1, 2006).
181. There were several electric lighting systems, but there appears to be no foreign
ownership. Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 435.
182. The Managua utility was controlled by Public Utilities Consolidated Corp., a
U.S. ¬rm. McGraw, 1929, 752.
183. The state purchased Managua™s utility from Central American Power in 1948.
The industry was nationalized in 1979 (http://www.iie.org/programs/energy/
CAPerspectiveCalderaNicaragua.ppt, accessed Feb. 6, 2006).
184. The utility in Colon appeared to be domestic; that in Panama City was
controlled by Panama-American Corp., a subsidiary of Electric Bond & Share
of New York. The ¬gure is based on installed capacity in these two cities.
McGraw, 1913, 572. Halsey, Investments in Latin America, 440.
185. All utilities except for the canal were controlled by American & Foreign
Power. McGraw, 1929, 752“53; Moody™s Manual (Utilities) 1930, 1502.
186. Moody™s Manual (Utilities) 1950.
187. Nationalization occurred in 1968 or shortly thereafter.
188. Garcke, 1914“1915, 1360, indicates British ownership.
189. Barbados Electric Light Corp. Ltd. remained British-owned. Garcke, 1914“
1915, 1360.
190. http://www.blpc.com.bb/aboutus/history/history2.cfm (accessed July 28, 2006).
191. In the mid-1960s, control of the power company passed into Canadian hands.
By 1998, when the company was reorganized, 63 percent of shares were held
domestically, while the remaining 37 percent were owned by Canadian
International Power Co. Ltd., whose parent company was Leucadia National
Corporation, a U.S. ¬rm (http://www.blpc.com.bb/aboutus/history/history5.
cfm, accessed July 28, 2006).
192. Between 1890 and 1910, numerous utilities were organized by British
(Havana), Canadian (Havana and Camaguey), German (Cardenas), and ´
American (Cienfuegos) investors. Jorge R. Pinon, ˜˜Cuba™s Energy Challenge,™™
Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, Occasional Paper (March
2004), 13. In 1913, utilities in Santiago and Sagua La Grande appeared to be
Appendix B

domestic, that in Camaguey Canadian- controlled, and in Havana American-
controlled. McGraw, 1913, 571.
After excluding the 16 percent of total capacity devoted to United Fruit and
various sugar operations, the American and Foreign Power Company
controlled virtually all of the rest of installed capacity in Cuba. McGraw,
1929, 784“90.
McGraw, 1929, 784“90.
Nationalization occurred in 1960.
The utilities were controlled by Central Public Service (Islands Gas & Electric),
a U.S. ¬rm. McGraw, 1929, 791.
The government-owned Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad purchased
the U.S.-controlled ¬rm in 1955 (http://www.monogra¬as.com/trabajos6/
redoz/redoz.shtml, accessed Feb. 16, 2006).
The Canadian-owned Demerara Electric Company was formed in 1899. See
Marchildon, ˜˜The Limitations,™™ 394. There may have been some enclave type
electri¬cation outside Georgetown through the whole period of the table.
Garcke, 1928“1929, 1289, and McGraw, 1929, 771. The ¬gure is an estimate
based on population. New Amsterdam was served by a municipal ¬rm.
This is an estimate based on earlier ¬gures.
Demerara Electric was taken over by the state in the 1960s and the company
renamed the Guyana Electricity Company Carl Greenidge, ˜˜The State and
Public Enterprise in Guyana,™™ in Studies in Caribbean Public Enterprise, Vol.
I: An Overview of Public Enterprise in the Commonwealth Caribbean
(Georgetown, Guyana: Institute of Development Studies, 1983), 196. Also see
the current Guyana Power and Light Inc. web site at http://goliath.ecnext.com/
coms2/product-compint-0000467281-page.html (accessed July 28, 2006).
The utilities in Cape Ha±tienne and Port-au-Prince were owned by Central
Public Service (Islands Gas & Electric), a U.S. company. McGraw, 1929, 790,
and William J. Hausman and John L. Neufeld, ˜˜U.S. Foreign Direct
Investment in Electric Utilities in the 1920s,™™ in Mira Wilkins and Harm
Schroter, eds., The Free-Standing Company in the World Economy, 1830“
1996 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 369.
Electricite d™Ha±ti, a public enterprise, was formed in 1971. As of 1986,
´ ¨
only 45 percent of Port-au-Prince and 3 percent of rural customers
had electric service (http://www.photius.com/countries/haiti/economy/haiti_
economy_energy.html, accessed Aug. 26, 2005).
West India Electric Company, successor to the Jamaica Light and Power
Company, was ¬nanced and controlled with Canadian capital (B. F. Pearson
group) (http://www.jpsco.com/site.nsf/web/history.htm, accessed Aug. 25, 2005).
Jamaica Public Service Ltd., successor to West India Electric Co., was Canadian-
controlled. United Fruit operated a plant in Port Antonio. McGraw, 1929, 783.
This estimate is based on the 1928“1932 ¬gure.
By 1974, the government had acquired all outstanding foreign-owned shares in
the island™s only electric company, Jamaica Public Service. Richard L. Bernal
and Winsome J. Leslie, ˜˜The Experience of Privatization in the Caribbean,™™ in
Melissa H. Birch and Jerry Haar, eds., The Impact of Privatization in the
Americas (Miami: North-South Center Press, 2000), 118.
Appendix B 307

208. Smaller islands “ such as Antigua, British Virgin Islands, Grenada, Montserrat,
St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Lucia “ had no electric utilities. Halsey,
Investments in Latin America, 449“79.
209. In 1977, the electric companies in Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Lucia,
and St. Vincent were owned jointly by the British Commonwealth Develop-
ment Corporation and the island governments. Patrick Emmanuel, ˜˜Public
Enterprises in the West Indian Associated States,™™ in Studies in Caribbean
Public Enterprise, Vol. I: An Overview of Public Enterprise in the
Commonwealth Caribbean (Georgetown, Guyana: Institute of Development
Studies, 1983), 49.
210. The B. F. Pearson group purchased the lighting and tramway operations in
Trinidad in 1901, creating the Trinidad Electric Company (http://www.
biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=41766 and http://www.ttec.co.tt/about/
history/default.htm, accessed Aug. 25, 2005).
211. http://www.ttec.co.tt/about/history/default.htm (accessed Aug. 25, 2005).
212. The franchise of the Trinidad Electric Company was allowed to expire in 1933,
and the Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission, a public enterprise, was
created in 1945.
213. There were four large foreign-owned utilities (British Columbia Electric
Railway, Canadian Niagara Power, Ontario Power, and Shawinigan Water
and Power). This percentage is based on the total capacity in kilowatts of these
¬rms (Garcke, 1914“1915) divided by an estimate of total industry capacity in
1913“1915. The estimate of total capacity is 90 percent of total capacity in
1917 (to account for growth in total capacity between 1913“1915 and 1917).
Leo G. Denis, Electric Generation and Distribution in Canada (Ottawa:
Commission of Conservation, 1918), 4 .
214. The ¬gure is the share of electricity output in 1935 from U.S.-owned ¬rms.
Herbert Marshall, Frank Southard, and Kenneth Taylor, Canadian-American
Industry: A Study in International Investment (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1936), 141. In 1928, the domestic Power Corp. of Canada acquired the
British-owned British Columbia Electric Railway Co.
215. This 1948 ¬gure is from A. E. Safarian, Foreign Ownership of Canadian
Industry, 2nd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973), 14. It
represents ˜˜non-resident control of utilities.™™ Safarian™s ¬gures include all
utilities (except railroads) and thus are not con¬ned to electric utilities.
216. Based on Nelles™s educated guess using an extrapolation of Safarian™s ˜˜foreign
ownership™™ ¬gure of 11 percent for 1962. Safarian, Foreign Ownership, 14.
217. An estimate of the proportion of installed capacity for 1913 of 91 percent was
calculated from The McGraw Electrical Directory (New York: McGraw
Publishing, 1913), 564“71. An estimate of the proportion of foreign capital
invested in 1910“11 is from http://www.sme.org.mx/sme_o¬cial/historia/
Empresas percent20Generacion.htm, accessed April 24, 2006.
218. This is an estimate based on capacity from McGraw, 1929, 740“52. Because
some ¬rms were dif¬cult to categorize as domestic or foreign, the percentage
could range from around 85 percent to 95 percent.
219. The ¬gure for generating capacity in 1945 is from Miguel Wionczek, ˜˜Electric
Power,™™ in Raymond Vernon, ed., Public Policy and Private Enterprise in Mexico
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964), 75“6. Government-owned
Appendix B

¬rms controlled 5 percent of capacity and small, locally owned ¬rms controlled 35
percent. According to Wionczek, by 1960, on the eve of nationalization, foreign-
owned ¬rms controlled 33 percent of capacity, government ¬rms 40 percent, and
others 27 percent. The Centro de Investigaciones Economicas y Pol±ticas de Accion
´ ´ ´
Comunitaria has the following percentages for capacity in 1960: government, 54
percent; foreign, 37 percent; other 9 percent. See http://www.sme.org.mx/
sme_o¬cial/historia/Empresas percent20Generacion.htm (accessed April 24,
There were substantial portfolio investments in U.S. public utilities but only a
small number of direct investments, and control of these investments could be
ambiguous. Canadian investors controlled several electric tramways, and the
Alabama Power Company probably was controlled from 1912 to 1924 by
British investors through a Canadian-registered company. Mira Wilkins,
History of Foreign Investment in the United States to 1914 (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 1989), 165, 551“55; United States Federal Trade
Commission, Control of Power Companies, United States Senate, 69th
Congress, 2nd sess., Document 213 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1927), 36“37,
There remained substantial (and important) portfolio investments in U.S.
public utilities, but no major U.S. public utility operating or holding company
was ˜˜owned and controlled™™ from abroad. Mira Wilkins, History of Foreign
Investment in the United States, 1914 to 1945 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 2004).
Mira Wilkins, ˜˜History of Foreign Investment in the United States, 1945 to the
Present,™™ book-length manuscript in process.
Wilkins, ˜˜History of Foreign Investment in the United States, 1945 to the
The Palestine Electric Corp. was ¬nanced with British capital, although the
concession had been granted to Pinhas Rutenberg, a Ukranian resident in
British Mandate for Palestine. Garcke, 1928“1929, 1601.
Nationalization occurred in 1953. Yossi Borochov, ˜˜Israel™s Electricity
Market,™™ Policy Studies, 38, (Israel: Institute for Advanced & Strategic
Studies, 1999) (http://www.iasps.org/policystudies/ps38.htm, accessed Feb. 14,
Schroter educated guess.
Schroter educated guess.
The Turkish Electric Authority, a public enterprise, was founded in 1970
(http://www.bsrec.bg/turkey/turkey_existing.html, accessed Aug. 26, 2005).
Most of the utilities were public with some privately owned distribution
companies (http://www.photius.com/countries/turkey/economy/turkey_economy_
energy.html, accessed Aug. 26, 2005).

1 the invention and spread of electric utilities, with
a measure of the extent of foreign ownership
1. Chronic reliability problems also can occur in highly developed countries when
there are disasters or extreme weather conditions. On the persistent problems
with electric power in New Orleans nearly a year after 2005™s devastating
Hurricane Katrina, see New York Times, July 22, 2006.
2. Estimates of the cost of the blackout in the United States ranged from $4 billion to
$10 billion. In Canada, there was a net loss of nearly 19 million work hours and
gross domestic product was depressed by nearly 1 percent in the month of the
blackout. U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force, Final Report on the
August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada, April 2004, 1 (https://
reports.energy.gov/BlackoutFinal-Web.pdf, accessed March 22, 2006). The
Italian blackout was caused by a single tree falling over a Swiss interconnection
line, which highlights remaining instability in transmission systems. Jacques de
Jong, The ˜˜Regional Approach™™ in Establishing the Internal EU Electricity
Market, Clingendael International Energy Program Report, Jan. 2005, 41“44
accessed March 22, 2006).
3. U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force, Final Report, 5. Many
historians have noted the profound social and economic consequences of
electricity. Two of the more eloquent descriptions of the impact of electricity can
be found in David E. Nye, Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New
Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990) and Vaclav Smil, Creating the
Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867“1914 and Their Lasting
Impact (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), Ch. 2.
4. ˜˜Foreword,™™ Electricity for All (Paris: Electricite de France, 2002), 2“3. The
view that electricity ˜˜is a crucial input to the development process™™ was
reiterated in United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Division for Sustainable Development, Multi-Dimensional Issues in Interna-
tional Electric Power Grid Connections (New York: United Nations, 2005), 6.
5. ˜˜The Uses of Electricity,™™ New York Times, Jan. 17, 1881.

Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 4“8

6. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2003 (updated
June 24, 2005) (http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls,
accessed Dec. 20, 2005).
7. Although the levels of electri¬cation have increased in the past two decades, the
relative positions of the countries probably have not changed much.
8. The e7, an organization of electric utilities comprised of nine large private
and public companies from G8 countries, has pledged to ¬nd imaginative,
cooperative ways to increase access by the poor to electricity. They emphasize
that a major impediment to progress is lack of suf¬cient capital. As Paul
Loeffelman, Director of Environmental Policy of the American Electric Power
Company, stressed, ˜˜We have to challenge countries to establish ¬nancial
frameworks that will raise the capital for projects to be undertaken.™™ United
Nations™ Johannesburg Summit, 2002 (http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/
html/whats_new/otherstories_e7.html, accessed March 23, 2006).
9. G. W. Stoer, History of Light and Lighting: Oil Lamps, Gaslight, Carbon-Arc
Lamps, Incandescent Lamps, Discharge Lamps, Electricity Generation
(Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Philips Lighting B.V., 1986), 4.
10. For a history of early illumination, see Harold F. Williamson and Arnold R.
Daum, The American Petroleum Industry: The Age of Illumination, 1859“1899
(Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1959), Ch. 1“5.
11. Brian Bowers, Lengthening the Day: A History of Lighting Technology
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 15.
12. Ibid., 16, 20.
13. Roger Fouquet and Peter J. G. Pearson have examined the type and price of
illumination in Great Britain from 1300 to 2000. They found that the cost of
candlelight declined gradually over the course of the eighteenth century. Each
innovation in illumination in the nineteenth century “ gaslight, kerosene light,
and electric light “ began at a higher price than the forms of illumination with
which it competed or was destined to replace, but then its price declined
dramatically. In 2000, the price of a lumen-hour was .001 what it had been in
1850 and .0001 of what it had been in 1300. Roger Fouquet and Peter J. G.
Pearson, ˜˜Seven Centuries of Energy Services: The Price and Use of Light in the
United Kingdom (1300“2000),™™ Energy Journal, 27:1 (2006), 139“77.
14. Jules Dupuit was one of the ¬rst economists to analyze what we would now call
public utilities. See ˜˜On the Measurement of the Utility of Public Works,™™
trans. R. H. Barback, orig. pub. 1844, in Alan T. Peacock, et al., International
Economic Papers, 2 (London: Macmillan, 1952).
15. Bowers, Lengthening the Day, 44“45. The ¬rst gas company in the United
States was the Baltimore Gas-Light Company, formed in 1816. Williamson and
Daum, The American Petroleum Industry, 39.
16. Stoer, History of Light and Lighting, 11“12.
17. Arc lights are especially intense and suitable only for outdoor use or use in large
spaces. Incandescence refers to the property of materials that cause them to give
off visible radiation when suf¬ciently heated. Until very recently, all arti¬cial
lighting was based on incandescence.
18. Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census, Central Electric
Light and Power Stations, 1902 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1905), 86.
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 9“11 311

19. Harold C. Passer, The Electrical Manufacturers, 1875“1900 (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 1953), 14“21.
20. W. James King, The Development of Electrical Technology in the 19th
Century: 3. The Early Arc Light and Generator, Contributions from the
Museum of History and Technology, U.S. National Museum, Bulletin 228
(Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1962), 352“62.
21. Ibid., 378; R. H. Parsons, The Early Days of the Power Station Industry
(Cambridge: Printed for Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. at Cambridge University
Press, 1939), 1.
22. Faraday™s 1831 generator produced direct current. The next year, Hippolyte Pixii,
a scienti¬c instrument maker working in Paris, demonstrated a more ef¬cient
generator that produced alternating current. King, Development, 345, 349.
23. King, Development, 385; K. G. Beauchamp, Exhibiting Electricity (Stevenage,
England: Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1997), 127, 134.
24. King, Development, 392.
25. After his success, Jablochkoff was enticed by the Russian military to open a
factory in St. Petersburg (around 1878). The business failed in 1887, but
Jablochkoff had already returned to Paris in 1880. Jonathan Coopersmith, The
Electri¬cation of Russia, 1880“1926 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press,
1992), 33.
26. A drawback to this arrangement was that an interruption in the ¬‚ow of current
through any device would shut down the entire circuit, so some means had to
be found to solve this problem. King, Development, 396; Thomas P. Hughes,
Networks of Power: Electri¬cation in Western Society, 1880“1930 (Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), 86“87.
27. King, Development, 404; see also Chapter 3 herein. The cost of lighting by the
Jablochkoff system was estimated to be three to four times that of gas for
equivalent illuminating power in 1879. Scienti¬c American, March 15, 1879,
164. On the London installation (encompassing Billingsgate Market, the
Thames Embankment, and Holborn Viaduct), see Scienti¬c American, Jan. 25,
1879, 51.
28. Brian Bowers, A History of Electric Light and Power, History of Technology
Series, 3 (Stevenage, Herts., England: Peregrinus in association with the Science
Museum, 1982), 103.
29. Ibid., 128.
30. Stoer, History of Light and Lighting, 21.
31. Bowers, A History of Electric Light, 64“65; Hughes, Networks of Power,
32. The literature on the development of Edison™s electric light is massive. A
detailed account can be found in Robert Freidel and Paul Israel, with Bernard S.
Finn, Edison™s Electric Light: Biography of an Invention (New Brunswick, NJ:
Rutgers University Press, 1987). The Thomas A. Edison Papers at Rutgers
University contain over ¬ve million pages of documents, many of which are
available in various print and electronic forms. See http://edison.rutgers.edu/,
accessed March 27, 2006.
33. Edison was a brilliant publicist as well as proli¬c inventor. A lengthy and very
favorable article on his new system of lighting was published in the New York
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 11“12

Herald on December 21, 1879. The author, Edwin M. Fox, was a freelance
correspondent for the Herald who had known Edison for a decade and who
was one of the small number of original stockholders in the Edison Electric
Light Co. Payson Jones, A Power History of the Consolidated Edison System,
1878“1900 (New York: Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, 1940), 29. For
a discussion of Swan versus Edison, see George Wise, ˜˜Swan™s Way: A Study in
Style,™™ IEEE Spectrum, 19:4 (1982), 66“70.
On the culture of Edison™s laboratory, see Andre Millard, Edison and the
Business of Invention (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), Ch. 2.
Walter G. Vincenti, ˜˜The Technical Shaping of Technology: Real-World
Constraints and Technical Logic in Edison™s Electrical Lighting System,™™ Social
Studies of Science, 25:3 (1995): 553“74.
Israel, Edison™s Electric Light, 66“67. In the process of inventing the
incandescent lighting system, Edison and his competitors ¬led numerous patents
in many countries, although Edison believed that ˜˜continued innovation [was]
the best means of defeating competition.™™ Paul Israel, Edison: A Life of Invention
(New York: John Wiley, 1998), 209. Over the years, Edison (at times reluctantly)
both sued and was sued for patent infringement. Rather than ¬ght a patent suit
against Joseph Swan in Britain, he merged his company with Swan™s (see Ch. 3).
His Canadian patent for the incandescent light was canceled in 1889, on the
grounds that he had not produced electric lights within two years after the patent
was granted. He lost an important case at the U.S. Patent Of¬ce in 1881, but
eventually sued successfully in District Court, a decision that was appealed. The
U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of Edison in 1892, and the Supreme
Court in 1895 agreed that a rival incandescent light patent was invalid, while
noting that Edison™s patent had expired because of a decision the previous year
that found that the patents dated from the time of application rather than the
time of award. By this time, Edison™s interest in electric lighting had long since
waned, and he had moved on to entirely new endeavors. General Electric and
Westinghouse carried on the battle, but in 1896 they agreed to share patents,
which ended most of the remaining litigation. For short summaries of the role
of patents to Edison, see Israel, Edison: A Life, 109“10, 218, 317“20, and
W. Bernard Carlson, Innovation as a Social Process: Elihu Thomson and the Rise
of General Electric, 1870“1900 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991),
280“83. For details on some of the speci¬c cases, see New York Times, Feb. 6,
1881; May 3, 1885; July 19, 1888; July 11, 1889; July 15, 1891; Feb. 21, 1892;
Oct. 5, 1892; Dec. 16, 1892; March 6, 1895; Nov. 12, 1895; March 3, 1896;
April 5, 1912.
The Holborn Viaduct station in London, which was meant to be temporary,
¬rst operated on January 12, 1882, and closed in 1884 (see Chapter 3 herein).
New York™s Pearl Street station commenced operation on September 4,
1882. The station initially supplied electricity from a single ˜˜Jumbo™™ Edison
dynamo, connected directly to a Porter-Allen engine, with steam furnished by
Babcock & Wilcox boilers. Jones, Power History, 9, 156. For a full, illustrated
description of the station, see Scienti¬c American, Aug. 26, 1882, 127. Later in
September, the ¬rst Edison hydroelectric station commenced operation in
Appleton, Wisconsin. Smil, Creating the Twentieth Century, 55.
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 12“14 313

38. Edison also produced isolated plants. Until 1887, Edison isolated plants in
operation accounted for more lights than did Edison central stations. Passer,
The Electrical Manufacturers, 118.
39. U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor, Central Electric Light and Power
Stations, 1902, 3.
40. D. Heineman, ˜˜Electricity in the Region of London,™™ The Transactions of the
First World Power Conference, vol. 4 (London: Percy Lund, Humphries and
Co., 1924), 1289. Heineman was highly critical of the system of small plants in
London versus the larger operations found in many European and American
cities. He especially complimented the systems in Paris, Chicago, and Buenos
Aires (1291“98).
41. For a discussion of load curves and the peak load problem, see Joel D. Justin
and William G. Mervine, Power Supply Economics (New York: John Wiley &
Sons, 1934), Ch. 2, 4.
42. The authors of a paper on Germany given at the Third World Power Conference
(1936) noted that almost all of Germany was by that time connected either
directly or indirectly with the grid and that the ˜˜cooperation of steam and hydro
plants permits the transportation of base loads from the increasingly larger
central plants while the local stations cover the peak loads.™™ R. T. Beall,
˜˜Signi¬cant Trends in the Development and Utilization of Power Resources,™™
Transactions, Third World Power Conference, vol. 9 (Washington, DC: USGPO,
1938), 249.
43. Another method of conversion used batteries, which were charged in series at
high voltage and then reconnected to the load in parallel, thus resulting in a
lower voltage. Bowers, A History of Electric Light, 133“43; Hughes, Networks
of Power, 85.
44. Hughes, Networks of Power, 86“91.
45. By 1892, Ganz & Co. (Ganz Electric Co. Ltd.) had installed alternating-current
systems in Tivoli, Rome, Venice, and Leghorn (Livorno), Italy; Innsbruck,
Austria; Marienbad and Karlsbad (Karlovy Vary), now Czech Republic; and
Valreas and Dieu-le-Fit, France. The ¬rm also was a pioneer in railway
electri¬cation in Europe. Killingworth Hedges, Continental Electric Light
Central Stations (London: E. & F. N. Spon, 1892), v; Thomas Barcsay,
˜˜Banking in Hungarian Economic Development, 1867“1919, Business and
Economic History, 20 (1991), 222. The ¬rm exists today as Ganz Transelektro
Electric Co. Ltd.
46. Hughes, Networks of Power, 98“105. Samuel Insull, who was Edison™s secretary
during the developmental phase of his system, praised William Stanley as being
well ahead of his colleagues (including Edison) when it came to conceptualizing
the large electric utility system. ˜˜At the time that Mr. Edison was engaged in
installing his early central-station plants we had very little idea, and scientists and
engineers the world over had very little idea, of systems of distribution that
would even cover the ordinary limits of the metropolitan centers of population. If
we could install a system that would prove a ¬nancial success over an area of a
mile square, we had about reached the limit; and when inventors and engineers
like Mr. Stanley had the vision to see the necessity of massing the production, of
longer distances of transmission and distribution, we used to throw cold water on
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 14“15

their work.™™ Samuel Insull, ˜˜Developments in Electric Utility Operating,™™
in William Keily, ed., Public Utilities in Modern Life: Selected Speeches
(1914“1923) by Samuel Insull (Chicago: Privately printed, 1924), 109.
J. F. Wilson, Ferranti and the British Electrical Industry, 1864“1930
(Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1988), Ch. 2. By 1892,
Ferranti also had installed a system in Barcelona, as well as systems for several
French municipalities, including those in Paris, Nancy, Le Havre, Melun,
Troyes, Dijon, Lens, and St. Cere. Hedges, Continental Electric Light Central
Stations, 60. On Thomson-Houston, see Carlson, Innovation as a Social
Process, 215, 259“68.
In the United States, alternating-current generating capacity was 50 percent of
the total by 1898 and 98 percent by 1922. William J. Hausman and John L.
Neufeld, ˜˜Battle of the Systems Revisited: The Role of Copper,™™ IEEE
Technology and Society Magazine, 11 (Fall 1992), 18“25. In some places,
direct current persisted for quite a long time. In 1909, 67 percent of German
central stations had direct current, and it was not until 1913 that alternating-
current stations outnumbered direct-current stations. In 1908, 68 percent of
central stations in Russia had direct current. Jonathan Coopersmith, ˜˜When
Worlds Collide: Government and Electri¬cation, 1892“1939,™™ Business and
Economic History On-Line, 1 (2003), 9 (http://www.thebhc.org/publications/
BEHonline/2003/Coopersmith.pdf, accessed March 29, 2006). For the process-
es by which three German cities selected alternating current, direct current, or
mixed systems, see Edmund N. Todd, ˜˜A Tale of Three Cities: Electri¬cation
and the Structure of Choice in the Ruhr, 1886“1900,™™ Social Studies of Science,
17 (1987), 387“412.
Paul A. David and Julie Ann Bunn, ˜˜The Economics of Gateway Technologies
and Network Evolution: Lessons from Electricity Supply History,™™ Information
Economics and Policy, 3 (1988), 165“202; Paul David, ˜˜The Hero and the
Herd in Technological History: Re¬‚ections on Thomas Edison and the Battle of
the Systems,™™ in Patrice Higonnet, David S. Landes, and Henry Rosovsky, eds.,
Favorites of Fortune: Technology, Growth, and Economic Development Since
the Industrial Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991),
Direct current had its advocates and continued to be used well into the twentieth
century. J. S. High¬eld and W. E. High¬eld, ˜˜High Voltage Direct Current
Generation and Distribution of Electrical Energy,™™ Transactions of the First
World Power Conference, vol. 3 (London: Percy Lund, Humphries and Co.,
1924), 1225“63. Since 1954, direct current also has been used commercially for
long-distance, very high voltage transmission or transmission under water.
Roberto Rudervall, J. P. Charpentier, and Raghuveer Sharma, ˜˜High Voltage
Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission Systems,™™ World Bank, Technology
Review Paper, n.d.
Thomas Commerford Martin, an expert special agent of the U.S. Bureau of the
Census, wrote as follows in a chapter on the history and development of electric
traction: ˜˜It is an interesting problem to explain why the value of electricity as
a motive power was so slowly recognized. The earliest efforts to apply the
electric motor to locomotion purposes antedated the beginning of cable and
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 15“18 315

synchronized with the earliest attempts to utilize steampower, but it was not
until ¬fty years after both of these methods of traction had been put into use
that the electric street car or the electric locomotive could be pronounced a
de¬nite success.™™ Street and Electric Railways, 1902, 160.
Hughes, Networks of Power, 181; Passer, The Electrical Manufacturers,
223“24. The Electrical Power and Supply Storage Co. of Millwall, England,
demonstrated a tram powered by batteries (˜˜accumulators™™) on March 10,
1883, but nothing came of this. Clement E. Stretton, A Few Remarks on
Electric Lighting (London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1883), appendix.
Passer, The Electrical Manufacturers, 217.
Beauchamp, Exhibiting Electricity, 138.
John P. McKay, Tramways and Trolleys: The Rise of Urban Mass Transit in
Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 38; Sigfrid von Weiher
and Herbert Goetzeler, The Siemens Company “ Its Historical Role in the
Progress of Electrical Engineering, 1847“1980, 2nd ed. (Berlin and Munich:
Siemens AG, 1984), 39“41; Wilfried Feldenkirchen, Werner von Siemens:
Inventor and International Entrepreneur (Columbus: Ohio State University
Press, 1994), 110“15.
The Paris Exhibition, which was conceived by the French Minister for Posts and
Telegraphs, A. Cochery, was comprised of 1,781 exhibits from sixteen
countries. In addition to the experimental transportation exhibit, every lighting
system in existence was on display. A. Heerding, The History of N. V. Philips™
Gloeilampenfabrieken, vol. 1, trans. Derek S. Jordan (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1985), 86“104.
Siemens & Halske did not seriously enter the electric tramway industry until
1889, by which time the technology had been developed more fully.
Feldenkirchen, Werner von Siemens, 114.
McKay, Tramways, 39“40.
Ibid., 40.
Street and Electric Railways, 1902, 161“62.
Passer, The Electrical Manufacturers, 243“48. William D. Middleton,
Metropolitan Railways: Rapid Transit in America (Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 2003). Sprague™s very successful company was merged into the
newly formed Edison General Electric Co. in 1889. For Sprague™s interpretation
of the development of the electric railway, see Frank J. Sprague, ˜˜Electric
Railway Not Creation of One Man,™™ New York Times, Sept. 23, 1926. The
˜˜one man™™ was Edison, whom Sprague thought received too much credit in this
particular ¬eld.
Street and Electric Railways, 1902, 6, 149“53.
Michael Ball and David Sunderland, An Economic History of London, 1800“
1914 (London: Routledge, 2001), 245) (http://www.t¬‚.gov.uk/tube/company/
history/early-years.asp, accessed Sept. 15, 2006).
For a description of a 60 km (37 mi.) line from Milan to the area around Lake
Como in Italy, constructed by Ganz & Co., see Scienti¬c American, June 29,
1901, 408.
George W. Hilton and John F. Due, The Electric Interurban Railways in
America (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1960), Ch. 1; see also Pierre
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 18“19

Lanthier, ˜˜Les Constructions Electriques en France: le Case de Six Groupes
Industriels Internationaux de 1880 a 1940,™™ Ph.D. diss., 3 vol. (Paris:
University of Paris X (Nanterre), 1988).
Many electric utilities introduced appliance sales rooms to offer products to
customers of the utilities during the teens and twenties.
In the United States, for example, in 1902, 80 percent of urban areas with a
population of 2,500 or more had service; however, only 20 percent of towns
with a population of less than 2,500 had service. By 1920, just under half of
nonfarm households had electric service. J. F. Fogarty, ˜˜Organization of Private
Electric and Gas Utilities,™™ Transactions, Third World Power Conference,
vol. 5 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1938), 265; and U.S. Department of
Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States,
Colonial Times to 1970, part 2 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1975), 827.
In Italy, for example, in 1898 there were 2,264 electric generating plants, all
but 392 of which belonged to manufacturing establishments. The plants
supplying the public, however, tended to be larger, and they comprised about
65 percent of the aggregate total kilowatt capacity. Tito Gonzales, Waldemar
Mungioli, and Giorgio Valerio, ˜˜Organization of Private Electric and Gas
Utilities,™™ Transactions, Third World Power Conference, vol. 5 (Washington,
DC: USGPO, 1938), 187“88.
Westinghouse installed the ¬rst steam turbine, which replaced a reciprocating
engine, in its own plant in Wilmerding, PA, in 1898. The ¬rst use of a steam
turbine in an electric central station occurred in 1901. Between 1901 and 1935,
steam turbine capacity increased from 1,500 kW to over 200,000 kW. Robert
Healy, ˜˜Organization of Private Electric and Gas Utilities,™™ Transactions,
Third World Power Conference, vol. 5 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1938), 287.
In Sweden, for example, the ¬rst major transmission of electricity from a
hydroelectric site was in 1893, from Lake Hellsjon to the Gra ¨ngesberg ore
¬elds, using a 9,500 volt line. In 1897, 95 percent of hydropower was produced
by industrial establishments, and only 5 percent came from electric power
stations. By contrast, in 1923 83 percent of hydropower was generated by
central electric power stations. F. V. Hansen, ˜˜The Power Resources of
Sweden,™™ Transactions of the First World Power Conference, vol. 1 (London:
Percy Lund, Humphries and Co., 1924), 1322“23.
Oskar von Miller and C. E. L. Brown “ who later was one of the founders of
Brown, Boveri “ are credited with much of the technical expertise for the project.
Hughes, Networks of Power, 133“35. See also ZEAG, Moderne Energie fur eine ¨
Neue Zeit. Die Drehstromubertragung Lauffen a.N. “ Frankfurt a.M. 1891
(Heilbronn: ZEAG, 1991).
S. Dana Greene, ˜˜Distribution of the Electrical Energy from Niagara Falls,™™
Cassier™s Magazine, 8 (1895), 352.
The speed with which electri¬cation spread should not be exaggerated; on the
progress made in thirty-two countries around the world by 1933, see Figure 1.6.
The point that electri¬cation spread relatively slowly is also made by Paul
David, ˜˜The Dynamo and the Computer: An Historical Perspective on the
Modern Productivity Paradox,™™ American Economic Review, 80 (May 1990),
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 19“24 317

74. As Hunter and Bryant note, ˜˜In the evolution of central-station ¬nances, three
factors were largely controlling: the heavy investment in ¬xed capital, the wide
variations, daily and seasonal, in demand for energy, and the peculiar necessity
for simultaneous production and consumption of this commodity.™™ Louis C.
Hunter and Lynwood Bryant, A History of Industrial Power in the United
States, 1780“1930, vol. 3, The Transmission of Power (Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 1991), 275.
75. The load factor is the ratio of the average rate of production to the maximum
rate for a brief period of time (e.g., ¬fteen minutes). The higher the load factor,
the more economically the plant is operating.
76. See Sidney A. Mitchell, S. Z. Mitchell and the Electrical Industry (New York:
Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1960), 79“80, for a discussion of how holding
companies were expected to work.
77. William H. England, ˜˜Organization of Private Electric and Gas Utilities,™™
Transactions, Third World Power Conference, vol. 9 (Washington, DC:
USGPO, 1938), 329.
78. On the battle in the United States, see William J. Hausman and John L.
Neufeld, ˜˜Public Versus Private Electric Utilities in the United States: A
Century of Debate over Comparative Economic Ef¬ciency,™™ Annals of Public
and Cooperative Economics, 65:4 (1994), 599“622.
79. On these provisions in some countries, see Dr. E. Haidegger, ˜˜Organization,
Financing, and Operation of Publicly Owned Electric and Gas Utilities,™™
Transactions, Third World Power Conference, vol. 6 (Washington, DC:
USGPO, 1938), 117, 120; and L. T. Fournier and J. Butler Walsh, ˜˜Public
Regulation of Private Electric and Gas Utilities,™™ Transactions, Third World
Power Conference, vol. 9 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1938), 344“45.
80. A whole section of the Third World Power Conference was devoted to
government-owned electric and gas utilities. Transactions, Third World Power
Conference, vol. 6 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1938), 3“305.
81. Georg Klingenberg, a German electrical engineer and eventually a director of
Allgemeine Elektrizita Gesellschaft (AEG), ¬rst proposed in 1916 that the
German state create a national network in a paper titled ˜˜The Superpower
Supply in Cooperation with the State.™™ ˜˜Klingenberg™s investigations resulted in
the conclusion that electricity supply on a large scale could not be attained with
the existing system of individual plants, that only the State has suf¬cient power to
overcome the legal dif¬culties, and that therefore the State was bound to
intervene.™™ The operators of municipal stations reportedly objected to the plan.
In the 1920s, however, the plan became a model for rationalizing the German
electrical network. Prof. Dr. W. Petersen and Prof. R. Troger, ˜˜National and
Regional Planning of German Electricity Supply,™™ Transactions, Third World
Power Conference, vol. 6 (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1938), 338“39. In the
United States, Samuel Insull, in commenting on a proposal during World War I
by the Fuel Administrator in Washington to ˜˜look for opportunities to establish
temporary linking up at this time of all the great power-producing companies
of a given territory,™™ noted: ˜˜People are beginning to learn, as a matter of
governmental necessity, that true economy can be reached by massing the
production and distribution of energy. That is one of the lessons this war is going
Notes to Chapter 1, Pages 24“25

to teach the country with relation to our business.™™ Insull, of course, in the
postwar period constructed one of the largest privately owned electric utility
systems in the world. Samuel Insull, ˜˜The Electrical Industry and the War,™™
in William Keily, ed., Public Utilities in Modern Life: Selected Speeches
(1914“1923) by Samuel Insull (Chicago: Privately printed, 1924), 150“51.
See, for example, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Statistics Division, Energy Balances and Electricity Pro¬les, 2000, (New York:
United Nations, 2004), and United Nations Department of Economic
and Social Affairs, Statistics Division, Energy Statistics Yearbook, 2001,
(New York: United Nations, 2004).
Kilowatts (kW) and kilowatt-hours (kWh), respectively, are the two most
common measures of the capacity of an electrical system and the amount of
energy produced by that system. Several sources have sought to gather,
synthesize, and present data on electric utilities across nations and over time.
The three volumes of historical statistics compiled and edited by Brian Mitchell
contain annual statistics of output (kilowatt-hours produced) for many nations.
B. R. Mitchell, ed., International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceana,
1750“1993, 3rd. ed. (New York: Stockton Press, 1998), Table D24, 490“503;
B. R. Mitchell, ed., International Historical Statistics: The Americas, 1750“
1993, 4th. ed. (New York: Stockton Press, 1998), Table D22, 404“12; B. R.
Mitchell, ed., International Historical Statistics: Europe, 1750“1993, 4th ed.
(New York: Stockton Press, 1998), Table D27, 562“67. Bouda Etemad and
Jean Luciani, World Energy Production 1800“1985 (Geneva: Librarie Droz,
1991), present annual electricity output in kilowatt-hours for numerous
countries from 1900 (or when data begin) to 1985. They rely heavily on the
statistics in the Mitchell volumes, but they add the important ¬gures on
hydroelectric output. The sources for the data in the Mitchell and the Etemad
and Luciani volumes are principally international statistical yearbooks,
supplemented with national statistical yearbooks and specialist publications,
especially for the early years. Very useful data were collected for select
countries by the Union Internationale des Producteurs et Distributeurs
´ ´
d™Energie Electrique, Paris, which compiled returns from questionnaires. These
have been published in Frederick Brown, ed., Statistical Year-Book of the
World Power Conference, No. 1, 1933 and 1934 (London: World Power
Conference, 1936), and subsequent volumes.
These varied from country to country and could be fairly substantial,


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