<<

. 18
( 20)



>>

Company-History.html, accessed Sept. 26, 2007. Several other Canadian ¬rms
or funds owned or controlled foreign assets, including EPCOR Power L.P.,
Algonquin Power Income Fund, Boralex Power Income Fund, and Atlantic
Power.
˜˜The Odd Couple,™™ The Economist, July 29, 2006, 61. EDF is the largest
25.
European electric utility in terms of electricity generated. In 2005, EDF received
59 percent of its sales revenue in France, 35 percent in other European
countries, and 6 percent in the rest of the world (http://www.edf.fr/html/
ra_2005/uk/pdf/ra2005_corporate_01_va.pdf, accessed July 3, 2006).
The German utility RWE had acquired a 20 percent stake in Motor-Columbus
26.
in 1995, which it held until 2004 when UBS obtained RWE™s stake and gained a
controlling interest. In December 2005, UBS announced the sale of its shares to
a consortium of Atel™s Swiss minority shareholders and to EDF. In 2006, Atel
generated electricity in four European countries and had operations in sixteen
others (http://www.motor-columbus.ch/en/investor/shareholders.html, accessed
July 31, 2006; http://www.atel.ch/en/index.jsp, accessed July 31, 2006).
International Power in mid-2006 had assets in the United States, six European
27.
countries (including the United Kingdom), three Middle Eastern countries,
Australia, and four Asian countries (http://www.ipplc.com/ipplc/, accessed June
30, 2006).
Some smaller utilities were owned by Canadian companies. See Table 6.1
28.
herein for the foreign interests.
Scottish Power did not completely withdraw from the U.S. market, retaining
29.
some utility assets in the West (http://www.ppmenergy.com/wwd.html,
accessed July 3, 2006). MidAmerican Energy owns distribution assets in the
United Kingdom. According to the New York Times (Aug. 7, 2003), ˜˜One of
the few American investors to do well in Britain is Warren E. Buffett, analysts
say. Mr. Buffett concentrates on the networks that carry the energy, rather than
the power plants themselves.™™
Wall Street Journal, Nov. 29, 2006; http://www.scottishpower.com/ accessed
30.
Oct. 2, 2007. The newly-formed company announced the purchase of a US
generating plant in September 2007.
http://www.nationalgrid.com/, accessed July 3, 2006; and http://www.
31.
nationalgridus.com/information/, accessed Oct. 2, 2007.
Notes to Chapter 7, Pages 267“269 437

32. The Economist, Feb. 25, 2006, 71; New York Times, July 29, 2006; Arturo
Bris, ˜˜Global Growing Pains,™™ Financial Times (London), June 2, 2006. As of
mid-2006, E.ON operated in twelve Central European countries, three
Northern European countries, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
EON Annual Report, 2005 (http://www.eon.com/en/downloads/EON_GB_E_
komplett_geschuetzt_060309.pdf, accessed July 3, 2006).
33. The Economist, April 7, 2007, 63.
34. Suez also became in 2003 the majority shareholder of Electrabel (http://www.
tractebel.be/index-en.htm, accessed July 3, 2006; http://www.suez.com/groupe/
english/histoire/index3.php, accessed July 3, 2006).
35. Stacy Meichtry, ˜˜Enel Runs into Dilemma over Where to Spend,™™ Wall Street
Journal, June 13, 2006, B4; ˜˜Patriot Games,™™ The Economist, July 1, 2006, 12,
˜˜For Europe™s Utilities, a Frenzied Power Grab,™™ Wall Street Journal, April 11,
2007, A1.
36. http://www.vattenfall.com/www/vf_com/vf_com/365787ourxc/367425histo/
index.jsp, accessed July 3, 2006.
37. http://www.acciona-energia.com/, accessed July 6, 2006.
38. http://www.heh.com/hehWeb/Index_en and http://www.ckh.com.hk/eng/
index.htm, accessed Aug. 29, 2006.
39. http://www.jpower.co.jp/english/company_info/jpower/aisatu/index.html,
accessed Aug. 29, 2006.
40. BTU Power was established in 2001 to invest in energy industries in the Middle
East and North Africa, where it owns generating facilities. BTU™s shareholders
include publicly traded companies as well as individual investors in the Gulf
Cooperation Council countries. The company has of¬ces in Massachusetts
and Dubai (http://pepei.pennnet.com/Articles/Article_Display.cfm?Section=
OnArt&Subsection=Display&ARTICLE_ID=205934&KEYWORD=middle
percent20east, accessed Aug. 29, 2006).
41. http://www.meiyapower.com/eng/about/index.htm, accessed Aug. 29, 2006.
42. http://www.singaporepower.com.sg/index.html, accessed Aug. 29, 2006.
43. http://www.ytl.com.my/utilities.asp, accessed Aug. 29, 2006.
44. http://www.sumitomocor co.jp/english/, accessed July 6, 2006.
45. http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/06121101-e.html, accessed
Dec. 28, 2006.
46. For a summary, see Steve Thomas, David Hall, and Violeta Corral, ˜˜Electricity
Privatisation and Restructuring in Asia-Paci¬c,™™ report commissioned by Public
Services International, Dec. 2004 (http://www.psiru.org/reports/2004-12-E-
Asia.doc, accessed Aug. 29, 2006).
47. This is the case even though there is a continuing need for investment,
especially in developing countries. ˜˜In the power sector alone, the IEA (2003)
has estimated that to keep pace with growing demand, developing countries
will have to invest annually around $120 billion over the period 2001“2010.
During the 1990s, private capital ¬‚ows made a substantial contribution to
meeting the needs in some countries. Private ¬‚ows have fallen considerably in
recent years. From a peak of $50 billion in 1997, investment in power projects
with private participation in developing countries fell to around $14 billion in
2003.™™ Ian Alexander and Clive Harris, The Regulation of Investment in
Notes to Chapter 7, Pages 269“272
438

Utilities, World Bank Working Paper, 52 (Washington, DC: World Bank,
2005), 1.
Williams and Dubash, ˜˜Asian Electricity Reform,™™ 430. Paul Joskow, an
48.
economist who has consistently supported restructuring, cautioned utilities not
to blame the reforms for the resulting problems but rather the speci¬c
implementation of the reforms in California. He acknowledged, however
that the crisis had ˜˜attracted attention around the world.™™ Paul L. Joskow,
˜˜California™s Electricity Crisis,™™ Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 17:3
(2001), p 365“88 at 365. Armstrong and Sappington, while warning about some
of the pitfalls of restructuring, call the California experience ˜˜legendary.™™ Mark
Armstrong and David E. Sappington, ˜˜Regulation, Competition, and Liberaliza-
tion,™™ Journal of Economic Literature, 44 (June 2006), 329.
Carles Boix, ˜˜Privatization and Public Discontent in Latin America™™ (Washington,
49.
DC: Inter-American Development Bank, 2005), 1. Also see ˜˜Slow! Government
Obstacles Ahead,™™ The Economist, June 17, 2006, 41, which asserts that ˜˜the
¬‚ow of private money for electricity, water and transport has dried up in many
countries, partly because citizens or politicians turned against privatization.™™
Amy L. Chua has argued that there is a natural cycle of privatization and
nationalization in less developed countries and that neither condition is likely
ever to be permanent. Amy L. Chua, ˜˜The Privatization-Nationalization Cycle:
The Link Between Markets and Ethnicity in Developing Countries,™™ Columbia
Law Review, 95 (March 1995), 223“303.
William Keegan, ˜˜Anxiety of Ownership,™™ Guardian Unlimited, June 19,
50.
2006.
See Alexander and Harris, The Regulation of Investment in Utilities, 2.
51.
For insightful comments on some of these risks, see Donald R. Lessard, ˜˜Risk
52.
and the Dynamics of Globalization,™™ in Julian Birkinshaw, ed., Future of the
Multinational Company (Chichester, England: John Wiley, 2003), 76“85.
This is probably what happened in England and Wales, where several U.S. ¬rms
53.
had such trouble recently.
See, for example, ˜˜The Don™t Invest in America Act,™™ Wall Street Journal, July
54.
19, 2006. Also see Edward W. Graham and David M. Marchick, US National
Security and Foreign Direct Investment (Washington, D.C.: Institute for
International Economics, 2006).
New York Times, Jan. 9, 2007.
55.
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Index




1886 Company, 116, 117 Algeria, 151, 357
A. Iselin & Co., New York, 169 nationalization of electric utilities, 239
Acciona SA, 267, 268 percent of electric utilities foreign owned,
accountants, 56, 61, 67 four periods, 31
Adams, Edward Dean, 84 Alleghany Corp., 403
Adelaide Electric Supply Co., 106, 107, 216, Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft.
¨
See AEG
239, 255, 295
AEG, 79, 84, 85, 90, 91, 117, 203, 235, 265, Allmanna Svenska Elektriska AB. See ASEA
¨
See also Appendix A Alsace, 137, 150, 203
Aswan Dam project, 242 Aluminium Industrie AG, 90
early history, 93“5, 97“101, 336 Aluminium Ltd., Canada, 148
effects of World War I, 132 Aluminum Company of America. See Alcoa
expansion in late 1920s, 202 Aluminum Company of Canada, 148
and Heineman-Oliven plan, 194 aluminum industry
AEM, Milan, 266 as large power consumer, 90, 147
AES Corp., 265, 268 in West Africa, 52
Africa American & Continental Corp., 177, 178
electric utility investments, 1930s, 217 American & Foreign Power Co., 63, 66“7,
lack of electrification, 123 69, 171, 174, 176, 180, 187, 189, 210,
AG fur Elektrische und Industrielle
¨ 218, 222, 274
Unternehmungen im Orient, 202 disposition of investments, 1940s“70s,
AG fur Elektrischen und
¨ 239“42, 244“9
Verkehrsunternehmungen, 384 Export-Import bank credits, 242
Aitken, Max (Lord Beaverbrook), 88 expropriation of Argentinian properties
Alabama Power Co., 89, 120 (1943“45), 227
Alabama Traction, Light and Power Co., foreign investments (1929“32), 191,
89, 120 198“200
Albania foreign investments, late 1920s, 182“6
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, Japanese confiscation of Shanghai property
four periods, 31 (1941), 228
Alcoa, 90, 147, 179 Latin American investments, late 1930s,
Aldred, John Edward, 90, 147, 177, 179, 214 210“12, 220

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