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percent of electric utilities foreign owned, Societe Financiere Italo-Suisse, Geneva, 102,
´´ `
four periods, 32 151
Singapore Electric Tramways, Ltd., 107 Societe Franco-Suisse pour l™Industrie
´´
´
Singapore Power Co., 268 Electrique, 102, 151
Singer Manufacturing Co., 43 Societe Generale, Brussels, 116, 146, 162, 357
´´ ´ ´
Sino-Japanese war, 216 Societe Generale Belge d™Entreprises
´´ ´ ´
´
Sir William Arrol & Co., 394 Electriques, 100, 102, 116, 156, 162
´
Sithe Energies, 266 Societe Generale d™Electricite, 10, 75
´´ ´ ´ ´
Sociedad Espanola de Electricidad, 93 Societe Generale d™Entreprises, 109, 152
´´ ´ ´
˜
Societa Adriatica di Elettricita (SADE), 162, Societe Generale d™Entreprises dans l™Empire
` ` ´´ ´ ´
Ottoman, 109
178, 192
Societa Elettrica Coloniale Italiana, 85 Societe Generale de Belgique, 162, 193, 235,
` ´´ ´ ´
Societa Elettricita Riviera di Ponente, 21
` ` 236, 251, 268
´
Societa Finanziaria Industriale Italiana Societe Generale de Constructions Electriques
` ´´ ´ ´
(Sofindit), 196 et Mecaniques, 171
´
Societa Generale Elettrica dell™ Adamello Societe Generale des Chemins de Fer
` ´´ ´ ´
´
(SGEA), 21, 401 Economiques, 100
Societa Generale Italiana di Elettricita Societe Generale Hellenique, 159
` ` ´´ ´ ´ ´
Sistema Edison, 80, 85 Societe Generale pour Favoriser le
´´ ´ ´
Societa Generale Italiana Edison di Developpement du Commerce et de
` ´
Elettricita, 80, 175, 179 l™Industrie en France, 117
`
´
Societa Idroelettrica Piemonte, Turin, 177, Societe Generale pour l™Industrie Electrique,
` ´´ ´ ´
Geneva, 219, 236
179, 180
´
Societa Italiana di Elettrochimica, 20 Societe Industrielle d™Electricite, 92
` ´´ ´
Societa Meridionale di Elettricita, 151, 205, Societe Industrielle et Commerciale Edison,
` ` ´´
357 77
Index 483

Societe Internationale d™Energie South Brazilian Railways Co., 168
´´
´
Hydro-Electrique. See Sidro South Manchuria Electric Co., 370
´
Societe Lyonnaise des Eaux et de l™Eclairage, South Manchuria Railway, 123, 204, 332,
´´
94, 161 370
Societe Marocaine de Distribution d™Eau, de Southern Brazil Electric Co., 369
´´
´
Gaz et d™Electricite, 161 Southern Co., 265
´
´
Societe Nationale de l™Electricite et du Gaz Soviet Union. See U.S.S.R.
´´ ´
(Sonelgaz), 295 Spain, 20, 65, 85, 89, 92, 93, 98, 103, 104,
Societe Parisienne pour l™Industrie des
´´ 106, 116, 119, 121, 141, 151, 153, 226,
Chemins de Fer et des Tramways 264, 266, 268
´
Electriques, 103 Civil War period, 206
´
Societe Parisienne pour l™Industrie Electriques electric utilities in World War I, 133“4
´´
(SPIE), 427 electricity production in industry (1933), 29
Societe Russe-Francaise de Chemin de Fer et
¸ Pearson group investments, 217
´´
Tramways, 103 percent of electric utilities foreign owned,
Societe Saint-Petersbourgeoise de four periods, 31
´´
´
Transmission Electrique de la Force des percent of Elektrobank™s investments in
Chutes d™Eau, 117 (1913), 99
´
Societe Suisse d™Electricite et de Traction, percent of Elektrobank™s investments in
´´ ´
Basel, 236 (1938), 203
SODEC, 227, 238, 240, See also Appendix A post“World War II takeover of Barcelona
Sofina, 13, 112, 123, See also Appendix A Traction, Light and Power Co., 237“9
activities from 1945 to 1970s, 234“41, summary of domestication process, 255
Volpi interests in (1929), 192
247, 249, 425
activities in 1920s, 133“7, 141, 151“5, Sperling bank, 85
Speyer & Co., 83, 110
161“3, 178, 179, 186“8, 191, 387, 406,
Speyer Brothers, London, 78, 85
425
activities in 1930s, 193, 203, 206“14, Spie Batignolles, 427
Spitzer, Arnold, 365
217“19, 274
AEG™s relationship to, 100, 102 Sprague, Frank J., 17
control of Mexican, Brazilian, and Spanish Sprengel, Hermann, 11
properties, 1920s, 166“7, 425 Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
and Heineman-Oliven plan, 194“5 percent of electric utilities foreign owned,
interests in CHADE, 135 four periods, 32
interests in Russian electric utilities, early St. Lawrence Power Co., 120
years, 117 Stallaerts & Loewenstein, 342
relationship to Volpi interests, 192 Standard Gas & Electric Co., 210, 224
in World War I and after 133“7 Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey), 298
in World War II, 223“5, 227 Stanley, William, 14
South Africa, 20, 77, 85, 86, 89, 106, 139, State Electricity Commission of Victoria, 130
State of Pernambuco, Brazil, 248
266
electricity production in industry (1933), Steierma ¨rkische Elektrizita
¨ts-Gesellschaft, 378
stock markets, 35, 50, 59, 119, 125, 143, 172
29
nationalization of electric utilities, 239 Stone, Charles, 145
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, Stone & Webster, 110, 113, 145, 177, 179
four periods, 32 subways and metros
summary of domestication process, 255 electrification of, 17
South African Lighting Association, 107 Sudamerikanische Elektrizitats-Gesellschaft
¨
¨
South America. See Latin America (Sudelkra), 150
¨
South Australia, 239 Sudan
electricity production in industry (1933), percent of electric utilities foreign owned,
four periods, 32
29
Index
484

Sudan Light and Power Co., 158, 297 Swope, Gerard, 170
Suez Canal Co., 243 Syndicato Meleton kai Epichiriseon, 164
Suez-Tractebel, 268 Syria, 208
Sumitomo, 268
Sun Life Assurance Co., Canada, 120, 169 Taiwan, 123, 204, 268
Superpower Corp., 191, 201 percent of electric utilities foreign owned,
Superpower proposal, U.S., 27 four periods, 32
Swan, Joseph, 11, 78 Taiwan Electric Power Co., 190, 300
Sweden, 21, 77, 266 Talarn dam, 133
electric power pools, 264 Tampico Electric Light, Power & Traction
electric utility holding companies, late Co., 115
Tanganyika, 296
1920s, 163
electricity production in industry (1933), Tasmania, 20, 106
Tasmania Hydroelectric & Metal Co., 20
29
electricity production per capita, growth Tata Hydro-Electric Agencies, Ltd., 184, 199
rates (1900“85), 26 Tata Hydroelectric Co., 20
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, Tata Sons, Ltd., 298
four periods, 31 Tenneco, 266
Swedish State Railways, 21 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 201, 234
Swiss Bank Corp. (SBC), 138, 203, 225, 235, Tesla, Nikola, 14
Thailand, 123, 151, 266, 267, 268
352, 354
Switzerland, 64, 90, 96, 98, 136, 149, 205, percent of electric utilities foreign owned,
four periods, 32
266
early Edison company, 77 Thatcher, Margaret, 72
electric utility holding companies, interwar Theodor Wille (export house), 110
period, 150“1 Theunis, Georges, 155
electric utility holding companies, post“ Thomson, Elihu, 81
World War II, 235 Thomson-Houston, 14, 75, 81, 339, See also
electricity exports (1933), 30 United Electric Securities Co.
electricity production in industry (1933), 29 Thomson-Houston de la Mediterranee. See
´ ´
´
electricity production per capita, growth Compagnie d™Electricite ´
rates (1900“85), 26 Thomson-Houston de la Mediterranee
´ ´
formation of early utility holding Thomson-Houston International Electric
companies, 97 Co., 81
holding companies, 53, 62 Tientsin Electric Light and Tramway Co.,
hydroelectric resources, 52 420
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, Tilney, A.A., 182
four periods, 31 Toeplitz, Giuseppe, 180
percent of Elektrobank™s investments in Toho Electric Power Co., 159, 160, 174, 175,
(1913), 99 182, 190
percent of Elektrobank™s investments in Tokyo Electric Light Co., 174, 175, 253, 336
(1938), 203 Tokyo Electric Power Co., 268
percent of Indelec™s investments in (1929), Tokyo Electric Power Co. (early company)
merger with Tokyo Electric Light Co.
150
percent of Indelec™s investments in (1938), (1927), 175
Tomen Corp., 268
203
percent of Motor™s investments in (1913), Toronto Power Co., 20, 119
Toyota Co., 43
99
percent of Motor-Columbus™ investments Tractebel, 266, 268
in (1929), 151 Tractionel, 161, 268, 357
percent of Motor-Columbus™s investments Trade Facilities Acts (U.K.), 70, 141, 157,
in (1938), 206 159, 160, 164
Index 485

trading companies, 40, 56, 61, 111, 122, 160, United Eastern Agencies, Ltd., Bombay, 199
United Electric Securities Co., 81, 104, 183
362, 368, 370
tramways, 15“17, 58, 87, 93, 96, 100, 103, United Electric Tramways Co., Caracas, 304
United Fruit Co., 51, 89, 421
111, 113, 114, 118, 123, 135, 208, 212,
United Kingdom, 39, 62, 89, 92, 108, 122,
213, 240, 241, 300
Belgian investments in, 162 131, 139, 160, 165, 168, 181, 209, 265,
BET in Great Britain, 108 268, See also Great Britain
BET investments, early-1900s, 108 electricity production per capita, growth
Sofina investments in (1905), 100 rates (1900“85), 26
´
Tramways et Electricite de Bangkok, 153 relative returns on foreign and domestic
´
´
Tramways et Electricite de Constantinople, registered companies (1929), 157
´
United States, 17, 48, 64, 167, 268
154
TransAlta Corp., 266 absence of inward direct investment in
Trinidad, 89 electric utilities (1914), 120
Trinidad and Tobago aftermath of 1929 stock market crash,
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, 190“2
four periods, 33 Canadian electrical investments, mid-
Trinidad Electric Co., 307 1930s, 214“15
Tripp, Guy E., 145 capital intensity of electric utility industry,
Trust Financiere de Transports et
` 19
d™Entreprises Industrielles, 153 creation of Securities and Exchange
Trustees™ Executors™ and Securities Insurance Commission, 200
Corp., 86 as creditor nation, 126
trusts, 55, 59, 88, 95 electric utilities, post“World War II, 234
Tunisia electric utility investments in Great Britain,
electricity production in industry (1933), late 1920s, 181
electrical manufacturers, late 1920s, 170“1
29
Turkey, 100, 103, 104, 109, 138, 151, 152, electricity production in industry (1933),
153, 155, 216, 268, 357 29
Gesfurel investments in, late 1920s, 149 electricity production per capita, growth
¨
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, rates (1900“85), 26
four periods, 33 emergence of holding companies, 1890s,
summary of domestication process, 254 53
Tyrol Hydro-Electric Co., 173 foreign direct investments, interwar years,
144“5
Uganda, 266, 296 foreign direct investments, post“World
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, War II, 251
four periods, 32 foreign direct investments in Japan (1930),
Ujigawa Electric Power Co., 174, 175 175
Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS), 98, 101 foreign stock and bond issues, 1920s, 172
Union Carbide Corp., 148 free standing companies, 57
´
Union d™Electricite, 179 freezing of Belgian assets (1940), 223
´
´ lectrique Rurale, 198
Union E holding companies, 1920s, 54
Union Elektrizitats Gesellschaft, 82, 93, 100 investments in Italian electric utilities, late
¨
merger with AEG, 92 1920s, 178“80
Union Financiere de Geneve, 102 net electricity generated (2003), 4
` `
Union Internationale des Producteurs et New York banks™ foreign financing
´
Distributeurs d™Energie Electrique, Paris, activities, late 1920s, 172
outward foreign direct investments in
318
Union Miniere, 146 electric utilities, late 1920s, 178“86
`
Unione Esercizi Elettrici, 180 outward foreign direct investments in
United Corp., 158, 180, 182, 191 electric utilities, World War I, 144“5
Index
486

United States (cont.) Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co., 20,
percent of Elektrobank™s investments in 89, 139, 239, 255
(1938), 203 Vienna, Austria
percent of homes with electricity (1912, Heineman-Oliven plan, 194
Vienna Universal Exhibition (1873), 10
1922, 1929), 123, 145, 169
Securities and Exchange Commission, 201, Vietnam war, 243
Villard, Henry, 17, 79
224
summary of domestication process, 253 Volpi, Count Giuseppe, 162, 178, 192, 205,
World War II blacklisted companies, 224 209
Unternehmergeschaft, 53, 54, 66, 96, 104,
¨ Volta, Alessandro, 8
109, 150, 167, 184, 235
Urquijo. See Banco Urquijo W.A. Harriman & Co., 175
Uruguay, 100, 135, 165 W.A. Read & Co., 143
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, Wallace, William, 10
four periods, 32 War Finance Corp., U.S., 129
U.S. Electric Power Corp., 167 Warburg, Paul, 177
U.S.S.R., 236, See also Russia Warsaw, Poland
electricity production in industry (1933), 29 Heineman-Oliven plan, 194
summary of domestication process, 253 W.B. Foshay Co., 214
Utilities Corp. (Poland), 166, 177 Weinmann Bank, 17
Utilities Power and Light Corp., 170, 181, Welsbach, Carl Auer von, 7
Welsbach mantle, 8
187, 189, 191, 198, 208, 254
Uzina Electrica Brasov, SA, 415 Wernher, Beit & Co, 85, 86, 89, 113, 139
West India Electric Co., 306
van de Vyvere, Aloys, 422 Westinghouse, George, 14
Van Horne, William, 88 Westinghouse Electric Co., 110, 121, 134,
Vancouver Power Co. See British Columbia 144, 145, 153, 170, 265
Electric Power Co. early years, 91“5
Vanderlip, Frank A., 145 Wheatstone, Charles, 9
Vaquie, Dr. Arnold, 362 White, J.G., 168
´
Vargas, Getulio, 211 Whitehall Canada, Ltd., 166
Varley, C., 9 Whitehall Electric Investments, 140, 159,
Varley, S.A., 9 185, 192, 217, 226
Vattenfall, 268 activities in late 1920s, 165“6
Venezuela, 105, 146, 167, 189, 191, 266 sale of Mexican and Chilean utilities,
American & Foreign Power investments in, 184
Whitehall Securities Corp., 140, 196
1920s, 184
percent of electric utilities foreign owned, Whitehall Trust, 140, 158, 159, 175
four periods, 32 Whitney, Henry M., 344
plan to nationalize electric utilities (2007), Wiener Bank-Verein, Vienna, 394
Willson, Thomas, 91
272
sale of foreign-owned electric utilities, Wilmers, Charles, 224
Winnipeg
1960s, 248
Venezuelan Electric Light Co., 304, 358 municipal power company, 21
Venezuelan Power Co., 304 Winslow, Lanier & Co., 84
Vera Cruz Electric Light, Power and Wood, E.R., 88, 112
Traction, Ltd., 114 Wood, Gundy & Co., Toronto, 168
Vereinigte Elektrizitatswerke Westfalen World Bank, 228, 233, 242, 243, 251, 263
¨
GmbH, 198 World Power Conference
Victoria, Australia First (1924), 13
electricity production in industry (1933), first Statistical Year-Book (1936), 27
Second (1930), 194
29
Index 487

Third (1936), 23 government involvement in electricity
World War I, 19, 23, 35, 69, 101, 102, 122, sector, 227
Worswick, Alexander, 114, 139
139, 143, 144, 147, 156, 187, 221
British Ministry of Munitions, 129 W.R. Grace Co., 89, 421
domestication of Canadian utilities, 129 Wyldbore-Smith, Sir Edmund, 217
effects on electric utility industries,
Young, James, 7
125“30
German interests in France ended, 136 Young, John, 114
German interests in Swiss holding Young, Owen, 171, 182
companies reduced, 135 YTL, Malaysia, 268
German sale of Argentine assets, 134 Yugoslavia, 138, 193
government involvement in electric utility nationalization of electric enterprises, 236
industry, 127“8 percent of electric utilities foreign owned,
seizure of German assets, 131“3 four periods, 31
Spanish electric utilities, 133“4 summary of domestication process, 255
tax increases, 130 Swiss holding company activities in,
U.S. foreign investments in electric utilities, mid-1930s, 202
144“5
U.S. restrictions on foreign investment, 130 zaibatsu, 53
World War II, 24, 36, 52, 71, 103, 197, 209, Zurich, Switzerland
Heineman-Oliven plan, 194
221, 226, 228, 229, 239, 242, 250, 327

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