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192 Bibliography

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Index




Africa Bhangra 148
East 3, 13, 20, 21, 25, 35, 36“37, 38, Birla, G. D. 16
40, 41, 43, 44“45, 46“49, 78, 95, Birmingham 48, 49, 126, 141, 153,
162 161
expulsion of South Asians from BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) 164, 166
46“49, 67, 70, 116, 117, 149, 159, Blackburn 68
176 ˜Bollywood™ 147, 152
see also individual countries of the region Bombay City 16, 31, 42
South 21, 36, 37, 81, 115, 117“118, Bradford 68, 140
122 Council for Mosques 110
see also Durban; Natal Brick Lane 6, 142
Aga Khan 36, 47 Brighton Pavilion 20
A House for Mr. Biswas 5 British National Front 121
Ali, Rehmanji Mohemed 36 British Nationality Act (1948) 116
Ali, Monica 6, 142 British National Party 121, 122
Allahabad 18, 147, 153 Burma 17, 34, 45“46, 116
American Federation of Muslims from Burnham, Forbes 116
India 167
Amin, Idi 47, 48, 72 Calcutta 16, 31, 34
Amod, Aboobaker 37 Canada
Amritsar 153, 162 immigration rules 25, 38, 54, 73, 128
An Area of Darkness 150 South Asians in 26, 38, 54“55, 163
Andrews, Revd C. F. 34 see also Hindutva
apartheid see Africa, South; diaspora, canal colonies (Punjab) 17
South Asian, political rights Caribbean 3, 5, 19, 23, 40
Arya Samaj 23, 98, 99, 101, 102, 149 see also Guyana; Jamaica; Surinam;
Ashiana 90 Trinidad
Asian Rich List 72 caste 10, 18“19, 31, 75, 83, 150, 162, 165
Australia Chettiars 14
immigration rules 23, 25, 26, 53, 73, Jats 42, 162
74, 78 Khatris 12
South Asians in 50, 53“54 Marwaris 16
ayahs 18, 20“21 Ramgharias 162
Ayahs™ Home (London) 20 Sahotas 13
Cato Manor 98
Bahraich 150 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 34, 46, 116, 117
Banares 13 Christianity
Bangalore 53 in diaspora 95“96
Bend it like Beckham 6, 147 responses to religious pluralism
Behzti controversy (2004) 141 139“140
Bhagavad Gita 102 Church Missionary Society 20
Bhaji on the Beach 147 Commission for Racial Equality 121

193
194 Index

communications 27, 138, 151, 152“153, relations with South Asia 149“170
169 senses of identity 179“180
see also internet; travel, technology of single or multiple? 4, 58, 60, 173
swifter social networks 74“93
Congress, Indian National 115, 164, 165 sources for study of 5“6, 7, 112, 172
Conservative Party 126 transnational families 50, 58, 76“77,
contract labour (colonial) 34“35, 65 111, 175, 178“179
conditions and health 35 twice-migrants 26, 29, 45“50, 53, 67,
contract labour (late 20th century in 69, 117
Middle East) 5, 50“52 see also contract labour; gender issues;
Council of Mosques 110 generational issues; indentured
Creagh, C. V. 37 labour; Middle East; religion; and
Crooke, William 11 entries for individual countries of
cuisine, South Asian 145“146 settlement
Doniger, Wendy 168
Dabydeen, David 5 drug abuse 92
Dar-es-Salaam 47 dukawallas 36
Deobandi tradition 109 Durban 37, 66, 81, 98, 117
diaspora days (in India) 159 Durban-Westville University 118
diaspora, de¬nition of 3“4
diaspora, South Asian Ealing 48
academic literature on 6 East African Ri¬‚es 20
and law 133“137 Eastern Eye 151
˜chain migration™ 43“44 East India Company 9“10
citizenship and participation 124 Edward VII 18
culture and cultural interaction 144“148 Elizabeth II 119
dimensions of 2 ethnicity (and national identity) 113“124
economic enclaves 69“70, 80 Explaining Hindu Dharma 168
economic trajectories 60“74
free migration Federation of Hindu Associations 167
(pre-1947) 35“39 Federation (National Federation) Party
(post-1947) 39“57 125
kinship 71, 72, 75“77 Fiji
ethnic residential patterns 77“81, 84 Colonial Sugar Re¬ning Company in
marriage 76, 84“87, 114“115, 133 115
advertisements 86, 152 Fijian Nationalist Party 117
forced 135“136, 147 South Asian ¬‚ight from 50, 53, 117
mixed 84 South Asians in 2, 25, 31, 33, 63, 115,
ongoing nature of 29, 60, 172 116“117, 125, 176
political participation 124“128 Forced Marriage Unit 136
political rights 115“118 funerals 60
regions of out-migration
Chittagong 156 Gandhi, Indira see Nehru
Goa 38, 95 Gandhi, M. K. 19, 21“22, 34, 36, 85,
Gujarat 36, 37, 43, 46, 56, 158 102, 115, 159, 164
Kashmir (including Mirpur) 42, 158, Gate Gourmet strike 72
160, 175 gender issues 31, 44“45, 88“93, 135“137,
Kerala 52, 95 141, 151
Punjab 24, 35, 41“42, 53, 156, 157, general election (India) (1952) 115
175 general election (UK)
South India 31, 35, 53, 56, 73, 97 (1979) 126
Sylhet 42“43, 156 (1997) 126
United Provinces and Bihar 31, 98, (2005) 122, 126, 138
150 generational issues 91, 141, 143, 148,
relations with new homelands 112“148 173
Index 195

globalisation 3, 8, 166, 176 Islamophobia 47
Golden Temple (Amritsar) 162 Ismailis 21, 36, 48
Goodness Gracious Me 147
Gravesend 45, 68, 78, 156 Jaipur, Maharajah of 18“19
Group Areas Act (1950) 81, 98, 117 Jamaica 30
Grunwick strike 72 Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front 161
Gulf War (1992) 51
Guyana (British Guiana) 5, 30, 116, kangani 35
117 Kampala 78
Karachi 42
Hardwar 12, 13 Karma Nirvana Refuge 90
Hare Krishna movement 101 Kashmir con¬‚ict (in diaspora) 160“161
Hasham Jamal and Co. 36 Kashmiriyat 162
High Level Committee on the Indian Kenya 35, 46, 47, 72
Diaspora 159 Khalistan
Hindu Council of the UK 110 see Sikhs, con¬‚ict with Indian
Hinduism, in diaspora 97“102, 103, government
104“106, 108“109, 139, 151, Khan, Amir 123
168“169 Khomeni, Ayatolla 140
see also Hindutva Kiran Asian Women™s Aid 90
Hindutva, support for in diaspora 164“168 Kumbh Mela (2001) 147, 153
HSS UK (Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh in Kureishi, Hanif 142
UK) 167
Hong Kong Labour Party 126
police 20, 37, 38 Lal, Professor B. V. 153
South Asians in 20, 36, 38, 67, 103 lascars 20, 42, 43
˜honour killings™ 93, 137 League of Empire Loyalists 121
Howard, Michael 122 Leeds 68, 141
Leicester
Imams and Mosques Council 110, 127 attempts to ward off Kenyan Asians 48
indentured labour 19, 23, 30“34, 49, 75, South Asians in 49, 78, 126, 167
97, 175 Liberation League (Kashmir) 161
conditions 32, 33 Library of Congress 169
health and death 33 London 45, 48, 49, 68, 126, 137, 145
journeys 32“33 bombings on transport (2005) 89, 123,
post-indenture economic trajectories 73 141, 174
post-indenture family life 75 Luton 160“161
post-indenture relations with India
149“150 MacGregor, Dr William 32
returnees to India 33“34, 49, 149 Madras 31
women 31, 33, 75, 89 Mahabharat 147, 151
India Abroad 151 Maitri 90
India West 151 Malay Indian Congress 124
Indian citizenship (for diaspora) 158“159 Malaysia 30
Indian Emigrants™ Friendly Service South Asians in 2, 3, 34, 36, 37, 116,
Committee 34 124, 177
Indian Industrial Development Manchester 45, 68, 78, 122, 145
Corporation (South Africa) 118 Mandela, Nelson 118
Indian Ocean 13“14 Mangla Dam (Mirpur) 42
Internet Marten, J. T. 12
South Asian diaspora websites 6, ˜martial races™ 17
151“152, 168, 175 Mauritius, South Asians in 19, 30, 34, 37,
websites for women 90, 136, 151“152 63, 115, 125
Islam (in diaspora) 103“104, 109“110, Middle East, South Asians in 26, 50“52,
139, 141“144, 178 66“67, 155
196 Index

military migration 16“17, 19“20 Ramakrishna Mission 22, 99
Mittal, Lakshmi 72 Ramayana 101, 102
Mombasa 47 Ram Lila 82
Muslim Association of Britain 127 Rangoon 17
Muslim Conference 161 Ray, Satyajit 147
Muslim Council of Britain 110, 126 refuges (for women) 90
Muslim League 161 religion (in diaspora) 80, 82“84, 93“111,
My Son The Fanatic 142 137“144, 177“178
˜myth of return™ 59, 171 see also Christianity; Hinduism; Islam;
Parsis; Sikhism
Naipaul, V. S. 5, 150 religious radicalism/fundamentalism 138
Nairobi 47 see also Islam (in diaspora)
Natal remittances (from diaspora)
Hinduism in 23, 97“101 to South Asia 153“155, 175
South Asians in 3, 19, 30, 31, 33, 34, impact in South Asia 156“157
37, 63, 66, 78, 95, 116 RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) 167
National Council of Hindu Temples 110 ˜Rushdie Affair™ (1989) 140“141
National Hindu Students Forum 167 Rushdie, Salman 140
Nationalist Party (South Africa) 117
Nazi racial ideology 122 Sanatan Dharma Association 101
Nehru family 18, 19, 22, 164 San Fernando 66
Indira (Gandhi) 22, 157, 162 San Francisco 38
Jawaharlal 22, 155, 161, 164 Sangh Sandesh 167
jacket 146 Saraswati, Pandita Ramabai 22
Netherlands, South Asians in 50 SAWNET 90
New York City 80 ships
New Zealand 26, 53 Komagata Meru 38
immigration rules 53, 73 Olympia 18
˜9/11™ (2001) 56, 57, 119, 123, 142, 148 Shah Allam 33
Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) 155, 159, Syria 32
166 Sikhism (in diaspora) 102“103, 104,
Nyere, Julius 47 109
Sikhs 35, 38“39, 55, 68, 74, 119, 134,
Of¬ce on Violence Against Women 90 141, 157, 162“163, 167
Olympic Games, Athens (2004) 123 con¬‚ict with Indian government,
Oxford diaspora concern for 161“163
City 45, 78, 86 security services 37
University 132, 150 soldiers 17, 20, 41, 44
Sikh Youth Federation 163
Parsis 36, 87, 103, 108, 178“179 Singapore 35, 36
partition of India (1947) 24 Singhvi, L. M. 159
Patak food brand 72 Sorabji, Cornelia 22
Peninsular and Orient shipping line (P&O) Southall 42, 45, 78, 151
15 South Asia 2, 7“8
Penn Hills (temple) 103, 108 connections with wider world 9“28
People™s National Movement 125 higher education in 25, 52
pilgrimage 13, 153 population in 24“25
People of Indian Origin (PIO) Card 159, post-independence conditions 23“25,
166 51, 154
Punjab Agricultural University 53 society in 10“18, 88
Punjabi Mexicans 39, 84 under British rule 9“23
purdah 88 see also diaspora, South Asian, relations
with
Race Relations Act 121 South East Asia 13, 35, 36, 66
Racial Discrimination (1975) 121 see also Hong Kong; Malaysia;
Racial Preservation Society 121 Singapore
Index 197

Suez Canal 15 education 69, 130“133
Su¬sm 13, 107 health 129“130
Sunrise Radio 151 unemployment 69
Surinam (Dutch Guiana) 49“50, 117 sport 123
Swaminarayan sect 103, 104, 106, 107, see also individual entries for religions in
108, 157“158, 168 diaspora; Hindutva
Sydney 73 United States of America
immigration rules 23, 25, 39, 55, 73,
Tanzania (Tanganyika) 46, 47 118
Thapar, Professor Romila 169 South Asians in 3, 20, 25, 26, 38“39,
The Counting House 5 48, 55“57, 73“74, 76“77, 78, 84,
The Kumars at No. 42 147 89, 118“119, 128, 155,
Tolstoy Foundation 48 163
Tower Hamlets 68 see also individual entries for religions in
travel, technology of swifter 1, 14“15, diaspora; Hindutva
26“27, 153
Trinidad Vancouver 20, 38, 55, 73, 103
Hinduism in 101“102 Veda Dharma Sabha 99
South Asians in 2, 5, 19, 30, 34, 63, 66, VHP (Vishwa Hindu Parishad) 165, 166,
75, 76“77, 78, 82, 95, 115, 117, 167, 168
128 Venn, Revd Henry 20
Victoria (Canada) 38
Uganda 21, 38, 46, 47“48, 72 Virat Hindu Sammelan (1989) 167
Uganda Argus 48 Vivekananda, Swami 23, 99
Uganda Resettlement Board 48
Union of Muslim Organisations 110 women
United Kingdom in diaspora 44, 49, 52, 61, 71“72, 76,
East African Indians in 48“49, 68, 71, 80“81, 82, 87, 90, 99, 114, 147,
72, 78 173, 174
see also Africa, East, expulsion of migration within India 13
South Asians from self-harm 90
immigration controls 25, 40, 47, 48, 73, see also indentured labour; gender issues
76“77, 113, 120 Woolf™s Rubber Company (Southall)
see also British Nationality Act (1948) 44
multiculturalism 120“124 World Parliament of Religions (1893)
National Health Service 26, 130 23
racism 40, 113, 120, 121“123, 177 World Sikh Organization 163
South Asians in 2, 7, 20“22, 26, 40“45,
47, 48, 60, 67“73, 77, 78, 84, 89, Yasmin 147
92, 119“124, 125“128, 129“133,
134“137, 139“144, 163 Zanzibar 14, 21, 36

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