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both energy users and the energy industry
wind farm Grouping of wind turbines for generating electric power
WMO World Meteorological Organization “ one of the bodies that set up the IPCC
Younger Dryas event Cold climatic event that occurred for a period of about 1500
years, interrupting the warming of the Earth after the last ice age (so called
because it was marked by the spread of an Arctic ¬‚ower, Dryas octopetala). It
was discovered by a study of palaeoclimatic data
zooplankton Minute forms of animal life in the oceans
Index


A Brief History of Time (Hawking) 247 climate change impacts 196, 200 biological resources, exploitation
˜acid rain™ pollution and sulphur demand for fresh water 188 and destruction of 241
emissions 58“60 matching crops to new conditions biomass energy 351, 353“57
adaptation to reduce effects of 196“202 projects in the developing world
climate change 14“15 modelling the impact of climate 354“55
costs 277 change 200 Boulding, Kenneth 393
adaptive capacity 173 aid agencies, global challenges 399 Broeker, Wallace 90
aerosols (atmospheric particles) air transport emissions Brown, Gordon 271
57“63 generation of ozone from 57 Browne, Lord [John] 372“75
˜acid rain™ pollution and sulphur greenhouse gases 343 building-integrated PV technology
emissions 58“60 growing in¬‚uence on the climate 365
anthropogenic sources 58“60 345“46 buildings
effects of aircraft emissions 62“3 overall greenhouse effect 62“3 design for use of solar energy 362
effects on cloud formation 60“1, albedo of forests 304 energy conservation and
62“3 Annan, Ko¬ 403“04 ef¬ciency 336“42
effects on cloud properties in Antarctica See ice cores; ice-sheets energy ef¬ciency
climate models 116 anthropic principle 247 of appliances 339“40
future projections of radiative anthropogenic climate change of lighting 340
forcing 65 adaptation to reduce effects 14“15 insulation 341, 342
global and regional climate cycle of cause and effect 14“15 integrated building design
effects 62 mitigation of causes 14“16 340“42, 343
˜industrial haze™ 57“8 appliances, energy ef¬ciency Zero Emission (fossil-fuel)
in¬‚uence on future climate 154 339“40 Developments (ZED) 340“42,
radiative forcing Arrhenius, Svante 23 343
direct 60 atmosphere, composition of gases Burke, Edmund 399
estimates (1750 to 2005) 63“5 20“2
in the future 139“41, 142 atmospheric particles See aerosols Callendar, G. S. 23
indirect 60“1 carbon capture and storage (CCS)
offset to greenhouse gas ˜back to nature™ solution for 347, 348“49
emissions, 314, 380 environmental problems carbon cycle See carbon dioxide and
sources 58“60 241“42 the carbon cycle
see also sulphate particles in the balances of nature 240 carbon dioxide
atmosphere Bangladesh 181“84 carbon isotope information about
Africa impacts of sea level rise 181“84 sources 40, 41“2, 44
deaths from intense and local energy provision 366 CO2e (equivalent carbon dioxide)
prolonged droughts 7 major ¬‚ooding events 4“5, 7 conversions 147“49
vulnerability to climate change biodiversity, loss of 210 stabilisation 375
216 biofuels 346, 357 contribution to anthropogenic
agriculture and food supply biological feedback process, carbon radiative forcing 46
adaptation to new conditions dioxide fertilisation effect 40, contribution to the greenhouse
196“202 45, 46 effect 35
carbon dioxide fertilisation effect biological pump, carbon dioxide in effects of increase in the
198“99 the oceans 41, 43 atmosphere 29“31
427
INDEX



carbon dioxide (cont.) link with marine biological carbon isotope ratios, identi¬cation
and the enhanced greenhouse activity 43 of carbon dioxide sources
effect 29“31 radiation blanket effect 22“5 41“2, 44
future emissions scenarios 46“7 since industrialisation 37“8 carbon monoxide, indirect
land“atmosphere ¬‚ux 44“6 carbon dioxide in the oceans greenhouse effect 57
ocean“atmosphere ¬‚ux 40“4 biological pump 41, 43 carbon sink (negative ¬‚ux) in the
partitioning of added carbon computer models 41“2 land biosphere 45, 46
dioxide 41“2, 44 effects of plankton growth 41, carbon trading 299
stabilisation level 310, 311“14 43 Carson, Rachel 240
uptake by the land biosphere equilibrium with carbon dioxide cement manufacture, carbon
(carbon sink) 45, 46 in the air 40“1 dioxide release 38“40
carbon dioxide and the carbon cycle solubility pump 40 CFCs See chloro¬‚uorocarbons
35“46 uptake into the deep ocean 40 chaos
carbon cycling between uptake into the surface waters in the climate system 128
reservoirs 36“7 40“1 in weather systems 101, 102“3
carbon sink in the land biosphere uptake of anthropogenic carbon China, major ¬‚oods during the
45, 46 dioxide 40 1990s 7
fate of anthropogenic carbon carbon-free electricity supply chloro¬‚uorocarbons (CFCs) 54“6
dioxide 37 347“69 concerns about replacement
land“atmosphere ¬‚ux 44“6 biofuels 357 halocarbons 56
ocean“atmosphere ¬‚ux 40“4 biomass energy 351, 353“57 control of emissions 294
photosynthesis 35“6, 44 carbon capture and storage (CCS) destruction of ozone 54“5
respiration 35“6, 44 347, 348“49 discovery of the ˜ozone hole™
turnover times for carbon carbon intensity reduction 348 54“5
reservoirs 37 crops as biomass fuel 356“57 greenhouse gas properties 55“6
carbon dioxide concentration energy ef¬ciency improvement international action to phase out
and temperature 84“5, 87 347“48 manufacture 55
changes in the past million years geothermal energy 367“68 Christianity
84“5, 87 hydropower 351“52 humans as ˜gardeners™ of the
stabilisation 307“11 key mitigation technologies Earth 250“51
carbon dioxide emissions 375 relationship with the Earth 245“47
contribution to global warming modern biomass energy 351, cities, vulnerability to sea level rise
13“14 353“57 185“86
from deforestation 301 new renewables 351 Clark, William 400“02
scenarios, 46“7 nuclear energy 349“50 climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks 46,
stabilisation scenarios, 309“311 potential effects of mitigation by 48“9
carbon dioxide fertilisation effect 2030 375 climate change
45, 46, 198“99 power generation from waste cycle of human cause and effect
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere 354“56 14“15
before industrialisation 37 renewable energies 350“69 effects of human activities
computer models 41“2 research and development (R&D) 12“14
effects of land-use changes 45 effort 372“75 future carbon dioxide emissions
evidence from palaeoclimate solar energy 350“51, 361“67 scenarios 46“7
records 43 support and ¬nancing of response to uncertain predictions
from cement manufacture renewable energy 369“75 15“16
38“40 tidal energy 368“69 uncertainty of predictions 15“16
from deforestation 38“40 traditional biomass energy 353“54 vulnerability of human
from fossil fuel burning 38“40 wave energy 369 communities 10“1
from land-use changes 38“40 wind energy 351, 358“60 climate change action
future emissions scenarios 46“7 carbon intensity 331 adaptation to reduce effects
global carbon budget 38“40 reduction 348 14“15
428 INDEX



climate change action (cont.) climate change in the future Special Report on Emission
costs of anthropogenic climate changes in El Ni±o events 152“54 Scenarios (SRES) 138“41,
change 276“85 changes in major climate regimes 142
dependence on future technical 152“54 storms 160
innovation 275“76 changes in the deep ocean sunspot activity 166
inadequacy of a wait-and-see (thermohaline) circulation 164 tropical cyclones (hurricanes and
attitude 273“74, 275“76 changes in the Sun™s energy typhoons) 160
mitigation of causes 14“16 output 166 use of simple climate models
Precautionary Principle 274“76 climate sensitivity 143 141“43, 144
principles for international action comparison between models 143 climate change in the last 30 years
276, 278 droughts 157“60 2“7
climate change committee (UK) effects of Earth™s orbital climate-related disasters 2
380 variations 165“67 costs of weather-related disasters
climate change cycles, past million emission scenarios 138“41, 5“7
years 85“7 139“40, 142 day-to-day variations in
climate change impacts equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2e) climate 2
adaptation to climate change 217, conversions 147“49 deaths caused by 2003
218 extreme weather and climate heatwave 3
agriculture and food supply 196, events 154“61, 162 deaths from ¬‚oods in Bangladesh
200 ¬‚ood events 157“60 4“5
cities close to sea level 185“86 global average precipitation devastation caused by tropical
coastal area impacts of sea level increase 151“52 cyclones (hurricanes and
rise 181“87 global average temperature typhoons) 4
coastal protection in the projections 143“47 droughts 7
Netherlands 185“86 heatwaves and extremely warm extreme weather events 2
complex network of changes days 155 ¬‚ooding events 4“5, 7
173“74, 175 in¬‚uence of atmospheric aerosols frequency of extreme storm-force
costs of extreme events 154 winds 3, 4
219“23 in¬‚uence of sulphate particles in heatwave of summer 2003 3
costs of total impacts 223“28, the atmosphere 139“41, 142 increase in storm intensity 5“7
229 in¬‚uence of volcanic eruptions insured losses caused by weather-
deserti¬cation 197 167 related disasters 5“7
ecosystem effects 203“13 longer-term climate change IPCC Assessment (2007) 2“3
fresh water resources 187“96 163“64 storm of 16 October 1987 3, 5
human health impacts melting of the major ice-sheets storm surge ¬‚ooding in
213“17 164 Bangladesh 4“5
impacts on Africa 216 model projections 141“43, 144 unusually warm temperatures 2“3
insurance industry 221, 222“23 possibility of future ˜surprises™ vulnerable communities 4“7
Integrated Assessment process 163“64 warmest years (1998 and 2005) 2“3
174, 175 precipitation amount and see also past climates
longer-term impacts of sea level intensity 155“60 climate change prediction process
rise 187 radiative forcing from aerosols Global Climate Observing System
low-lying small islands 186 139“41, 142 (GCOS) 267
mangrove swamps 186“87 regional climate models 161“62 inclusion of human behaviour
overall impact of global warming regional patterns and activities 270
(summary) 230, 232“33 of climate change 149“54 narrowing the uncertainty
sea level rise 176“81 of precipitation 151“52 267“70
vulnerability of large river deltas of temperature change 149“51 observations from satellites
181“84 small-scale weather phenomena 268“69
wetlands 186“87 161 scienti¬c uncertainty 261“63
429
INDEX



climate change prediction process cost of adaptation 277 Earth in the Balance (Gore) 240,
(cont.) cost of damage 277“81 249“50
understanding of cloud radiation cost of mitigation 277, 281“84 Earth
feedback 269 Integrated Assessment Models balances in the environment 240
use of observations and models 277, 280 stewardship by humans 250“51
267“69 social cost of carbon 279 Earth™s heat transfer processes
Climate Convention (1992) See UN valuation of ˜natural™ capital 285 balance of incoming and emitted
Conference on Environment costs of extreme events 219“23 radiation 18, 26“7
and Development costs of total impacts of climate composition of gases in the
climate feedback comparisons 115 change 223“28, 229 atmosphere 20“2
climate models, uncertainty in coupling of ocean and atmospheric convective heat transfer in the
predictions 261“63 circulations 118“19 atmosphere 22
climate-related disasters 2 Croll, James 86 effects of clouds 26“7
climate sensitivity 116“17, 143 crops as biomass fuel 356“57 effects of increased carbon
cloud formation, effects of aerosols cultural values 248 dioxide levels 29“31
60“1, 62“3 cycles of climate change, past enhanced greenhouse effect 21,
cloud-radiation feedback 110“11, 113 million years 85“7 29“31
need for better understanding 269 greenhouse effect 20“2, 23
uncertainty in climate models Daisyworld 244, 246 incoming radiation energy from
116“17 Dansgaard“Oeschger events 88 the Sun 19
cloud radiative forcing 112 deaths natural greenhouse effect 20“2
cloud types, climate models 116 caused by 2003 heatwave 3 principle of global warming 18
clouds, effects on heat transfer caused by ¬‚oods in Bangladesh 4“5 radiation absorption
processes 26“7 caused by intense and prolonged by carbon dioxide 22“5
CO2e (equivalent carbon dioxide) droughts in Africa 7 by water vapour 22“5
conversions 147“49 deep ocean (thermohaline) radiation blanket effect of
CO2e stabilisation, potential circulation greenhouse gases 22“5
effects of mitigation by changes in the past 89“90 thermal radiation emitted into
2030 375 projected changes in the future space 19“20
coastal areas, impacts of sea level 164 total radiation budget 26“7
rise 181“87 deep sea sediment cores, evidence wavelengths of emitted radiation
communicators and educators, role for rapid climate change in 22“3
of 399 the past 88 Earth™s orbital variations
computer models, carbon dioxide deforestation See forests and climate change in the future
ocean“atmosphere ¬‚ux 40, deserti¬cation 197 165“67
41“2 diarists and writers, records of effects on climate over last
see also modelling weather information 80 million years 85“7
concentrated solar power (CSP) disease spread and climate change Ecological Footprint concept 394
361“65 214“17 economic costs of weather-related
con¬‚ ict, environmental problems as droughts 2 disasters 5“7
source of 396 and El Ni±o events 7“9 economists, global challenges 399
contraction and convergence 316“17 future projections 157“60 ecosystem impacts of climate
convective heat transfer in the intense and prolonged droughts change 203“13
atmosphere 22 in Africa 7 coral reefs 210, 211
coral reefs, ecosystem impacts of drylands disruptions to ecosystems 210
climate change 210, 211 deserti¬cation 197 drylands 210
corals, isotope information about ecosystem impacts of climate ecosystem services to humans 203
past climate 84, 85 change 210 forest“climate interactions and
costs of anthropogenic climate dust in the stratosphere, from feedbacks 208
change 276“85 volcanic eruptions 10 loss of biodiversity 210
430 INDEX



ecosystem impacts of climate individual spending on energy sustainable development 240
change (cont.) 328 unity between humans and
marine ecosystems 211 long-term energy strategy 336, environment 243
polar ecosystems 210 338 environmental problems as source
speed of environmental change main uses for energy 326“28 of con¬‚ icts 396
203 moving towards a sustainable environmental research, changes
stresses on forests 204“10 energy sector 330“35 in conception and conduct
threatened ecosystems 210 nuclear energy 326 400“02
ecosystem services to humans 203 rates of energy usage 326 environmental stewardship
educators and communicators, role renewable energy sources goal of sustainability 402“04
of 399 326 humans as ˜gardeners™ of the
Einstein, Albert 247 technology for the longer term Earth 250“51
El Ni±o events 7“9 375“78 lack of will to take action
adjustment of crops grown in uranium reserves 328“29 253“54
Peru 198 energy intensity 331 religious belief as driver for
and coral bleaching 211 energy policy in the UK 382 action 253“54
and disease epidemics 214 energy storage technologies environmental values 247“50
response to increased greenhouse 377“78 cultural values 248
gases 152“54 energy strategy moral and ethical aspects of
El Ni±o“Southern Oscillation actions required by the FCCC science 249“50
(ENSO) 75, 121 Objective 383 natural values 248
seasonal forecasting 105“06 components of 338 scienti¬c and religious
emission scenarios 138“41, long-term planning 336, 338 viewpoints 249“50
142 enhanced greenhouse effect 21, shared values 248“50
for carbon dioxide 46“7 29“31 underlying cultural and religious
for methane 50“3 ensemble forecasting 101, 102“3 traditions 249“50
emissions trading 298, 299 ENSO see El Ni±o“ Southern value assumptions in science
energy and CO2 savings Oscillation 247“48
air transport 345“46 environmental concerns equity 252“53
industry 346“47 anthropic principle 247 intergenerational 252“53
transport 343“46 assumption that there will be a international 253
energy conservation and ef¬ciency ˜technical ¬ x™ 242“43 Principle of Equity 276
appliances 339“40 ˜back to nature™ viewpoint 241“42 equivalent carbon dioxide
buildings 336“42 balances of nature 240 see CO2e
insulation of buildings 341, 342 coupling between living systems Europe, widespread ¬‚oods of
integrated building design and the Earth 243 summer 2002 7
340“42, 343 destruction of biological extreme weather events 2
lighting 340 resources 241 future projections 154“61, 162
energy demand and supply equity 252“53
worldwide 326“30 exploitation of mineral resources Fair Isle, wind power 360
actions required by the FCCC 240“41 FCCC see Framework Convention on
Objective 383 Gaia theory 243“47 Climate Change (FCCC)
components of energy strategy intergenerational equity 252“53 feedback parameters, modelling the
338 international equity 253 climate 115
energy used to make electricity lack of will to take action 253“54 feedbacks
326“28 religious belief as driver for biological feedback process 45, 46
fossil fuel reserves 328 action 253“54 biological pump (positive) 41, 43
future energy projections religious views of relationship carbon dioxide fertilisation effect
330“35 with the Earth 245“47 (negative) 45, 46
future energy sources and search for meaning in the climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks
climate change 383 Universe 247 31, 46, 48“9
431
INDEX



feedbacks (cont.) Framework Convention on Climate need for global solutions 392
forest dieback or reduction in Change (FCCC) 138“9, 272, population growth 394“95, 396
growth (positive) 49 274, 276 poverty 395, 396
global average respiration rate actions required for future problems which affect global
(positive) energy supply 383 warming 394“96
greenhouse gas release from extracts from 291“92 responsibilities of industry
forest ¬res (positive) 49 Objective for greenhouse gases 398“99
in the biosphere 48“9 291“93, 315“18, 383 role of communicators and
in the climate system 108“14, principles for international educators 399
115 action 276 role of the media 399
methane release as temperatures fresh water resources sustainability 393“94
increase (positive) 49 actions to lessen climate change technological challenges 398
plankton multiplier (positive) impacts 195“96 Global Climate Observing System
41, 43 agricultural demand 188 (GCOS) 267
positive feedback processes 46, deserti¬cation 197 Global Commons Institute
48“9 groundwater depletion 188 contruction and convergence
¬‚oods 2 growing human demand 187“90 316“17
and El Ni±o events 7“9 Integrated Water Management global economics, costs of
future projections 157“60 196 anthropogenic climate
major ¬‚oods in the last thirty tensions caused by shared change 276“85
years 4“5, 7 resources 189“90 global pollution problem 392
food supply see agriculture and food vulnerability to climate change and global warming 392
supply 190“96 need for global solutions 392
forest“climate interactions and water-stressed countries 188“89 global security, and environmental
feedbacks 208 fuel cell technology 375“77 problems 396
forest ¬ res global warming
and El Ni±o events 7“9 Gaia theory 243“47 and global pollution 392
release of greenhouse gases 49 geothermal energy 367“68 current scienti¬c understanding
forests glacier advance and retreat, indirect 13“14
albedo effects 304 source of climate information debate over evidence for 125“27
carbon dioxide release from 80 effects of human activities 12“14
deforestation 38“40, 301 glacier melting and sea level rise 178 effects of increased carbon
dieback as temperatures increase global average precipitation dioxide levels 29“31
49 increase 151“52 effects of other global problems
extent of deforestation 300, 301 global average temperature 394“96
impacts of climate change 204“10 projections 143“47 need for global solutions 392
impacts of deforestation 300“01 global challenges see also climate change
possibilities for afforestation con¬‚ icts caused by environmental global warming potentials
303“05 problems 396 (GWPs) for greenhouse
reduction of deforestation 301“02 consumption of resources gases 63
reduction of growth as 395“96 Gore, Al 240, 249“50, 266“67
temperatures increase 49 for aid agencies 399 Goudzwaard, Bob 402
role in mitigation of global for economists and social greenhouse effect
warming 300 scientists 399 enhanced greenhouse effect 21,
stresses on 204“10 for particular sections of the 29“31
tropical deforestation problems community 397“99, 401 ¬rst association with climate
393“94 for politicians 398 change 23
fossil fuel burning, carbon dioxide for the scienti¬c community 398 ¬rst expressions of concern about
release 38“40 global security 396 23
fossil fuel reserves 328 importance of individual Mars 27
Fourier, Jean-Baptiste 23 contributions 399, 401 natural greenhouse effect 20“2
432 INDEX



greenhouse effect (cont.) Hawking, Stephen 247 hydrogen isotopes in ice cores 84
relative contributions of the HCFCs see hydrochloro¬‚uorocarbons hydropower 351“52
greenhouse gases 35 heat pumps 339
runaway greenhouse effect 28“9 heatwaves ice ages, biological activity in the
scienti¬c pioneers 23 Europe and India (2003) 3, 215 oceans 41, 43
Venus 27, 28“9 future projections 155 ice-albedo feedback 114
greenhouse gases Heinrich events (massive release of climate models 119
carbon dioxide and the carbon icebergs) 89 ice caps, variations in volume over
cycle 35“46 HFCs see hydro¬‚uorocarbons past million years 85
chloro¬‚uorocarbons (CFCs) Hinduism, relationship with the ice cores (from Greenland and
54“6 Earth 245 Antarctica)
de¬nition 34 human behaviour and activities evidence of past climates 82“5
emissions by various forms of contribution to climate change evidence of rapid climate change
transport 343 12“14 in the past 87“8
future projections of radiative cycle of cause and effect in indirect source of climate
forcing 65 climate change 14“15 information 80
gases covered by the Kyoto exacerbation of problem of rising isotope information about past
Protocol 295, 296 sea level 184 climate 84
gases with an indirect inclusion in climate change palaeoclimate record 43
greenhouse effect 57 predictions 270 ice-sheets (Antarctica and
global warming potentials human communities Greenland),
(GWPs) 63 global warming challenges for effects on sea level 179“80
hydrochloro¬‚uorocarbons expert groups 397“99, 401 melting
(HCFCs) 56 sustainability 272“73 and sea level rise in the past
hydro¬‚uorocarbons (HFCs) 56 vulnerability to climate change 176
important greenhouse gases 35 10“1 in¬‚uence on future climate
methane 35, 50“3 vulnerability to climate extremes 164
nitrous oxide (N2O) 35, 53“4 78“9 iceberg release, Heinrich events 89
ozone (O3) 54“7 human demand for fresh water Iceland, development of a hydrogen
per¬‚uorocarbons 56 187“90 economy 378
radiation blanket effect 22“5 human health and climate change India, rural biomass power
radiative forcing 213“17 production 354“55
de¬nition 35 heat stress 214, 215 indirect aerosol effect, climate
estimates (1750 to 2005) 63“5 spread of diseases 214“17 models 116
relative contributions to the human stewardship of the Earth individual contributions,
greenhouse effect 35 250“51 importance in combating
release from forest ¬res 49 Hurricane Andrew (1992) 4, 5, 223 climate change 399, 401
stabilisation of emissions Hurricane Gilbert (1988) 4 industrialisation, effects on carbon
293“94 Hurricane Katrina (2005) 4, 223 dioxide in the atmosphere
stabilisation level 310, 311“14 Hurricane Mitch (1998) 4 37“8
sulphur hexa¬‚uoride (SF6) 56 hurricanes see tropical cyclones industry
see also aerosols (atmospheric hybrid electric motor car 346 energy and CO2 savings 346“47
particles) hydrochloro¬‚uorocarbons (HCFCs) global challenges 398“99
Greenland see ice cores; ice“; sheets 56, 294 insurance industry, climate change
hydro¬‚uorocarbons (HFCs) 56, 294 impacts 221, 222“23
halocarbons, safe disposal of 305, hydrogen, as a medium for energy Integrated Assessment and
307 storage 377“78 Evaluation 277, 280
Hansen, James hydrogen energy economy 378 Integrated Assessment Model,
future CO2 reductions 381 hydrogen fuel cell technology 375“77 climate impacts costs 224,
sea level rise 179 for motor vehicles 346 227
433
INDEX



Integrated Assessment process 174, involvement of governments effects on carbon dioxide levels
175 265“66 40, 45
Integrated Water Management 196 involvement of social scientists lapse rate of the troposphere 22
intergenerational equity 252“53 267 lighting, energy ef¬ciency 340
international action to combat main Reports 263 ˜Little Ice Age™ 80“1, 166
climate change methane emissions scenarios long-term climate change 163“64
carbon trading 299 50“3 Lovelock, James 243“47
control of CFC emissions 294 Nobel Peace Prize 266“67
control of HCFCs 294 Physical Science Working Group mangrove swamps, impacts of sea
control of sulphur dioxide 263“65 level rise 186“87
emissions 314 recognition and endorsement of marine ecosystems, impacts of
Kyoto Protocol 293, 294“300 its work 266“67 climate change 211
Montreal Protocol 294 reports on evidence for Mars, greenhouse effect 27
principles for international action anthropogenic warming Maunder Minimum 81, 166
276, 278 125“27 Mckinsey & Company 379
realising the FCCC Objective Special Report on Emission media, role of 399
315“18 Scenarios (SRES) 138“41, Medieval Warm Period 80“1
recognition of the need for action 142 methane (CH4) 50“3
291“93 Islam, relationship with the Earth association with human activities
reduction in sulphate aerosols 245 50“3
314 islands, vulnerability to sea level average lifetime in the
role of forests in mitigation rise 186 atmosphere 50
300 isotope data, reconstruction of concentration in the atmosphere
safe disposal of halocarbons 305, climates of past million 50
307 years 84, 85 contribution to the greenhouse
stabilisation level 310, 311“14 effect 35
carbon dioxide concentration Judaism greenhouse effect 50
307“11 ice core data 50
for greenhouse gases 291“93, Kaya identity 331 IPCC methane emissions
293“94 Krakatoa eruption (1883) 75 scenarios 50“3
methane in the atmosphere Kyoto Protocol 63, 138“9, 293, possible destabilisation of
305“07 294“300 methane hydrates 49
nitrous oxide in the carbon trading 299 process of removal from the
atmosphere 305, 307 clean development mechanism atmosphere 50
summary of the action required (CDM) 298 release as temperatures increase
319“20 emissions trading 298, 299 (positive feedback) 49
UN FCCC Objective for greenhouse gases covered by sources 50“3
greenhouse gases 291“93 295, 296 stabilisation in the atmosphere
International Energy Agency (IEA) joint implementation 305“07
carbon dioxide emission mechanism 298 methyl sulphonic acid in the ice
scenarios 47“50, 332“33, core palaeoclimate record 43
380 lake levels, indirect source Milankovitch cycles/forcing
World Energy Outlook 2008 381 of climate information 128
international equity 253 80 Milankovitch theory 86“7
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on lake sediments, indirect source of mineral resources, exploitation of
Climate Change) climate information 80 240“41
carbon dioxide emission land“surface interactions, climate mitigation of causes of climate
scenarios 47 models 119 change 14“16
estimate of climate sensitivity 143 land-use changes costs 277, 281“84
history of 263 carbon dioxide release 38“40 potential effects by 2030 375
434 INDEX



modelling the climate coupling of ocean and technologies for reducing CO2
climate feedback comparisons atmospheric circulations emissions 346
115 118“19 Mount Pinatubo eruption (1991),
climate sensitivity to temperature debate over evidence for global climatic effects 10, 75, 122,
change 115 warming 125“27 167
cloud-radiation feedback 110“11, effects of rainfall on ocean Mozambique, widespread ¬‚ood
113 salinity 118, 119, 120 events (2000“1) 7
cloud radiative forcing 112 estimates of ocean heat uptake
components of the climate system 298 Native Americans, relationship with
108 exchanges at the ocean“ the Earth 245
describing the climate over a atmosphere interface 118 ˜natural™ capital, valuation of 285
period of time 106“08 future of climate modelling natural values 248
feedback parameters 115 131“32 negative feedbacks see feedbacks
feedbacks in the climate system ice-albedo feedback 119 Netherlands, impacts of sea level
108“14, 115 indirect aerosol effect 116 rise 185“86
ice-albedo feedback 114 IPCC reports on anthropogenic new renewables 351
impact of climate change on warming 125“27 Nile Delta region in Egypt, impacts
world food supply 200 land“surface interactions 119 of sea level rise 184
Integrated Assessment Models layer clouds 116 nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2),
277, 280 modelling of tracers in the ocean indirect greenhouse effect 57
ocean-circulation feedback 124 nitrous oxide (N2O)
111“14 ocean-circulation feedback contribution to the greenhouse
temperature feedback 108“09, 117“19 effect 35
115 ocean™s deep circulation greenhouse gas properties 53“4
water vapour feedback 109“10 (thermohaline circulation) stabilisation in the atmosphere
modelling the weather 119, 120 305, 307
chaos in weather systems 101, predictability of the climate Nobel Peace Prize, Al Gore and IPCC
102“3 system 128 266“67
data to initialise the model prediction of effects of large North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) 75,
98“9 perturbations 122 152“54
early work of Lewis Fry regional climate modelling Northcott, Michael 245
Richardson 94 130“31 northern annular mode (NAM) 121
ensemble forecasting 101, 102“3 requirements 116“19 nuclear energy 326, 349“50
global forecasting model 96 simulations of past climates nuclear fusion power 377, 378
improvements in forecast skill 121“22 nuclear power stations, uranium
97“100 statistical downscaling for reserves 328“29
limits to predictability 100 regional effects 131 numerical models of the weather
numerical models of the weather uncertainty in climate sensitivity 94“6, 97
94“6, 97 116“17
seasonal forecasting 101“06 uncertainty in cloud-radiation ocean“atmosphere interface,
use of computers to run models feedback 116“17 exchanges at 118
94“6, 97“100 validation of the model 119“22 ocean-circulation feedback 111“14
models for climate prediction modern biomass energy 351, 353“57 climate models 117“19
aerosol effects on cloud Montreal Protocol 294 coupling of ocean and
properties 116 motor vehicles atmosphere 111
chaos in the climate system 128 biofuels 346 heat capacity of the oceans
cloud types 116 greenhouse gas emissions 343 111“14
comparison with observations growth of car ownership 343“44 in¬‚uence on rate of atmospheric
121, 124“27 hybrid electric motor car 346 changes 111“14
convective clouds 116 hydrogen fuel cells 346 redistribution of heat 114
435
INDEX



ocean deep circulation increase in height of the past climates (rapid change events)
(thermohaline circulation) tropopause 78 87“90
in climate models 119, 120 patterns of recent warming 70 changes in the deep ocean
projected changes in the future reduced daily temperature circulation (conveyor belt)
164 range 75 89“90
ocean heat uptake regional patterns of temperature Dansgaard“Oeschger events 88
estimates of 298 change 75 deep sea sediment core evidence
thermal expansion of the oceans satellite observations of from the North Atlantic 88
177“78 atmospheric temperature 72, Heinrich events (massive release
ocean salinity, effects of rainfall 74“5 of icebergs) 89
118, 119, 120 sea level change 78 ice core evidence from Greenland
ocean sediment fossils, isotope variability of precipitation 76, 417 and Antarctica 87“8
information about past variability of the climate 75 Younger Dryas event 88“9, 90
climate 84, 85 warming of the troposphere 78 per¬‚uorocarbons 56
ocean surface temperatures, El Ni±o past climates (last thousand Philippines, biomass power
events 7“9 years) 79“81 generation 355
ocean uptake 127“28 greenhouse gases in the photosynthesis 35“6, 44
Oswald, Admiral Sir Julian 396 atmosphere 81 photovoltaic (PV) solar cells 364,
oxygen isotopes indirect sources of information 365“67
in ice cores 84 79“81 plankton growth, the biological
in ocean sediment fossils 84, 85 in¬‚uence of variations in volcanic pump in the oceans 41, 43
ozone (O3) 54“7 activity 81 Polanyi, Michael 248
destruction by CFCs 54“5 ˜Little Ice Age™ 80“1 polar ecosystems, impacts of
discovery of the ˜ozone hole™ 54“5 Medieval Warm Period 80“1 climate change 210
generation from aircraft northern hemisphere average politicians, global challenges 398
emissions 57 temperature 79“81 pollen distribution in lake
greenhouse gas properties 55“6, temperature increase in the sediments, indirect source of
56“7 twentieth century 81 climate information 80
radiative forcing 56“7 variability of the climate 81 Polluter Pays Principle 276
replacements for CFCs 56 variation in solar output 81 pollution, global problem 392
sources 56“7 past climates (past million years) population growth, global
82“7 challenges 394“95, 396
Paci¬c“North Atlantic Anomaly carbon dioxide level and positive feedbacks see feedbacks
(PNA) 152“54 temperature 84“5, 87 poverty, global challenges 395, 396
palaeoclimate record in ice cores 43 cycles of climate change 85“7 Precautionary Principle, Rio
past climates, what can be learned effects of variations in the Earth™s Declaration (1992) 274“76
90“1 orbit 85“7 precipitation projections
past climates (last hundred years) greenhouse feedback effects 87 future amount and intensity
70“9 ice ages 84“5, 86“7 155“57, 157“60
changes in frequency or severity information from corals 84, 85 global average increase 151“52
of extreme events 78“9 information from ocean sediment regional patterns 151“52
cooling of the lower stratosphere fossils 84, 85 predictability of the climate system
78 Milankovitch theory 86“7 128
effects of greenhouse gases 75“8, reconstruction from isotope data primary energy 337
417 84, 85 Principle of Equity 276
estimation of global average sea-level changes 85 Principle of Sustainable
temperature change 70“6, variations in distribution of solar Development 276
417 radiation 85“7 principles for international action
human vulnerability to climate variations in the volume of ice 276, 278
extremes 78“9 caps 85 PV see photovoltaic solar alls
436 INDEX



radiation blanket effect of respiration 35“6, 44 climate change impacts 176“81
greenhouse gases 22“5 respiration rate (soil microbes), coastal protection in the
radiative forcing increase as temperatures Netherlands 185“86
aerosols 60“1 increase during the twentieth century
contribution from anthropogenic Revelle, Roger 23 176, 177
carbon dioxide 46 Richardson, Lewis Fry 94 exacerbation by human activities
de¬nition 35 Rio Declaration 240, 253, 276, 278 184
from 1750 to 2005 (estimates) 63“5 river deltas, impacts of sea level rise impacts on coastal areas 181“87
future projections 65 181“84 impacts on mangrove swamps
global warming potentials (GWPs) road transport, greenhouse gas 186“87
for greenhouse gases 63 emissions 343 impacts on wetlands 186“87
rainfall, effects on ocean salinity Rolston, Holmes 248 longer-term impacts 187
see also precipitation projections runaway greenhouse effect 28“9 melting
118, 119, 120 glaciers 178
rapid change in the past 87“90 Sahel region (sub-Saharan Africa), polar ice-sheets in the past 176
changes in the deep ocean seasonal forecasting 106, projections for the twenty-¬ rst
circulation (conveyor belt) 107 century 176“81
89“90 satellite observations thermal expansion of the oceans
Dansgaard“Oeschger events 88 atmospheric temperature 72, 74“5 177“78
deep sea sediment core evidence input for climate change models vulnerable cities 185“86
from the North Atlantic 88 268“69 vulnerable large river deltas 181“84
Heinrich events (massive release science, moral and ethical aspects vulnerable low-lying small islands
of icebergs) 89 249“50 186
ice core evidence from Greenland scienti¬c and religious values seasonal forecasting 101“06
and Antarctica 87“8 249“50 El Ni±o“Southern Oscillation
Younger Dryas event 88“9, 90 scienti¬c community, global (ENSO) 105“06
regional climate models 130“31, challenges 398 low-rainfall regions 106, 107
161“62 scienti¬c prediction of climate Sahel region of sub-Saharan
regional patterns of climate change change Africa 106, 107
149“54 Global Climate Observing System simple model of an El Ni±o event
religious belief (GCOS) 267 105
and scienti¬c study 249“50 inclusion of human behaviour sensitivity, de¬ nition
and shared values 249“50 and activities 270 see also climate sensitivity
as driver for environmental observations from satellites shared values 248“50
action 253“54 268“69 shipping, greenhouse gas emissions
humans as ˜gardeners™ of the uncertainty 261“63 343
Earth 250“51 understanding of cloud radiation Silent Spring (Carson) 240
views of human relationship with feedback 269 small-scale weather phenomena,
the Earth 245“47 use of observations and models future projections 161
renewable energy sources 326, 267“69 social cost of carbon 279
350“69 scienti¬c uncertainty social scientists, global challenges
support and ¬nancing of narrowing the uncertainty 267“70 399
369“75 reasons for 262 Socolow™s Wedges 334“35
research, changes in conception sea level change solar energy 350“51, 361“67
and conduct 400“02 last hundred years 78 in building design 362
research and development (R&D), past million years 85 conversion to electricity
carbon-free electricity sea level rise concentrated solar power (CSP)
372“75 changes in the Antarctic 361“65
resource consumption, global and Greenland ice-sheets photovoltaic (PV) solar cells
challenges 395“96 179“80 364, 365“67
437
INDEX



solar energy (cont.) sustainability tornadoes 2
solor home systems 366 de¬nitions 393 traditional biomass energy 353“54
water heating 361 Ecological Footprint concept 394 transport, energy and CO2 savings
solar-hydrogen energy economy global challenge 393“94 343“46
378 goal of environmental see also speci¬c forms of transport
solar radiation stewardship 402“04 tree rings, indirect source of
energy falling on the Earth 19 important issues 393“94 climate information 80
energy output and climate interconnection of issues 393“94 tropical cyclones (hurricanes and
change 166 metaphors for 402“04 typhoons) 2
variation in the last thousand Spaceship Earth metaphor 393 devastation caused in the last 30
years 81 tropical deforestation problems years 4
variations in distribution over 393“94 future projections 160
last million years 85“7 sustainable development 240, Hurricane Andrew (1992) 4, 5,
solubility pump, carbon dioxide in 270“73 223
the oceans 40 de¬nitions 272 Hurricane Gilbert (1988) 4
southern annular mode (SAM) 121 Principle of Sustainable Hurricane Katrina (2005) 4, 223
Spaceship Earth, metaphor for Development 276 Hurricane Mitch (1998) 4
sustainability 393 Rio Conference FCCC 272 Typhoon Mireille (1991) 4
Special Report on Emission sustainable human communities tropopause, increase in height of 78
Scenarios (SRES) 138“41, 272“73 troposphere
139“40, 142 convective processes 22
stabilisation of greenhouse gases, Tambora (Indonesia) 1815 eruption temperature change with height
choice of stabilisation level 311“17 81 (lapse rate) 22
potential effects of mitigation by technical innovation in the future Tyndall, John 23
2030 375 excuse for doing nothing now Typhoon Mireille (1991) 4
statistical downscaling for regional 275“76 typhoons See tropical cyclones
climate effects 131 solution for present
Stern Review 224, 225“26, 227, 279, environmental problems UK energy policy 382
281 242“43 UN Conference on Environment
storm surge ¬‚ooding in Bangladesh technology and Development (Earth
4“5 for the longer term 375“78 Summit) (Rio de Janeiro,
storms, future projections 160 global challenges 398 1992)
Suess, Hans 23 temperature change, projected events leading up to 23
sulphate particles in the regional patterns 149“51 Rio Declaration 240, 253, 276,
atmosphere 58“60 temperature feedback, modelling 278
effects of reduction 314 the climate 108“09, 115 UN Framework Convention on
from volcanic eruptions 10 temperature increase in the Climate Change (FCCC) see
in¬‚uence in the future 139“41, twentieth century 81 Framework Convention on
142 temperature rise targets 313“15, Climate Change (FCCC)
offset to greenhouse gas 380 uncertainty in scienti¬c prediction
emissions 314, 380 Temple, William 245“47 of climate change 261“63,
sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere Thatcher, Margaret 270 267“70
control of emissions 314 thermodynamic ef¬ciencies 339 uranium reserves for nuclear power
from volcanic eruptions 10 thermohaline circulation (ocean 328“29
temperature effects 10 deep circulation) USA, Mississippi and Missouri rivers
sulphur hexa¬‚uoride (SF6) 56 in climate models 119, 120 major ¬‚ood (1993) 7
sulphuric acid in the atmosphere, projected changes in the future
from volcanic eruptions 10 164 value assumptions in science
sunspot activity and climate change Tickell, Sir Crispin 253, 398 247“48
166 tidal energy 368“69 values See environmental values
438 INDEX



Venezuela, major ¬‚oods and water-stressed countries 188“89 individual spending on energy
landslide (1999) water vapour 328
Venus amount present in the long-term energy strategy 336,
atmospheric conditions 27 atmosphere 29 338
runaway greenhouse effect 28“9 feedback 109“10 main uses for energy 326“28
temperature 27 radiation blanket effect 22“5 moving towards a
volcanic eruptions wave energy 369 sustainable energy sector
climatic effects 75 wetlands, impacts of sea level rise 330“34, 334“35
dust ejected into the atmosphere 186“87 nuclear energy 326
10 wind energy 351, 358“60 rates of energy usage 326
effects of variations in volcanic windstorms 2 renewable energy sources 326
activity 81 Wirth, Tim 271 technology for the longer term
effects on temperature 10 world energy demand and supply 375“78
in¬‚uence on future climate 326“30 uranium reserves 328“29
change 167 actions required by the FCCC
sulphur dioxide production 10 Objective 383 Younger Dryas event 88“9, 90
vulnerability of a system, components of energy strategy Yunan, China, integrated biogas
de¬ nition 173 338 systems 355
energy used to make electricity
wait-and-see attitude to climate 326“28 Zero carbon future 379“80
change action 273“74, 275“76 fossil fuel reserves 328 Zero Emission (fossil-fuel)
waste, power generation from 354“56 future energy projections 330“34, Developments (ZED) 340“42,
water see fresh water resources 334“35, 383 343

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