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themes, 19“21 Historical School, 188“90, 204“6, 208, 280
uncertainty phase, 28, 30 history
universalism, 310 analytical depth, 11
world legal tradition, 7“8 guidance value, 17
globalised localism, 31, 32, 127, 268 historical jurisprudence, 18“19, 52“8,
globalist jurisprudence 148, 214
competing jurisdictions, 105“6 importance of historical
concept, 12“16 consciousness, 311“15
demysti¬cation and, 167“9 integrative jurisprudence, 311“13
Enlightenment and, 194“5 nationalism and, 201“2
EU signi¬cance, 271“3 Space-Time Matrix, 66“70
God and Mammon, 247“51 Hitler, Adolf, 216, 242
ius commune and, 118 Hobbes, Thomas, 135, 136, 137, 176, 206,
medieval experience and, 93“4 209
need for generalities, 310“11 Hobsbawm, Eric, 7, 201
Papal Revolution and, 95 Holy Roman Empire
private authority and, 292“5 bid for mastery, 140
Protestant Reformation and, 167“9 consolidation of sovereignties, 132,
Westphalia Treaty and, 142“3 141“2, 300
glocalisation, 32, 83 demise, 119, 182, 188
Glossators, 117 impotence, 105
God loose organisation, 126
Enlightenment, 185 origin, 80
French Declaration, 179, 184 Reformation, 151
Holy Roman Empire, 80“1 rhetorical meaning, 80“1
judgments, 123 Roman law, 121
Mammon, 247“51 secular v. church power, 146
medieval world view, 107 homage, 89“91
natural law and, 110, 131 Hooker, Richard, 159
new gods, 55, 227“8, 294 Huguccio (Hugh of Pisa), 104
ultimate reality, 53“6, 95, 315 human rights
Goths, 81 Asian values, 244
Gratian, 99, 104, 148, 152 cultural relativism, 232“5
Greece, 217, 256 European Union, 262“3
see also Ancient Greece free trade and, 247
Gregorian calendar, 27 French Declaration of Rights of Man,
180“1
Gregory VII, Pope, 49“50, 98, 100, 110, 157
global ethics, 235“40
Grewe, Wilhelm, 128
international standards, 41
Grotius, Hugo, 136“7, 209
NGOs, 231
Guantanamo Bay, 36
Protestantism and, 167“8
Gustavus Adolphus II, 140
355 Index


Ireland, 256
social rights, 229“30
Isidore of Seville, 134
Treaty of Westphalia, 142
Islam
twentieth-century equality, 229“32
Averroism, 109
ultimate reality, 227“8
equality and, 233
universalism, 227“40
lex mercatoria and, 288
William of Ockham, 131
science, 108, 111
Hungary, 151, 214“15, 256
trade domination, 133
Husserl, Edmund, 58“9, 70
Western legal tradition and, 5
Huxley, Aldous, 12, 310
Islamic jihad, 46
ISO 14000, 289
IBM, 250
Israel, 223, 245
IMF, 223“5, 240, 243
Italy
individualism, 165, 166, 233
Carolingian empire, 82, 84, 96
individuals, international law and, 53
codi¬cation, 194
indulgences, 145
European Union and, 256
Industrial Revolution, 28, 300
Holy Roman Empire, 119
industrialisation, nations and, 198“200
ius commune, 117
informational economy, 304
League of Nations and, 215
infranationalism, 268
Locarno Pact (1925), 216
Innocent IV, Pope, 103
regional common laws, 118
Innocent X, Pope, 141
uni¬cation, 118, 194, 199
Institute for International Law, 214
Western legal tradition, 4
integrative jurisprudence, 36“42, 311“13
iudex, 123
Inter-parliamentary Union, 214
ius commune
International Chamber of Commerce,
di¬usion, 126“8
281, 287
emergence, 117“18
International Court of Justice, 214
England, 117, 121“6
International Covenant on Civil and
Germany, 119“21
Political Rights (ICCPR), 228, 230
reviving, 286
International Covenant on Economic,
ius gentium, 109“10, 131, 133“8, 279
Social and Cultural Rights
ius proprium, 118
(ICESCR), 228
Ivory Coast, 221
International Criminal Court, 223
international criminal law, 222“3
Jacobins, 181
International Labour Organization, 231
Japan, 32, 194, 215, 243, 245, 305
international law
jeans, 31
as constitutional law, 264“6
Jeremiah, 105
codi¬cation, 192
Jerome, Saint, 84
development, 132“8
Jesuits, 165
globalisation, 35“6
Jews
individual responsibility and, 53
Church jurisdiction over, 103
Kant, 209“10
culture, 109
Kelsen, 29
diaspora nationalism, 199
Lauterpacht, 29
French Revolution, 183, 204
non-state actors, 230“1
spirituality, 4, 8
secularisation, 175“6, 193
usury, 163
International Peace Bureau, 214
Jhering, Rudolf von, 190
International Telegraph Union, 214
John, King of England, 158
internet communities, 47
John of Salisbury, 99“100
Investiture Wars, 98
John™s Gospel, 72, 86
Iran, 245, 281, 288
Julius II, Pope, 147
Iraq, 219
356 Globalisation and the Western Legal Tradition


EU supremacy, 261“2
juries, 106, 123
post-Westphalian Europe, 142“3
jus See ius
legislative mentality, 146, 150, 157“61,
just war, 97, 134
168“9, 173, 206
Justinian™s Corpus, 6, 101, 108, 111, 116,
Leo I, Pope, 85
118, 121, 124, 147, 148, 153, 286
Leo III, Pope, 83
Leviticus, 178
Kant, Immanuel, 33, 207, 209“10, 212,
Lewis, C. S., 107
238, 255, 314“15
lex mercatoria
Kantorowicz, Ernst, 50, 110
arbitration and, 287
Kelsen, Hans, 5, 29
codi¬cation, 280“2, 283
Kennedy, Paul, 140
de¬nition, 274“6
knights, 89“91
generally, 274“82
Kosovo, 231
history, 276“8
Kötz, Hein, 285
Islam and, 288
Küng, Hans, 236“7
new lex mercatoria, 278“80
religious basis, 294“5
Lando Commission, 280, 282“3
resilience, 290
language, 44, 197“8, 199
Space-Time Matrix, 293
Last Supper, 161“3
universalism, 275“6, 279
Latin, 198
liberalism, economic liberalism, 32,
Latvia, 256
177“8, 242“4, 249
Lauterpacht, Hersch, 29, 137
Libya, 245, 288
law
Linus, Pope, 85
as autobiography, 56“8, 66, 74“6
Lithuania, 256
authority. See legal authority
living law, 190, 277, 293, 298
Benthamite concept, 191
localised globalism, 31, 32, 268
contingency, 305“8
Locarno Pact (1925), 216
culture and, 71“2, 293
Locke, John, 206
demysti¬cation, 167“9
logos, 19, 70, 72, 73“4, 160, 307
EU teleological view, 261“2
Lombards, 81“2, 83
medieval concept, 108
Louis XI, 146
nomos and logos, 70“4, 251
Louis XVI, 179
social nature, 190
love, 313“15
Space-Time Matrix, 58“70
Luhmann, Niklas, 13, 55, 66
Le Go¬, Jacques, 79, 101
Luke™s Gospel, 86
League of Nations, 215, 217, 280
Luther, Martin, 121, 152, 153, 154“5,
legal authority
161“2, 169
French Revolution, 181“4
Luxembourg, 4, 215, 217, 256
origin, 1“3
patterns, 8“10, 298“303
Maastricht Treaty (1992), 258“9
Protestantism, 151“7
MacCormick, Neil, 37“8, 144, 219, 265
sources, 6
McDonald™s, 210
ultimate reality, 53“6, 251, 315
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 134
legal education
Magna Carta, 158, 181
globalisation and, 304“11
Maine, Henry, 82, 124
medieval Europe, 106“11
Malaysia, 243
legal pluralism
Malta, 256
church v. secular jurisdictions, 85“8,
Mammon
139, 145“6
new God, 80, 247“51
competing medieval jurisdictions,
religion and, 161“7
105“6, 111, 261, 299
secularisation of economy, 176“8
emerging European states, 117“28
357 Index


globalisation and, 210“12
Mandelbrot, Benoit, 26“7
Historical School, 188“90, 204“6, 208
maps, 44
international law and, 29
market-states, 309
logical aspects, 202“3
Marshall Plan, 218
Lutheran theology, 153, 154
Marsiglio of Padua, 129“31, 145, 152
market-states and, 309
Martens, G. F. von, 269
monopoly of violence, 203
Marx, Karl, 29, 250
new universalism, 174
Marxism, 4
persistence, 196
Mary I, Queen of England, 147
pluralism and universality in emerging
Matthew™s Gospel, 107
states, 117“28
Mauzaisse, J. B., 9
post-9/11 power, 46“7
Melanchthon, Philip, 121, 152, 153“4
shared self-interest of trade, 209“10
mercantilism, 177, 178
societies and, 6
mercenaries, 47
spheres of containable disruption,
Merovingians, 82
45
Metternich, Prince, 194
state v. nation, 202“7
Micronesia, 32
statisation of law, 144
Milan Decree (1807), 193
territorial consolidation, 141“2
Mill, John Stuart, 249
national security, 245
Miller, W. G., 290
nationalism
minority views, 306“7
cultural foundations, 196“202
Monnet, Jean, 256“7
history and, 201“2
Montesqieue, Charles de Secondat Baron
industrialisation and, 198“200
de, 188
language, 197“8, 199
Montier-Grandval Bible, 8“9
nation v. state, 202“7
moon, 46
race and, 200“1
More, Thomas, 106, 159
traditions, 7
Moser, Johann Jacob, 176
NATO, 210, 217
Moses, 6, 8“9, 196, 250, 270“1
natural law
Most Favoured Nation Treatment, 241
Aquinas, 109“10, 152
Mugabe, Robert, 207
Arabic in¬‚uences, 4, 109
multinational corporations, 39“40, 288,
Aristotle, 12, 109, 133
291“2
codi¬cation and, 191
Münster, Treaty of (1648), 140“1, 142
integrative jurisprudence, 312
Mussolini, Benito, 216, 242
ius gentium and, 131, 136“8
Mustill, Michael, 275
law and reasonableness, 5
Myanmar, 245
Protestantism, 153, 156, 157
slavery and, 134
naming, 61“2, 63, 65
universalism, 159
Napoleon I, 9, 44, 173, 181“2, 184, 193,
Netherlands, 4, 139, 140, 151, 194, 217,
195, 294
256, 260
nation-states
New Guinea, 47
competing authorities, 75
Newton, Isaac, 54, 296
Contractarian School, 206, 208
Nicea Council (325), 86
cultural foundations, 196“202
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 53, 64, 242, 298,
decline, 17, 35
304
depersonalisation of power, 64“5
nomology, meaning, 19
economic particularity, 300“1
nomos, 19, 70“4, 160, 183, 251, 307
emergence, 27, 102, 115“17, 138“42,
Normans, 122, 123“4
299“300
Nuremberg trials, 222
equality principle, 175“6
Nussbaum, Martha, 232“3
friendship, 207“8, 210
358 Globalisation and the Western Legal Tradition


Posner, Richard, 5“6
Odilo of Cluny, Saint, 101, 231
post-scholastic period, 129“31
OECD, 291“2
Pound, Roscoe, 5
Oldendorp, Johann, 154, 169
praetor, 122, 123
ordeals, 123
precedents, 69, 258
Organisation for European Economic
predestination, 166
Co-operation (OEEC), 217, 218
printing, 44, 162, 197“8
Oslo Convention (1930), 215
Osnabrück, Treaty of (1648), 140 private international law, globalisation,
Ouchy Convention (1923), 215 35
property rights, 180
Pan-European movement, 216 Protestantism
Pan-European Union, 215 see also Reformations
papacy capitalism and, 161“7
see also individual popes civil disobedience, 153, 155
Atlantic division, 44 demysti¬cation of law, 167“9
colonialism and, 133 eucharist, 161“3
decline, 112, 115 legal authority, 151“7
legislative mentality, 157 legislative mentality, 146, 150, 157“61,
Papal Revolution, 48, 49“50, 95, 168“9, 173
97“102, 104, 110, 138“9, 157, 271 Prussia, 194
Peter™s legacy, 84“5 Pufendorf, Samuel, 137“8, 209
supranationality, 102“6, 145“6, 266
supremacy, 131, 261 race, nations and, 200“1
Treaty of Westphalia and, 141 race to the bottom, 38“9
UN, similarities with, 221, 247“8 race to the top, 39
universalistic authority, 79, 83, 300 Raz, Joseph, 75
Pardo, Arvid, 45 recognition rules, 5
Paris, Treaty of (1951), 257 Reformations
parliaments, 116“17 Counter-Reformation, 140
Paul, Saint, 200 demysti¬cation, 167“9
Peace of God, 97 England, 106, 146“50
Pelikan, Jaroslav, 7 Germany, 106, 150, 151
perpetuities, 90 language and, 198
Persian War, 71 Protestant Revolution, 49, 106
Peter, Saint, 84“5, 86, 130 Russia and, 4
philosophy, origin, 1 single state sovereignty, 146“51
physis, 72 theoretical neglect, 144“5
Pius XI, Pope, 263 violence, 121
Plato, 73 Western Europe, 150“1
pluralism. See legal pluralism relativity, 26
Poland, 151, 256 religion
Polanyi, Karl, 177 demysti¬cation, 167“9
Pontius Pilate, 85 discrimination, 200
Portugal, 44, 194, 256 fundamentalisms, 237
positivism Osnabrück Treaty (1648), 140
Bentham, 191 religious freedom, 184, 232
concept of law, 58, 64 secularisation, 248“9
emergence of legal positivism, 176 territorial determination, 141,
French codi¬cation, 188 142
integrative jurisprudence and, 312 Rembrandt van Ryn, 9
international law, 175 Renaissance, 4, 132“8
natural law and, 5, 12, 109“10 revolutions, concept, 49
359 Index


St German, Christopher, 157
rhetoric, 108
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa, 13, 30, 31,
Ricardo, David, 28
32, 33, 306
Richard II, 147
Saul, John Ralston, 303
Richard III, 159
Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 188“9, 190,
Richmond, Duke of, 147
191
risk management, 249
Saxons, 83
rituals, 89“91
Schmalkaldic League, 151
Robertson, Roland, 27, 30
Schmitt, Carl, 219
Roman Catholic Church
Schmittho¬, Clive, 278“9
See also papacy; Reformations
scholasticism, 102, 109, 131, 187
autonomy, 92, 104
Schuman, Robert, 257
church councils, 149
science
competing jurisdictions, 105“6, 299
medieval development, 108
corruption, 145
objectivity, 58“9
decline of Christian Commonwealth,
Scotland, 117, 151
128“38
secularisation
emergence, 79
economy, 176“8, 241
eucharist, 161
Enlightenment, 193“4
oldest Western institution, 20
international law, 175“6, 193
peace movement, 220
religion, 248“9
pursuit of heaven on earth, 100“2
Western legal tradition, 128“38
secular v. spiritual power, 85“8, 139,
self-interest, 209“10
145“6
Sen, Amartya, 235
supranational jurisdiction, 102“6
separation of powers, 18, 188
taxation, 102, 103“4
September 11 attacks, 25, 296“7
universalism, 81, 84“8, 98, 227,
Serbia, 194
248
serfdom, 92, 93
usury, 163
Shrimp/Turtle case, 246
Roman Empire, 79, 81, 84, 92
Sicily, 147
Roman law
Sierra Leone, 47
see also Justinian™s Corpus
Sièyes, Emmanuel Joseph, 182, 183, 188
development, 62“3
Singer, Peter, 233
England and, 122“6, 192, 286
Slaughter, Anne-Marie, 37
Germany, 120, 121, 189
slave trade, 193
imperial power, 130
slavery, 134, 306“7
inductive approach, 187
Slovakia, 256
ius belli ac pacis, 135
Slovenia, 256
ius gentium, 133“4
Smith, Adam, 28, 178, 242, 249
late Middle Ages, 117
Smits, Jan, 285
lex mercatoria, 276
social contract, 294
secular power and, 147“9
societies, states and, 6
Western legal tradition, 4, 8, 109,
sociological jurisprudence, 5
111, 118, 286“7
sociology, 29
Romania, 256
Socrates, 1
Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen, 49, 52, 56,
solidarity, 101, 220“7
59, 74, 101, 226, 247, 248, 294
soli¬dianism, 152
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 61, 130, 294
Somalia, 207
rule of law, 66, 105, 116“17, 167“8,
South Africa, 204, 245
180“1
South Korea, 243
Russia, 4, 42, 44, 49, 67n64, 193, 194,
sovereignty
214“15, 222
Bodin, 135, 136
Rwanda, 219, 221
360 Globalisation and the Western Legal Tradition


Stiglitz, Joseph, 31, 263“4
sovereignty (cont.)
Stoics, 33
de-parcelisation, 117, 132, 141“2
Strauss, Levi, 31
delegated authority, 130
Suárez, Francisco, 136
disaggregated sovereignty, 37
subsidiarity, 66, 121, 263“4, 283
egg-shells metaphor, 36“7
subsidies, 241
European Union and, 265
Sully, Duke of, 173“4
French Declaration, 180, 182
supralapsarianism, 166
Hanseatic League and, 119“20
survival units, 42
human rights and, 228
Susskind, Richard, 308
parcelisation, 91“3, 132
Sweden, 140, 193, 256
parents and children, 61“2
Switzerland, 4, 140, 151, 263
Protestant Reformation and, 144“5,
Sylvester I, Pope, 87
146“51, 152“7
symbols, 26“7
Schmittian de¬nition, 219
source, 6
Tamanaha, Brian, 13“14
spheres of containable disruption,
Tawney, R. H., 165
42“8, 93, 117, 138, 148, 218, 228
Tay, Alice, 234“5
technology and, 42, 43“5, 138
technology
territorial sovereignty, 139
globalisation and, 25, 42
Spaak Report, 257
sovereignty and, 42, 43“5, 138
Space-Time Matrix
Space-Time Matrix and, 61
codi¬cation mentality, 194“5
Tenbruck, Friedrich, 227
concept, 52, 58“70, 73“6, 297, 315
terrorism, new Cold War, 46“7
Declaration of the Rights of Man, 181
Tertullian, 84
EU Civil Code, 283, 285“7
Teutons, 81
European Union, 259, 262“3, 271, 272“3
Thailand, 245
global ethics, 237“8
thaumazein, 1
historical jurisprudence, 18“19, 52“8
theory
human rights, 229
general jurisprudence, 12“16
integrative jurisprudence, 312“13
grand theory of social sciences, 10“12
ius commune, 118“19, 127
history of theories, 161
law as culture and reason, 70“4
key issues, 19“21
legal education, 305, 307
Thibaut, Anton, 189
lex mercatoria, 276, 290, 293
Thirty Years War, 115, 138, 139“40, 300
love, 135, 313“15
time. See Space-Time Matrix
nation-state, 198, 203, 204, 211, 212
titles, 65
papal authority, 85, 88, 100
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 183
Reformation, 145, 160, 167
Tokyo trials, 222
relativity, 26, 60, 296
Tolkien, J. R. R., 90
secularisation, 178
towns, 116, 119, 122, 126
Space axis, 61“6, 97“100, 297
trade
Time axis, 66“70, 86, 100“2, 297
see also free trade
tool, 19, 20
fair trade, 244
United States, 220
friendship through, 210
World Bank, 304
lex mercatoria, 274“82
Spain, 4, 44, 82, 136, 140, 194, 200, 256
secularisation, 176“8
speed, 308“9, 311
shared self-interest, 209“10
Speight, George, 207
Treaty of Westphalia, 141, 142
spheres of containable disruption, 42“8,
tradition
93, 117, 138, 148, 218, 228
invention, 7, 201, 270
Starkey, Thomas, 156
meaning, 6“7
states. See nation-states
361 Index


League of Nations and, 215
tribalism, 81“2, 200
multiculturalism, 204
Trotsky, Leon, 216
New York commercial jurisdiction, 39
Truce of God, 97
private security, 47
Truman, Harry, 217“18
racialism, 200
Tuna/Dolphin cases, 246
Revolution, 49
Turkey, 194, 217
September 11 attacks, 25, 296“7
Twining, William, 5, 11, 13, 14, 15, 30,
Supreme Court judgments, 69
33, 280
UNSC veto, 42, 222
Tyndale, William, 155
vision of future, 204
war on terror, 250
Ullmann, Walter, 84
WTO disputes, 246
Ulpian, 134
Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
ultimate reality
228, 229, 230, 232, 235, 237, 238,
free trade, 250
301
God, 53“6, 95, 315
universal jurisdiction, 223
human rights, 227“8
universalism
law and, 53“6, 251, 315
arbitration, 288
UNCITRAL, 280
Charlemagne, 82“4, 139
UNIDROIT, 280“1, 282, 284
decline, 141“2
Union Carbide, 291
emerging European states, 117“28
United Kingdom
Enlightenment, 175
see also England
free trade, 240“7
colonial sovereignties, 44
French Revolution, 173, 181“2
Concert of Europe, 193“4
general jurisprudence, 12“16
European Union and, 256
globalisation, 310
feudalism, 89
human rights, 227“40
IFIs and, 224
international law and, 133
Locarno Pact (1925), 216
ius commune, 118
nations, 199
lex mercatoria, 275“6, 279
UNSC veto, 42, 222
natural law, 159
World War I, 214“15
post-Westphalian Europe, 142“3
United Nations
Protestantism and, 156
ad hoc criminal tribunals, 223
Roman Catholic Church, 81, 84“8, 98,
ambitions, 311
104, 227, 248, 300
draft MNC code, 40
United Nations, 221“2
equality of states, 176
Western legal discourse, 8, 304
Millennium Development Goals, 244
usury, 163“4
papacy, similarities, 221, 247“8
utilitarianism, 180
quest for solidarity, 221“2
Utrecht, Treaty of (1713), 193
UNSC legitimacy, 42, 222
United States
Vacarius, 124
Americanisation of legal practice, 305
Van Caenegem, R. C., 4, 284
Bill of Rights, 195
Van Creveld, Martin, 221
Delaware incorporation, 38
Vasquez, F., 133, 134
European union and, 216“18
Vattel, Emerich de, 175“6, 209
free trade, 240“1, 246
Venice, 44
GATT exceptions, 245
Versailles Treaty (1919), 216
Great Seal, 9
Vienna Congress (1815), 193
Guantanamo Bay, 36
Vikings, 81, 84
hegemony, 218“20
Vining, Joseph, 69
ICC and, 223
Vinogrado¬, Paul, 36
IFIs and, 224
362 Globalisation and the Western Legal Tradition


Wol¬, Robert Paul, 76
Visigoths, 81
World Bank, 223“5, 240, 243, 287, 304
Vitoria, Francisco, 133“4, 136
World Revolution
Voltaire, 184, 187, 193
e¬ect, 312
Vulgate, 84
European Union and, 269, 271, 271“2
legacy, 213
Waldron, Jeremy, 191
legal theory and, 48“51
Walzer, Michael, 26
quest for order, 214“18
war on terror, 220, 250
quest for solidarity, 220“7
Warsaw Pact, 217
technology, 25
Washington Consensus, 243
twentieth-century wars, 48“9, 215“16
Watson, Alan, 124
World Social Forum, 41
Weber, Max, 75, 165, 166, 167, 203
world society, 40“2, 132, 136, 240, 301“3
wei-ji, 17
world wars, 215“18
Weiler, J. H. H., 212, 255, 268, 270“1
Worms, Concordat of (1122), 98
Western legal tradition
WTO
characteristics, 16“18, 111“12
see also free trade; GATT
concept, 3“7
free trade exceptions, 244“7
extra-territoriality, 3, 104“5
Government Procurement Agreement,
legitimating principles, 20
245
meaning of law, 5“6
jurisdiction, 246“7
meaning of tradition, 6“7
legitimacy, 42
meaning of West, 3“4
Wycli¬e, John, 155
medieval development, 104“5
medieval legal education, 106“11
Xerxes, 71
secularisation, 128“38
themes, 19“21
Yahoo case, 47
Westphalia, Treaty of (1648), 115, 120,
139“41, 265, 300
Zeno of Elea, 70, 306
Whitman, James, 153
Zimbabwe, 207, 243
William of Ockham, 131
Zimmermann, Reinhard, 286“7, 293
Witte, John, 167
Zwingli, Ulrich, 155, 162
Wol¬, Christian von, 175

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