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261“62
and zoning laws, 91, 92, 100
Jeffs, Brent, 21“23
housing discrimination
Jeffs, Rulon, 23
Christian Legal Society and,
Jeffs, Warren, 21“23
181
Jehovah™s Witnesses, 14, 25
for marital status, 188
“excommunication” from, 26
for religious reasons, 175“88
First Amendment claims by, 26“27
RFRA and, 175, 176, 183
sexual abuse by, 14, 25“27
RLUIPA and, 185
Jensen, Barbara, 38
for sexual orientation, 188
Jensen, Daren, 38
Human Rights Campaign, 57
Jensen, Parker, 38
Hutchins, Frank, 119
Jessner, Gregory, 143
“hybrid rights,” 130, 223
Jimmy Swaggart Ministries, 213
Judaism
Imams. See Muslims (chaplains).
Conservative, 60
India, 6
and land use, 101
Inouye, Daniel K., 175
Orthodox, 123“26, 187, 190, 213, 281
Inquisition. See also Medieval
in prisons, 151“53
Inquisition; Spanish Inquisition.
Reform, 59, 101
In¬‚uence on framers
and schools, 123“26
Internal Revenue Service, 184
International Municipal League of
Kaccha (Sikh undergarment), 114
Cities, 87
Kanga (wooden comb), 114
Iowa
Kara (steel bracelet), 114
Religious prisons in, 166“68
INDEX / 407


Legislature
Kashmir
and minority groups, 72, 220, 249, 250,
Religious con¬‚ict in, 6, 177
264, 283, 284, 286, 291, 298
Katzenbach v. Morgan, 230“37
and no-harm rule, 265
Katzer, Barry William, 30
Powers of, 125, 205, 207, 227“28
Keetch, Von G., 28
Role of, 230
Kennedy, Anthony, 64, 225“26
legislative exemptions. See also blind
Kennedy, Edward, 85, 88, 96, 175
exemptions; RFRA; RLUIPA.
King, John, 144
for Catholic Church, 9
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 60, 120
for Christian Scientists, 9, 33, 34
Kirpan (Sikh sword), 114“17
for discrimination, 174, 185
Kleinbaum, Sharon, 59
for homicide, 35, 36
Knox, Bishop, 112
for medical neglect, 9, 31
Kownacki, Raymond, 20“21
ministerial exception, 174, 185, 189,
Ku Klux Klan, 142, 175
190, 192, 193, 195, 196, 282
Kuyper, Abraham, 263
for religious child care centers,
45
land use (religious purposes), 79, 86
for religious institutions, 9
in California, 82“94
from reporting laws, 9
congregation size as factor for, 80,
Levon, Kathryn, 120
101“04
Levon v. O™Rourke, 120
exemptions, 93
Lewis, Bernard, 278
discrimination as factor for, 85, 87
Lewis, C. S., 137
entitlement claims for, 93
libertarianism, 205“06, 210
homelessness and, 100“01
Liberty Counsel, 54
Judaism and, 101
Light, Terrie, 19
local governments and, 81
Locke, John, 204, 208, 260“61, 264
for religious child care centers,
Locke v. Davey, 215“16, 279
99“100
Long, Amber, 25
under RFRA, 95
“lost boys,” 39
RLUIPA and, 83, 85, 97“98, 104
Lott, Trent, 184
US Supreme Court cases and, 86
Love Church, 99
zoning laws and, 90, 92, 99, 100
Luciferians
Lanning, Kenneth, 16, 18
in prisons, 154, 156
Latin Kings, [gang], 144
Lundman, Ian, 36“37
Lathrop, John, 265
Lupu, Ira, 304“05
Lawrence v. Texas, 57, 63, 66, 69, 223
Luther, Martin, 258
Equal protection in, 64
polygamy and, 66, 69
Madison, James, 209, 255, 261, 269
privacy in, 63“64
Maine,
same-sex marriage and, 57, 63“64, 223
Supreme Judicial Court of, First
Laycock, Douglas, 85, 89, 223, 225, 230,
Amendment interpretation, 26
234, 288“89
Mann Act, 69“70
Le Monde, 144
Marriage
League of Residential Neighborhood
Civil unions v., 51, 56, 57, 59
Activists, 83
same-sex, 51
“least restrictive means,” 46
social constructs of, 65
Lefkow, Joan, 120
408 / INDEX


Minnesota, 149, 166
Marriage Protection Amendment
Human Rights Act, 188
(MPA), 52
Supreme Court of, First Amendment
Marshall, Thurgood, 170“71
interpretation, 37“38, 188
Marshall, William, 219, 224
Minority groups
Martin, Jon C., 20
and legislature, 283“88
Marxism, 302
Mississippi College, 193
Mary (queen), 6, 64, 252“54
Missouri
Massachusetts
religious camps in, 42
civil unions in, 51“52
Supreme Court of, First Amendment
same-sex marriage in, 51“52
interpretation, 27
Matthews, David, 42
Moline, Jack, 59
McBurrows, Javan, 40
Moral Majority, 291
McConnell, Michael, 219“20, 223,
Moore, Roy, 288
289“90, 292, 295
Moore-Emmett, Andrea, 71“72
McCormick, Wilford, 43
Moreno, Rebecca, 122“23
McDonald v. Mass. Gen. Hosp., 249
Mormon church. See Church of Jesus
McDonald™s, 80
Christ of Latter-Day Saints
McKelvey, Christopher, 193“95
Mother Teresa, 61, 100
medical neglect,
Moynihan, Patrick, 87
Christian Scientists and, 9, 31“37
Murphy, Robert, 105“06
in Church of Jesus Christ of
Musgrave, Marilyn, 52“53
Latter-Day Saints, 38
Muslim Brotherhood, 146
civil liability for, 37
Muslims. See also Islam.
criminal liability for, 35“39
al-Qaeda and, 149
in cults, 38“39
investigations of, 147“48
First Amendment defense of, 35“39
organizations for, 146
in followers of Christ Church, 5
recruitment by, 145
legislative exemptions for, 31“35
in US prison system, 145
Medieval Inquisition, 6
Muslim extremists, 6. See also Islam.
“megachurches,” 80
chaplain recruitment for, 145“49
Memorial and Remonstrance (Madison),
in France, 144
255
Muslim Brotherhood, 146
Mereska, Nancy, 72
post-September 11th, 141“42
Methodists, 59
in US prison system, 141, 145
and employment discrimination, 190
RFRA and, 180
Napolitano, Janet, 70
Same-sex marriage and, 59
Nation, Carry, 281
Meyer, Heidi, 25
National Association of Evangelicals, 184
Military
National League of Cities, 87
Chaplains in, 145“49
National Public Radio, 166
Exemptions from service, 170, 171
Native Americans
Goldman v. Weinberger, 170“71
and land use, 213
religious dress in, 169“72
and peyote use, 130, 213, 280
Mill, John Stuart, 204“05, 208, 260
and prisons, 161
Miller, John, 197
and public schools, 129“30
Milne, A. A., 137
and social security numbers, 135
ministerial exception, 174, 189, 190
Nazi Low Riders, 143
religious discrimination and, 185
INDEX / 409


RLUIPA and, 105
Neutrality. See no-harm rule.
same-sex marriage and, 56, 59
New Jersey, Supreme Court of, 194
Ouimet, Emilie, 126
A New Religious America: How a
“Christian Country” Has Become
Paci¬c Justice Institute, 98
the World™s Most Religiously Diverse
Paci¬c Press Publishing Association,
Nation (Eck), 58
192“93
Newcomer, Clarence, 102
Padilla, Jose, 149
Newsweek, 16
Pakistan, 6
Nigeria
Palmer, Deborah, 23
polygamy in, 75
Palmer, Merrill, 23
Nineteenth Amendment. See
Paratestament (CONS), 164
Prohibition.
Parker, Bobby, 123
no-harm rule, 35, 262, 279
Parks, Gina Trimble, 20“21
Calvin, 262
Parsons, Susan, 188
and courts, 243“48, 249, 252
pedophilia, 13, 18. See also sexual abuse.
18th Century preachers, 219, 260
pro¬les for, 18
Framers, 219, 254, 255, 260
Pence, Shane, 25
historical justi¬cations, 240“42
Pennsylvania
and legislature, role of, 265
Child abuse reporting laws, 46
Locke, 260, 261
Child care licensing laws, 46
Mill, 260
home schools law in, 135
Reformation, 251
RFPA in, 182, 183
and religious accomodations, 275
State RFRA in, 46
and RFRA, 274
People, role of,
North American Man-Boy Love
People for the American Way, 184
Association (NAMBLA), 18
physical abuse
Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective
by clergy, 40“44
Association, 213
and exemptions, 42“43
Nozick, Robert, 204, 210
First Amendment and, as defense for,
25“31
O™Connor, Sandra Day, 64, 171, 303
within Jehovah™s Witnesses, 14, 25“27
Okome, Mojubaolu Olufunke, 76
at religious camps, 41“44
Oler, James, 23
Picarello, Anthony, 86
Olson, Mancur, 285
Pistole, John, 142
Ordered liberty, 208, 241
Polygamy, 66“77
Oregon
in Afghanistan, 75
homicide exemptions in, 35
in Canada, 67“69, 71, 74
medical neglect laws in, 35“36
Christian groups™ support for, 74
Oregon v. Mitchell, 233
within Church of Jesus Christ of
Orthodox Church (Russian), 5
Latter-Day Saints, 66, 70“71
Orthodox Judaism
and CEDAW, 76
and employment discrimination, 190
Department of Justice response, 69“70
and housing discrimination, 187“88
in East Malaysia, 75
military systems and, [chap 6], 213,
First Amendment claims for, 65“68,
281“82
72, 76“77
in public eduction, 123“26
within FLDS, 39
and public schools, 123“26
gender bias as result of, 48
RFRA and, 180
410 / INDEX


Speech in, 148
Polygamy (cont.)
terrorism in, 149
in Lawrence v. Texas, 66, 69
Privacy, right to (U.S. Constitution)
and Mann Act violations, 69“70
in Lawrence v. Texas, 63“64
in Nigeria, 75“76
private homeownership, 109“10
opposition to, 69“74
under RLUIPA, 105“8
in Reynolds v. United States, 66“68
privilegium clericale. See bene¬t of
same-sex marriage v., 54, 55, 65
clergy.
and sexual abuse, 17, 21“24
Prohibition, 281
and state legislation, 54
prophylactic theory, 236, 237
in U. S., 17, 54, 55
Protestantism
Utah Courts and, 68
in colonies, 253
Posner, Richard, 123“25, 139
in England, 251, 252, 253
Powell, Lewis, 170
and public schools, 111“12
Prerogative courts. See Star Commission;
and reformation, 251, 252, 253, 258
High Chamber.
and rule of law, 256
Preachers
and sphere sovereignty, 263
18th century, 219
theology, 262“64
Presbyterian Church, 59
Public good. See no-harm rule.
and employment discrimination, 190,
public schools, 111“40
196“97
Amish and, 131
Same-sex marriage and, 59
Bible in, 112, 132, 136
RFRA and, 180
in Canada, 114, 115
RLUIPA and, 87
coeducational classes within, 138“39
Price, Frederick K. C., 56
Christianity in, 111“12
Prichard, Doug, 79
curriculum choices in, 131“39
Primera Iglesia Bautista Hispana, 91
dress codes in, 123“26
Princeton University. See College of
Edwards v. Aguillard, 132
New Jersey.
Employment Div. v. Smith, 135
Principle Voices of Polygamy, 74
Establishment Clause and, 132, 133,
Prisons
137
Aryan Brotherhood in, 142“44
in France, 128
Brandenburg v. Ohio, 148
Free Exercise and, 128, 131
Chaplains in, 141, 145“49
gangs in, 118“22
Christianity in, 166
home-schooling and, 73
CONS in, 163
Judaism and, 123“26
in France, 144, 149
Muslims in, 126“29
Gangs in, 142“44
prayer in, 112
Judaism in, 151“53
reading curriculum within, 136“37
Muslims in, 141, 145
RFRA and, 113, 116“17, 123
new religions within, 162“65
Sikhs and, 114“18
rehabilitation in, 150“51
violence v. religious practice in,
religious, 165“69
114“22
religious accommodations in, 149“50,
weapons in, 114“18
156“62
Wiccans in, 122
RFRA and, 150“154, 165
Wisconsin v. Yoder, 113, 131, 138
RLUIPA and, 150“55, 157“58
INDEX / 411


religious con¬‚icts, 6
Pulitzer Prize, 16
Religious Freedom Protection Act
Puritanism, 241
(RFPA)
in Pennsylvania, 7
al-Qaeda, 149
Religious Freedom Restoration Act
Quakers, 282
(RFRA)
Quebec Human Rights Commission,
blind exemptions and, 9“10
126
Christian Scientists™ support for, 180
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day
Racketeer In¬‚uence and Corrupt
Saints™ support for, 180
Organizations (RICO), 195
and City of Boerne v. Flores, 229, 230
Rahman, Abdel, 149
Coalition for Free Exercise of Religion
Rastafarians
and, 178
and prisons, 161
and Congressional power, 229, 230
in public schools, 126
and Fourteenth Amendment, 230, 236
“ratchet theory,” 232, 234“35, 236
and Free Exercise Clause, 107
in City of Boerne v. Flores, 235
housing discrimination and, 175
“unanimous consent” in, 235
justi¬cation for, 230
Reardon, Christopher, 20
land use laws under, 91, 94
Reading curriculum
organizational support for, 177“80
in public schools, 136“37
and prisons, 150“54, 165
Reconstructionist Rabbinical
and public schools, 113, 116“17, 123
Association, 58
religious child care centers under, 99
Reformation, 251“52
state exemptions under, 226
Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity,
state RFRAs, 109, 135, 182“85
252
and Sherbert v. Verner, 225, 303
and Catholic Church, 251
religious institutions. See individual
in Colonies, 253, 258
denominations.
in England, 247
Religious Land Use and Institutionalized
Prerogative courts, 252, 253
Persons Act (RLUIPA)
Protestantism, 251, 252, 253, 258
“attorney™s fees” provision in, 97, 98
Tower of London, 253
blind exemptions and, 9
Reform Judaism, 59
compelling interest, 98
RLUIPA and, 101“03
criticisms of, 106“8
same-sex marriage and, 59
Free Exercise Clause and, 107
Rehnquist, William, 170, 223, 225“26, 233
Guru Nanak Sikh Society and, 104
Reid, Harry, 154“55, 172
home prayer under, 109
Reid, Richard, 149
homeless under, 101
Religion Clauses, 47, 151, 152, 196, 286,
houses of worship under, 83, 85, 86,
294. See Establishment Clause,
87, 88, 94“99
Free Exercise Clause.
housing discrimination and, 175, 185
religious accommodations, 149“50,
individualized assessments, 108
156“62
land use under, 83, 85, 96, 97“98, 104
in military, 170
prison accommodations under, 157“58
in prisons, 149“50, 156“62
and prisons, 150“55
in public schools, 111, 114
private homeowners under, 105“08
requirements of, 295“302
412 / INDEX


St. Peter Catholic Church, 95
RLUIPA (cont.)
Salt Lake Tribune, 71
residential neighborhoods, affect on,
Sabbatarians, 216
79“94
and unemployment compensation,
religious child care centers under, 99
216“17
and state RFRAs, 107, 109
Sager, Lawrence, 293“95
substantial burden, 90, 96, 100, 102, 105
Salem witch trials, 6, 61
Religious liberty. See Free Exercise
Sanctuary
Clause.
and Catholic Church, 240, 242
Religious Liberty Protection Act (RLPA),
in England, 240, 242
87, 97, 153“54, 181“84
same-sex marriage, 51, 56“66
religious prison systems (US), 165“69
arguments against, 52“59
“Christ-centered” approach for, 166
Bush, George W., 52
Florida model for, 167, 168
civil unions v., 51
“God Pods” and, 166, 167
“Christian country” justi¬cation,
Iowa model for, 166“67
58“66
recidivism rates for, 165, 168“69
equal protection clauses and, 64
Reno, Janet, 123
and federal constitutional
Report of the US Commission on
amendment, 54
International Religious Freedom
and First Amendment, 55
(2004), 4
and Lawrence v. Texas, 57, 63“64
Reporting laws
in Massachusetts, 51“56
Exemptions from, 9, 10
polygamy v., 54“55, 65
Republicanism, 204“06, 242, 283
and privacy rights, 63“64
Restoration, 254
religious con¬‚icts over, 59“60
Reynolds, George, 66“68
state amendments against, 65
Reynolds v. United States, 66“68, 207“08,
support for, 57“58
211“12, 279, 303
Sandhar, Sarbjit Singh, 117
Riley, Naomi Schaefer, 74
San Jose Christian College, 105
Riley, Richard, 123
Santerians, 215
Riley, William Jay, 164
Savage, Brian N., 28“29
Robidoux, Jacques, 38
Scalia, Antonin, 64, 224“26, 271
Robidoux, Karen, 38“39
school dress codes
Robidoux, Samuel, 38“39
First Amendment defenses against, 127
Rolling Hills Covenant Church, 79
in France, 128“29
Roman Catholic Church. See Catholic
under Free Exercise Clause, 128
Church.
gangs and, 119, 120
Rosati, Mary, 192
hair length under, 129“30
Rosati v. Toledo, Ohio Catholic Diocese,
Islamic practices under, 126“28
192
Orthodox Jews under, 123“25
Rosenberg, Jonathan, 56
in public schoolsal systems, 119, 120
Rubin, Chaim Baruch, 82, 84“85
religious con¬‚icts with, 122“30
Rule of law. See no harm rule.
under RFRA, 123
Russia (Soviet Union), 5
school prayer, 112
Rutherford Institute, 127
schooling. See also public schools.
home, 73
St. Bartholomew™s Church, 93
Schumer, Charles, 146
St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, 193
Scott, Jeremiah, 27“28
St. Monica™s Catholic parish, 186
INDEX / 413


Singh, Jatinder, 115
Scott, Sandra, 28
Sixth Amendment, 206
Second Amendment, 205
Sixtus IV (Pope), 257
Secularization, 6, 51, 174, 291, 308
Slavery, 4
Sendak, Maurice, 137
religious justi¬cations for, 60
Separation of Church and State
Smith, Alfred, 220, 224
(Hamburger), 111
Smith, Joseph, 70
Separation of church and state. See
Smith, Lavenski R., 164
Establishment Clause.
Smith, Steven D., 223, 293
Seuss, “Doctor,” 137
“soul murder,” 14
Seventh Day Adventist church, 28
South African Dutch Reformed Church,
and employment discrimination, 193
60
in prisons, 161
Southern Baptist Convention, 60
Sexual abuse within, 28“30
Southern Baptists, 180
sexual abuse, 198, 218, 274, 301, 307, 310
and employment discrimination, 193
Boston Archdiocese and, 16“20
Southwestern Baptist Theological
in Canada, 22“24
Seminary, 192
within Catholic Church, 14“21, 27
Spanish Inquisition, 6, 255
by clergy, 6, 13“31
Sphere Sovereignty, 263
and civil liberties groups, 17“18
Stanford Law Review, 233
within Church of Jesus Christ of
Star Chamber (England), 246, 252“54
Latter-Day Saints, 21, 27“30
statutes of limitations
by evangelical Christians, 24
for sexual abuse, 25
First Amendment defenses, 25“31
Stein, Gertrude, 206
within FLDS, 21“24
Stephen (king), 244
internet and, 30
Stevens, John Paul, 170, 224, 226
by Jehovah™s Witnesses, 14“15, 25“27
Stewart, Martha, 152
and polygamy, 21“24
Strong, Jason, 29
Mann Act and, 22
Stop Polygamy Now, 72
Statute of limitations for, 21
Strossen, Nadine, 183
within Seventh Day Adventist
“substantial burden,” 102
Church, 28“30
Summers, Patricia, 193
sexual harassment
Sutton, Jeffrey, 153“54
by religious clergy, 193“94, 196“97
Swan, Matthew, 34
sexual orientation
Swan, Rita, 34
employment discrimination for, 190
housing discrimination as basis for,
Tapestry Against Polygamy, 70, 72
190
Teen Reach, 42
Shanley, Paul, 18
First Amendment claims by, 42
Shays™ Rebellion, 277
Tepker, Harry F., 223
Sherbert v. Verner, 108, 216“25, 229“33
Texas
Shetler, Jerry, 88
RFRA in, 182
Shreeve, Arvin, 22
“The Body” (cult organization), 38“39
Shurtleff, Mark, 39, 70
Theriault, Harry, 163
Sikhs
Third Christian Church, 40
in military, 171“72
in public schools, 114“18 Thomas v. Review Bd. of Ind.
Employment Sec. Div., 217
Silva, Timothy, 25
Thompson, Caleb, 41
Singh, Gurbaj, 117
414 / INDEX


congressional record for, 232
Thompson, Joshua, 41
RFRA v., 236
Three Class Servants Church, 5
Thurmond, Strom, 155, 172
Walker, James, 36
Title VII
Walker, Laurie Grouard, 36
Ministerial exception, 174, 185, 189“96,
Wall Street Journal, 53, 103, 147
282
Warren, Earl, 47, 216
Tobler, Lorna, 193
Waseem, Irene, 127
Tony and Susan Alamo Foundation, 213
Washington, Supreme Court of, 93
De Torquemeda, Tomas, 257
Watchtower, 25
Tower of London, 253
weapons
Total World Women Freedom Alliance
in public schoolsal systems, 114“18
(TOWWFA), 75
West, Daniel, 25
Traditional Values Coalition, 57, 180
West, Ellis, 219
Trinity United Methodist Church, 94
White, Byron, 170, 224, 226
Trudeau, Pierre, 67
white supremacist groups
Turley, Jonathan, 72
in prisons, 142“44
Turner v. Sa¬‚ey, 162
Whitehead, John W., 181
Wiccans, 122
Uganda, 75
in public schools, 122“23
polygamy in, 75
Wiggins, Charles, 116
“unanimous consent,” 235
Women in Law & Development in
Underground Railroad, 61
Africa (WiLDAF), 75
Unemployment Compensation Act
William the Conqueror (king), 244
(South Carolina), 216
Williams, Elisha, 265
Unitarian Universalist Church, 58, 180
Williams, Sandy, 192
United Jewish Communities, 4
Wilson, James, 283
United Pentecostal Church, 138
Wilson, Pete, 117
Bill of Rights (U.S.), 255, 261
Wing¬eld High School, 112
US Constitutional Amendments. See
Wisconsin v. Yoder, 113, 131“32, 138,
individual amendments and
209“10, 216“25, 275
clauses.
in public schools, 113, 131“32, 209“10
Supreme Court. See case name.
Religious accommodations and, 275
United States,
Witherspoon, John, 209, 256, 269
as “Christian country,” 57“66
World Church of the Creator, 142
Republicanism in, 239, 242
World Trade Center
and secularization, 6, 51, 174, 291,
1993 bombing of, 148“49
308
September 11th attacks, 141“42, 147
USA Today, 72
Utah Civil Rights and Liberties
Yale College, 187
Foundation, 17, 54
YMCA, 20
Utah, 21, 24, 29, 38, 67“70, 74
Young, Darreyl N., 195
Supreme Court of, First Amendment
interpretation, 29“30
Zemin, Jiang, 5
Zion Society, 22
Virk, Harvinder, 118
zoning laws, 92. See land use.
Voting Rights Act of 1965, 230“33

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