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L TEX for Word Processor Users
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version 1.0.6
Guido Gonzato, Ph.D.
<guido.gonzato@univr.it>

Universit` di Verona (Italy)
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Facolt` di Scienze MM. FF. NN.†
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December 9, 2003



Abstract
Text processing with L TEX o¬ers several advantages over word processing. However, it
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is often hard for beginners to ¬gure out how to perform common tasks and obtain certain
features. This manual attempts to ease the transition by drawing comparisons between word
processing and L TEX typesetting. The main word processor capabilities are listed, along with
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their equivalent L TEX commands. Lots of examples are provided.
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Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Editor-Supported Features .................................... 3
1.1.2 Adding Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 The Golden Rules ............................................. 5

2 The File Menu 5
2.1 File/New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 File/Save As. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 File/Save As Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4 File/Import ................................................. 6
2.5 File/Page Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5.1 Page Setup/Headers and Footers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6 File/Printer Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.7 File/Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.8 File/Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.9 File/Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3 The Edit Menu 9
3.1 Edit/Autotext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Ca™ Vignal II, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)


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4 The Insert Menu 9
4.1 Insert/Breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2 Insert/Enumerated List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3 Insert/Special Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
The ¤ Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 13
4.4 Insert/Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.5 Insert/Footnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.5.1 Footnotes at End of Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.6 Insert/Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.7 Insert/Vertical and Horizontal Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.8 Insert/Tabs ................................................. 15
4.9 Insert/Cross Reference ........................................... 15
4.10 Insert/Margin Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.11 Insert/Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.12 Insert/Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.12.1 Wrapping Floats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.13 Insert/Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.14 Insert/Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.15 Insert/Hyperlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.16 Insert/Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

5 The Format Menu 21
5.1 Format/Line Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.2 Format/Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.1 Underline styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.2 Format/Character Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.3 Format/Character Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.2.4 Format/Character Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.3 Format/Paragraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.3.1 Format/Paragraph Horizontal Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.3.2 Format/Paragraph Vertical Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.3.3 Format/Paragraph Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.3.4 Format/Paragraph Indentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.4 Format/Paragraph Border and Shade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.5 Format/Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.6 Format/Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

6 The Table Menu 30
6.1 Line Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.2 Aligning Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.3 Using slashbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.4 Importing Data in L TEX Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
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7 The Tools Menu 35
7.1 Tools/Mail Merges ............................................. 35



ii
1 INTRODUCTION


7.2 Tools/Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.3 Tools/Default Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.4 Tools/Hyphenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7.5 Tools/Spell Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

8 The Help Menu 38

9 The End 39

A Document Templates 40


List of Tables
1 Useful key bindings for Emacs, Vim, and Jed in IDE mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 How to obtain some special characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3 Font attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4 Font sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5 Common font families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6 Standard L TEX environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
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7 A sample table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31


List of Figures
1 A smiley representing the author of this guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2 A Gnuplot graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3 Book template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4 Report template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5 Letter template. .............................................. 41
6 How to write a notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7 How to write a poster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43



1 Introduction
First of all, let me state that this is not a L TEX primer! If you™re reading this, I assume that you
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have at least a smattering of L TEX and its basic commands. In this document, I™ll explain why
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L TEX is a viable alternative to word processors. One may even think that L TEX is better than
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any word processor. . . and this is de¬nitely true, especially if you write complex documents
with lots of maths.
Nevertheless, word processors are the ˜killer app™ in modern o¬ce automation. They™re perceived
to be easier than L TEX as they have a friendly WYSIWYG interface, and the average secretary
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will learn to use them in a relatively short time. The problem is, these beasts keep growing slow,
bloated1 , buggy, expensive, virus ridden, and incompatible with each other.
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once upon a time, I wrote my thesis on a 128k, Z80-based home computer. The word processor WordStar
and my thesis ¬t on a single CP/M-bootable 720K ¬‚oppy, with lots of room to spare!



1
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Preliminaries


L TEX might be a good alternative. It actually is, but if you try to write casual, unstructured
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documents, L TEX will rightly stand in the way. You could resort to plain TEX, but you would
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lose many facilities that L TEX provides.
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To sum up, sometimes you may want to use word processor-like features”but using L TEX. It
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would be nice to know how to obtain some e¬ects with L TEX when you know how to get them
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with your once-favourite :-) word processor.
That™s why I wrote this quick reference. As I said, it assumes that you already have a basic
understanding of L TEX; if not, I suggest that you go to http://www.ctan.org/starter.html
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and download ˜The (Not So) Short Introduction to L TEX2e™ (and possibly ˜A Gentle Introduction
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to TEX™).
In the following sections, we shall navigate through the menus and menu items of an imaginary
word processor, ¬nding out the corresponding L TEX way of doing the same work. If you™re a
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L TEX purist and this approach makes you sick. . . don™t hurt yourself, please stop here.
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1.1 Preliminaries
Many word processor features are implemented by the editor; others by standard L TEX com-
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mands; others still are obtained using packages. These are sets of macros that extend L TEX
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providing new commands and environments. There are lots of packages around: the only prob-
lem is knowing where they are, what they do, and how to install them. More about packages in
Section 1.1.2.
Packages and other TEX-related material are available at many sites that constitute the CTAN,
the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network. I already mentioned http://www.ctan.org; this site
has a comprehensive list of mirrors. From now on, CTAN: means ˜your favourite CTAN mirror
here, starting from the TEX directory™. For instance, you can get L TEX for your platform from
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CTAN://systems (e.g. http://www.tex.ac.uk/tex-archive/systems/).
Another obvious question is this: L TEX will typeset the text for me, but what should I use
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to write it? The answer is: a good editor ”a L TEX-aware one, if possible. There exist editors
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dedicated to writing L TEX source, and some are WYSIWYG or nearly so.
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Although any editor capable of saving plain text will do (even Windows™ notepad), most
TEXnicians will recommend that you use one of the following:

• GNU Emacs (http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs.html) or Xemacs (http://
www.xemacs.org) with AUC TEX, CTAN://support/auctex/;

• vi or one of its clones, Vim (http://www.vim.org) being the most popular;

• my personal choice is Jed (http://www.jedsoft.org/jed/), a light Emacs clone that
also supports emulation of other editors. I wrote a L TEX mode for Jed, available from
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CTAN://support/jed;

• Kile (http://kile.sourceforge.net), a very nice and complete L TEX shell for the KDE;
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• Texmaker (http://perso.club-internet.fr/pascal.brachet/texmaker/index.html)
is very similar to Kile, but doesn™t require KDE;



2
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Preliminaries


• LyX (http://www.lyx.org), a nearly-WYSIWYG text processor, less advanced as an
editor but undoubtedly easier for beginners;

• GNU TEXmacs (http://www.texmacs.org), an impressive WYSIWYG L TEX word pro-
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cessor for Unix;

• WinEdt (http://www.winedt.com), probably the most popular L TEX shell for Windows.
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Unlike all of the free software above, it™s shareware;

• a comprehensive list of L TEX shells for Windows can be found at http://home.arcor.
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de/itsfd/texwin.htm. I suggest that you have a look at TeXnicCenter and WinShell;

• ¬nally, information about L TEX on the Mac can be found at http://www.esm.psu.edu/
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mac-tex/.

These editors boast syntax highlighting and many other helpful features that help write L TEX
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source code.

1.1.1 Editor-Supported Features

L TEX is just a formatter: things like cut and paste, search and replace etc. are delegated to the
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editor. Table 1 summarises the main commands of popular editors for geeks: GNU emacs and
vim with their native key bindings, and jed con¬gured for Borland IDE key bindings.

1.1.2 Adding Packages

The following applies to teTeX, which ships with most GNU/Linux distributions. Directions for
MiKTEX below.

1. get the package (typically as a gzip-compressed tar archive) from your favourite CTAN
mirror;

2. ¬nd out the location of L TEX packages; most likely, $TEXMF/tex/latex;
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3. as root, unpack the package under that directory;

4. If no .sty ¬le exists, run the command latex newstyle.ins or latex newstyle.dtx to
create it;

5. run the command texhash so that teTeX recognises the new package.

The exact location of $TEXMF depends on the system; in most GNU/Linux distributions, it™s
/usr/share/texmf.
If you don™t have root privileges, you can install packages in a subdirectory of your $HOME:
say, $HOME/texmf. All you have to do is put the .sty ¬les there, and add this line in your
$HOME/.bash profile:

export TEXINPUTS="˜/texmf:"


3
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Preliminaries




Action Emacs Vim Jed
command mode Alt-X ESC Alt-X
insert mode n/a n/a
iaoO
line editor mode n/a n/a
:
¬le operations
open ¬le Ctrl-X Ctrl-F :e Ctrl-KE
insert ¬le Ctrl-Xi :r Ctrl-KR
save ¬le Ctrl-X Ctrl-S :w Ctrl-KD
save as Ctrl-X Ctrl-W name :w name Ctrl-KS
close ¬le Ctrl-XK :q Ctrl-KQ
change bu¬er Ctrl-XB bN Ctrl-KN
undo Ctrl-XU u Ctrl-U
redo Ctrl-^ Ctrl-R Ctrl-G Ctrl-U
exit Ctrl-X Ctrl-C :qa! Ctrl-KX
moving around
word left Alt-B b Ctrl-A
word right Alt-F w Ctrl-F
start of line Ctrl-A 0 Ctrl-QS
end of line Ctrl-E $ Ctrl-QD
page up Alt-V Ctrl-U Ctrl-R
page down Ctrl-V Ctrl-D Ctrl-C
start of bu¬er Alt-< 1G Ctrl-QR
end of bu¬er Alt-> G Ctrl-QC
line n. Alt-G n. n.G Ctrl-QI
deleting
character left Ctrl-H X BS
character right Ctrl-D x Alt-G
word left Alt-DEL db Alt-BS
word right Alt-D dw Ctrl-T
end of line Ctrl-K d$ Ctrl-QY
line Ctrl-A Ctrl-K dd Ctrl-Y
search & replace
search Ctrl-S text /text Ctrl-QS
replace Alt-% :s/old/new/g Ctrl-QA
blocks
start selection Ctrl-SPACE v Ctrl-KB
cut Ctrl-W D Ctrl-KY
copy Alt-W Y Ctrl-KH
paste Ctrl-Y P Ctrl-KC

Table 1: Useful key bindings for Emacs, Vim, and Jed in IDE mode.




4
2 THE FILE MENU 1.2 The Golden Rules


To add a package to MiKTEX, create the directory \latex\newpackage under C:\localtexmf\
tex and put the relevant ¬les in there. Proceed as above, then run MiKTeX Options and click
on the ˜Refresh now™ button. Alternatively, issue the command initexmf -u. That™s it!

1.2 The Golden Rules
Before we start, please keep this in mind:

1. get used to structuring your documents: think in terms of parts, chapters, sections, and
so on. This holds even if you are not writing a scienti¬c paper.

2. L TEX explicitly discourages the user from messing about with formatting parameters.
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Don™t worry too much about the looks of what you™re writing, concentrate on the contents.

Convince yourself, apply the rules, and your printed material will magically look professional!
Again, let me recommend that you study a real L TEX primer.
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These rules apply to most documents. However, if the stu¬ you are going to write is intrinsically
unstructured (circulars, notices, etc.), then you asked for that: go ahead and read the rest of
this guide.




2 The File Menu
Obviously, some entries of this menu have nothing to do with L TEX: File/Open, File/Save,
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File/Close depend on the editor.

2.1 File/New
This is the L TEX equivalent of a blank page:
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\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
% This is a comment. Write your stuff here.
\end{document}

As documents written in L TEX are inherently structured, this is a more realistic example:
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\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{article}
\begin{document}
\title{My Document}
\author{John Smith}
\date{London, \today}
\maketitle
\begin{abstract}
This is a very short article.


5
2 THE FILE MENU 2.2 File/Save As. . .


\end{abstract}
\tableofcontents
\listoftables
\listoffigures
\section{First Section}
\label{sec:start}
This is the text of the section. See \cite{Gonzato} for details.
\section{End}
\label{sec:end}
This is the end of the document. Please go to Section
\ref{sec:start} to read it again.
\begin{thebibliography}{99}
\bibitem{Gonzato} Gonzato G. \textit{\LaTeX{} for Word Processor
Users}. CTAN, 2001.
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}

More document templates are listed in Appendix A.

2.2 File/Save As. . .
The following tools are handy if you want to convert L TEX to other formats:
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• latex2html: http://saftsack.fs.uni-bayreuth.de/˜latex2ht/,
CTAN://support/latex2html

• latex2rtf: CTAN://support/latex2rtf

See also Section 2.7 for details on PDF creation.

2.3 File/Save As Template
Saving a L TEX ˜template™ would mean, as I see it, create a new L TEX package. This is complex
A A
matter that goes beyond the scopes of this guide.

2.4 File/Import
These tools convert from other formats to L TEX:
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• rtf2latex: CTAN://support/rtf2latex

• html2latex: CTAN://support/html2latex

• wvware is a set of tools that convert from MS Word to several formats including L TEX;
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http://wvware.sourceforge.net

• the free word processor Abiword, http://www.abisource.com, imports MS Word and can
export L TEX.
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6
2 THE FILE MENU 2.5 File/Page Setup


• txt2tex: CTAN://support/txt2tex does a fairly good job at converting plain text ¬les
into L TEX.
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Other *2latex converters are available at the same address.

2.5 File/Page Setup
The normal method for setting paper size, orientation, and margins, is to use parameters in
\documentclass. Paper size can be a4paper, a5paper, b5paper, letterpaper, legalpaper,
executivepaper; orientation is portrait by default, or optionally landscape. For example,

\documentclass[a5paper,landscape,12pt]{article}

Document-wide margins are set with these commands:

\setlength{\leftmargin}{2cm}
\setlength{\rightmargin}{2cm}
\setlength{\oddsidemargin}{2cm}
\setlength{\evensidemargin}{2cm}
\setlength{\topmargin}{-1cm}
\setlength{\textwidth}{18cm}
\setlength{\textheight}{25cm}

The geometry package allows for complete control of parameters such as paper size, margins
width, and so on. geometry has far too many options to list them all, and you™re invited to read
its documentation. A fairly complete example of its usage is shown below. In this example,
some parameters are not compatible with each other, and are there for purpose of argument
only.

\geometry{paperwidth=25cm}
\geometry{paperheight=35cm}
% or: \geometry{papersize={25cm,35cm}}
\geometry{width=20cm} % total width
\geometry{heigth=30cm} % total heigth
% or: \geometry{total={20cm,30cm}}
\geometry{textwidth=18cm} % width - marginpar
\geometry{textheight=25cm} % heigth - header - footer
% or: \geometry{body={18cm,25cm}}
\geometry{left=3cm} % left margin
\geometry{right=1.5cm} % right margin
% or: \geometry{hmargin={3cm,2cm}}
\geometry{top=2cm} % top margin
\geometry{bottom=3cm} % bottom margin
% or: \geometry{vmargin={2cm,3cm}}
\geometry{marginparwidth=2cm}
\geometry{head=1cm} % header space

Options can also be set this way:

\usepackage[left=3cm, right=2cm]{geometry}


7
2 THE FILE MENU 2.6 File/Printer Setup


2.5.1 Page Setup/Headers and Footers

The fancyhdr package provides the new command \pagestyle{fancy}. This will create a header
reporting the current section (chapter in book.cls) and subsection, and a footer with the page
number: pretty fancy indeed. Headers and footers can obviously be customised. They are made
of three parts: a left-aligned part, a centre-aligned part, and a right-aligned part. To set those,
use the commands like in this example:

\lhead{} % empty
\chead{Hello, world!}
\rhead{Page \thepage} % page number
\lfoot{}
\cfoot{\textbf{Hello!}}
\rfoot{}


2.6 File/Printer Setup
This is highly OS-dependent, and de¬nitely outside of the scopes of L TEX. Assuming that you™re
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using a Unix-like system, these tips may come in handy:

• lpr -P printername prints to the speci¬ed printer;
• lpr -# 10 prints 10 copies;
• lpr -r removes the ¬le after printing it

See below for more tips.

2.7 File/Print Preview
When the L TEX input ¬le is ready, you have several options:
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• convert it to .dvi (latex file.tex) and previewing it with xdvi, yap or other DVI
previewer;
• convert the .dvi to PostScript with dvips, then use some variant of Ghostview;
• producing an Acrobat .pdf ¬le with dvipdf or directly with pdflatex.

In my opinion, producing an Acrobat .pdf ¬le is the best option, as it makes for widest porta-
bility.
While dvipdf is just a script that converts the .dvi to .ps then to .pdf, using pdflatex is more

b
interesting. In fact, some packages like hyperref and url make the resulting .pdf ¬le browseable;
see Section 4.15. However, using pdflatex you might experience problems with other packages.
More details in Section 4.12.

2.8 File/Print
Simply use lpr file.ps from the command line, or via your previewer™s menu.

8
4 THE INSERT MENU 2.9 File/Versions


2.9 File/Versions
Although the version package provides basic facilities for versioning L TEX sources, it™s better
A
to use external tools like RCS (Revision Control System) or CVS (Concurrent Version Control
System), possibly integrated with the editor. For a quick introduction to CVS and RCS, please
visit http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/CVS-RCS-HOWTO.html.


3 The Edit Menu
This menu has more to do with the editor than L TEX features. To begin with, refer to Table 1
A
that shows the key bindings for the entries Edit/Cut, Edit/Copy, Edit/Paste, Edit/Find, and
Edit/Replace of some common editors.
The selection of text is not only performed for subsequent cut and paste, but also for applying
styles to the selected text. The equivalent action in L TEX is to enclose the text either between
A
braces, or in an environment. For example, to apply the bold attribute to a portion of text you
will use one of the following:
this is \textbf{bold text;}\\
this is also this is bold text;
{\bfseries bold text;}\\
this is also bold text;
\begin{bfseries}
this is bold text, too!
this is bold text, too!
\end{bfseries}

3.1 Edit/Autotext
We call autotext the feature that makes you type, say, ˜PS™ to have the word ˜PostScript™
automatically expanded. This is an editor feature, but there™s a rough L TEX equivalent:
A


\def\PS {\textsc{PostScript}}

which will insert the equivalent of \textsc{PostScript} whenever you type \PS. Beware, case
is important.


4 The Insert Menu
4.1 Insert/Breaks
• a non-breakable space is set with ∼

• to force a line break, use \linebreak or \newline; see below for details

• to start a new paragraph use a blank line, or \\ (possibly followed by an optional space,
as in \\[1cm]), or \par

• ¬nally, for a page break use \newpage or \clearpage



9
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.2 Insert/Enumerated List


Unlike \newline, \linebreak stretches the line to the margins:

I am stretched!
I am stretched!\linebreak
But I am not.
But I am not.\newline
Ok, now you get it. Ok, now you get it.

Finally, \clearpage di¬ers from \newpage in that it prints all pending ¬‚oats (¬gures and tables).
Floats will be explained in Section 4.12.

4.2 Insert/Enumerated List
Bulleted and enumerated lists correspond to the itemize and enumerate environments. To
customize the bullet in a list environment, you can specify it as an argument to \item:

* with an asterisk;
\begin{itemize}
\item[*] with an asterisk;
- with a dash;
\item[-] with a dash;
\item[.] with a dot.
. with a dot.
\end{itemize}


Another way is to rede¬ne the style of the counters that refer to the digits in the ¬rst- to fourth-
level lists2 . There are several styles: \arabic for ˜normal™ numbers, \roman for lower-case roman
numerals (e.g. viii is 8), \Roman for upper-case roman numerals, \alph and \Alph for lower-
and upper-case letters, and \fnsymbol that I will not explain for now:
\begin{itemize}
\renewcommand{\labelitemi}{*} * ¬rst level, item 1
\renewcommand{\labelitemii}{-}
* ¬rst level, item 2
\item first level, item 1
\item first level, item 2
- second level, item 1
\begin{itemize}
\item second level, item 1 - second level, item 2
\item second level, item 2
\end{itemize} * ¬rst level, item 3
\item first level, item 3
\end{itemize}
2
These are \labelitemi, \labelitemii, \labelitemiii and \labelitemiv.




10
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.3 Insert/Special Character


To use, say, roman numbers and uppercase letters in enumerated lists, do this:
\begin{enumerate}
\renewcommand{\labelenumi}
A ¬rst level, item 1
{\Alph{enumi}}
\renewcommand{\labelenumii}
B ¬rst level, item 2
{\roman{enumii}}
\item first level, item 1
i second level, item 1
\item first level, item 2
\begin{enumerate} ii second level, item 2
\item second level, item 1
\item second level, item 2 C ¬rst level, item 3
\end{enumerate}
\item first level, item 3
\end{enumerate}

Alternatively, use the enumerate package. It rede¬nes the enumerate environment with the
ability to specify an optional argument. Any occurrence of one of the characters A a I i 1
will produce the value of the counter, using (respectively) \Alph, \alph, \Roman, \roman, or
\arabic. To include some text, enclose it in braces:

\begin{enumerate}[{Example} I.] Example I. First example.
\item First example.\label{item:first}
\item Second example. Example II. Second example.
\item Last example.
Example III. Last example. Go to Item I.
Go to Item˜\ref{item:first}.
\end{enumerate}


4.3 Insert/Special Character
First of all, let™s remind that some characters have a special meaning in L TEX and must be
A
entered either by preceding them with \, or using them in math mode, or even writing special
commands: see Table 2.
There are packages that provide thousands of unusual characters and symbols. For instance,
pifont provides the commands \ding, \dingfill, \dingline, and \dinglist. The ¬rst com-
mand produces the Dingbat character of the speci¬ed code. The other commands are equivalent
to the \fill, \line, and \list commands and environment, but use the Dingbat code given
as parameter:

 one
\begin{dinglist}{43}
\item one
 two
\item two
\item three
 three
\end{dinglist}




11
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.3 Insert/Special Character




Character L TEX Sequence
A

$ \$ or \textdollar
& \&
% \%
\_ or \textunderscore
{ \{ or \textbraceleft
} \} or \textbraceright
< $<$ or \textless
> $>$ or \textgreater
\ \textbackslash
| \textbar
• \textbullet
‡ \textdaggerdbl
† \textdagger
¶ \textparagraph
§ \textsection
c \textcopyright
ˆ \textasciicircum
˜ \textasciitilde
∼ $\sim$
\textregistered
r
TM \texttrademark
a \textordfeminine
o \textordmasculine

Table 2: How to obtain some special characters.




12
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.4 Insert/Formula


Another nice variant is this:

x one
\begin{dingautolist}{172}
\item one
y two
\item two
\item three
z three
\end{dingautolist}


There are far too many symbols to mention them all in this guide. Rather, I™ll point you to
˜The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List™ at CTAN://info/symbols/comprehensive.
A



The ¤ Sign
4.3.1

The marvosym package provides several ¬ne characters, among which the Euro sign ¤. You
obtain it with \EUR.

4.4 Insert/Formula
L TEX is particularly strong at doing math. To insert math symbols in the main text, you must
A
enclose them between $:
I like math: $x^n + y^n \neq
I like math: xn +y n = z n ∀n = 2 is my favourite
z^n \forall n \neq 2$
theorem.
is my favourite theorem.

The environments displaymath and equation typeset formulae aside from the text. The latter
adds an equation number for later reference:
Fermat™s Last Theorem is
defined as:
Fermat™s Last Theorem is de¬ned as:
\begin{equation}
x^n + y^n \neq z^n
xn + y n = z n ∀n = 2 (1)
\forall n \neq 2
\label{eq:fermat}
Can you prove Eq. 1?
\end{equation}
Can you prove
Eq.˜\ref{eq:fermat}?


4.5 Insert/Footnote
The command \footnote[n]{footnote text} is all you need; the optional parameter [n]
modi¬es the footnote number. To use a symbol or arbitrary text instead of a number, rede¬ne
the counter associated with \footnote:
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{read me!}
This footnoteread me! says it all.
This footnote\footnote
{I mean this one.} read me!
I mean this one.
says it all.
Using this method, you can get footnote numbers in roman numerals, or replaced by nice sym-
bols:

13
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.6 Insert/Indices


\renewcommand{\thefootnote}
{\Roman{footnote}}
ThisII is the ¬rst footnote, and thisII is the
This\footnote{The first.}
second. The end.†
is the first footnote,
and this\footnote{The second.} II
The ¬rst.
is the second. II
The second.
\renewcommand{\thefootnote} †
At last!
{\fnsymbol{footnote}}
The end.\footnote[8]{At last!}
Note the \fnsymbol{footnote} thing. It uses 9 symbols associated with the values 1. . . 9 of
the footnote counter: — † ‡ § ¶ —— †† ‡‡.
To make several references to the same footnote, don™t write its number explicitly. Rather, do
this:
This\footnote{the first.}
\newcounter{\myfootnote}
This1 and this2 are footnotes: please read
\setcounter{\myfootnote}
note1 again.
{\value{footnote}}
and that\footnote{the second.} 1
the ¬rst.
are footnotes: please read note 2
the second.
\footnotemark
[\value{\myfootnote}] again.
Warning: minipages use their own counters, mpfootnote and thempfootnote.

4.5.1 Footnotes at End of Document

The endnotes package lets you move all footnotes at the end of the document. You™ll have to
add this line to the preamble:

\let\footnote=\endnote

and these lines as the last thing in your document:

\newpage
\begingroup
\parindent 0pt
\parskip 2ex
\def\enotesize{\normalsize}
\theendnotes
\endgroup

Other commands are available, please read the endnotes.sty source.

4.6 Insert/Indices
Generating and inserting a table of contents, list of tables, and list of ¬gures is a trivial task in
L TEX. All you have to do is insert these lines before the ¬rst \section or \chapter of your
A
document:


14
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.7 Insert/Vertical and Horizontal Space


\tableofcontents
\listoffigures
\listoftables


4.7 Insert/Vertical and Horizontal Space
This entry doesn™t actually exist in any word processor I am aware of. This is in fact a limitation
that L TEX ¬lls in a very elegant way.
A

Space ¬lling is used to center text horizontally, vertically, or both; this is a di¬cult task to
perform with any word processor, and requires a lot of trial end error. Use a combination of
\null or ˜ to set ¬xed marks, followed by \vfill and \hfill like in this example:
one \hfill two\\ one two
\vfill
˜ \hfill three \hfill ˜\\
three
\vfill
four \hfill five
four ¬ve
\null
Normally, L TEX won™t let you insert blank spaces at your will. However, if you do want to make
A
your document look messy, use ˜ to make a non-breakable space.
Also, use the command \hspace like in this example:
This is a \hspace{2cm}
This is a 2-cm-wide hole.
2-cm-wide hole.

4.8 Insert/Tabs
The tabbing environment provides a rough equivalent to the action of the TAB key. See this
example:
\begin{tabbing}
% let™s set the tab positions
˜ \hspace{1cm} \= ˜ \hspace{2cm} \=
Zero One Two Three
˜ \hspace{3cm} \= \kill % discard text
Zero One Three
Zero \> One \> Two \> Three \\
Zero Two Three
Zero \> One \> \> Three \+ \\ % go right
Zero One Two
Zero \> Two \> Three \- \\ % go left
Zero \> One \> Two \\ new tab 1. . . new tab 2
\pushtabs % save tab positions new tab
new tab 1{\ldots} \= new tab 2 \\
Zero One Two Three
new \> tab \\
\poptabs % restore tab positions
Zero \> One \> Two \> Three
\end{tabbing}
See also the tabular and table environments.

4.9 Insert/Cross Reference
The commands \label, \ref, and \pageref are all you need to insert labels in the text and do
cross referencing. The standard format of labels is the prefix:suffix form, where prefix is

15
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.10 Insert/Margin Notes


one of the following: cha for chapters, eq for equations, fig for ¬gures, sec for (sub)sections,
and tab for tables.
References to a page (section, table, ¬gure, etc.) number can be obtained using \label and
\ref as in this example:
\paragraph{Example.}
\label{par:example}
Example. This paragraph appears in Sec-
This paragraph appears
tion 4.9 on page 16.
in Section˜\ref{par:example}
on page \pageref{par:example}.

Of course, you may use your own pre¬xes. For example, take this enumerated list:
\begin{enumerate}
1. ¬rst step: skip to 3
\item{first step: skip to
\ref{item:end} \label{item:start}}
2. another step (unreferenced)
\item{another step (unreferenced)}
\item{end: go back to
3. end: go back to 1
\ref{item:start} \label{item:end}}
\end{enumerate}

4.10 Insert/Margin Notes
Very simple: use \marginpar{text}.

4.11 Insert/Frame
Let™s imagine you want to typeset a poster or a sign: you™ll need a way to put text and ¬gures on
¬xed position on the page. Use the textpos package, as shown in the example listed in Figure 7
(see Appendix A).
A simpler approach is using minipages: literally, minia-
ture pages. This text is included in a minipage environ-
ment. Actually, to be more precise, a boxedminipage,
courtesy of the boxedminipage package. I used this dec-
laration:

\begin{boxedminipage}[c]{0.6\linewidth}
... text ...
\end{boxedminipage}


4.12 Insert/Figure
(The reference guide for graphic inclusion in L TEX is ˜Using Imported Graphics in L TEX2e™,
A A
a.k.a. epslatex.ps.)
A ˜¬gure™ can be not only a picture, but also a portion of text, a table, etc. that you put in a
figure environment. This is an example:
b
Please note that ¬gures are not guaranteed to appear exactly where you write the code! In fact,


16
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.12 Insert/Figure


\begin{figure}[htbp]
% [htbp] specifies the
% preferred placement: here, top,
=8-)
% bottom, or separate page.
\begin{center}
\texttt{=8-)}
Figure 1: A smiley representing the
\end{center}
author of this guide.
\caption{A smiley representing
the author of this guide.}
\label{fig:mysmiley}
\end{figure}


the main di¬erence with word processors is that ¬gures don™t have a ¬xed placement; they ˜¬‚oat™
to the optimal position that L TEX ¬nds for them. So, the text shouldn™t refer to a ¬gure like
A
˜the ¬gure below™ or ˜the ¬gure above™; rather, use ˜see Figure˜\ref{fig:label}™.
Owing to this property, ¬gures and tables are called ¬‚oats. If you do need to position a ¬‚oat
exactly, use the here package that provides an optional placement argument H.
Given a picture in Encapsulated PostScript (.eps) format, you insert it in a L TEX source ¬le
A
using the graphicx package and commands like those shown in Figure 2.


Gnuplot 3D graph

sin(x*x + y*y)/(x*x + y*y)
\begin{figure}
Z
\begin{center}
1
\fbox{\includegraphics 0.8
0.6
0.4
[width=0.5\textwidth, angle=-90] 0.2
0

{gnuplot.ps}} -0.2
-0.4

\caption{A Gnuplot graph.} 4
3
2
1
\label{fig:gnuplot} -4 0
-3
-2 Y
-1
-1
-2
0
1 -3
2
\end{center} X 3
4 -4



\end{figure}

Figure 2: A Gnuplot graph.

When you typeset your document with \latex then dvips, graphic inclusion only works with
EPS ¬les; pdflatex accepts JPG, PNG, and of course PDF ¬les.
There are several packages that convert common graphic formats like .jpg, .gif, .png etc. to
.eps; for example, ImageMagik (http://www.imagemagik.org) and The GIMP (http://www.
gimp.org). However, these applications produce huge PostScript ¬les.
Best results are obtained using applications that wrap the bitmap, turning it into a compact
PostScript ¬le. You™ll want to use jpeg2ps (http://www.pdflib.com/jpeg2ps/index.html)
or bmeps (CTAN://support/bmeps). The former is often the best choice for wrapping .jpg ¬les,
but the latter handles more graphics formats.


Z If you use PDFL TEX, you must convert your pictures to .pdf with the command epstopdf
A
and modify the source accordingly!



17
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.12 Insert/Figure


If you wish to make both .pdf and .ps from the same source ¬le, include these commands:

% define the variable \ifpdf
\newif\ifpdf
\ifx\pdfoutput\undefined
\pdffalse
\else
\pdfoutput=1
\pdftrue
\fi
...
% include the right options
\ifpdf
\usepackage[pdftex]{graphicx}
\pdfcompresslevel=9
\else
\usepackage{graphicx}
\fi
...
% include the right graphic file
\ifpdf
\includegraphics{file.pdf}
\else
\includegraphics{file.eps}
\fi



Z If you have more than 18 ¬gures without text between them, you™ll get the ˜Too many unpro-
cessed ¬‚oats™ L TEX error. The quickest way to solve this problem is to put \clearpage after
A
three or four ¬gures.



4.12.1 Wrapping Floats

For a magazine-like layout, use the wrap¬g package:
If you meet this guy, give him some money.

\begin{wrapfigure}[4]{l}[5pt]{2cm}
{\Huge If you meet this guy, give him some money.
\texttt{=8-)} The reason may not be apparent
}
to you, but I can assure that your
=8-)
\end{wrapfigure}
money will end up in good hands.
I say again, if you meet this guy,
The reason may not be apparent to you,
give him some money: he knows how to use it
but I can assure that your money
properly. OK?
will end up in good hands.
I say again, if you meet this guy,
give him some money: he knows how to
use it properly. OK?



18
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.13 Insert/Shapes


The parameters are the number of lines to be narrowed, the ¬gure placement, the overhang, and
the ¬gure width.
Another package to perform the same action is ¬‚oat¬‚t:
Sator arepo tenet opera rotas.
Sator arepo tenet opera rotas.
\begin{floatingtable}{
\small
Sator arepo tenet opera rotas. Sator arepo
\begin{tabular}{l}
tenet opera rotas.
\hline
Sator arepo tenet
\textbf{Floating table}\\ Floating table
opera rotas. Sator
Text flows around.\\ Text ¬‚ows around.
\hline arepo tenet opera
\end{tabular}} rotas. Sator arepo tenet opera rotas. Sator
\end{floatingtable}
arepo tenet opera rotas.
Sator arepo tenet opera rotas.
Sator arepo tenet opera rotas.
Sator arepo tenet opera rotas.
Sator arepo tenet opera rotas.


4.13 Insert/Shapes
L TEX provides a picture environment whithin which you use commands like \circle, \oval
A
and so on. In my opinion, drawing pictures without a graphical environment is just too hard,
and picture has several limitations too. It™s much better to use the epic and eepic packages
(include them in that order), together with the drawing program X¬g (http://www.xfig.org).
It™s only available for Unix.
X¬g looks ugly, but is very powerful. One of its greatest advantages is that it exports draw-
ings in several formats, among which is eepic macros. These, in turn, produce very compact
PostScript ¬les. Another bonus is that text objects will be rendered by L TEX if their ˜special
A
¬‚ag™ ¬eld is set, letting you enter ordinary L TEX formulae and symbols in drawings.
A

So, let™s suppose you made a drawing called small.fig. Select File/Export. . . and choose ˜LaTeX
picture + eepic macros™ from the Language menu. You™ll obtain another ¬le, small.eepic. To
include the drawing in a document:

This is a picture drawn with X¬g:

This is a picture ¨¥¦¤¢ 
£¡
§
drawn with Xfig:\\
\input{small.eepic}

©

 



Unfortunately, eepic doesn™t work with pdflatex. As an alternative, you should export the draw-
ing as ˜Combined PS/LaTeX (both parts)™. You™ll get two ¬les, small.pstex and small.pstex t.
Rename the latter to small.tex and edit it to insert these lines at the top:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{graphicx}

19
4 THE INSERT MENU 4.14 Insert/Line


\pagestyle{empty}
\begin{document}

and this line at the bottom:

\end{document}

Compile it as usual, convert the .ps to .eps and include it as explained in 4.12.
If you wish to do real magic, then check out pstricks: http://www.tug.org/applications/
PSTricks/. It lets you make ¬ne PostScript drawings in L TEX. Another wonderful pro-
A
gram is ePiX (http://mathcs.holycross.edu/˜ahwang/current/ePiX.html), specialised in
producing scienti¬c plots and ¬gures for inclusion in L TEX documents.
A



4.14 Insert/Line
Draw lines of any length and thickness with \rule:
This is a page-wide
This is a page-wide rule:
rule:\\
\rule{\linewidth}{1pt}
but this one is shorter but this one is shorter and thicker:
and thicker:\\
\rule{2cm}{2mm}

Another interesting ˜line™ is that made of dots (\dotfill), often used to relate things. This is
how it™s done:

Total price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¤ 10
Total price \dotfill \EUR˜10


4.15 Insert/Hyperlink
The url package lets you write URLs and have them hyphenated correctly. When used to-
gether with the package hyperref and dvipdf or pdflatex, url lets you make browseable .pdf
documents! For instance, this document uses this declaration:

\usepackage[colorlinks,urlcolor=blue,filecolor=magenta]{hyperref}
\usepackage{url}

Let™s see an example:
The \hypertarget{ctan}{CTAN} main site
is \url{http://www.ctan.org}, a.k.a
\href{http://www.ctan.org}{CTAN://}. The CTAN main site is http://www.ctan.
org, a.k.a CTAN://.
Listen to \href{run:midifile.mid}
Listen to this MIDI ¬le.
{this MIDI file}.
Click here to go back to the top.
Click \hyperlink{ctan}{here} to go
back to the top.

20
5 THE FORMAT MENU 4.16 Insert/Comment


The \hypertarget and \hyperlink commands provide internal links, just like HTML; \href
creates links to URLs or external ¬les. Note the run: parameter: you can run external programs
like multimedia players, o¬ce applications, whatever. As far as I know, this feature only works
using Acrobat Reader.
On Linux and possibly other Unix variants, you™ll have to instruct Acrobat what to run when
an external ¬le is referenced. Insert lines like the following in your .mailcap or /etc/mailcap:

audio/midi;/usr/bin/timidity %s
audio/*; xmms %s
video/*; xine -pfhq %s

Please read hyperref™s documentation for further examples and possibilities.

4.16 Insert/Comment
This is done inserting % before each line, or by using the package comment that provides the
environment of the same name.


5 The Format Menu
In general, the main format properties of a document are set with parameters in \documentclass:
default font size (10, 11, or 12pt), paper (a4paper, a5paper, b5paper, letterpaper, legalpaper,
executivepaper), and orientation (portrait, landscape). For example,

\documentclass[a5paper,landscape,12pt]{article}

Alternative font sizes can be speci¬ed as explained in Section 5.2.2.

5.1 Format/Line Spacing
The package setspace provide the environments singlespace, onehalfspace, and doublespace.
In addition, the environment/command \spacing{amount} will set the spacing to the speci¬ed
amount:
\begin{spacing}{2.5} These two lines
These two lines \\
are crazily spaced!
are crazily spaced!
\end{spacing}
\begin{spacing}{1}
Much better, these lines\\
Much better, these lines
have a pretty space.
have a pretty space.
\end{spacing}




21
5 THE FORMAT MENU 5.1 Format/Line Spacing




Text attribute Environment form Example
\textnormal main document font
textnormal
\textrm roman
rmfamily
\textit italics
itshape
\emph n/a emphasis
\textmd medium weight (default)
mdseries
\textbf boldface
bfseries
\textup upright (default)
upshape
\textsl slanted
slshape
\textsf sans serif
sffamily
\textsc scshape small caps
\texttt ttfamily typewriter
\underline underline
underline
this is superscript
\textsuperscript n/a
xn + yn = zn ∀n = 2
\mathrm n/a
xn + yn = zn ∀n = 2
\mathbf n/a
xn + yn = zn ∀n = 2
\mathsf n/a
xn + yn = zn ∀n = 2
\mathtt n/a

. 1
( 2)



>>