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ùèµ ¤à«üíå©øå© °à§°àá®òêè.
ϰ失òàâ«åíí»© ò°ó¤ àâò®°±ê®ã® ꮫ«åêòèâà ﮤ °óê®â®¤±ò⮬ ¤®ê-
ò®°à ﮫèòè·å±êèµ íàóê ï°®ôå±±®°à È.Í. Áà°»ãèíà â»ï®«íåí â ô®°¬å
àíà«èòè·å±ê®ã® ±ï°àâ®·íèêà, ·ò® ÿâ«ÿåò±ÿ ¤®±ò®èí±ò⮬ ¤àíí®ã® 觤à-
íèÿ è ⻤å«ÿåò åã® ±°å¤è á«è§êèµ ï® ï°®ôè«þ °àá®ò è è±±«å¤®âàíè©.
Îò«è·èòå«üí®© ®±®áåíí®±òüþ êíèãè ÿâ«ÿåò±ÿ ò®, ·ò® àâò®°» ï®ï»òà-
«è±ü ﮤ ±ï°àâ®·í®å 觤àíèå ﮤâå±òè ±å°üå§íóþ òå®°åòè·å±êóþ è ¬åò®-
¤®«®ãè·å±êóþ ®±í®âó ¬®í®ã°àôè·å±ê®ã® ±®¤å°¦àíèÿ.
ݬïè°è·å±êóþ ®±í®âó ï°å¤±òàâ«åíí®ã® è±±«å¤®âàíèÿ ±®±òàâ«ÿåò ꮬ-
ï«åê±í»© ±°àâíèòå«üí»© ¬åò®¤ àíà«è§à ï°®ã°à¬¬í»µ ¤®êó¬åíò®â ﮫè-
òè·å±êèµ ïà°òè©, ®°ãàíè§àöè© è ¤âè¦åíè© ®áùå°®±±è©±ê®ã® è °åãè®-
íà«üí®ã® ó°®âíå©, à òàê¦å ±â»øå ±òà ®òå·å±òâåíí»µ è §à°óáå¦í»µ è±-
±«å¤®âàíè© ï® ¤àíí®© ï°®á«å¬àòèêå, âê«þ·àÿ ±ï°àâ®·í»å ¬àòå°èà«».
‚±å ýò® ï°å¤®ï°å¤å«ÿåò íàó·íóþ öåíí®±òü ¤àíí®ã® 觤àíèÿ, òàê êàê
øè°®êàÿ í®âè§íà ï°å¤±òàâ«åíí»µ ±ï°àâ®·í»µ ¬àòå°èà«®â, ﮤê°åï«åí-

å¦åáó° àí èè±±®Ð ©®ííå¬å°â®± èèöà§èíàã°® è ÿèíå¦è⤠,èèò°àï åèê±å·èòè«®Ï *
-®«©àµèÌ ®â-¤§È :.áÏ‘ .àíèã»°àÁ .Í.È .¤å° ¤®Ï / êèí·®âà°ï± ©èê±å·èòè«àíÀ :9991 :â®êåâ
.± 802 — .9991 ,.À.‚ àâ
199
À.È. „åíè±®â. ‘òàí®â«åíèå ïà°òè©í®© ±è±ò嬻

íàÿ èíòå°å±í»¬è àâò®°±êè¬è àíà«èòè·å±êè¬è °à§°àá®òêà¬è, ±®-
§¤àåò ïàí®°à¬í®å ï°å¤±òàâ«åíèå ® ï°®öå±±å ±òàí®â«åíèÿ ¬í®ã®-
ïà°òè©í®© ﮫèòè·å±ê®© ±è±ò嬻 ±®â°å¬åíí®© Ю±±èè.
Êàê®âà ¦å ±ò°óêòó°à êíèãè è ã«àâí»å â»â®¤», ï°å¤«àãàå¬»å ·èòàòå-
«þ àâò®°à¬è? ‚® ââå¤åíèè ±ï°àâ夫èâ® ®ò¬å·àåò±ÿ, ·ò® ï®±«å ᮫åå ·å¬
±å¬è¤å±ÿòè«åòèÿ °®±±è©±ê®© ®¤í®ïà°òè©í®±òè ⧰»â®®á°à§í»© â»ï«åê±
±à¬»µ °à§í®®á°à§í»µ ﮫèòè·å±êèµ ï®§èöè© íå ¬®ã íå ¤àòü «¬í®ã®ïà°-
òè©í®ã® ⧰»âà». ‘ ê®íöà 1980-µ ãã. ï® íà±ò®ÿùåå â°å¬ÿ íà ﮫèòè·å±-
ꮩ à°åíå Ю±±èè §àÿâè«è ® ±åáå ᮫åå 5 ò»±ÿ· ïà°òè© è ¤âè¦åíè© (±. 7).
Ï°®öå±± ±òàí®â«åíèÿ ïà°òè©í®© ±è±ò嬻 â Ю±±èè ¤à«åê® íå §àê®í-
·åí, ï®ýò®¬ó â á«è¦à©øåå â°å¬ÿ, µ®òÿ è íå ± òàꮩ èíòåí±èâí®±òüþ, ®í
áó¤åò ï°®¤®«¦àòü±ÿ. Ýò®ò â»â®¤, ï® ¬»±«è àâò®°®â, ®á󱫮â«èâàåò±ÿ òå¬,
·ò® â ±ò°àíå ¤® ±èµ ï®° íå §àê®í·åí ïå°åµ®¤í»© ïå°è®¤ ôóí¤à¬åíòà«ü-
í®ã® ¤å«å¦à â«à±òè è ±®á±òâåíí®±òè, íåò ±«®¦èâø婱ÿ ±ò°óêòó°» ¬à±±®-
⻵ è êर®â»µ ïà°òè©, à ±à¬è ïà°òèè è ﮫèòè·å±êèå «è¤å°» â ï°®öå±-
±å ï®±ò®ÿíí®ã® ¬àíåâ°è°®âàíèÿ ¬åíÿþò ±â®è ﮧèöèè ï®°®© ±ò®«ü °å§-
ê®, ·ò® ï°åâ°àùàþò±ÿ è§ «¤å¬®ê°àò®â» â «ê®í±å°âàò®°®â» è íà®á®°®ò.
Á®«üøèí±òâ® ïà°òè© è ¤âè¦åíè© ï® ±óòè ÿâ«ÿþò±ÿ «áàá®·êà¬è-®¤í®-
¤íåâêà¬è», å¤âà §àÿâèâ ® ±åáå, ®íè òóò ¦å è±·å§àþò ⠫ﮫèòè·å±ê®å
íåá»òèå».
‚ ±ï°àâ®·íèêå ï°àâè«üí® ã®â®°èò±ÿ, ·ò® ±®ã«à±í® §íà·è¬®±òè â ﮫè-
òè·å±ê®© ¦è§íè ±ò°àí» â±å ®±í®âí»å ïà°òèè è ¤âè¦åíèÿ ¬®¦í® ⻤å-
«èòü ï® ±«å¤óþùè¬ ê°èòå°èÿ¬:
— íà«è·èå ±®á±òâåíí®© ô°àêöèè ï® ê°à©íå© ¬å°å â ¤âóµ è§ ò°åµ ±®-
±òàâ®â °®±±è©±ê®ã® ïà°«à¬åíòà â òå·åíèå â±åã® ïå°è®¤à èµ ¤åÿòå«üí®±òè;
— íà«è·èå ±à¬®±ò®ÿòå«üí»µ òå°°èò®°èà«üí»µ ±ò°óêòó° â ᮫üøèí-
±òâå °åãè®í®â;
— íà«è·èå ±â®èµ ï°å¤±òàâèòå«å© â êàáèíåòå ¬èíè±ò°®â.
Ýòè¬ ó±«®âèÿ¬ â Ю±±èè ó¤®â«åòâ®°ÿþò íå±ê®«üê® ®°ãàíè§àöè©. Ýò® —
ÊÏД, Ë„ÏÐ, «ß᫮ꮻ, „‚Ð, ÀÏÐ (àã°à°èè). ‚ ïå°±ïåêòèâå íà ýò® ¬å±ò®
¬®¦åò ï°åòåí¤®âàòü «…¤èí±òâ®».
‚ ïå°â®¬ °à§¤å«å ±ï°àâ®·íèêà, ï®±âÿùåíí®¬ó àíà«è§ó ±òàí®â«åíèÿ
±®â°å¬åíí®© °®±±è©±ê®© ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©í®±òè, óê৻âàåò±ÿ, ·ò® ï°è ê«à±-
±èôèêàöèè ïà°òè©í»µ ±è±òå¬ â® âíè¬àíèå ï°èíè¬àåò±ÿ ꮬï«åê±í»©
ê°èòå°è©, â ê®ò®°»© âê«þ·àþò:
— ·è±«® ïà°òè©;
— íà«è·èå è«è ®ò±óò±òâèå ¤®¬èíè°óþùå© ïà°òèè è«è ê®à«èöèè;
— ó°®âåíü ±®°åâí®âàòå«üí®±òè ¬å¦¤ó ïà°òèÿ¬è;
— íà«è·èå è«è ®ò±óò±òâèå ¬í謮© è è±êó±±òâåíí®© ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©í®-
±òè.
Ï°è ýò®¬, ﮤ è±êó±±òâåíí®© ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©í®±òüþ ï®íè¬àåò±ÿ íà«è-
·èå ±°å¤è ý«å¬åíò®â ïà°òè©í®© ±è±ò嬻 ïà°òè©-±àòå««èò®â ê°óïí®©
ïà°òèè, ﮤ ¬í謮© ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©í®±òüþ — íà«è·èå ±°å¤è §à°åãè±ò°è°®-
âàíí»µ íà ôå¤å°à«üí®¬ ó°®âíå ý«å¬åíò®â, ê®ò®°»å íå ®òâå·àþò ò°åá®-
âàíèÿ¬, ï°å¤úÿâ«ÿ嬻¬ ê ﮫèòè·å±ê®© ïà°òèè (±. 12).
Ï®ýò®¬ó ±®â°å¬åííàÿ ïà°òè©íàÿ ±è±òå¬à Ю±±èè, è±µ®¤ÿ è§ ýòèµ ê°è-
òå°èåâ, ¬®¦åò á»òü ®µà°àêòå°è§®âàíà êàê ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©íàÿ ± ý«å¬åíòà¬è
200 Æó°íà« ±®ö讫®ãèè è ±®öèà«üí®© àíò°®ï®«®ãèè. 2001. ’®¬ IV. ¹ 1

¬í謮© è è±êó±±òâåíí®© ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©í®±òè. Îá ýò®¬ óáå¤èòå«üí®
ã®â®°ÿò òàêèå ôàêò». Á®«üøèí±òâ® ïà°òè© è è§áè°àòå«üí»µ á«®-
ê®â, §à°åãè±ò°è°®âàíí»µ –åíò°è§áè°ê®¬®¬ â ±âÿ§è ± ïà°«à¬åíò-
±êè¬è â»á®°à¬è, ±óùå±òâ®âà«è ò®«üê® íà ¬®¬åíò °åãè±ò°àöèè.
’àê, ó±ïåøí® ï°®øå¤øàÿ °åãè±ò°àöèþ Ê®í±å°âàòèâíàÿ ïà°òèÿ Ëüâà
“ᮦê®, ⠤婱òâèòå«üí®±òè ÿâ«ÿåò±ÿ ã°óïﮩ è§ íå±ê®«üêèµ
¤å±ÿòê®â ·å«®âåê «â °à¬êൠ‘मâ®ã® ꮫüöà» â Ì®±êâå, ò.å.
ý«å¬åíò®¬ è±êó±±òâåíí®© ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©í®±òè. ”àêòè·å±êè© ê°àµ
Í„Ð, á«®êà È. лáêèíà, ïà°òèè Ëþáèòå«å© ïèâà ï®ê৻âàåò, ·ò®
ã°óïïè°®âêà, ±®§¤àííàÿ ¤«ÿ °åøåíèÿ òàêòè·å±êèµ §à¤à· ¬®¬åíòà
— ýò® ¬íè¬àÿ ïà°òèÿ-®¤í®¤íåâêà.
‚ ±ï°àâ®·íèêå ¤®±òàò®·í® ﮤ°®áí® ®ïè±»âàåò±ÿ ±à¬ ï°®öå±± ±òà-
í®â«åíèÿ ¬í®ã®ïà°òè©í®±òè â Ю±±èè, ⻤å«ÿþò±ÿ åã® ®±í®âí»å ýòàï» è
±°å§» è èµ ±â®å®á°à§èå.
’àê, ¤«ÿ ïå°â®ã® ýòàïà (1985–1991 ãã.) á»«è ±â®©±òâåíí» ±«å¤óþùèå
®±®áåíí®±òè:
— â ïå°è®¤ ± âå±í» 1985 ã. ï® ¤åêàá°ü 1991 ã. â Ю±±èè ﰮ觮ø«à
ï®±òåïåííàÿ §à¬åíà ®¤í®ïà°òè©í®© ﮫèòè·å±ê®© ±è±ò嬻 íà ¬í®ã®ïà°-
òè©íóþ;
— âí®âü ±®§¤àíí»å ﮫèòè·å±êèå ïà°òèè â òå·åíèå â±åã® ïå°è®¤à
®±òàâà«è±ü ¬à«®·è±«åíí»¬è è íå è¬å«è ±®«è¤í»µ ®°ãàíè§àöè®íí»µ ±ò°óê-
òó° â ¬à±øòàáå ±ò°àí»;
— ã«àâí®© ﮫèòè·å±ê®© ±è«®©, ®ïﮧèöè®íí®© ÊÏ‘‘, ±òà« ¬å¦ïà°-
òè©í»© è íà¤ïà°òè©í»© á«®ê, ÿ¤°®¬ ê®ò®°®ã® ÿâ«ÿ«®±ü ¤âè¦åíèå «„å-
¬®ê°àòè·å±êàÿ Ю±±èÿ»;
— íà¤ïà°òè©í»© µà°àêòå° ï®§â®«è« «è¤å°à¬ «„л ó±òàí®âèòü ê®íò-
°®«ü íठ°®±±è©±êè¬ ïà°«à¬åíò®¬ è â»èã°àòü ï°å§è¤åíò±êèå â»á®°» â
èþíå 1991 ã.
„à«åå ⠰৤å«å °à±±¬àò°èâàþò±ÿ ôàêò®°» °à§âèòèÿ, ï°®á«å¬» òèï®-
«®ãèè è ïå°±ïåêòèâ» °à§«è·í»µ ﮫèòè·å±êèµ ïà°òè© ±®â°å¬åíí®© Ю±-
±èè. Îò¬å·àåò±ÿ, ·ò® ±®â°å¬åíí»© ýòàï ô®°¬è°®âàíèÿ ïà°òè© òå±í® ±âÿ§àí
± ê®í±òèòóöè®íí®© è è§áè°àòå«üí®© °åô®°¬à¬è 1993 ã. ‚âå¤åíèå â Ю±-
±èè «±¬åøàíí®© íå±âÿ§àíí®©» ý«åêò®°à«üí®© ô®°¬ó«», ±®ã«à±í® ê®ò®-
°®© ®¤íà ﮫ®âèíà íè¦íå© ïà«àò» ïà°«à¬åíòà è§áè°àåò±ÿ ï® ®¤í®¬àí-
¤àòí»¬ ®ê°óãà¬ ï® ±è±òå¬å ï°®±ò®ã® ᮫üøèí±òâà, à ¤°óãàÿ ﮫ®âèíà –
ï® ±ïè±êଠïà°òè© è ê®à«èöè© â å¤èí®¬ ®áùåíàöè®íà«üí®¬ ®ê°óãå, ±»ã-
°à«® °®«ü êàòà«è§àò®°à ïà°òè©í®ã® °à§âèòèÿ (±. 46). Ȭåíí® °åøàþùåå
⮧¤å©±òâèå íà ±ò°óêòó°è°®âàíèå °®±±è©±ê®© ïà°òè©í®© ±è±ò嬻 ®êà§à-
«è è§áè°àòå«üí»å êà¬ïàíèè ï® â»á®°à¬ â î±ó¤à°±òâåííóþ „ó¬ó. Íå
±òà«è è±ê«þ·åíèå¬ è ïà°«à¬åíò±êèå â»á®°» â ¤åêàá°å 1999 ã., â µ®¤å
ê®ò®°»µ á»«è ±®§¤àí» í®â»å ïà°òè©í»å ±ò°óêòó°» — «…¤èí±òâ®», «‘Ï‘»,
΂Ð. Íå«ü§ÿ íå ï°è§íàòü, ·ò® â»á®°» ®êà§à«è±ü ¦å±òêè¬ ¬åµàí觬®¬
ïà°òè©í®© ±å«åêöèè, óø«è ⠰৬å¦åâàíèå ®áùå±òâà ï® è¤å©í®¬ó ï°è-
§íàêó, ï°åâ°àòèâ ïà°òèè â §íà·è¬»© êàíà« ô®°¬è°®âàíèÿ ﮫèòè·å±ê®©
ý«èò» è óê°åïèâ â«èÿíèå ïà°òè© íå ò®«üê® íà íàöè®íà«üí»å, í® è íà
°åãè®íà«üí»å â«à±òí»å ±ò°óêòó°».
‚ ¤àíí®¬ °à§¤å«å ᮫üø®å âíè¬àíèå ó¤å«ÿåò±ÿ òèﮫ®ãèè °®±±è©-
201
À.È. „åíè±®â. ‘òàí®â«åíèå ïà°òè©í®© ±è±ò嬻

±êèµ ïà°òè© è èµ ê«à±±èôèêàöèè ï® °à§«è·í»¬ ê°èòå°èÿ¬ è ¬®¤å-
«ÿ¬. ‘ï°àâ夫èâ® óê৻âàåò±ÿ, ·ò® â ®±í®âå ᮫üøèí±òâà ê«à±-
±èôèêàöè© °®±±è©±êèµ ïà°òè© «å¦èò ¬®¤å«ü ±ò°óêòó°è°®âàíèÿ
ïà°òèÿ¬è ﮫÿ è¤å®«®ãè·å±êèµ à«üòå°íàòèâ, ®ïè°àþùàÿ±ÿ íà òå-
®°èþ «±ò°óêòó°» °à±ê®«à» ‘. Ëèï±åòà è ‘. Юêêàíà (±. 59).
‘®ã«à±í® ýò®© ¬®¤å«è, à«üòå°íàòèâ» ïà°òè©í®ã® °à§âèòèÿ ®ï°å-
¤å«ÿþò±ÿ íàè᮫åå §íà·è¬»¬è, ôóí¤à¬åíòà«üí»¬è °à±ê®«à¬è ï®
®±í®âí»¬ â®ï°®±à¬ ®áùå±òâåíí®© ¦è§íè:
— °à±ê®«» ¬å¦¤ó ±®á±òâåííèêà¬è è °àá®òíèêà¬è;
— öå°ê®âüþ è ±âåò±êè¬ ®áùå±ò⮬;
— öåíò°®¬ è ïå°èôå°èå©;
— ã®°®¤®¬ è ±å«®¬.
αí®âí»¬è «èíèÿ¬è °à±ê®«à ®á»·í® ±·èòàþò±ÿ ®òí®øåíèÿ òåµ è«è
èí»µ ïà°òè©:
— ê °»í®·í®© ýê®í®¬èêå è ·à±òí®© ±®á±òâåíí®±òè (««èáå°à«»» –
«ýòàòè±ò»»);
— ê ®òê°»ò®±òè ±ò°àí» ï® ®òí®øåíèþ ê Çàïà¤ó.
Îïè°àÿ±ü íà ýòè ﮤµ®¤», àâò®°» 觤àíèÿ °à±±¬àò°èâàþò °à§«è·í»å
¬®¤å«è ﮫèòè·å±êèµ ïà°òè© è«è «±å¬å©»:
• áèﮫÿ°íóþ — ««èáå°à«üí»å ¬®¤å°íè§àò®°»» ï°®òèâ «ïàò°èà°µà«ü-
í»µ ò°à¤èöè®íà«è±ò®â»;
• ò°åµ·«åííóþ:
— «¤å¬®ê°àò»-°åô®°¬è±ò»»;
— «ê®¬¬óíè±ò»-ò°à¤èöè®íà«è±ò»»;
— «íàöè®íà«-ïàò°è®ò»»;
• ·åò»°åµ·«åííóþ:
— ïà°òèÿ â«à±òè;
— ¤å¬®ê°àò»;
— ꮬ¬óíè±ò»;
— íàöè®íà«è±ò»;
• ïÿòè·«åííóþ:
— ꮬ¬óíè±ò»;
— öåíò°è±ò» (±®öèà«è±ò»);
— íàöè®íà«è±ò» (ã®±ó¤à°±òâåííèêè);
— «èáå°à«» (¤å¬®ê°àò»);
— ïà°òèÿ â«à±òè.
‚±å ýòè ¬®¤å«è °à§«è·àþò±ÿ «èøü ±òåïåíüþ ¤åòà«è§àöèè. Ï®ýò®¬ó
¤å±ÿòè«åòèå ï®±òꮬ¬óíè±òè·å±ê®ã® ïà°òè©í®ã® °à§âèòèÿ â Ю±±èè
(1988–1998 ãã.) ¤àåò ®±í®âàíèå ¤«ÿ ò®ã®, ·ò®á» ±·èòàòü ﮫèòè·å±êèå
ïà°òèè íå®òú嬫嬻¬ ý«å¬åíò®¬ ï®±ò±®âåò±ê®© ﮫèòè·å±ê®© ±è±ò嬻.
Ïå°â®© íåꮬ¬óíè±òè·å±ê®© ﮫèòè·å±ê®© ïà°òèå© â Ю±±èè ±·èòàåò±ÿ
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stcartsbA

EDITOR’S PREFACE
Kozlovsky V. Professionalism and Dilettantism in Sociology
This article attempts to define the professionalism and dilettantism in sociology
and the relation of scientific community to a general public. The conception of
a scientific journal as JSSA stands in close connection with such problematics.

SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with the President of ISA Prof. Alberto Martinelli
Prof. Alberto Martinelli answers questions of the JSSA assistant editor
A. Tavrovsky concerning his biography, scientific career, and problems of
sociology’s development in a modern world. The bibliography of Prof.
Martinelli’s works is provided.

SOCIOLOGY’S CLASSICS OF THE XXth CENTURY
Braslavsky R. The Works of Werner Sombart in Russia
The brief overview of W. Sombart’s works in Russia is presented. It
introduces the publication of some essential fragments of W. Sombart’s «Jews
and Economic Life».

Sombart W. Jews and Economic Life
The republication of some fragments of W. Sombart’s «Jews and Economic
Life» published in Russian in 1912.

Sombart W. Introduction
An introduction into the book «Sociology» edited by W. Sombart in 1922
and translated into Russian in 1926.

Shpakova R. Werner Sombart: Waiting for the Àcknowledgement
The author considers some important aspects in the science of German
sociologist Werner Sombart, one of the most eminent theoreticians of XXth
century. The article deals with analyses of the real opportunities and boundaries
of sociological cognition. It is shown that the solution to the main task set in
his concept — to complete Marx’ theory — has opened many new problems
in various branches of sociology and philosophy. In conclusion it is recognized
some fruitful ideas are contained in Sombart’s theoretical heritage which are
topical for the methodology and theory of science of our days.

Kapitonov E. Sombart’s Sociology of the Economic Systems and
Modernity
The article aims at reconstructing Sombart’s conception of evolutionary
development of capitalism and its spirit from heroic stage through trade
(commercial) stage into modern one. The concluding part exploits an
explanatory potential of Sombart’s theory in relation to modernity.

RUSSIA IN TERMS OF SOCIAL MACROANALYSIS
Achiezer A. Archaization as a Social Science Category (Russia’s Experience)
This article analyses the historical experience of Russian society in terms
204 Æó°íà« ±®ö讫®ãèè è ±®öèà«üí®© àíò°®ï®«®ãèè. 2001. ’®¬

of archaization that is the mass activation of the archaic
layers of culture as a response to society crisis and innovation
process.

Kirdina S. The Theory of Institutional Matrices: toward the New Paradigm
Following the institutional approach this article proposes the theory of
institutional matrices as a way to a new paradigm in sociology. The central
notion is «basic institution» which is the stable type of social practice. Basic
institutions regulating the subsystems of politics, economy, and ideology form
the «institutional matrix» of society. Two major types of them are distinguished:
Eastern (non-market economy, centralized organization, communitarian values)
emerging in a communal environment and Western (market economy, federal
organization, individualistc values) emerging in a non-communal environment.
In every society one matrix dominates and the other is complementary. For
example in Russia dominates Eastern matrix with the elements of Western
one. The complementary institutions function as a conscious device to provide
social equilibrium. The lost of balance leads to a social crisis. Further
development of this theory will be presented in the second edition of the book
«The institutional matrices and the development of Russia»

RUSSIA VIEWED BY WESTERN SCIENTISTS
Schrader H. The Role of Pawnshops in the Life Strategies of Lower
Income Groups — A Preliminary Study in St. Petersburg
In the context of development research the importance of pawnshops as
«banks for the poor» is emphasized. This approach is also very important for
transformation societies, where everyday life provides an insecure environment
for the population. The hypothesis of this research which was conducted with
students of the third year of Social Anthropology Department (St. Petersburg
State University) was that lombard houses provide important financial institutions
in the survival strategies of poor households. Field research took place during
summer 1998 in St. Petersburg on the basis of a questionnaire with pawnshop
customers, interviews with directors and secondary material. Our research has
shown that the average customer of the investigated state-owned lombard
house, as well as the joint-stock company belong to low-income households.
On the other hand, very poor do not belong to the customers of lombard
houses, because they have nothing to offer for pawn. However, not only lower
income people are debtors for lombard houses. Other customers belong to the
newly emerging middle-class.

Hölscher B., Dittrich R. Advertising and the Russian Way of Media
Reception
Like a mirrow and in a sense of moments of construction social reality,
contributions of mass media, as well as advertising, influence the perception
and formation of market economical shaped lifestyles. They refer to the state
of social unequalities. Certainly with different signs the relevance of such
considerations gain for comparative research in Easteurope. In this meaning
evolution processes of society should be beared in mind, when doing
205
Abstracs

intercultural comparisions. The intention of this paper is to
elucidate the point to western readers, that advertising in
Russia is perceived like informations. A further object is to
present some social structural criteria of the reception of
advertising by the example St. Petersburg. Based upon an
available media research study for St. Petersburg and upon
the experiences of the authors, who had stayed in this city
for research work several times, the three most spreaded
journals are described with regard to the contents and the
audiences presented along attributes, which are relevant for
identifing target groups. It should become evident, that
market economical ways of life, like they are established in
Westeurope, in case of Russia have to be diagnosed in a
different way. On this sphere, which is only little explored
till now, the presented paper would like to give some ideas,
which are summarized in form of theses.

ESSAY
Achkasov V. Russia as a Traditional Society in the Process of
Destruction
Author tries to answer the question about reasons of failures of Russian
liberalism and liberal reforms. He notes that Russia is not managed by general
rules and demonstrates the strong basement of social relations’ quality and
traditional views even in conditions of radical changes. The «overtaking»
modernisation in Russia creates only «islands of modernity» in traditional
society. The main way of its realization is the so-called great «imitation». It
creates only imitation of whole society involving in process of reforms, which
is came\initiated from\by the government. But the society in its structure and
in its mentality is not ready for radical changes. The sharp break with the past
leads only to symbolic and formal changes, and after some time old order
comes back. In this situation tradition serves as the definition of reforms’
limits and as their legitimation.

NEWS / INFORMATION
Consortium of Academic Journals of Social Sciences and Humanities
Published in Central and Eastern European Countries (Easteurojournals)

SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS
Russian Society of Sociologists

NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Osipov I.D. Zamaleev A.F. Lectures on the History of Russian Philosophy:
XI–XX century
Denisov A.I. The Political System Formation in the Post-soviet Russia
THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY
A new scientific quarterly «The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology» was organized
in 1998.
Editor V. Kozlovsky, St. Petersburg, Russia
Vice-editors: I. Golosenko, St. Petersburg
A. Duka, St. Petersburg
N. Skvortsov, St. Petersburg
A. Boronoev, St. Petersburg
S. Golod, St. Petersburg
D. Gavra, St. Petersburg
Assistant editor A. Tavrovsky, St. Petersburg

Editorial board
H. Abels (Hagen, Germany), E. Asp (Turku, Finland), V. Bocharov (St. Petersburg), J.-M. Berthe-
lot (Paris, France), A. Daiksel (Hamburg, Germany), V. Fedotova (Moscow), S. Grigoriev (Bar-
naul, Russia), H. Harbach (Bielefeld, Germany), V. Harnahoev (Irkutsk), V. Iljin (Moscow),
Y. Kachanov (Moscow), N. Koposov (St. Petersburg), E. Lange (Bielefeld, Germany), R. Mogi-
levsky (St. Petersburg), K. M¤nicke-Gyöngyösi (Berlin, Germany), N. Pokrovsky (Moscow),
H. Schrader (St. Petersburg), V. Semenov (St. Petersburg), R. Spakova (St. Petersburg), V. Volkov
(St. Petersburg)

Objectives:
General goals of the JSSA are:
• organization and widening of communicative space for interaction between Russian and
foreign sociologists and social anthropologists;
• promotion of discussions on urgent issues of sociology and social anthropology;
• information of professionals and public about the events of international and national
sociological communities;
• exchange of teaching experience in fields of sociology and social anthropology.
The Journal is published four times a year. These four issues constitute one volume. A
volume contents and author index is bound in the last issue.
The Journal accepts original manuscripts.
The structure of the issue: key presentations (main articles on theoretical and methodological
problems of contemporary sociology and social anthropology); surveys and research; essays and
publicism; discussions and debates; teaching of sociology and social anthropology; book reviews;
conference announcements and reports.
Call for papers
The Journal accepts original manuscripts, which are not under consideration by another
publication at the time of submission. Articles should not exceed 40000 symbols (for key
presentations), 20000 symbols for other articles, 8000 symbols for book reviews and conference
information.
Submissions: author should submit two typed copies of their manuscript along with a file
copy saved onto a 3,5 floppy disc. Where possible, the file should be saved in the Word for
Windows format or «Text» format. References should be placed at the end of the article.
The brief information about the author (including: name and surname, birth date, current
position, scientific degrees, research fields, 1–2 main publications, address, telephone number,
E-mail address, and abstract in Russian and English (100–150 words) should be provided.
Web-address of the Journal: http://www.soc.pu.ru/publications/jssa/home.html
Contact address:
Vladimir Kozlovski, Faculty of Sociology, St. Petersburg State University, Smolnogo str. 1/
3. Entr. 9, 193060 St. Petersburg, Russia
Telephone: +007 (812) 2719223
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‘®ö讫®ãè·å±ê®å ®áùå±òâ® è¬. Ì.Ì. Ê®âà«åâ±ê®ã®.
193060, ‘àíêò-Ïåòå°áó°ã, ó«. ‘¬®«üí®ã®, ¤. 1/3, 9-© ﮤú姤.
”àêó«üòåò ±®ö讫®ãèè ‘ÏáÓ.

Îòïå·àòàí® ± ¤èàﮧèòèâ®â â òèï®ã°àôèè ÎÎÎ ’ÏÎ «‘òè«ü».
198005, ‘àíêò-Ïåòå°áó°ã, •è¬è·å±êè© ïå°., ¤. 12, «èò. „1.

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