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- yooaeoeaii oaaey?o aa?anneaiua aacu ec oeiaiaii?e-
uaiiie aiau.
Aeaaiui yeaiaioii aaeooiii-y?aeoeiiiie onoaiiaee ya-
eyaony y?aeoi? niaoeaeuiie eiino?oeoee, eioi?ue i?aanoaaey-

– 173 –
ao niaie ianeieuei iineaaiaaoaeuii ?aniiei?aiiuo nooiaiae,
ninoiyueo ec eiiooci?a e eaia? niaoaiey. Ea?aay iineaao?-
uay nooiaiu y?aeoi?a aieuoa i?aauaouae eae ii aeaiao?o, oae
e ii aeeia.
Aiaiaicaooiue iioie, i?ioiay ?a?ac nooiaie y?aeoi?a,
iiaaa?aaaony ana aieuoaio eciaeu?aie?, ainoeaay ninoiyiey
yioeunee, aeaaiaa?y ?aio nicaaaony aanuia cia?eoaeuiay iiaa?-
oiinou eiioaeoa ?aca?iaeaiiuo eaiaeu aiau n aicaooii.
Ainoeaay i?e yoii iiaa?oiinoe eiioaeoa, ainoeaaaony ii-
oeiaeuiia oneiaea aey eioaineaiiai auaaeaiey naiaiaiie aao-
ieene oaea?iaa ec aiau a aaciao? oaco.
I?aaeaaaaiue iaoia ii?ao auou eniieuciaai naiinoiyoaeuii
eee a eiiaeiaoee n aaea?aiiecaoi?ii.
Iaie i?iaaaaii ianeaaiaaiea ninoiyiey OAI ia OYO-1 e
OYO-2 a. Aie?neiai, OYO-2 a. Aieaia?aaa e i?aainoaaeaii oao-
ieei-yeiiiie?aneia iainiiaaiea oaaeaiey aa?anneaiuo aacia ec
iiaieoi?iie e ieoaoaeuiie aiau oaieinaoe io aiaa?aiey aaeo-
oiii-y?aeoeiiiiai iaoiaa, ?oi iicaieeei naaeaou auaia i oa-
eaniia?aciinoe aiaa?aiey aaiiuo onoaiiaie.
Iiei?eoaeuiue aaeain yeiiiie?aneiai yooaeoa io i?aa-
iieaaaaiiai aiaa?aiey aaeooiii-y?aeoeiiiuo onoaiiaie aaao
aicii?iinou iaaayouny ia oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea AYO ia AYN,
A?YN, OYO, OOI e a eioaeuiuo.



AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIA? NENOAIA OI?AAEAIE?
OAOIIEIAE?ANEEI I?IOANNII YEAAAOI?A
IAI «IIAIE?UA»
A.A. Aieiaei, O.I. Aieiaeia, A.A. ?o?ei

A aaiiie noaoua i?aanoaaeaia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia
oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae?aneei i?ioannii yeaaaoi?a, aiaa?yaiay
ia IAI «Iiaie?ua», iicaiey?uay aaoiiaoece?iaaou aanu eiii-
eaen i?eiaiyaiiai oaoiieiae?aneiai iai?oaiaaiey, nieceou yia?-
aicao?aou e iioa?e i?iaoeoa i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea e o?aiaiee
ca?ia, a oae?a iiauneou ac?uaiaaciianiinou i?iecaianoaa ii
ia?a?aaioea ca?ia.


– 174 –
Aaoiiaoecaoey oaoiieiae?aneiai i?ioanna yeaaaoi?a inoua-
noaeyaony ia iniiaa aiia?aoii-oaoie?aneeo e i?ia?aiiiuo n?aanoa
ii aei?ii-iiaoeuiiio i?eioeio e eaaei ia?ano?aeaaaony iia
eciaiaiey oaoiieiae?aneiai i?ioanna. Nenoaia ioee?aaony auni-
eeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ii iaaa?iinoe, iiiaoicaueuaiiinoe,
naiioanoe?iaaie? e aeaaiinoeea iaeni?aaiinoae yeaeo?iiai?o-
aiaaiey. Ii i?eioeio iino?iaiey ANO OI ioiineony e eeanno
naoaauo nenoai oi?aaeaiey. Iiaee??aiea e ia?eoa?eeiiio iai-
?oaiaaie? e aao?eeai i?iecaiaeony ?a?ac oi?aaey?uea noai-
oee (i?iiuoeaiiua eiio?ieea?u), naycaiiua i?iiuoeaiiie
eioi?iaoeiiiie naou? PROFIBUS. Aiia?aoo?a eiiieaena iie-
iinou? naiinoiyoaeuia io oi?aaeyaiiai yeaeo?iiai?oaiaaiey.
A iauai aaoiiaoecaoee aoiaeo oi?aaeaiea anaie ia?o?ooa-
ie aioo?e yeaaaoi?iiai o?ainii?oa ia?aea?ee ca?ia, i?eaia n
?A e aaoio?ainii?oa, aee??ay oi?aaeaiea caaae?eaie e ia?a-
eeaiuie eeaiaiaie, a oae?a niioonoao?ueie nenoaiaie anie-
?aoee. I?iaeoii i?aaoniio?aiu neaao?uea aeau oi?aaeaiey:
ianoiia n eiaeaeaoaeuiuo ioeuoia oi?aaeaiey e aenoaioeii-
iia n aeiee?iaeie e yeaiaioaie aaoiiaoeee.
Aiaa?aiea nenoaiu aaoiiaoe?aneiai oi?aaeaiey e aecoaee-
caoee iicaieyao:
• inouanoaeyou iia?aoeaiue nai? e ia?aaioeo aaiiuo i ni-
noiyiee ia?eoa?eeiiai iai?oaiaaiey, iaoaieciia, aao-
?eeia, o?ainii?oa?ia, o. a.;
• iaania?eaaou iai?a?uaiia aeaaiinoe?iaaiea e iaia?o?a-
iea aaa?ee e ioeeiiaiee io oaoiieiae?aneiai i?ioanna,
n auaa?ae aaa?eeiie neaiaeecaoee e n iiiaauaieai i
oa?aeoa?a iaeni?aaiinoe e ia?ao, i?aai?eiyouo ii i?a-
aioa?auaie? ia?aeaoaeuiuo iineaanoaee (aeiee?iaee
iai?oaiaaiey, inoaiiau ia?o?ooia);
• aanoe iia?aoeaiua i?ioieieu ?aaiou i?aai?eyoey, a oae-
?a i?ioieieu ooieoeiie?iaaiey nianoaaiiuo oceia e
iiaoeae;
• iaania?eaaou iaaa?io? iai?a?uaio? ?aaioo a oneiaeyo
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaianoaa;
• eiio?iee?iaaou iaee?ea i?iaoeoa a aoiea?ao e neeinao;
• eiio?iee?iaaou oiee iaa?ocee aaeaaoaeae, neaiaeece?i-
aaou i i?aauoaiee iaa?ocee e auiieiyou ioee??aiey
aaeaaoaeae i?e ainoe?aiee i?aaaeuiuo iaa?ocie;

– 175 –
• inouanoaeyou ia?aoia ia «ianoiue» ?a?ei ?aaiou;
• ioia?a?aou iniiaiua oaoiieiae?aneea ia?aiao?u a oaia-
iie aey ianeo?eaa?uaai ia?niiaea oi?ia (oaaeeou, a?a-
oeee, oaoiieiae?aneea noaiu);
• aanoe a?oea cia?aiee oaoiieiae?aneeo ia?aiao?ia;
• ?aca?aie?eou o?iaie ainooia e eciaiaie? ia?aiao?ia ?a-
aiou onoaiiaie (aaoi?ece?iaaiiue aoia a nenoaio).
Aicii?iinoe nenoaiu aaoiiaoecaoee yeaaaoi?a:
1. Nenoaia aaoiiaoecaoee nio?aiyao ooieoee oi?aaeaiey
i?e ioeaca ioaaeuiuo oaoie?aneeo n?aanoa.
2. Nenoaia eiaao iiaoeuio? a?oeoaeoo?o ni ano?iaiiuie
yeaiaioaie iai?a?uaiiai naiioanoe?iaaiey e naiiaeaaiinoe-
ee, eaaei e auno?i ainnoaiaaeeaaaony i?e ioeacao iooai caiaiu
noaiaa?oiuo aeieia e iiaoeae, iiaee??aaiuo ia ?acuaiiuo ni-
aaeiaieyo.
3. A nenoaia aaoiiaoecaoee i?aaoniio?aia iieiay aaeuaaie-
?aneay ?acaycea anao aiaoieo eeiee e eaaaeae eioi?iaoeii-
iuo naoae.
4. I?aaoniio?aiu oae?a ?aca?aiua aiia?aoiua eaiaeu aey
aicii?iinoe ?anoe?aiey noaiaie aaoiiaoecaoee i?aai?eyoey
iooai eioaa?aoee a nenoaio oi?aaeaiey iaiaoiaeiuo aao?eeia,
aaoiiaoe?aneeo eeaiaiia e caaae?ae, iiaiai oaoiieiae?aneiai
iai?oaiaaiey e o. a.
5. Ooieoee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey ?aaeeco?ony ia NEA-
AA — nenoaia WINCC eioa?oaenii oi?aaeaiey n iia?aoi?ii-
oaoiieiaii, ?oi iaania?eaaao auno?ue e oaiaiue ainooi e
i?ioanno, a oae?a iieiia i?aainoaaeaiea iaiaoiaeiie oae-
noiaie e a?aoe?aneie eioi?iaoee ?a?ac ye?aiio? nenoaio
ioia?a?aiey.
6. Nenoaia neaiaeece?oao iia?aoi?o i ?acee?iiai ?iaa ioea-
eao, naycaiiuo n ioeeiiaieai ia?aiao?ia io aiionoeiuo cia?a-
iee, ioeacaie oaoie?aneeo n?aanoa e iniiaiiai iai?oaiaaiey, a
oae?a n iai?aaeeuiuie aaenoaeyie ia?niiaea (auai? iaaa?ii-
ai ia?o?ooa).
7. Ooieoee caueo e aeiee?iaie ?aaeeco?ony a ?acoeuoaoa
?aaeno?aoee iaaiionoeiuo ioeeiiaiee aiaeiaiauo neaiaeia eee
ii?aaaeaiey iaaiionoeiuo ninoiyiee aene?aoiuo neaiaeia eee
eo ni?aoaiey.


– 176 –
8. Nenoaia i?aaoniao?eaaao aaa o?iaiy caueo — eieaeuiua
(aaenoao?uea ia ioaaeuiua oceu e aa?aaaou) e aeiaaeuiua (aee-
y?uea ia ?aca?oceo eee inoaiia iauaeoa).
9. A ?acoeuoaoa nea?aiey ca iaa?oceie iai?oaiaaiey nenoaia
eiaao aicii?iinou ?aiiaai iaia?o?aiey ia?aa?ocie aey eo i?i-
oeeaeoe?aneiai ono?aiaiey, ?oi oiaiuoaao ?enei aaa?eeiuo
inoaiiaia iai?oaiaaiey e aai eciin.
Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey iaania?eaaao:
1. Iaiaoiaeiua eiae?aneea e a?aiaiiua iineaaiaaoaeuiin-
oe i?e caionea e inoaiiaea oaoiieiae?aneeo ia?o?ooia, a?oii
iai?oaiaaiey e ioaaeuiuo iaoaieciia n o?aoii acaeiiuo aei-
ee?iaie.
2. Eiio?ieu ninoiyiey oi?aaeyaiiai iai?oaiaaiey e aiia-
?aoo?u nenoaiu.
3. Auaa?o iaiaoiaeiie a?aoe?aneie e oaenoiaie eioi?ia-
oee a oaiaiii aey aeniao?a?a e a?oaeo neo?a i?aai?eyoey aeaa
(yoi iiaiinoaiu e oaoiieiae?aneea noaiu, niaoeaeece?iaai-
iua iaiaee, a?aoeee, oaaeeou, a?oeaaoey e ?ania?aoea ii o?a-
aiaaie? e a aaoiiaoe?aneii ?a?eia o. a.).
4. Ioia?a?aiea eioi?iaoee i ?aaioa yeaaaoi?a ia aaa iia-
?aoi?neeo ianoa n aicii?iinou? ia?aaa?e aaiiuo a eioi?ia-
oeiiio? naou i?aai?eyoey.
5. Iai?a?uaiia i?ioieiee?iaaiea niauoee a oaoiieiae?an-
eii i?ioanna e ?aaioa nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey (iicaieyao onoaii-
aeou i?e?eiu ioeacia iai?oaiaaiey, onoaiaaeeaaao ia?niiaeu-
io? ioaaonoaaiiinou iia?aoi?ia ca eciaiaiea ?a?eiia ?aaiou,
aee??aiea e ioee??aiea iai?oaiaaiey).
6. Iiieoi?eia oieia iaa?ocee yeaeo?iaaeaaoaeae.
7. Eiio?ieu o?iaiae caiieiaiey aoiea?ia e aa?oiaai o?ia-
iy neeinia.
8. Auaia a?aiaiiie caaeneiinoe iaiaoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia
oaoiieiae?aneiai i?ioanna a aeaa a?aoeeia e aenoia?aii.
9. Ia?aie?aiea aicii?iinoe aiaoeaaouny a ?aaioo nenoaiu
a caaeneiinoe io i?aainoaaeaiiuo eiie?aoiiio iia?aoi?o i?aa.
10. Nenoaia ii?ao eiioeao?e?iaaouny, eciaiyouny e ?anoe-
?youny caeac?eeii naiinoiyoaeuii, a niioaaonoaee n eciaiy?-
ueieny caaa?aie e i?iaeaiaie.
11. Iaania?eaaou niaianoeiinou ia o?iaia oaoie?aneeo n?aanoa
n aaoiiaoe?aneeie ono?ienoaaie e nenoaiaie i?iecaianoaa a?o-

– 177 –
aeo oe?i e nayce n a?oaei oaoiieiae?aneei iai?oaiaaieai.
Iienaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oaoii-
eiae?aneei i?ioannii ANO OI yeaaaoi?a ninoieo:
1) ec ioeuoa iia?aoi?a;
2) nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey iai?oaiaaieai;
3) eaaaeae nayce.

1. IOEUO IIA?AOI?A

?aai?aa ianoi iia?aoi?a ninoieo ec aaoo eiiiu?oa?ia e
i?eioa?a.
Ioeuo iia?aoi?a i?aaiacia?ai aey aaiaa eioi?iaoee a ne-
noaio oi?aaeaiey iia?aoi?ii (aeniao?a?ii), auaiaa iia?aoea-
iie eioi?iaoee ia ye?ai iiieoi?a a oaiaiii aey aeniao?a?a
aeaa, o?aiaiey oaeouae e io?aoiie eioi?iaoee.

2. NENOAIA OI?AAEAIE? IAI?OAIAAIEAI AEE??AAO A NAA?:
a) yeaeo?ionoaiiai?iua oeaou;
a) eiio?ieea?u PLC SIMATIC S7-400;
a) iiaoee aene?aoiiai auaiaa;
a) iiaoee aene?aoiiai aaiaa;
a) iiaoee aiaeiaiaiai aaiaa.
Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey inouanoaeyao oi?aaeaiea e eiio?ieu
neeiaiai iai?oaiaaiey, ?aciauaiiiai a ?I, eiio?ieu ninoiy-
iey aao?eeia.
Eaaaee nayce iauaaeiy?o aaoiiaoece?iaaiio? nenoaio oi-
?aaeaiey yia?aaoe?aneeie e eioi?iaoeiiiuie naycyie a aae-
iia oaeia.
Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey iai?oaiaaieai ninoieo: ec eiio?ieea-
?a SIMATIC S7-400, noaioee ?ani?aaaeaiiiai aaiaa-auaiaa
ET200M, iiaoeae ASI-eioa?oaena, iauaaeiaiiuo a aaeiua naoe
e iiaee??aiiuo e eiio?ieea?o SIMATIC S7-400.
A nenoaia oi?aaeaiey iai?oaiaaieai eiio?ieea? SIMATIC S7-
400 auiieiyao ooieoee aaaouaai ono?ienoaa. Ii naycai ni noaioe-
yie ET200M e iiaoeyie ASI-eioa?oaena aaeiie naou? PROFIBUS,
ii eioi?ie i?iecaiaeo iaiai eioi?iaoeae n ia?eoa?eeiuie on-
o?ienoaaie. E eiio?ieea?o iianiaaeiaiu ia?niiaeuiua eiiiu?oa-
?u. SIMATIC S7-400 ninoieo ec neaao?ueo ooieoeiiaeuiuo aei-
eia: aeie ieoaiey PS407 ia 10A, CPU 414-3 n ano?iaiiui aeieii
IF 964-DP, iiaoeu aene?aoiuo auoiaia SM 422 ia 16 auoiaia ii

– 178 –
24 A iinoiyiiiai oiea, aaa iiaoey aene?aoiuo aoiaia SM 421 ia
32 aoiaa ii 24 A iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue, aaa iiaoey aiaeiaiauo
aoiaia SM 431 ia 16 aoiaia ea?aue, neiioeao?e?iaaiiua ia
aoiaiie oie 4—20 iA, iiioa?iay noieea ia 18 ?acuaiia.
Noaioee ?ani?aaaeaiiiai aaiaa-auaiaa i?aaiacia?aiu aey
nai?a neaiaeia io aao?eeia, i?aia?aciaaiey e ia?aaa?e eo a eii-
o?ieea? SIMATIC S7-400 ii naoe PROFIBUS, a oae?a iieo?aiey
neo?aaiie eioi?iaoee io eiio?ieea?a, i?aia?aciaaiey aa a aen-
e?aoiua auoiaiua neaiaeu oi?aaeaiey iai?oaiaaieai. A ninoaa
noaioee ET200M-1 aoiaeo: aeie ieoaiey PS307 ia 5 A, eioa?-
oaeniue iiaoeu IM153-1 aey iiaee??aiey e naoe PROFIBUS,
?aou?a iiaoey aene?aoiuo aoiaia SM321 ia 32 aoiaa ii 24 A
iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue, aaa iiaoey aene?aoiuo auoiaia SM322
ia 32 auoiaa ii 24 A iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue. Noaioey ET200M-
1 iicaieyao iiaee??eou aiiieieoaeuii, n oaeu? ?anoe?aiey,
aua 2 iiaoey. AO200I-1 caaaenoaiaaia a eiio?iea e oi?aaeaiee
iai?oaiaaieai, ?aniiei?aiiui ia ioiaoeao 36 600, 48 600.
Noaioey ?ani?aaaeaiiiai aaiaa-auaiaa AO200I-2 ninoieo
ec aeiea ieoaiey PS307 ia 5A, eioa?oaeniiai iiaoey IM153-1,
aey iiaee??aiey e naoe PROFIBUS, iyoe iiaoeae aene?aoiuo
aoiaia SM321 ia 32 aoiaa ii 24A iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue.
Noaioey AO200I-2 iicaieyao iiaee??eou aiiieieoaeuii n oa-
eu? ?anoe?aiey aua 3 iiaoey. AO200I-2 caaaenoaiaaia a eiio-
?iea aa?oiaai o?iaiy a neeinao.
Noaioee ?ani?aaaeaiiiai aaiaa-auaiaa AO200I-3,
AO200I-4, AO200I-5 aanie?oii eaaioe?iu e ninoiyo ec aei-
ea ieoaiey PS307 ia 2A, eioa?oaeniiai iiaoey IM153-1, aey
iiaee??aiey e naoe PROFIBUS, iaiiai iiaoey aene?aoiuo
aoiaia SM321 ia 16 aoiaia ii 24A iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue e
iaiiai iiaoey aene?aoiuo auoiaia SM322 ia 16 aoiaia ii
24A iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue. N oaeu? ?anoe?aiey ia ea?ao?
ec auoaia?a?eneaiiuo noaioee ii?ii aiiieieoaeuii onoa-
iiaeou aua ii 6 iiaoeae. AO200I-3, AO200I-4, AO200I-5
onoaiiaeaiu ia ?aca?oci?iuo oaea?eao e caiyou eo oi?aaea-
ieai e eiio?ieai.
Noaioey ET200M-6 ninoieo ec aeiea ieoaiey PS307 ia 5 A,
eioa?oaeniiai iiaoey IM153-1, aey iiaee??aiey e naoe
PROFIBUS, aaoo iiaoeae aene?aoiuo auoiaia SM322 ia 32 au-
oiaa ii 24A iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue e iaiiai iiaoey aiaeiai-

– 179 –
auo aoiaia SM331 ia 8 aoiaia, neiioeao?e?iaaiiua ia aoia-
iie oie 4—20 iA. Ia noaioe? AO200-I6 ii?ii aiiieieoaeuii
onoaiiaeou 3 iiaoey. E AO200-I6 ioiineony iai?oaiaaiea, onoa-
iiaeaiiia ia ioiaoeao 13 725, 19 725, 25 725, 31 725.
Iineaaiae yaeyaony noaioey AO200I-7, ninoiyuay ec aei-
ea ieoaiey PS-307 ia 5A, eioa?oaeniiai iiaoey IM153-1, aey
iiaee??aiey e naoe PROFIBUS, o?ao iiaoeae aene?aoiuo aoi-
aia SM321 ia 32 aoiaa ii 24A iinoiyiiiai oiea ea?aue, aaoo
iiaoeae aene?aoiuo auoiaia SM322 ia 32 auoiaa ii 24 A iinoi-
yiiiai oiea ea?aue e aaoo iiaoeae aiaeiaiauo aoiaia SM331
ia 8 aoiaia ea?aue, neiioeao?e?iaaiiua ia aoiaiie oie 4—
20 iA. Aiiieieoaeuii ii?ii onoaiiaeou iaei iiaoeu. AO200I-7
?aaioaao niaianoii n iai?oaiaaieai, iaoiayueiny ia ioeaaie
ioiaoea ?aai?ae aaoie yeaaaoi?a.
Oi?aaeaiea e eiio?ieu ninoiyiey iai?oaiaaiey iianeein-
iiai yoa?a inouanoaeyaony iiaoeyie ASI-eioa?oaena, iauaae-
iaiiuie a 7 eeiee. Ea?aay eeiey iiaoeae niaaeiaia n eii-
o?ieea?ii SIMATIC S7-400 i?e iiiiue ono?ienoaa nayce DP/
AS-eioa?oaena, i?aia?aco?uaai neaiaeu ASI iiaoeae a oi?iao
aaiiuo eioa?oaena PROFIBUS DP. Iiaoey ASI-eioa?oaena on-
oaiaaeeaa?ony a oeaou ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey ono?ienoaaie e
iia?acaaey?ony ia iiaoee aaiaa aene?aoiuo neaiaeia, iiaoee
aaiaa aiaeiaiauo neaiaeia e eiiaeie?iaaiiua iiaoey aaiaa-
auaiaa aene?aoiuo neaiaeia. Iiaoeu aene?aoiuo aoiaia eiaao
4 aoiaiuo eaiaea, ?ann?eoaiiuo ia iai?y?aiea 24 A iinoiyiiiai
oiea, iiaoeu aaiaa aiaeiaiauo neaiaeia iicaieyao iiaee??eou
2 aiaeiaiauo aao?eea n auoiaiui neaiaeii 4—20 iA, eiiae-
ie?iaaiiue iiaoeu aoiaia-auoiaia eiaao aaa aene?aoiuo aoi-
aa, ?ann?eoaiiuo ia eniieuciaaiea 24 A iinoiyiiiai oiea.
Eaaaee nayce iauaaeiy?o ioaaeuiua noaioee AO200I, ii-
aoey ASI-eioa?oaena e eiio?ieea? SIMATIC S7-400 a aaeio?
nenoaio ANOOI yeaaaoi?a. Naycu eiio?ieea?a ni noaioeyie AO
inouanoaeyaony iin?aanoaii eaaaey PROFIBUS DP, a oaiu ei-
oi?iai aee??aiu iiaoi?eoaee RS-485, iicaiey?uea nouanoaai-
ii iiauneou i?iioneio? niiniaiinou naoe PROFIBUS. Ia eii-
oao eeiee nayce, niaaeiy?uae AO200I n eiio?ieea?ii
SIMATIC S7-400, onoaiiaeaiu oa?ieiaeuiua ono?ienoaa
PROFIBUS TERMINATOR, eioi?ua a neo?aa iaiaoiaeiinoe
iicaiey?o i?iecaiaeou ?anoe?aiea ANOOI iooai iiaee??a-

– 180 –
iey aiiieieoaeuiuo noaioee AO200I. Aoi?ay eeiey PROFIBUS
niaaeiyao eiio?ieea? e eeiee iiaoeae ASI-eioa?oaena. A naiai
ninoaaa iia eiaao eioa?oaeniue noaiiaoeu IF964-DP e 7 ono-
?ienoa nayce DP/AS-eioa?oaena. Caanu oae?a i?eiaiyaony ea-
aaeu PROFIBUS-DP. Aey niaaeiaiey iiaoeae ASI-eioa?oaena
iineaaiaaoaeuii ia?ao niaie e n ono?ienoaaie nayce DP/AS
i?eiaiyaony iau?iue aaoo?eeuiue eaaaeu, ii eioi?iio ino-
uanoaeyaony eae ieoaiea iiaoeae ASI-eioa?oaena, oae e iaiai
aaiiuie ia?ao eiio?ieea?ii e ASI-iiaoeyie. Aaiiia ?aoa-
iea iaania?eaaao iaiiia?acea iino?iaiey naoaaiai yeaiaioa
nenoaiu, oi?iuaao ioeaaeo, iaia?o?aiea iaeni?aaiinoae e
ianeo?eaaiea ANOOI iauaeoa.

Caee??aiea
Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae?aneei
i?ioannii yeaaaoi?a, aiaa?yaiay ia IAI «Iiaie?ua», iicaiey-
ao iaeaieaa iieii ?aoaou ana aii?inu, aicieea?uea a i?ioanna
i?eaia, o?aiaiey e ioa?ocee ca?ia. Eniieuciaaiea oaoieee ec-
aanoiuo ie?iauo e ?inneeneeo i?iecaiaeoaeae, oi?ioi ca?aei-
iaiaiaaaoae naay ia iiiaeo i?iecaianoaao, iaania?eaaao nenoa-
ia aunieo? iaaa?iinou. Iiaoeuiue i?eioei iino?iaiey e en-
iieuciaaiea ioe?uoiai i?iiuoeaiiiai noaiaa?oa PROFIBUS
iicaieyao eaaei iiaa?iece?iaaou nenoaio e ii ia?a iaiaoiae-
iinoe aiaaaeyou a iaa iiaua yeaiaiou, iinoaiaiii ioaaouaay
aiiieieoaeuiua o?anoee i?iecaianoaa. Naoaaie i?eioei iino?i-
aiey nenoaiu aaoiiaoecaoee aac i?iaeai ?aoaao aii?inu niaea-
niaaiey ?aaiou yeaaaoi?a n a?oaeie ANOOI, eniieucoaiuie
ia i?iecaianoaaiiuo eeieyo IAI «Iiaie?ua».



ENNEAAIAAIEA E AUAI? N?AANOA IAOAIECAOEE
EI??AAAEUIUO ?AAIO A IAEEI?AOEAIII NO?IEOAEUNOAA

A.E. Aeenaaa, A.I. Naeaaaa

A iaoa a?aiy o?oaii ia?aioaieou cia?aiea oaoie?aneiai
ia?aaii?o?aiey naeuneiai, iaeei?aoeaiiai oicyenoaa no?aiu ia
aaca no?ieiie nenoaiu iaoei, i?aaiieaaa?uae caaa?oaiea ia-

– 181 –
oaiecaoee iaeaieaa o?oaiaieeo oaoiieiae?aneeo iia?aoee. Au-
iieiaiea i?ia?aiiu iaiuneeii aac oaaee?aiey o?i?aeiinoe
naeuneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeuoo? e nio?aiaiey ieiai?iaey ii?a.
A iniiao oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu iaoei iaie iiei?aiu
iao?ii-oaoie?aneea e yeiiiie?aneea i?aaiinueee, iaoneiaeai-
iua aiaeecii oaiaaioee ?acaeoey oaoieee aey eaniiai oicye-
noaa e aa?ieaniiaeei?aoee; ?acoeuoaoaie auiieiaiiuo iao?iuo
enneaaiaaiee, ia?aaiaui ioa?anoaaiiui e ca?oaa?iui iiuoii
a iaeanoe iaoaiecaoee ei??aaaeuiuo ?aaio.
Yoe i?aaiinueee ii?aaaey?o iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey iaoei
e o?aaiaaiey e i?iaeoo Nenoaiu ia 2001—2005 aa. aee??aou oieuei
oa eiiiiiaiou iaoei, eioi?ua niioaaonoao?o i?ia?anneaiui
oaoiieiaeyi; oe?a i?eiaiyou a iaoeiao aea?aaee?aneee i?e-
aia; iiauoaou i?iecaiaeoaeuiinou iaoei iooai oaaee?aiey yia?-
aiianuuaiiinoe e ?aai?eo nei?inoae, niaiauaiey iia?aoee n
iaiia?aiaiiui oeo?oaieai ea?anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae ?aaiou;
oeo?oaou oneiaey o?oaa iaoaiecaoi?ia iin?aanoaii aaoiiaoeca-
oee oaoiieiae?aneeo i?ioannia, aee??ay eiio?ieu ca auiieia-
ieai ?a?eiia e ea?anoaa ?aaiou iaoei, aaeaou eo aieaa oie-
aa?naeuiuie, nie?aou iaoa?eaeiaieinou i?e iai?aiaiiii oaa-
ee?aiee iaaa?iinoe e iiauoaou o?iaaiu oieoeeaoee.
I?iaaaaiiua iaoaioiua enneaaiaaiey iieacaee, ?oi n?aae
ecaanoiuo ei??aaaoaeae iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui yaey?ony i?o-
aey n iai?a?uaiui oaoiieiae?aneei i?ioannii, a oii ?enea i?o-
aey n aeoeaiuie e ianneaiuie ?aai?eie i?aaiaie, auiieiai-
iuie a iaaaniii aa?eaioa e aa?aaaoe?oaiua n o?aeoi?aie iauaai
iacia?aiey eeanna 30—40 eI. Eeanneoeeaoey ei??aaaoaeae n ia-
i?a?uaiui oaoiieiae?aneei i?ioannii iieacuaaao, ?oi nia?a-
iaiiia ?acaeoea ?aai?eo i?aaiia eaao ii o?ai iniiaiui yoaiai.
Ia?ao?, iniiaio? a?oiio ?aai?eo i?aaiia, ninoaaey?o iia-
?aca?uea. Caanu ii?ii ano?aoeou ianneaiua (neiau, eaiaoa, aa?-
oeeaeuiua e ai?eciioaeuiua ii?e) e ?ioaoeiiiua (aeaaeea e
au?acaiiua, ieineea, eiie?aneea e noa?e?aneea aenee) ?aai-
?ea i?aaiu. E?iia ieo — ?ioi?u n ai?eciioaeuiuie, aa?oe-
eaeuiuie e iaeeiiiuie inyie a?auaiey, n ?aaeoeaiui i?e-
aiaii e io AII aa?aaaoe?oaiiai o?aeoi?a, o?acu ?acee?iuo
eiino?oeoee, oiaee e o. a. Ni?aoaiea ianneaiuo e ?ioaoeiiiuo
i?aaiia ninoaaey?o eiiaeie?iaaiiua ?aai?ea i?aaiu.



– 182 –
Yooaeoeaiinou e ia?niaeoeaiinou iaoei eee i?oaey a oa-
eii caaenyo io i?aaeeuiinoe auai?a iia?aca?uaai ?aai?aai i?aaia.
Io yoiai caaeneo any eiiiiiiaea i?oaey e aanu iineaao?uee
iaai? ?aai?eo i?aaiia.
Aoi?o? a?oiio ninoaaey?o ecaeaea?uea ?aai?ea i?aaiu.
A yoie a?oiia oae?a ii?ii ano?aoeou eae ianneaiua (iiauai-
iua noieee, iai?aaey?uea ii?e), oae e ?ioaoeiiiua ?ioi?u
aieuoiai aeaiao?a n ai?eciioaeuiuie, aa?oeeaeuiuie inyie
a?auaiey (?ioaoeiiiua o?ainii?oa?u) e eiiaeie?iaaiiua.
O?aou? a?oiio ninoaaey?o o?ainii?oe?o?uea e i?enoeoaeu-
iua ?aai?ea i?aaiu. Yoa a?oiia eiaao eiino?oeoeaiia eniieia-
iea a iineaaiaaoaeuiue ?ya a iaeeiiiie ieineinoe: oiaeiaua
o?ainii?oa?u e a?oaea ono?ienoaa.
Oaie ?acaiey nuaiiuie ii?aie iaeeiiiuo aieiauo noiae
ii?aaaeyaony ii au?a?aie?:
P = arc tg [tg i0 sin (180o — k)],
aaa i0 — oaie caoi?ee ii?a a ieineinoe, ia?iaiaeeoey?iie
?a?ouae e?iiee ii?a;
k — oaie iaeeiia ?aa?a ia?ao ai?eciioii ii iai?aaea-
ie? aae?aiey e eacaeai ii?a.
I?e i0 = 21o e k = 155o P = 9o22?.
Eoae, i?e enoiaiii oaea caoi?ee ii?a i0 = 21o oaie ?acaiey
?aaai 9o22?, oi anou caoi?ea oaiaeaoai?yao oneiaeyi i?i?iinoe e
eciininoieeinoe ii?a i?e ieieiaeuiii oaea ?acaiey. A yoii neo?aa
iieiinou? auaa??eaaaony oneiaea, ?oi oaie P ? 19—21o.
Aey ii?a n aaoonoi?iiiae caoi?eie n oaeii caino?aiey a
ai?eciioaeuiie ieineinoe i?0 = 19—21o, aaee?eia oaea caoi?ee a
ieineinoe, ia?iaiaeeoey?iie eacae? ii?a, ii?aaaeyaony ii au-
?a?aie?:
P0 = (2arc tg io : 2 ) : sin (180o — k)].
I?e i?0 = 19o, k = 125o, P0 = 38o, a i?e i?0 = 21o e k = 155I,
aaee?eia P0 = 43o.
I?aanoaaeaiiua aaiiua iieiinou? o?eouaa?o oeceei-ia-
oaie?aneea naienoaa a?aaaneiu, ei?iae e ii?ee iiy, a oae?a
ii?au. Iiyoiio aaee?eiu i?aaei?aiiuo oaeia aaiiao?ee iia-
?aca?ueo e ei??o?ueo ?aai?eo i?aaiia iiaoo auou ?aeiiaiai-
aaiu e i?eiaiaiu a eiino?oeoee ei??aaaoaey iai?a?uaiiai


– 183 –
aaenoaey. I?iaaaaiiua yenia?eiaioaeuiua enneaaiaaiey iiaoaa?-
aeee i?aaeeuiinou auai?iuo oaeiauo ia?aiao?ia.
A aaiiuo ono?ienoaao eniieucoaony ia oieuei oyaa o?aeoi?a aey
ei??aaaiey iiae, ii e oneeea aea?ii?eaiaia, ?acaeaaaiia aea?i-
oeeeia?aie. ?ac?aaioea ei??aaaoaeae, niaa?aiiuo aea?ii?eaiaii
iia?aca?ueo ?aai?eo i?aaiia, yaeyaony iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiie.
Oaeia oaoie?aneia ?aoaiea iicaieyao eniieuciaaou iaiaa ia ei?-
?aaea iiae yia?aiianuuaiiua o?aeoi?a eeanna oyae 30—40 eI.

Auaiau
1. Aiaeec ecaanoiuo n?aanoa iaoaiecaoee ei??aaaeuiuo ?a-
aio e eco?aiea ia?aaiaiai iiuoa i?iecaianoaa iieacae, ?oi ia?-
niaeoeaiui i?oaeai aey i?iaaaaiey ei??aaaeuiuo ?aaio a ia-
eei?aoee neaaoao n?eoaou ei??aaaoaee, auiieiy?uea iai?a?ua-
iue oaoiieiae?aneee i?ioann.
2. I?iaaaaiiue aiaeec iaoaioiie e oaoie?aneie eeoa?aoo-
?u iicaieee auiieieou eeanneoeeaoe? ei??aaaoaeae iai?a?ua-
iiai aaenoaey e iainiiaaou iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey a ?ac?aaioea
e auai?a oeia ?aai?eo i?aaiia ei??aaaoaey:
• a ea?anoaa iia?aca?ueo ?aai?eo i?aaiia — ?ioaoeiiiua
eee ianneaiua;
• a ea?anoaa ei??o?ueo (ecaeaea?ueo) — ianneaiua;
• a ea?anoaa i?enoeoaeuii-naia?e?o?ueo aey ioaaeaiey ii-
?au io ei?iae iiy — ?ioi?iua n i?eaiaii io AII eee
aea?ii?eaiaa.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u
1. Iao. 3898752 NOA. 1972. Ei??aaaoaeu: A. n. 1246942 / Aee-
naaa A.E., Naeaaaa A.I. A?e. ? 28. 1986 a. NNN?.
2. Ei??aaaoaeu: A. n. 1323033 / Aa?oaiaa E.I., Naeaaaa A.I.,
Aeenaaa A.E., Nae?eaia A.A., Ceianeia A.I.; A?e. ? 26. 1987.
NNN?.
3. Iaaaniay aieieooa: A. n. 1207435 / Aeenaaa A.E., Naeaa-
aa A.I.; A?e. ? 4, 1986. NNN?.
4. Ei??aaaoaeu: A. n. 1235475 NNN? / Naeaaaa A.I., Aeenaaa
A.E. A?e. ? 21, 1986. NNN?.




– 184 –
ECO?AIEA EAOIAIIAI AINNOAIIAEAIE? O?IIAO-EIIIA
A I?ENOONOAEE I?AAIE?ANEEO AIAAAIE

A.A. Iineae?aaa, A.N. Aenaiia

Iaoia auai?a i?aaie?aneie aiaaaee, eioaineoeoe?o?uae
i?ioann o?iie?iaaiey, ii?ao auou noi?ioee?iaai ia iniiaa-
iee ?acoeuoaoia eco?aiey eeiaoeee i?ioanna, auyaeaiey iaoa-
iecia ainnoaiiaeaiey o?iiao-eiiia.
Iiey?ecaoeiiiua enneaaiaaiey i?iaiaeeenu n yeaeo?iee-
oii ninoaaa (a/e):
a) aaeeiaay eeneioa;
a) o?aeoee: 1 — aaicieuiay; 2 — iaooaeeiiaay; 3 — oa-
iaio?aiiaay; 4 — o?ecaiiaay, i?e oaiia?aoo?a 25 iN. Aiia —
ieaoeia. Ia ?en. 1 i?aanoaaeaiu iiey?ecaoeiiiua e?eaua.
Aaaaaiea a noaiaa?oiue yeaeo?ieeo aaeeiaie eeneiou (e?e-
aua 2, 3 ?en. 1 a) i?eaiaeo e niauaie? e?eaie ainnoaiiaeaiey
Cr6+ > Cr3+ a iaeanou io?eoaoaeuiuo cia?aiee iioaioeaea e e
nie?aie? i?aaaeuiiai oiea yoiai i?ioanna. Cia?eoaeuiia aeey-
iea i?aaie?aneiai aauanoaa ia i?i?iinou ia?aco?uaeny oaciaie
o?iiaoiie ieaiee naycaii n oai, ?oi ainnoaiiaeaiea eiia o?iia
i?ienoiaeo ?a?ac niaaeiaiey, ia?aco?ueany i?e acaeiiaaenoaee
i?aaie?aneeo i?iaoeoia ?aniaaa aaeeiaie eeneiou n o?aoaaeaio-
iui o?iiii. Yoi iiaoaa??aaaony aeeyieai o?aeoee ia i?ioann
i?iia?ooi?iiai ainnoaiiaeaiey o?iia (?en. 1 a). Ia?aoia io aai-
cieuiie no?oeoo?u e o?ecaiiaui (e?eaua 1—4) i?eaiaeo e nie-
?aie? auniou ia?aie aieiu ainnoaiiaeaiey Cr6+ > Cr3+ e nia-
uaie? e?eaie i?ioanna a iaeanou aieaa io?eoaoaeuiuo cia?aiee
iioaioeaeia (?en. 1 a). Iaeiaiuoee yooaeo i?iecaiaeo aiaaaea
aaicieuiie o?aeoee, iaeneiaeuiia — o?ecaiiaie. Oaeei ia?a-
cii, n oaaee?aieai eiioaio?aoee aaeeiaie eeneiou a yeaeo?i-
eeoa oaaee?eaaaony ioiineoaeuiay eiioaio?aoey aieaa aeoeaiuo
ia?ae. Iaiaei oaaee?aiea eiioaio?aoee aicii?ii ai ii?aaaeai-
iiai cia?aiey, ?oi naycaii n ea?anoaii iieo?aaiiai i?e yoii
inaaea iaoaeee?aneiai o?iia e yeaeo?ii?iaiaiinou? ?anoai?a.
Neaaoao ioiaoeou, ?oi eciaiaiea i?e?iau e no?oeoo?u i?aa-
ie?aneie aiaaaee i?eaiaeo e aicieeiiaaie? aiiieieoaeuiuo
cii ainnoaiiaeaiey a iaeanoe iioaioeaeia -0,6 ? 1,0 A, a aaaaa-
iea o?ecaiiauo niaaeiaiee aaao aiiieieoaeuio? nooiaiu ain-


– 185 –
noaiiaeaiey a iaeanoe iioaioeaeia io -1 ai -1,2 A. Yoi ii?ao
auou iauyniaii ainnoaiiaeaieai o?iia iecoae aaeaioiinoe ec
ia?aco?ueony a i?ioanna yeaeo?ieeca iaoaeeii?aaie?aneeo ni-
aaeiaiee o?iia, iaeaaa?ueo ?acee?iie i?i?iinou? a caaene-
iinoe io oaiia?aoo?u, ?I n?aau e iaee?ey ?acee?iuo caianoe-
oaeae a iieaeoeao i?aaie?aneeo aauanoa.
Iiey?ecaoeiiiua e?eaua ainnoaiiaeaiey o?iiao-eiiia a
yeaeo?ieeoa noaiaa?oiiai ninoaaa n aiaaaeaie o?aeoee, iieo-
?aiiuo ec i?iaoeoia acaeiiaaenoaey aaeeiaie eeneiou n eii-
iiiaioaie yeaeo?ieeoa, a aeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? io 20 ai 50 iN,
aey aaicieuiie, oaiaio?aiiaie, o?ecaiiaie o?aeoee oaaee?a-
iea oaiia?aoo?u i?eaiaeo e caeiiiia?iiio oaaee?aie? nei?i-
noe ainnoaiiaeaiey o?iiao-eiiia a iaeanoe iioaioeaeia ia?aie
aaoae iiey?ecaoeiiiie e?eaie.

/ 2 / 2
j, j,
30 3 0
1
25 25
2
1
2
20 20
3
15 15


10 10 4
3
5 5


0 0
0,4 0,2 0 -0 -0 -0 -0
,2 ,4 ,6 ,8 -1 -1,2 0 0 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -1 -1
,5 ,3 ,1 ,1 ,3 ,5 ,7 ,9 ,1 ,3

,
,
a) a)
?en. 1. Iiey?ecaoeiiiua e?eaua ainnoaiiaeaiey eiiia
ec yeaeo?ieeoa, a/e:
250CrO3 + 2,5 H2SO4 a i?enoonoaee: a — aaeeiaie eeneio, a/e; a —
o?aeoee: 1 — aaicieuiua, 2 — iaooaeeiiaua,
3 — oaiaio?aiiaua, 4 — o?ecaiiaua. Oaiia?aoo?a 25 iN.
Nei?inou ?acaa?oee iioaioeaea 2iA/n
I?e yoii aey aaicieuiie o?aeoee oa?aeoa?ii ?aniiei?a-
iea ia?aie aaoae a iaiii e oii ?a eioa?aaea iioaioeaeia,

– 186 –
iaiyaony oieuei aaee?eia ieioiinoe oiea. Aaaaaiea oaiaio?aii-
auo i?eaiaeo e niauaie? ia?aie aaoae a iaeanou aieaa io?eoa-
oaeuiuo cia?aiee iioaioeaeia, i?e?ai iiey?ecaoeiiiua e?e-
aua a iaeanoe oaiia?aoo? 20—40 iN i?aeoe?anee niaiaaa?o, e
oieuei i?e 50 oC iaae?aaaony oaaee?aiea ieioiinoe oiea ia?-
aie aieiu iiey?ecaoeiiiie e?eaie.
O?ecaiiaay o?aeoey i?eaiaeo i?e oaiia?aoo?a 20 iC e
?aceiio niauaie? ia?aie aaoae iiey?ecaoeiiiie e?eaie a ia-
eanou io?eoaoaeuiuo cia?aiee iioaioeaea. Aaeuiaeoaa oaaee?a-
iea oaiia?aoo?u i?eaiaeo e aaiiey?ecaoee i?ioanna e oaaee?a-
ie? ieioiinoe oiea. Aianoa n yoei neaaoao ioiaoeou eciaiaiea
oi?iu iauae iiey?ecaoeiiiie e?eaie. Inoaaaynu, a i?eioeia,
a i?a?oaieyo eeanne?aneie iioaioeinoaoe?aneie e?eaie [1—3],
iiey?ecaoeiiiua e?eaua a i?enoonoaee enneaaoaiuo aauanoa
eciaiy?o niioiioaiea naieo ?anoae. Anee n aiaaaeie aaicieuiie
o?aeoee eia?ony ana oa?aeoa?iua ?anoe iiey?ecaoeiiiie e?e-
aie, oi aaaaaiea oaiaio?aiiaie o?aeoee i?eaiaeo e aicieeii-
aaie? aiiieieoaeuiie aieiu a iaeanoe iioaioeaeia 0,9—1,1 A,
eioi?ia, niaeanii [4], niioaaonoaoao ainnoaiiaeaie? aaooaaeai-
oiuo eiiia o?iia. A oneiaeyo i?enoonoaey o?ecaiia e oaiia?aoo-
?u 20 iN iaae?aaaony aiiiaeuii aunieay aieia iiey?ecaoeii-
iie e?eaie, niioaaonoao?uae yoiio i?ioanno, — ieioiinou oiea
ainoeaaao 27 A/ai2. Aey iauyniaiey iaae?aaaiiai ii?ii i?aa-
iiei?eou, ?oi eniieucoaiua o?aeoee, ii ia?a oaaee?aiey ei-
ee?anoaa oeeeia a ninoaaa iieaeoeu, niiniaiu naycuaaou ia?a-
co?ueany a oiaa ainnoaiiaeaiey eiiu o?iia (II) a iiaiaea
eiiieaeniuo niaaeiaiee. Niaeanii enneaaiaaieyi [5], eiiu o?iia
(II) ea?a?o cia?eoaeuio? ?ieu a i?ioanna ainnoaiiaeaiey o?i-
iao-eiiia. Iaiaei aaiiia enneaaiaaiea i?iaiaeeinu a yeaeo?i-
eeoao noaiaa?oiiai ninoaaa e oeenaoey eiiia o?iia (II) aic-
ii?ia auea oieuei a aeaa aeaaeiiieaenia, iaeaaa?ueo iaeie
i?i?iinou?. Eniieucoaiua a iaoai enneaaiaaiee aauanoaa ia-
eaaa?o niiniaiinou? e ia?aciaaie? eiiieaenia eae n eiiaie
o?iia (III), oae e o?iia (II) [4, 5]. O?ecaiu, aa?iyoii, a n?aaia-
iee n a?oaeie o?aeoeyie, iaeaaa?o niiniaiinou? naycuaaou
eiaiii eiiu o?iia (II), oaa??eaaou eo io ieeneaiey e niinia-
noaiaaou ainnoaiiaeaie? e oaaee?aie? auoiaa o?iia ii oieo.
Niaa?oaiii ioee?ii io ?anniio?aiiuo o?aeoee eaoiaiia ii-
aaaaiea iaooaiiaie o?aeoee. A i?enoonoaee aaiiie aiaaaee oaaee-

– 187 –
?aiea oaiia?aoo?u io 20 ai 50 iN i?eaiaeo e nie?aie? ieioiinoe
oiea ia?aie aaoae iiey?ecaoeiiiie e?eaie. I?e yoii n iiauoaie-
ai oaiia?aoo?u i?ienoiaeo niauaiea iioaioeaea io 0,3 A ai -0,15 A.
Aianoa n oai iaae?aaaony ?acaeoea aaoae, ioi?aanoaeyaiie n i?i-
oannii ainnoaiiaeaiey eiiia o?iia (II). Iauynieou iaae?aaaiue
yooaeo, ia iao acaeya, ii?ii acaeiiaaenoaeai iaooaiia n iiaa?-
oiinou? eaoiaa, a aaiiii neo?aa ieaoeiiaui, ?oi aaaao e ia?aciaa-
ie? i?i?iuo iiaa?oiinoiuo niaaeiaiee (oaiini?aoey), i?i?iinou
eioi?uo aic?anoaao i?e oaaee?aiee oaiia?aoo?u ?anoai?a, ?oi nii-
nianoaoao niauaie? ?aaiiaaniiai iioaioeaea a iaeanou io?eoaoaeu-
iuo cia?aiee. Aianoa n yoei nie?aaony auoia o?iia ii oieo [5].
E?iia auoaia?a?eneaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iiey?ecaoeiiiuo
e?eauo, a iaeanoe iioaioeaeia -0,1 ai -0,45 A iaae?aaaony eieaaa-
iea ieioiinoe oiea n aiieeooaie, caaenyuae io eniieucoaiie o?ae-
oee, ai 10A/ai2. I?e yoii a neo?aa eniieuciaaiey aaicieuiie
o?aeoee, aiieeooaa eieaaaiee iaeiaiuoay, iaeaieuoay — o ia-
ooaiiaie o?aeoee, e i?iiaaaao niaa?oaiii i?e eniieuciaaiee
o?ecaiiaie o?aeoee. Iaeanou iioaioeaeia, a eioi?ie i?ienoiaeo
eieaaaiea oiea, niioaaonoaoao i?ioanno ia?aciaaiey eaoiaiie ieai-
ee, ?oi i?eaiaeo e oaaee?aie? ieioiinoe oiea e, eae neaanoaea,
onei?aie? iaeiieaiey i?iaoeoia iaiieiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey e iiyou
ia?aciaaie? eaoiaiie ieaiee, ?oi i?eaiaeo e iaaaie? ieioiinoe
oiea iaiieiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey. Yoio i?ioann aiciaiiaeyaony, ?oi
e i?eaiaeo e aicieeiiaaie? ia?eiae?aneeo eieaaaiee. I?e?iaa
i?aaie?aneie aiaaaee ii?aaaeyao aiieeooao eieaaaiee, naycai-
io? n i?i?iinoiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia?aco?uaeny eieeiea-
iie ieoaeey?iie e ?aaoey?ii-no?oeoo?e?iaaiiuo nenoai a i?eea-
oiaiii neia. Yoe ?acoeuoaou i?aanoaaey?o ii?aaaeaiiue eioa?an a
caaa?a eco?aiey eaoiaiie ieaiee e aa oa?aeoa?enoee eae ooieoee
i?e?iau i?aaie?aneie aiaaaee. A neo?aa i?eiaiaiey o?ecaiiaie
o?aeoee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 20 e 40 iN eieaaaiee oiea ia iiey?eca-
oeiiiie e?eaie ia iaae?aaaony e oieuei i?e 50 iC a iaeanoe
iioaioeaea -0,15, -0,2 A iaae?aa?ony iecei?anoioiua eieaaaiey n
iaeie aaee?eiie (2 A/ai2) aiieeooau.
Ia iniiaaiee iieo?aiiuo ?acoeuoaoia ii?ii naaeaou au-
aia: i?aaie?aneea niaaeiaiey aaicieuiuo, iaooaeeiiauo, oa-
iaio?aiiauo, o?ecaiiauo no?oeoo? — eioaineoeoe?o?o yeaeo-
?iina?aaiea o?iia, a eo i?enoonoaee aicii?ii, enee??ea ii-
aia?aa yeaeo?ieeoa, iieo?aou ea?anoaaiiua iie?uoey o?iia, ?oi

– 188 –
yaeyaony i?aiu aa?iui a ?aoaiee i?iaeai yeieiae?aneie aaci-
ianiinoe e nie?aiey yia?aiaieinoe i?ioanna.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u
1. Aaa?aiyi A.O., ?aiaai?oaio I.A. Yeaeo?iina?aaiea o?iia
ec aai o?ao- e oanoeaaeaioiuo niaaeiaiee // Yeaeo?iina?aaiea
iaoaeeia e eiaeae?o?uay aani?aoey. I.: Iaoea, 1969. N. 149—190.
2. Aaa?aiyi A.O., Ona?aa A.I. Enneaaiaaiea iaoaiecia yeae-
o?iina?aaiey o?iia // ?o?iae oece?aneie oeiee. 1958. O. 32.
? 8. N. 1900.
3.Oeioei I.?. Yeaeo?ioeie?aneee neioac i?aaie?aneeo
niaaeiaiee // Eoiae iaoee e oaoieee. I.: AIEEOE, 1969.
N. 157—200.
4. Aiiaa?aiei E.A., Ao?ieno?ia E.N., Aaieeia O.I. N?aa-
ieoaeuiay ioaiea iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa a ?anoai?a
o?iiiaiai aiaea?eaa // Oe?aeineee oeie?aneee ?o?iae. 1980.
O. 42. ? 2. N. 150—153.
5. Ae??eia I.A. I eaoiaiuo ieaieao i?e o?iie?iaaiee
// Yeaeo?ioeiey. 1971. O. 7. Aui. 9. N. 1258—1264.
6. E?aaoia A.E. ?aaiiaanea e eeiaoeea yeaeo?iaiuo ?aae-
oee eiiieaenia iaoaeeia. E.: Oeiey, 1985. 208 n.



ECO?AIEA AEE?IE? IA?AIAO?IA I?IOANNA YEAEO?IEECA
IA AEOEAE?IAAIEA AIAU

E.I. Inaa?aiei, I.A. Oa??aiei, I.A. ?o?cei

Ca iineaaiea 20 eao aii?ino yeaeo?ioeie?aneiai aeoeae-
?iaaiey (YOA) aiau oaaeyeinu cia?eoaeuiia aieiaiea. Iioaee-
eiaaii aieuoia ?enei ?aaio ii YOA aiau e aiaiuo ?anoai?ia.
I?eaaaaiu aaiiua ii i?eiaiaie? YOA aiau a iaaeoeia,
naeuneii oicyenoaa, i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iaiaei cia?eoaeuiay ?anou
aaiiuo i?ioeai?a?eaa, ia niaeano?ony naaaaiey ?acee?iuo aa-
oi?ia, iaainoaoi?iu naaaaiey ii ea?anoao ia?aaioaiiie aiau.
Oaeu? ianoiyuae ?aaiou auei eco?aiea aeeyiey ia?aiao-
?ia ia i?ioann YOA aiau eiie?aoiiai ninoaaa e ioaiea ea?a-
noaa eaoieeoa e aiieeoa.

– 189 –
Ecaanoii, ?oi i?ioann YOA caee??aaony a oieiiey?iie
yeaeo?ioeie?aneie ia?aaioea aiau a eaoiaiie e aiiaiie eaia-
?ao aeao?aaiaiiiai yeaeo?ieeca?a.
A ?acoeuoaoa iieo?a?o eaoieeo (ec eaoiaiie eaia?u) e aii-
eeo (ec aiiaiie eaia?u yeaeo?ieeca?a).
Eaoieeo iaeaaaao uaei?iuie, a aiieeo eeneuie naienoaa-
ie. A i?ioanna yeaeo?ieeca iiieii yeaeo?iia?aiina eiiia e ?a-
noai?eoaey i?ienoiaeo ?ac?ya eiiia e iieaeoe n ia?aciaaieai,
eae i?aaeei, ia eaoiaa aiai?iaa, ia aiiaa — eenei?iaa e ?an-
oe?ii oei?a (i?e iaee?ee a aiaa oei?ea-eiiia), a oae?a ia?a-
co?ony aoi?e?iua i?iaoeou oeie?aneeo i?aa?auaiee o eaoiaa
e aiiaa.
Aiaa, iiaaa?aaaiay YOA, i?aanoaaeyao niaie oaeoe?anee
?acaaaeaiiue ?anoai? iai?aaie?aneeo nieae — a aeaa ieouaaie
aiaii?iaiaiie aiau eeai aiau iiaa?oiinoiuo eeai iiacaiiuo
enoi?ieeia.
Ii-aeaeiiio, aneaanoaea ?acee?ey oeininoaaa enoiaiie
aiau, eiiaaa iieo?a?ony ?acee?iua ?acoeuoaou aiaeeca aiau.
Iaie eco?aiu ninoaa e iieacaoaee ea?anoaa enoiaiie ie-
ouaaie aiaii?iaiaiie aiau (a. Aieaia?aa) eaoieeoa e aiieeoa.
Enoiaiay aiaii?iaiaiay aiaa i?iecaiaeony i?aai?eyoeai
«Aieaia?aaaiaieaiae» a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie oaoiiei-
ae?aneie aieoiaioaoee e naieoa?iuo ii?i e i?aaee (NaiIeI
2.1.4.1074-01 «Aeaeaie?aneea o?aaiaaiey e ea?anoao aiau oaio-
?aeeciaaiiuo enoi?ieeia aiainiaa?aiey»).
Ii iaoei aaiiui e iaeioi?ui naaaaieyi Yeieiae?aneiai
oaio?a aiaeeoe?aneiai eiio?iey, a oaaeeoa 1 i?eaaaaiu iniia-
iua iieacaoaee ea?anoaa aiau (on?aaiaiiua aaiiua).
Ec aaiiuo oaaeeou 1 aeaii, ?oi ieouaaay aiaii?iaiaiay
aiaa niioaaonoaoao ii ea?anoao o?aaiaaieyi naieoa?iuo ii?i e
i?aaee.
YOA aiau i?iaiaeeinu ia onoaiiaea NOYE-IO-1, ecai-
oiaeaiiie na?eeii iaeui i?aai?eyoeai «Yeiiaa» III «Ye-
?ai» Ieica?aaa ?O.
Onoaiiaea NOYE-IO-1 aee??aao yeaeo?ioeie?aneee ?aae-
oi? (oeeeia?e?aneee aa?oeeaeuiiai oeia), enoi?iee iinoiyi-
iiai oiea, ninoau aey enoiaiie aiau, eaoieeoa, aiieeoa e oeaiae
aey aea?aaee?aneiai niaaeiaiey.



– 190 –
Oaaeeoa 1
Iieacaoaee ea?anoaa aiau
2.1.4.1074-01
7,4 7,7 69
, -/3 3,2 3,8 7,0
, /3 320 1000
, /3
15,7 200,0
2,2
39,0
9,4
0,041 1,0
0,117 5,0
0,023 0,03
0,025 0,1
0,005 0,001
0,11 0,023 0,3
38,2 45,6 350
45 45,3 500


E?aoeia iienaiea oaoiieiae?aneiai ?a?eia.
A ninoa aey enoiaiie aiau caeeaa?o aiaii?iaiaio? aiao,
ianaaeo oeaiaa, iiaa?uaai aiao a ?aaeoi?, niaaeiy?o n e?a-
iii aiaii?iaiaiie naoe e iinoaiaiii aai ioe?uaa?o, auoia-
iua oeaiae iionea?o a ninoau aey eaoieeoa e aiieeoa. Aee??a-
?o enoi?iee iinoiyiiiai oiea e caia?y?o oie (0,5—0,6 A) e
nei?inou i?ioiea eaoieeoa e aiieeoa (io 3 ai 10 e/?).
Aiaa n iiiiuu? aiaino?oeiiai ianina iiaaaony ec ninoaa
enoiaiie aiau, ?acaaeyaony ia aaa iioiea e iinooiaao nieco
aaa?o a ?aaeoi?a niioaaonoaaiii a eaoiaiia e aiiaiia i?ino?ai-
noaa; aaa?oo auoiaeo eaoieeo e aiieeo, eioi?ua niae?a?o a
ioaaeuiua ninoau. Nei?inou i?ioiea ?aaoee?o?o e?aiii aiai-
i?iaiaiie aiau e ca?eiii iiaa?e aiau a eaoiaio? eaia?o,
caia?y?o n iiiiuu? ia?iuo oeeeia?ia. Oeene?o?o ia?aiao?u
i?ioanna: neeo oiea, oaiia?aoo?o, nei?inou i?ioiea.
Enoiaio? aiao, eaoieeo e aiieeo aiaeece?o?o ii in-
iiaiui iieacaoaeyi ea?anoaa, a oii ?enea ?aaeoe? n?aau —
?I, n iiiiuu? ?I-iao?a, niaa??aiea iai?aaie?aneeo yeaeo-
?ii?iaiayueo aauanoa (ia/ai3 = ?anoae ia ieeeeii) noiia?-
ii — n iiiiuu? TDS-iao?a Oaaeoa?neie oe?iu «Zepter»
(eiiaoeoiiao?a).

– 191 –
I?iaaaai oeee yenia?eiaioia ii eco?aie? aeeyiey ia?a-
iao?ia yeaeo?ieeca ia ea?anoai aiau.
?acoeuoaou YOA aiau i?aanoaaeaiu a oaaeeoa 2.

Oaaeeoa 2




, /
9,0 8,2
2003 .
1 7,5 10,1 6,2
+13 °,

214 259 180
, /3 0,6
+24 °,
, / 7,5 7,5
2
0,5
7,6 9,8 5,2
+19 °,
, / 6,7 6,7
3
0,5
7,6 10,0 6,0
+13 °,
, / 6,0 5,3
4
0,5 0,55
7,8 10,3 5,7
+13 °,
, /
6,0 6,0
0,5 .
5 6,8 10,3 5,6
5
214 223 170
, /3
+13 °,
, /
6,0 4,0
0,5 0,6
6 7,5 10,5 5,1

214 217 171
, /3
+18 °,
, /
7 5,7 3,3
0,5
7,3 10,4 3,5
+18 °,
, /
8 4,2 3,6
0,5
7,6 11,0 3,2
+13 °,
, /
9 4,3 3,5
0,5 .
8,3 10,6 3,4

30 . 30 .
+5 8 °

9,2 3,1
, /3 208 224 205
+13 °,
, /
10 4,0 3,4
0,5 0,6
7,5 11,0 3,4

, /3 214 234 231
+13 °,
, /
11 3,5 2,5
0,5
7,2 11,0 3,5

, /3 302 261 239

I?eia?aiea: A aiieeoao iaia?o?aii iaee?ea ieneaaioia a eiee?anoaa
10—40 ia/ai3 a ?an?aoa ia aeoeaiue oei?.

Ec aaiiuo oaaeeou 2 ii?ii naaeaou neaao?uea auaiau:
- i?e nie?aiee nei?inoe i?ioiea eaoieeoa e aiieeoa ii-
auoaaony ?I eaoieeoa e nie?aaony ?I aiieeoa, ?oi ni-
aeanoaony n oai?eae, o. e. i?e yoii iiauoaaony oaaeuiue
?anoia eiee?anoaa yeaeo?e?anoaa e niioaaonoaaiii ia?a-

– 192 –
iin eaoeiiia iaoaeeia e aiai?iaa a eaoiaiia i?ino?ai-
noai e aieiiia a aiiaiia i?ino?ainoai;
- ia?aco?ony uaei?iie eaoieeo e eeneue aiieeo;
- niaa??aiea yeaeo?ii?iaiayueo iai?aaie?aneeo aauanoa
(noiia?ii) aic?anoaao a eaoieeoa e iiie?aaony a aiiee-
oa ii n?aaiaie? n eo niaa??aieai a enoiaiie aiaa, ?oi
iauyniyaony aieaa aunieie iiaae?iinou? eaoeiiia ai-
ai?iaa;
- aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u a i?aaaeao 13—24 iN e neeu oiea a
i?aaaeao 0,5—0,6 A iacia?eoaeuii;
- i?e o?aiaiee eaoieeoa e aiieeoa a oa?aiea 30 nooie i?e
oaiia?aoo?a +5—8 iN ?I iaei eciaiyaony, oi anou i?ioan-
nu ?aeaenaoee ia oieiaa i?ioaea?o n iaeie nei?inou?.
I?aaaa?eoaeuiua eniuoaiey YOA aiau ii caia?eaaie?
naiyi ca?iiauo eoeuoo? iieacaee, ?oi ia?aaioea eo eaoieeoii
i?eaiaeo e iiauoaie? anoi?anoe ia 10—20 % ii n?aaiaie? n
eiio?ieai (caia?eaaieai a enoiaiie aiaa). Caia?eaaiea naiyi a
aiieeoa ia aaao iiei?eoaeuiuo ?acoeuoaoia.
Yoe aaiiua niaeano?ony n eia?ueieny naaaaieyie ii
yooaeoeaiinoe eaoieeoa i?e ia?aaioea naiyi ?anoaiee.
Oaeei ia?acii, aia?aua i?eaaaaiu aaiiua ii YOA ieoua-
aie aiau eiie?aoiiai ea?anoaa n ?acee?iui i?ioieii eaoieeoa
e aiieeoa, a oae?a aaiiua ii niaa??aie? a ieo yeaeo?ii?iai-
ayueo iai?aaie?aneeo aauanoa (noiia?ii).



EIIIAAOEIIIUE YEIEIAI-OAOIIEIAE?ANEEE IAIAA?IAIO:
OAOIIEIAE?, OIAA?II?IECAIAEOAEE, YEIEIAE?, AECIAN

A.E. Eiaa?aaa, I.I. Oeeeiiiaa

A ?acaeouo no?aiao, eioi?ua ia?auie i?ioee yoai «iiee-
oece?iaaiiie» yeieiae?aneie ai?uau, iaiaoiaeiinou ia?oia?-
noaa yeieiaia e oiaa?ii?iecaiaeoaeae neeaauaaeanu ec naiie
nooe ?anoiiai aeciana, eiaaa o?ao eioa?ania ianoiiai ianaeaiey
e iio?aaeoaeae niaeanoaony n eioa?anaie io?aiu i?e?iau, a
iauanoaaiiue eiio?ieu oieuei ei??aeoe?oao ?enoi oaoiieiae-
?aneea i?ainu.


– 193 –
A nia?aiaiiie ?innee iiea aua ia nicaaia iniiaa aey oe-
aeeeciaaiiuo ioiioaiee aeciana e yeieiaia. Iieeoeea, ea?ua-
?a — ai?uaa n yeieiae?aneeie «i?iaeoaie aaea»: ia?aa?inea
?a?iiai noiea ia ?a; no?ieoaeunoai Eaieia?aaneie aaiau; ni-
caaiea Eaooineie AYN ia Aeoaa; i?ieeaaea Aaeeeie nei?inoiie
iaaeno?aee ?a?ac Aaeeeee aiai?acaae e a?. Ia oiia ?aaeuiie
ai?uau n ?aaeuiuie «iiino?aie», niiniaiuie iaianoe iaiii-
?aaeiue a?aa i?e?iaa, yeieiae e i?e?iaiio?aiiay iauanoaai-
iinou noaee aunooiaou naiaia?aciie neeie a ?aoaiee ?enoi eii-
eo?aioiuo acaeiiioiioaiee.
?aiaa auea ?ani?ino?aiaia «yeieiae?aneay i?acoiioey ia-
aeiiaiinoe», oae eae iaai auei no?ieou AAI, OEA ia Aaeeaea,
au?oaaou i?eooia?iaua eana a ?aeiiao aiau?e iaooe e aaca, oie?-
oi?aou eana aie?oa ieeaeaauo eiiaeiaoia e i?. Aaeaee ana, ?oi
iaai auei aey ia?iaiiai oicyenoaa, ia caaioynu i ainnoaiiaeaiee
eania e nio?aiaiee i?e?iau. I?e i?ioi?aaiee yenia?oecu aic-
ieeae aeuyin i?iaeoe?iaueeia e yenia?oia. ?aoaiea aineiien-
nee anaaaa auei iaii e oi ?a: «ai?aaioaou n o?aoii auneacaiiuo
caia?aiee». Oae i?aoai?yeenu a ?eciu iaeiciua i?iaeou: AYN,
AYN, no?ieoaeunoai oeie?aneeo i?aai?eyoee e iaoaeeo?ae?aneeo
caaiaia, aacii?iaiaia, OEA e a?. A ?innee i?eiyo Caeii «Ia y-
eieiae?aneie yenia?oeca» 1995 a. Niaeanii aai auno?iaiu ii?aaa-
eaiiua acaeiiioiioaiey ia?ao yeieiaaie, iauanoaaiiinou? e
oai, eoi no?ieo, ?acaaauaaao iaa?a e aiauaaao ?ano?nu.
Caanu iu inoaiiaeiny ia i?ia?anna, ainoeaiooii i?aa-
i?eieiaoaeuneei naeoi?ii a iaeanoe yeieiaecaoee naiae aa-
yoaeuiinoe, oneeeyo, i?aai?eieiaaoeony i?aaeoaeunoaii ?O
e iauanoaaiiinou? ii i?iiaaaiaa eaae niaianoeiinoe aecia-
na e onoie?eaiai ?acaeoey e i?iaeaiao, eioi?ua aua i?aanoi-
eo ?aoeou.
A oa?aiea aaoo eao a ?innee ioaeeeiaaeenu «Caeaiua no?a-
ieou» n e?aoeie oa?aeoa?enoeeie e ?aeeaiie iaeaieaa yeiei-
ae?anee ?enouo i?aai?eyoee e iao?ii-oaoie?aneeo oaio?ia, ae-
oeaii caieia?ueony eiiiaaoeiiiie iieeoeeie a iaeanoe ia-
?aoiaa ia yia?aiyooaeoeaiua e iaeiiooiaiua oaoiieiaee.
Ia ana?inneeneeo nuacaao ii io?aia i?e?iau aii?inu on-
oie?eaiai ?acaeoey i?aai?eieiaoaeunoaa auaaeyeenu a ioaaeu-
iua naeoee e aaoaeuii i?i?aaaouaaeenu. A 1996 aiao Oi?aiai-
i?iiuoeaiiay iaeaoa ?O, Niaao Oaaa?aoee e «Aaci?ii» niaia-

– 194 –
noii i?iaaee e?oiio? ia?aoia?iaio? eiioa?aioe? «?ano?nu
onoie?eaiai ?acaeoey ?innee: i?aai?eyoey, oaoiieiaee, iaoea».
Auei i?aaieciaaii ianeieuei iai?aaeoaeunoaaiiuo oaio?ia ii
i?iaeaiaoeea onoie?eaiai ?acaeoey e aeciana e onoaiiaeaiu
?aai?ea eiioaeou n Anaie?iui niaaoii i?aai?eieiaoaeae ii
onoie?eaiio ?acaeoe?. A oaeyo i?iiaaaiau eaae onoie?eaiai oeia
i?aai?eieiaoaeunoaa auea ia?aaaaaia e ecaaia ooiaaiaioaeu-
iay eieaa N. Oieaoaeie «Niaia eo?na».
Ca enoaeoaa aanyoeeaoea ainoaoi?ii yaii i?inea?eaaaony
eioa?an, eioi?ue i?aai?eieiaoaeuneee naeoi? i?iyaeyao e aii-
?inai yeieiaee. N oaeu? auyaeaiey ?aca?aia i?e?iaiio?aiiie
iieeoeee e oeo?oaiey naiae ?aiooaoee iiiaea i?aai?eyoey aia-
?iaieuii iiaaa?aa?o naay i?ioaao?ai yeieiae?aneiai aoaeoa. Ii?ao
auou iaainoaoi?ii nenoaiii, ii i?aai?eyoey noa?a?ony aiaa?eou
yeaiaiou nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ENI 14 000 ia i?iecaianoaa.
?ya i?aai?eyoee i?eieiaee o?anoea a i?iaaaaiee yenia-
?eiaioia ii aiaa?aie? yeieiae?aneiai no?aoiaaiey. Aic?inei
ea?anoai i?aanoaaeyaiuo ia ainoaa?noaaiio? yeieiae?aneo? ye-
nia?oeco i?iaeoia. A no?aia oaeoe?anee nei?eeanu io?aneu yei-
eiae?aneeo oneoa e yeieiae?aneiai i?aai?eieiaoaeunoaa.
Ai iiiaeo iaeanoyo (Oiineay, Iiaai?ianeay e a?.) i?e
aaieieno?aoeyo auee nicaaiu aaaionoaa ii ?acaeoe? (eee eo
aiaeia), eioi?ua iiiiaaee iaeiio e n?aaiaio i?aai?eieia-
oaeunoao a iienea e aiaa?aiee iiauo yeieiae?anee aieaa ?en-
ouo oaoiieiaee. Aiaa?aiu nioie ?ac?aaioie a iaeii e n?aaiai
aeciana, iicaiey?ueo oeo?oeou yeieiae?aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?iecaiaeiie i?iaoeoee (oneoa). Nicaaii ianeieuei ?aaeiiaeu-
iuo oaio?ia ?enoiai i?iecaianoaa. A ?yaa e?oiiuo ai?iaia ni-
caa?ony annioeaoee yeieiae?aneiai i?aai?eieiaoaeunoaa, eo
i?aanoaaeoaee ?aaoey?ii o?anoao?o a ?aaioa ai?ianeeo eniieie-
oaeuiuo e caeiiiaaoaeuiuo i?aaiia aeanoe.
E?oiiua eiiiaiee ia?aaei aunooia?o eieoeaoi?aie i?i-
aaaaiey naieia?ia, eiioa?aioee e e?oaeuo noieia n iauanoaai-
iinou?, iinayuaiiuo aii?inai iaania?aiey yeieiae?aneie aa-
ciianiinoe naiae aayoaeuiinoe. Anou i?eia?u oaa?iie iea?ian-
eie aayoaeuiinoe, naycaiiie n eiaiaie ?AI «Ii?eeuneee ie-
eaeu» (ia?anaeaiea aaoa?aiia o?oaa ia iaoa?ee iiaaeuoa io caa-
?yciaiiie oa??eoi?ee), eiiiaiee a?oiiu «Eieoea» (iiaa?ie
oeieuieeai a. Aioeeinea ?aioaa).

– 195 –
Aianoa n oai eiaee e eia?o ianoi iiiai neo?aaa, eiaaa
eiaanoeoeiiiua i?iaeou ia i?ioiayo yeieiae?aneie yenia?oe-
cu e ?aaeeco?ony aac eioi?ie?iaaiey ianoiiai ianaeaiey e
iauanoaaiiinoe. Eiaanoi?aie ouaiey?ony i?aaa eieaeuiuo ni-
iauanoa a ioiioaiee iieuciaaiey iiiaeie ianoiuie aeieiae-
?aneeie ?ano?naie (Oaio? yeiniaeaney).
Oaiaaie e e?eieiaeuiue aecian a ioiioaiee ?uaiuo ca-
iania ?innee i?aacioae ana aicii?iua ii?iae e ia?aie?aiey.
Iia aeaii i?aai?eieiaoaeunoaa i?ioaaoaao a?aeiiua?noai a ?ae-
iiao Neae?e, Aaeuiaai Ainoiea, Aeoay. Iacaeiiii iinoaaey?ony
?iaa naeaaea, iaaaa?uy ?ae?u, ?aiuoaiu, a?oaea aeau eaea?-
noaaiii-oaoie?aneiai nu?uy.
Nenoaiaoe?aneee oa?aeoa? i?eiyea iacaeiiiay ?oaea aa?a-
auaa a ?aeiiao i?iiuoeaiiiai inaiaiey eana.
?anniio?ei ianeieuei i?eia?ia aeeyiey yeieiae?aneeo
a?aoiaioia aey oneeaiey iiceoee caiaaiuo oe?i a oaiaa?a ia
i?aai ?ac?aaioee ianoi?i?aaiee, eioi?ua i?aaiieaaa?o aieaa
yeieiae?anee ?enoua oaoiieiaee. Iniaaiii ?aoei iii i?inea?e-
aaaony a aiauaa?uae io?anee.
Oi, ?oi i?e?iaiio?aiiua aniaeou noaiiayony ana aieaa ae-
ooaeuiuie aey ia?niaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey caiiie oeaeeecaoee,
iiaoaa??aaaony niaiie aeoaioia iiaanoee aiy ia ano?a?ao eeaa-
?ia ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a. Ia?eiay n naiieoa a Oieei a 1979 a.
?eaiu «Aieuoie naia?ee» ana aieuoa aieiaiey oaaey?o aii?i-
nai ni?aaaaeeaiai iaania?aiey yia?aeae, aeiaaeuiui i?iaea-
iai ie?o?a?uae n?aau.
Ii ia?a en?a?iaiey oao eee eiuo aeaia i?e?iaiuo ?ano?-
nia aoaoo i?ienoiaeou eiioeeeou ?acee?iiai o?iaiy: ia?ao
iaeeeie oe?iaie ca ?uiee nauoa (ainoaoi?ii ia?aoeou aieia-
iea ia ?aeeaiio? noaoo a ?innee ?ani?ino?aieoaeae iuea, noe-
?aeuiiai ii?ioea, iinoau), ia?ao iaoeiiaeuiuie eiiiaiey-
ie ca i?aai oi?aaeaiey eniieuciaaieai ?ano?naie ioaaeuiuo
no?ai e o.a. E ?aua anaai a?aoiaioii a ai?uaa aoaoo aunooiaou
yeieiae?aneea i?iaeaiu. Aey ei??aeoee no?aoaaee i?e?iaiiieu-
ciaaiey noaee eniieuciaaou yeieiae?aneo? eioi?iaoe?: eniieu-
ciaaiea eaniuo ?ano?nia, yienney. Iieeoeea caiaaiuo eiiia-
iee a ioiioaiee ?inneeneiai eanii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena
i?iaiaeony ii yoaiai. Ia?aue yoai — yoi o?anoea a eiaanoeoe-
iiiuo i?iaeoao n o?anoeai nianoaaiiinoe ?inneeneeo i?iecaianoa,

– 196 –
aaeaa i?eiaiea ?ya ecaanoiuo a ie?a i?eaiia, iieo?a?o e eii-
o?ieuiue iaeao aeoee, noaiiayony iaiiaeiio?ieuiuie e aaea-
?o oi, ?oi io?ii nianoaaiieeai: i?ae?auaaony auione io?iuo
aey ?innee oiaa?ia, i?iaoeoia e aa?a cae?uoea i?iecaianoa.
Iaeioi?ua caiaaiua oe?iu iaaua?o eiaanoeoee, ii yoi ia
auiieiyaony, a i?eaiaeo e ia?ooaie? ?aiaa nei?eaoeony i?i-
ecaianoaaiiuo naycae n iio?aaeoaeyie.
I?ienoiaeo iieoiea i?aai?eyoee ii «yeieiae?aneei ii-
oeaai» aey eo iiaa?iecaoee n iineaao?uei ioeacii io iiaa?-
iecaoee e oaeoe?anee ono?aiaieai eiieo?aioa (i?eia? Naaa?-
neiai OAE).
A iineaaiaa aanyoeeaoea ia?anoaee ?anoeea eiioeeeou ia?ao
i?e?iaiio?aiiuie iai?aaeoaeunoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeyie e ea-
nicaaioiaeoaeuiuie eiiiaieyie, o?ainiaoeiiaeuiuie ei?ii-
?aoeyie (Mitsubishi).
I?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieai yoeo noaaoie ieacaeenu aea?-
iua o?iie?aneea eana. Ianniaua aeoee i?ioanoa, a?anou ieacaee
iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia eiea? eanii?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee
Eaiaau. Eiea?o eiiiaiee aue iaianai nouanoaaiiue oaa?,
?oi i?eaaei e ioeaco e?oiiaeoeo iieoiaoaeae io oneoa yoeo
ei?ii?aoee.
Ecaanoii, ?oi naaiaiy eniieuco?ony yeieiae?aneea a?ao-
iaiou a ai?uaa ca ainooi e iaooyiui ?ano?nai Eaniey. I?eean-
iee, ii i?aao n?eoaaoeeny «iiaui iaooyiui Yeuai?aai» (ca-
ianu «?a?iiai cieioa» caanu ninoaaey?o, ii iaeioi?ui ioaieai,
eae ieieioi, 20 ieeeea?aia oiii), niaaeiai iaooai?iaiaaie
e a?oaeie a?oa?eyie n ii?oaie anao i?e?a?iiii?neeo no?ai.
A eiini?oeoia caiaaiuo oe?i ii yoie naaeea o?anoaiaae iaei
ec e?oiiaeoeo aia?eeaineeo iaooyiuo eiioa?iia «A?eoeo iao-
?ieaoi». ?inney ieacaeanu aia aeoeaiuo o?anoieeia i?iaeoa in-
aiaiey ianoi?i?aaiee a Aca?aaea?aineii e Eacaoneii naeoi-
?ao. Aaeinoaaiiue ?u?aa aey aiaa?aiey a ?enei o?anoieeia —
yoi canoaaeou anao ia?oia?ia ii ia?aaiai?ai n?eoaou Eaniee aae-
iui iauaeoii, inaiaiea anao i?e?iaiuo aiaaonoa eioi?iai aie-
?ii aanoenu ia ia?eoaoiuo ia?aeao anaie ainoaa?noaaie n ni-
ae?aaieai yeieiae?aneeo ?aaeaiaioia.
I?e?iaiio?aiiua a?aoiaiou eniieuco?ony e a ai?uaa ca
ia?o?oou yenii?oa Eanieeneie iaooe. Yeieiae?aneee oaeoi? —
i?aaioa?auaiea oa?icu caa?yciaiey iaoou? i?ieeaia Ainoi? e

– 197 –
Aa?aaiaeeu — yaeyaony aa?iui a?aoiaioii a aaaeaiee Oo?oee
ia o?anoieeia ia?aaiai?iiai i?ioanna ii auai?o o?aiceoiiai
iooe. ?anoeay iieeoeea Aiea?u a yoii ?aaeiia au?a?aaony a
oii, ?oi i?ieeau ii yenieoaoaoeiiiui e yeieiae?aneei i?e-
?eiai «ia auaa??ao iaooyiuo ia?aa?ocie», a iioiio «ia?aea?ea
iaooe Eaniey e ii?oo A?aeoai iaeaieaa auaiaia e iicaiee-
oaeuia, e?iia oiai, yoi iiii?ao naa?a?u oei?o e oaoio i?iee-
aia e iiaa?a?uy».
Yeieiae?aneea a?aoiaiou oiio?aaey?ony a iieuco eniieu-
ciaaiey «?enouo» yia?aiiineoaeae. I?iaie?aaony nie?auaiea
aiau?e oaey a Caiaaiie Aa?iia. Caoi aic?anoaao eniieuciaaiea
«aieaa ?enouo» yia?aiiineoaeae e oaaee?aiea eiii?oa iecei-
na?ienouo oaeae ec NOA, ?A? e Eieoiaee.
A ?innee i?ioiayo aeneonnee i i?ei?eoaoao ?acaeoey yia?-
aaoeee: AYN, AYN eee OYN. Ea?aay ec noi?ii aeoeaii eniieu-
coao NIE, «caeaiuo» aey auaaaeeaaiey eiieo?aioia. Iia «oo-
iie» ai?uau n aea?ino?ieoaeyie ia?aeenu no?ieoaeunoai iiauo
aeieia AYN e ia?aaia OYN ia aac. Oaia?u yeieiae?aneea i?ioan-
ou i?ioea AYN oe?aiey?o iiceoee aea?ino?ieoaeae e oaieiauo
noaioee. E oae «ii e?oao».
Ioaaeuiie oaiie ii?ao auou ?uaieianoai e aiau?a ii?ai-
?iaoeoia n o?aoii yeieiae?aneeo a?aoiaioia e eaio, yeieiae-
?aneea a?aoiaiou aey ?anoiiai i?iecaianoaa ?uaiie ioee ec
eanieeneie eeeuee.
Ia?ieeiaue yooaeo e ?uii?iua iiceoee Aaci?iia, ia?-
ieeiaue yooaeo e ?uiie aaciiioi?iiai oiieeaa, iciiiaue
neie — iioa?e e auaiau ioaaeuiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeoaeae, ?ieu
?innee a aaiiie?iaaiee oaea?iaa aoiinoa?u, i?iaa?a eaio ia
aua?inu ia?ieeiauo aacia. Ana yoe oaiu ii?ii iauaaeieou iia
iaiei caaieiaeii «eniieuciaaiea yeieiae?aneeo a?aoiaioia aey
oe?aieaiey ?uii?iuo iiceoee oiaa?ii?iecaiaeoaeae a oiieea-
ii-yia?aaoe?aneii eiiieaena». Oio oaeo, ?oi ne?uouie ?u?aaa-
ie a aioeo?aiiiaie eaiiaiee auee eiiia??aneea eioa?anu,
iiaoaa??aa?ony neaao?uei i?eia?ii. A einoeoooa eiaie Eo?-
?aoiaa ?ac?aaioaee oaoiieiae? i?iecaianoaa iciiiaaciianiie
niane, eioi?ay ii?ao eniieuciaaouny aac ia?aiai?oaiaaiey no-
uanoao?ueo oieiaeeuiuo ono?ienoa. Iaiaei eiino?aiiua eiaa-
noi?u i?aaeaaa?o aaiuae iia ?aeiino?oeoe? i?aai?eyoee, ii n
eniieuciaaieai iai?oaiaaiey eie ?aeiiaiaoaiuo oe?i e n

– 198 –
aoaoueie iinoaaeaie oeaaaaaioa eo ia?ee. Niioaaonoaaiii ?in-
ney iieo?eea caai, a oii ?enea ia ia?aiai?oaiaaiea i?iec-
aianoa oieiaeeuiuo onoaiiaie. E yeieiae?aneee aniaeo noae i?aiu
na?uaciui oaeoi?ii aaaeaiey ia yeiiiie?aneii ?uiea. Yoi io-
aaeuiay na?uaciay i?iaeaia, iano?aaie? eioi?ie aoaoo iinay-
uaiu ioaaeuiua ioaeeeaoee a neaao?ueo ecaaieyo No?a?iy.
Inoaiiaeiny ia aieaa iia?iaiii ?anniio?aiee aeeyiey yeiei-
ae?aneeo ia?aie?aiee ia i?iaae?aiea ?inneeneeo oiaa?ia ia
ie?iaie ?uiie ia i?eia?a ?acaeoey iio?aaeoaeuneiai ?uiea a
eaniii naeoi?a.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?acaeoea iio?aaeoaeuneiai ?uiea i?ien-
oiaeo iia?a?a?ueie oaiiaie, iiauoaaony e ea?anoai iio?aa-
eaiey. Iiiaea caiaaiua eiiiaiee, caee??ay aiaiai? ia i?eia-
?aoaiea oie eee eiie i?iaoeoee eee nu?uy, no?aiyony a ia?-
ao? i?a?aau ociaou, ?oi i?aanoaaeyao niaie i?eia?aoaaiue oi-
aa? n oi?ee c?aiey oaoiieiaee aai i?iecaianoaa, yaeyaony ee ii
yeieiae?anee ?enoui e ia ieacaea ee aai aiau?a a?aaa ie?o?a-
?uae n?aaa. A ?anoiinoe, a no?aiao Caiaaiie Aa?iiu o?aao?o
i?e ia?aaioea oaee?eicu ia eniieuciaaou oei?. Nae?an oaeie
oaoiieiaeae aeaaa?o oieuei ?aou?a ?inneeneeo eiiaeiaoa, in-
oaeuiua io?aa?ony a iiaa?iecaoee, a neaaiaaoaeuii, i?iaae-
?aiea eo i?iaoeoee ia ie?iaie ?uiie naa??eaaaony yeieiae-
?aneeie ia?aie?aieyie, nouanoao?ueie ia ?uiea. Noaiiaeony
i?aaeaiie iaiaoiaeiinou ?ac?aaioee e aiaa?aiey ia ?inneeneeo
aa?aaiia?a?aaaouaa?ueo i?aai?eyoeyo iiauo aunieeo oaoiiei-
aee, iicaiey?ueo i?iecaiaeou yeieiae?anee ?enoo?, eiieo-
?aioiniiniaio?, i?eaeaeaoaeuio? aey iio?aaeoaey eae ia ?in-
neeneii, oae e ia ie?iaii ?uiea i?iaoeoe?, niiniaio? i?e-
ianoe i?eaueu eiiiaiee e iiauneou aa eiea?.
A?oaie ciiie eiioeeeoa a i?iaeaia i?iaae?aiey ?innee-
neie a?aaaneiu e i?iaoeoee aa ia?a?aaioee ia ie?iaie ?uiie
yaeyaony ia?aoaiiinou aii?inia eaniiieuciaaiey, eiuie nei-
aaie, yeieiae?aneee oaeoi? aie?ai o?eouaaouny ia oieuei i?e
ia?a?aaioea, ii e i?e caaioiaea a?aaaneiu. Eanicaaioiaeoaee a
ia?ao? i?a?aau aie?iu ia?auaou aieiaiea ia oi, eaeea ii-
neaanoaey iiaea?ao ca niaie eo aayoaeuiinou. Ecaanoii, ?oi a
ioiioaiee e ?inneeneei i?iecaiaeoaeyi anaie?iay i?aaieca-
oey «Greenpeace» inouanoaeyea aeoeaiua aaenoaey, eana?ueany
caueou noa?iaic?anoiuo eania Ea?aeee. Eanicaaioiaeoaee iuoa-

– 199 –
eenu caueoeouny, iaaeiyy «caeaiuo» a oii, ?oi iie auiieiy?o
caeac caiaaiuo oe?i e aiaeaa?ony cae?uoey iaeaieaa eiieo-
?aioiniiniaiuo ?inneeneeo oe?i, caieia?ueony iinoaaeie aa-
oaaie a?aaaneiu a Aa?iio. Iaiaei eiiiaiey «caeaiuo» ieaca-
eanu ianoieuei yooaeoeaiie, ?oi ?ya iinoiyiiuo ia?oia?ia iauy-
aeee ii?aoi?ee ia caeoieo a?aaaneiu ec ciiu ea?aeuneeo noa-
?iaic?anoiuo eania, a iaeioi?ua iaiaoeea oe?iu ioeacaeenu
iieoiaou o Oeieyiaee aoiaao, ecaioiaeaiio? ec yoie a?aaane-
iu. Oaeei ia?acii, o?ao yeieiae?aneiai oaeoi?a i?e caaioiaea
e ia?a?aaioea a?aaaneiu, ?acaeoea e ?anoe?aiea ?uieia yei-
eiae?anee ?enoie i?iaoeoee eaniiai naeoi?a ioe?uaa?o iiaua
aicii?iinoe auoiaa ia aiaoiee ?uiie e caaiaaaiey ia iai
ee??aauo iiceoee.
Eae ioiaoee a naiai aieeaaa ia naieia?a ii eaniie na?oe-
oeeaoee oeineee o?aiue a-? Ia?eeo Neioea: «yeieiae?anee
onoie?eaia ?acaeoea noaei aa?iui aii?inii ia ?uieao eaniie
i?iaoeoee».
Aii?inaie na?oeoeeaoee anao oiaa?ia e oneoa a ?inneen-
eie Oaaa?aoee noaee aeoeaii caieiaouny n ia?aea 90-o aa., a n
1997 a. ia?aeanu ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu eaniie na?oeoeeaoee, in-
iiaiuie oaeyie eioi?ie yaeeinu nicaaiea yeiiiie?aneeo e
iieeoe?aneeo oneiaee aey eniieuciaaiey a eaniii naeoi?a ii-
auo oaoiieiaee, iiauoaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ?inneeneie
eaniie i?iaoeoee e i?iaae?aiea aa ia aiaoiee ?uiie.
I?aanoaaeoaee ?innee i?eieia?o aeoeaiia o?anoea a ia?-
aoia?iaiuo ia?ii?eyoeyo, naycaiiuo n ?ac?aaioeie nenoai ean-
iie na?oeoeeaoee. Iaiei ec ?acoeuoaoia nio?oaie?anoaa n oei-
neeie eieeaaaie a noaiiaeaiee i?eioeiia onoie?eaiai oi?aa-
eaiey eanaie noaei ia?aciaaiea ?inneenei-oeieyianeie ?aai-
?ae a?oiiu ii na?oeoeeaoee eania.
Eaniay na?oeoeeaoey auiieiyao ?ieu oeaaaaoia ia iooe
eaniie i?iaoeoee ec iana?aaiee, eniieucoaiuo aac o?aoa yeiei-
ae?aneeo oaeoi?ia, oeuie?anee yenieoaoe?oaiuo. Ia aa?iiaen-
eii ?uiea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ni?in ia na?oeoeoe?iaaiio? ean-
io? i?iaoeoe? i?aauoaao i?aaei?aiea, ?oi iicaieyao aiai?eou
i aunieie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe na?oeoeoe?iaaiiie i?iaoe-
oee e enee??eoaeuiie aa?iinoe naiiai i?ioanna na?oeoeeaoee.
?ac?aaioea ?inneeneie nenoaiu eaniie na?oeoeeaoee ae-
oeaii inouanoaeyeanu a oa?aiea iineaaieo 3 eao. Auee i?iaaaa-

– 200 –
iu iaiaoiaeiua i?aaiecaoeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey e nicaaia nen-
oaia iaycaoaeuiie eaniie na?oeoeeaoee. Niaeanii Eaniiio ei-
aaeno: «iaycaoaeuiie na?oeoeeaoee iiaea?ao a?aaaneia, ioion-
eaaiay ia ei?i?, e aoi?inoaiaiiua eaniua ?ano?nu», a ?aaiou
ii noaiaa?oecaoee e na?oeoeeaoee i?aaiecoao e eii?aeie?oao
Ainnoaiaa?o ?innee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy na?oeoeoe?iaaii aieaa
1 iei eoa. i a?aaaneiu, ioioneaaiie ia ei?i?, auaaiu na?oe-
oeeaou niioaaonoaey e eeoaicee ia i?aai i?eiaiaiey ciaea
niioaaonoaey.
Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia a ?innee nin?aaioi?aia iyoay ?anou
anao ie?iauo caiania a?aaaneiu. Ae i?eiaaea?eo ia?aia ianoi ii
eaniiie?uoie ieiuaae, ninoaaey?uae aieaa 750 iei aa e i?aain-
oiayuae eaniiie?uoo? ieiuaau oaeeo e?oiiuo no?ai, eae Eaia-
aa, NOA, Oaaoey, Ii?aaaey, Oeieyiaey aianoa acyoua. Iauea
i?iiuoeaiiua caianu a?aaaneiu ainoeaa?o 30 ie?a eoa. i., a
yoi aieaa ?ai a o?e ?aca i?aainoiaeo caianu NOA e Eaiaau.
Eana ?innee i?aanoaaeaiu ?aa?aeoeie oaiiuie ii?iaaie
aa?aauaa, iaeaaa?o ia?iiiui eoeuoo?ii-icai?iaeoaeuiui e ?ae-
?aaoeiiiui iioaioeaeii. ?onneee ean neaci?ii e?anea, aoau oi
no?iaay e iai?ioiaeiay oaeaa eee eaaeee, oaeanoyuee eenoaie
oiiieaaue eanie ia aa?aao Aieae eee Aiia. Ea?aue ii-naiaio
aa?ai e iaiaoiaei. E anee aaeiao? oaeao ?aeiaae eniieucoao
aey caaioiaee aaeiaie a?aaaneiu, oi eana ??iuo ?aaeiiia, au-
iieiy?uea aeaaiui ia?acii caueoiua e icai?iaeoaeuiua ooi-
eoee, oi?ioe aey eoeuoo?iuo e ?ae?aaoeiiiuo oaeae. E yoie
eaoaai?ee ioiinyony e eana Aieaia?aaneie iaeanoe. ?aniiei?ai-
iay ia ?aa Aa?iiaeneie ?anoe ?innee e eia?uay ia naiae oa?-
?eoi?ee 2 oaeeo e?oiiuo ?aee, eae Aieaa e Aii, iaoa iaeanou
iaeaaaao cia?eoaeuiui ?ae?aaoeiiiui iioaioeaeii. Eanenoinou
iaeanoe ninoaaeyao 4,3 %, ca enee??aieai naaa?iuo ?aeiiia ia-
eanoe, aaa yoio iieacaoaeu ii?ao ainoeaaou 13,6 %. Ana eana iaea-
noe ioianaiu e 1-e a?oiia, aaa cai?auaiu ?oaee aeaaiiai iieuci-
aaiey, a ieo i?iaiayony oieuei ?oaee ooiaa (?oaee i?iia?o-
oi?iiai iieuciaaiey) e i?i?ea ?oaee. Iniiaiui enoi?ieeii
iie?uoey cao?ao ia i?iaaaaiea ?oaie yaey?ony n?aanoaa io ?aa-
eecaoee iieo?aaiie a?aaaneiu. A aieuoeinoaa naiai yoi iecei-
ea?anoaaiiay, a?iayiay a?aaaneia, nauo aa ia?aie?ai.
Oaeei ia?acii, a oneiaeyo Aieaia?aaneie iaeanoe iaeai-
eaa auaiaiui e ia?niaeoeaiui n yeiiiie?aneie oi?ee c?aiey

– 201 –
yaeyaony ?acaeoea eoeuoo?ii-icai?iaeoaeuiiai e ?ae?aaoeiiii-
ai iieuciaaiey eanii.
A ?aoaiee nia?aiaiiuo yeieiae?aneeo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo
n eniieuciaaieai e aini?iecaianoaii i?e?iaii-?ano?niiai ii-
oaioeaea, a oii ?enea e eania, ana aieuoay ioaaonoaaiiinou aic-
eaaaaony ia iaoeo, a oae?a ia iianaianoiia ?acaeoea e iiaaa??-
eo eiiiaaoeiiiie aayoaeuiinoe.
Naaiaiy eiiiaaoeiiiay aayoaeuiinou i?iaicaeaoaia a ea?a-
noaa i?ei?eoaoiiai iai?aaeaiey ainoaa?noaaiiie yeiiiie?aneie
iieeoeee, nicaa?ony ?acee?iua einoeooou a aa iiaaa??eo. Aianoa
n oai oaoie?aneia ia?aaii?o?aiea aieuoeinoaa io?aneae yeiii-
ieee inouanoaeyaony e?aeia iaaeaiii, a iiaay i?iaoeoey ia oa?-
?eoi?e? no?aiu i?eoiaeo a iiaaaey?uai iauaia ec-ca ?oaa?a.
Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu ia?aaa?e oaoiieiaee io iaoee a i?i-
iuoeaiiinou e aaeaa ia ?uiie ii?ii ioa?aeoa?eciaaou ia i?e-
ia?a yeiiiieee Aieaia?aaneie iaeanoe.
Ia aa oa??eoi?ee ?aciauai iao?ii-ia?aciaaoaeuiue eiii-
eaen, ninoiyuee ec ?aaeiiaeuiuo ioaaeaiee ianeieueeo aeaaa-
iee iaoe (AI?AAI, AI?YA, IAAIIE, Aeaaaiey ea?anoaa)
Ainoaa?noaaiiiai iao?iiai oaio?a, I?ioeai?oiiiai einoeoooa,
Einoeoooa aeaeaiu, aanyoeia io?aneaauo IEE, aieaa 10 aocia.
A iao?ii-oaoie?aneie noa?a Aieaia?aaa ?aaioaao aieaa 100 ia-
euo i?aai?eyoee. A oaeyo aeoeaecaoee eiiiaaoeiiiie aayoaeu-
iinoe nicaai oaoiiia?e. A aaiea aaiiuo eiiiaaoeiiiuo i?iae-
oia iaeanoe ca?aaeno?e?iaaii aieaa 3000 i?aaei?aiee io i?aa-
i?eyoee aaiiiai eiiieaena. Eacaeinu au, eiay oaeie iiuiue
iao?ii-oaoie?aneee iioaioeae, yeiiiieea iaeanoe aie?ia i?i-
oaaoaou «ia caaenou ninaayi». Iaiaei ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiiai i?i-
ecaianoaa ca n?ao inaiaiey iiauo oaoiieiaee, i?aaei?aiiuo
iao?ii-ia?aciaaoaeuiui eiiieaenii iaeanoe, ia i?ienoiaeo.
I?e?ei oaeie neooaoee ianeieuei.
I?a?aa anaai, e?eoa?ee ioaiee o?iaiy aioiaiinoe iao?-
ii-i?eeeaaiie ?ac?aaioee e aa i?iiuoeaiiiio inaiaie? o
iao?iie i?aaiecaoee (caanu iia iao?iie i?aaiecaoeae iiie-
ia?ony iauanoaaiiua aeaaaiee e aaaiinoaaiiua IEE, aocu,
iaeua i?aai?eyoey, yaey?ueany iineoaeyie iiaie iaoeiai-
eie oaoiieiaee) e i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aai?eyoey ia niaiaaa-
?o. Aey o?aiuo oa?aeoa?enoeea «aunieay noaiaiu aioiaiinoe
?ac?aaioee» icia?aao a eo?oai neo?aa ecaioiaeaiea iiuoiiai

– 202 –
ia?acoa i?iaoeoee e ioi?ieaiea i?aa ia iieo?aiiua iauae-
ou eioaeeaeooaeuiie nianoaaiiinoe — iio-oao eee iaoaio. I?i-
iuoeaiiia i?aai?eyoea ?aeaao iieo?eou io ia?oa?a ii o?ain-
oa?oo oaoiieiaee iieiue iaeao eiino?oeoi?neie e oaoiiei-
ae?aneie aieoiaioaoee, a oae?a i?aaii?eoaao ia ianoe ?anoi-
au ia na?oeoeeaoe? e eiua niioonoao?uea inaiaie? iiaie
i?iaoeoee aeau cao?ao, «ia?aei?ea eo ia iea?e» iineoaey
oaoiieiaee.
Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeaao iio?aaiinou a aiaaaaiee ninoiy-
iey oaoiieiaee ai o?iaiy aa ioi?ieaiey, iaiaoiaeiiai i?i-
iuoeaiiiio i?aai?eyoe?. Aaiio? caaa?o i?ecaaia ?aoaou e
eio?ano?oeoo?a eiiiaaoeiiiie aayoaeuiinoe, eioi?ay nicaaao-
ny aey inouanoaeaiey:
- ia?eaoeiaa oaoiieiaee (aaau io oiaiey i?iaaou iiao?
iaoeiaieo? i?iaoeoe? auea?a?o ana o?anoieee eiii-
aaoeiiiiai i?ioanna e iauanoai a oaeii);
- aaaioaoee iao?iuo ?ac?aaioie e oneiaeyi i?iiuoeai-
iiai i?aai?eyoey (oi?ie?iaaiea oeiiaie iiaaee eee
?aaioa «iia caeac»);
- i?aaiecaoee oeiainiaie iiaaa??ee i?ioanna inaiaiey
oaoiieiaee.
Iaiaoiaeiay eio?ano?oeoo?a eiiiaaoeiiiie aayoaeuiinoe
ia ainoaa?noaaiiii o?iaia e i?e o?anoee ainoaa?noaaiiiai ea-
ieoaea o?a nicaaia — ia naaiaiyoiee aaiu yoi naou oaoiiia?eia
e oaio?ia ei?eie?eiaa. Iaiaei ia anaaaa e ia iianaianoii aa
aayoaeuiinou ii?ii n?eoaou yooaeoeaiie.
A aieuoeinoaa neo?aaa i?iiuoeaiiia i?aai?eyoea, ecaa-
eiaaiiia nenoaiie ieaiiaiai ?ani?aaaeaiey e ainoaa?noaaiiiai
caeaca, ia oiaao no?ieou nai? ia?eaoeiaiao? iieeoeeo e ii-
yoiio, iieo?ay io iao?iie i?aaiecaoee aieoiaioaoe? ia inaa-
eaaaio? oaoiieiae?, iii no?aieony iaaycaou, ia?oia?o iayca-
oaeuiia oneiaea ii iaania?aie? aa?aioe?iaaiiiai nauoa iiaie
i?iaoeoee — i?i?aaioeo eeeaioneie aacu e i?i?aa.
Ia ?aeay ?eneiaaou i?e inaiaiee iiaie i?iaoeoee e ?ac-
?aaioea iiaiai ?uiea eee iiaiai naaiaioa nei?eaoaainy ?ui-
ea, iaiaa?iaio i?aai?eyoey i?e iino?iaiee naiae i?iecaia-
noaaiiie no?aoaaee auae?aao aa?eaio i?iecaianoaa ecaanoiie
i?iaoeoee nei?eaoaainy ?uiea (ca?anoo? onoa?aaa?uaai oao-
iieiae?aneiai oeeaaa).

– 203 –
I?iiuoeaiiia i?aai?eyoea ia niaoeo a iao?io? i?aa-
iecaoe? ca iiauie iaoeiaieeie ?ac?aaioeaie e ec-ca aaiaeu-
iiai ia?aeaiey ieaoeou eeoaiceiiiua ieaoa?e iaoaioiiaeaaa-
oae?. ?ani?ino?aiaiiie yaeyaony neooaoey, eiaaa i?aai?eyoea,
o?a eiay eiio?aeo n iao?iie i?aaiecaoeae i ia?aaa?a oaoii-
eiaee, iaoaeaii ia aaenoaey, niinianoao?uea oeeiiaie? io
oieaou ?iyeoe.
O i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aai?eyoey a i?eioeia ionoonoao?o
noeioeu e inaiaie? iiauo oaoiieiaee, iao nenoaiu no?aoiaa-
iey ?eneia, aicieea?ueo i?e inaiaiee iiaie iaoeiaieie i?i-
aoeoee e ?ac?aaioea ?uiea.
Aneaanoaea oeacaiiuo i?e?ei ?acea?aiiinoe iaoaiecia o?ain-
oa?oa oaoiieiaee a iaoae no?aia, iao?iay i?aaiecaoey ca?anoo?
naaa a oauoie ia?aaaao iiaua ?ac?aaioee ia caiaa, aeaai eioa?an
e ioa?anoaaiiie iaoea ni noi?iiu eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea ia inea-
aaaaao. I?ioann aaaioaoee iaoeo iao?iuo ?ac?aaioie e i?iiuo-
eaiiui oneiaeyi caiaaiuo eiiiaiee io?aaioai e ia yaeyaony aey
aaaioa auniei cao?aoiui ii a?aiaie e o?aaoaiui oeiainiaui
aei?aieyi. A eoiaa iaoe oexiieiaee i?eoiayo ia oa??eoi?e? ?innee
eae eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoee, e oiaaa, eae ie ia?aaienaeuii,
i?iiuoeaiiua i?aai?eyoey aioiau aeoeaii inaaeaaou ai?acai
aieaa ai?iaea oaoiieiaee eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?O aaenoao?uae inoaaony eeou noaia
o?ainoa?oa oaoiieiaee, eiaaa i?iiuoeaiiia i?aai?eyoea aun-
ooiaao caeac?eeii IE?, iaania?eaa?ueo aio eiiiaaoee a ?ai-
eao nei?eaoaeny io?aneaaie iai?aaeaiiinoe e oiaa?iie iiiai-
eeaoo?u i?aai?eyoey. Oaeay oi?ia acaeiiioiioaiee noeioee-
?oao eeou oeo?oa?uea i?ioanniua eiiiaaoee, neaaiaaoaeuii,
ia i?ienoiaeo ?aaeeaeuiuo eciaiaiee ie a oaoiieiae?aneii
oeeaaa, ie a yeiiiieea a oaeii. E?iia oiai, i?e aaiiie noaia
ioiioaiee i?aai?eyoea eae caeac?ee noaiiaeony nianoaaiieeii
?acoeuoaoia IE?, a oi a?aiy eae iao?iay i?aaiecaoey e aaoi?
?ac?aaioee aneaanoaea neaainoe i?aaiaie io?aiu iauaeoia ei-
oaeeaeooaeuiie nianoaaiiinoe ca?anoo? eeoaiu aicii?iinoe
iieo?aou niioaaonoao?uea aiciaa?a?aaiey a oa?aiea anaai ia-
?eiaa i?iecaianoaa i?iaoeoee, iniiaaiiie ia iieo?aiiuo eie
iao?iuo ?acoeuoaoao.
Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuie n iiceoee yooaeoeaiinoe IOI
yaeyaony nicaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuie i?aai?eyoeyie e iaiin?aa-

– 204 –
noaaiii io?aneaauie ieienoa?noaaie i?e aocao i?iaeaiiuo ea-
ai?aoi?ee, a oae?a ?aciauaiea ia oa??eoi?ee i?aai?eyoey oe-
eeaeia eaoaa?. Oaeei ia?acii, niioaaonoao?uea io?anee i?eia-
?aoa?o e ?acoeuoaou IE?, e aunieieaaeeoeoe?iaaiiua eaa-
?u, iaeaaa?uea iaiaoiaeiuie iaaueaie.
Enoiay ec auoaneacaiiiai, aey aeoeaecaoee eiiiaaoe-
iiiiai i?ioanna e iiauoaiey aai yooaeoeaiinoe naaiaiy ia-
iaoiaeii oneeaiea ?iee ainoaa?noaa a aaiiie noa?a iin?aa-
noaii ia i?yiiai oeiaine?iaaiey eiiiaaoeiiiuo i?iaeoia e
?acaeoey eio?ano?oeoo?u eiiiaaoeiiiie aayoaeuiinoe, a ?ac-
?aaioee nenoaiu noeioeia aey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aai?eyoee,
aaaoueo nianoaaiiua IE?, inaaeaa?ueo iiaua iaoeiaieea
oaoiieiaee, a oae?a aey aaieia, no?aoiauo e eiuo oeiaini-
auo eiiiaiee, o?anoao?ueo a i?ioanna ?aaeecaoee eiiiaaoe-
iiiuo i?iaeoia.
Iaiauaiiay noaia eiiiaaoeiiiiai oeeea auaeyaeo neaao-
?uei ia?acii.
Ia?ae?iui yoaiii iiaiaaaaaiey yaeyaony oai??aneee aeo
nicaaiey eaae, eia?uae aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?. Yoai ?i?-
aaiey iiaie eaae naycai n aicieeiiaaieai eiioaioee iia-
oanoaa. Yoio oai??aneee aeo, o?oaii ieaie?oaiue e i?iaii-
ce?oaiue, iniiaai ia ?a?aaiaaiee iaeiieaiey ciaiee e iaii-
aaiiuo ica?aiee, oaniii acaeiiaaenoaee iuneeoaeuiuo i?i-
oannia n eiooeoeaiuie aiaaaeaie. Ca yoaiii ?i?aaiey eaae
neaaoao yoai ecia?aoaiey eee ?ac?aaioee i?aaiaoiie oi?iu
iiaoanoaa, o. a. i?eaaiey eaaa iaoa?eaeuiie noanoaioee e
oi?iu. ?acoeuoaoii ecia?aoaiey yaeyaony eioi?iaoeiiiue
i?iaoeo: eiino?oeoey ecaaeey, oaoiieiae?aneay noaia i?i-
oanna e o. a. Ia yoii yoaia aieacuaaaony iao?ii-oaoie?aneay
aicii?iinou ?aaeecaoee eaae iiaoanoaa. Neaao?uei yoaiii
yaeyaony iiaiaaaaaiea, ninoiyuaa a iaoa?eaeecaoee eaae,
eioi?iaoee, caei?aiiie a iao?iuo enneaaiaaieyo e eiino-
?oeoi?neeo ?ac?aaioeao. Yoai iiaiaaaaaiey ninoieo ec ia?-
ae?iiai aeoa aiaa?aiey aaeie?iiai iiaoanoaa n aai iineaao-
?uei oe?a?e?iaaieai.
Anee ia?ae?iue eiiiaaoeiiiue aeo ainoaoi?ii noauaeoe-
aai e aaoiiiiai, oi ia iineaao?ueo noaaeyo iaoa?eaeecaoee
eaae aoi?e?iua eiiiaaoeiiiua aeou oa?aeoa?eco?ony ?aoeeie
acaeiinaycyie ia?ao noauaeoii e iauaeoii i?ioanna. Eiaiii

– 205 –
ia noaaee nicaaiey ia?acoia iiaoanoa aa?ii eiaou eioi?ia-
oe? i eiieo?e?o?ueo iai?aaeaieyo IEIE?, i ca?oaa?iuo
ia?acoao aiaeiae?iuo iiaeiie, i iaee?ee ni?ina, i oaoie?an-
eie e oaoiieiae?aneie inouanoaeiinoe e yeiiiie?aneie oaea-
niia?aciinoe. Ia yoii yoaia nicaa?ony na?ee ia?acoia iiaoanoaa
eee iaeaou eiiiaaoee, aiiieiy?ueo a?oa a?oaa a ?aieao ia-
iie e oie ?a iiaaee ecaaeey eee oaoiieiae?aneiai i?eioeia.
Yoi iaiaoiaeii aey auai?a yeiiiie?anee auaiaiiai ?aoaiey.
Ia yoii yoaia eiiiaaoeiiiie aayoaeuiinoe e?eoa?eai auai?a
o?a neo?ao oaoiieiae?aneay inouanoaeiinou e yeiiiie?aneay
yooaeoeaiinou.
Nicaaiea iiaie oaoiieiaee ?ac?aaioee aee??aao i?iaaaa-

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