. 1
( 7)


Your Successful
Project Management

This page intentionally left blank

Your Successful
Project Management
Ronald B. Cagle

American Management Association
New York • Atlanta • Brussels • Chicago • Mexico City • San Francisco
Shanghai • Tokyo • Toronto • Washington, D.C.

Special discounts on bulk quantities of AMACOM books are
available to corporations, professional associations, and other
organizations. For details, contact Special Sales Department,
AMACOM, a division of American Management Association,
1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019.
Tel.: 212-903-8316. Fax: 212-903-8083.
Web site: www.amacombooks.org

This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative
information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with
the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal,
accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other
expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional
person should be sought.
˜˜PMI™™ and the PMI logo are service and trademarks registered in the
United States and other nations; ˜˜PMP™™ and the PMP logo are
certi¬cation marks registered in the United States and other nations;
˜˜PMBOK,™™ ˜˜PM Network,™™ and ˜˜PMI Today™™ are trademarks
registered in the United States and other nations; and ˜˜Project
Management Journal™™ and ˜˜Building professionalism in project
management™™ are trademarks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cagle, Ronald B.
Your successful project management career / Ronald B. Cagle.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8144-0824-9
1. Project management. 2. Project management”Vocational guidance. I. Title.
HD69.P75C3453 2005
658.4 04”dc22 2004009923
2005 Ronald B. Cagle.
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
This publication may not be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in whole or in part,
in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of AMACOM,
a division of American Management Association,
1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019.
Printing number
10 987654321

Preface ix
Acknowledgments xv

1. Understanding What Project Management Is All About 3
Projects and Programs 3
The Project Manager 7
The Path to Success 10
Deciding if Project Management Is for You 11
2. Introducing the Principal Organizations 12
Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM) 14
Association for Project Management (APM) 15
American Society for the Advancement of Project Management
(asapm) 16
International Project Management Association (IPMA) 17
Project Management Institute (PMI) 18
American Management Association (AMA) 19
Standards Organizations 20
Technical Standards Organizations 20
3. Considering the Project Management Organizations 22
The Current State of the Art 22
Where Is Project Management Going from Here? 22
Selecting the ˜˜Right™™ Organization for You 24
4. Speaking the Language 26
Project and Program Types 27
Project and Program Skill Sets 30
Leadership Roles 31

5. Acquiring Preparatory Skills 37


Personal Skill Set 37
Company/Customer/Industry Skill Set 41
Enterprise Policies, Plans, and Procedures 41
Customer Standards 43
Industry Standards and Regulations 43
6. Acquiring Project and Program Skills 45
Basic Skill Set 47
Advanced Skill Set 51
Expert Skill Set 58
Specialty Skill Set 66
Principal Skill Set 70

7. Expanding Your Knowledge 79
Assessing Your Capabilities 79
Expanding Your Knowledge 88
Expanding Your Education 88
Expanding Your Training 96
Certi¬cation 98
8. Improving Your Abilities 102
Gaining Experience 102
Developing Your Persona 103
Improving Your Abilities 105
Improving Your Performance 106

9. Matching the Skill Sets to Projects and Programs 111
A Small Project 112
An Intermediate Project 120
A Large Project 125
A Program 130
A Virtual Project or Program 141
An International Program 145
A Large-Scale Project or Program 153
10. Are You Ready for the Next One? 162
What Will the Next One Be? 162
How Will You Get There? 164

11. Meeting Market Needs 167
Assessing the Market 167
Addressing the Market 170


12. Getting Settled 174
Getting the ˜˜Lay of the Land™™ 174
The Organization 176
The Power Structure 178
Making Friends and Alliances 180
Taking Over a Project 181

13. Applying Your Skills to Other Activities 185
Gathering Leading-Edge Ideas 186
Mentoring and Training 186
Policies, Processes, Plans, and Procedures 187
A Project Management Of¬ce? 187
14. Continuing Your Success! 189
Glossary 191
Index 203

This page intentionally left blank


Project management is a hot topic. It is a hot topic because projects are
the nerve center of a company. It is where new products come from and
it™s where pro¬ts are made or lost. In simplest terms, companies live or
die based on the success of their projects. The single most important
element in a project™s success is the leadership of the project manager.
But what is a project manager? Look at the Job Opportunities pages,
and what do you see?

Project Manager
E-Marketing Project Manager
Peoplesoft Project Manager”¬nancials
Facilities Project Manager
Program Manager Simulation and Modeling
Project Mgr”IT Finance/BA
Logistics Engineer/Project Manager
MMS Project Manager
Project Manager/Business Analyst
IT Analysis Project Managers
Telecom Network Project Managers
Construction Project Manager
Program Manager

It may prompt you to ask: ˜˜What in the world is an IT Analysis Project
Manager?™™ ˜˜Who is a Telecom Network Project Manager?™™ And: ˜˜How
are they different from a Project Manager?™™ All good questions! This
book will answer these questions and a whole lot more. I will talk about
Project Managers and Telecom Project Managers as well as others and
project management and program management and show how they all


relate to each other. Project management is not a binary issue; it is an
issue with many variables and many requirements.
We will start with a ˜˜big picture™™ view of project management.
How it started, how it developed, and where it is now. We™ll explore
who the movers and shakers are and what all this means to you.
There™s a lot of detail in this book. But, even with all the detail, you
may need to do some interpolation to ¬nd exactly where you stand in
all this. The book is also broad. But even with its breadth, you may
need to do some extrapolation to create a direction for yourself that
will meet your long-term goals. But, after all, interpolation and extrapo-
lation are a big part of project management. It is not simple and
straightforward and must be treated as a complex subject
Contrary to what you may have been led to believe, project manage-
ment is not a simple ˜˜Read a book, take a test, and you can do it™™
exercise. The ¬eld of project management is a broad and deep sea where
you will create your own course based on your own long-term objec-
tives. Fortunately, there are some lighthouses and buoys along the way,
and I will point them out to you to help you stay in the channel.

Part I sets the scene. I explain what project management is all
about, where it came from, and where it is today, and introduce you
to the various organizations that are the guideposts of the project
management discipline. Then I help you determine which organiza-
tion is right for you. Part I also de¬nes the terms used in project
management and separates the different project types. It de¬nes
the skill sets and leadership roles required to lead the different proj-
ect types. Finally, it compares the project types, the skill sets, and
the leadership roles.
Part II introduces the ¬ve skill set levels and concentrates on
achieving these skill levels. The subject areas that constitute each
skill level are then presented. Here is where the detail sets in. Each
skill level is explained, and I show you a path to achieve each one.
Part III concentrates on improving your project management abili-
ties by allowing you to assess your capabilities. Then I recommend
ways to expand your knowledge, gain experience, develop your per-
sona, and improve your performance. If you are looking forward to
what you can do with what you have or with what you will develop,
this is the chapter that will help you.
Part IV compares the skill levels to various projects and programs
and shows you why the different skill levels are important.
Part V is about making career moves at different times in your
career and for different reasons. Now that you have it all together,


what are you going to do with it? This part talks about the advan-
tages of staying where you are versus moving to another depart-
ment or company, and if you move, what you can expect when you
get there.
Part VI advocates that you keep the momentum going. Project
management is a dynamic discipline, and you really need to stay on
top of it. New ideas, new software, and new approaches are being
developed every day. I have included recommendations for staying
on top of all of these.

You may have noticed that I refer to project management as a discipline
and not a profession. What do I mean by this? My view is this: Engi-
neering is a profession, electrical engineering is a discipline. Account-
ing is a profession, cost accounting is a discipline. Management is a
profession, project management is a discipline. So, project management
is really a part of the overall profession of management. In fact, project
management is the bridge between all the staff elements of the com-
pany and the technical heart of the company. To really understand proj-
ect management, consider it an applique”an overlay, if you will”of
the entire project task. Project management is, in fact, one of the disci-
plines that contributes to the overall task by providing planning and
leadership. This is fundamental to the concept of the project team.
On the basis of my experience and research I have identi¬ed ¬ve
levels of project and program management. My objective in creating
these levels is to set out a plan that coincides with the way business
looks at project and program managers. In other words, how business
hires, assigns, and promotes project managers”their most important
resource. My categorizations differ from those set out by the leading
project management organizations, but that™s just because there are
different reasons for the categories we have each created.
As I said before, you don™t read a book or take a course or take a
test and wake up some morning as a project manager, nor are you a
project manager because your boss appoints you as one. Project man-
agement is a discipline you grow into a little at a time. Why? Because
project performance holds the purse strings of the company, and proj-
ect performance is based on the performance of the project manager.
No responsible company management will trust an individual with
leading a large project or program until they are certain the person has
the right stuff.
Individuals grow into project management from their technical


¬elds. Technical ¬elds include computer science, engineering, ¬nance,
banking, health, construction, and dozens of others. Whatever they are,
those are the technical ¬elds to which I refer. Individuals can grow into
the project management ¬eld, but not before they show they are capa-
ble of being a manager at some level. Individuals become project man-
agers by ¬rst gaining knowledge, then by applying that knowledge to
gain experience. Through it all they develop a persona. All this is ap-
plied to a task (a project) that results in a performance. If the perform-
ance is positive, there will be success. If performance is not positive,
the project manager will be looking for another job.
I have devised a table to show you why I have chosen to categorize
projects into seven levels and project managers into ¬ve levels. Notice
that at each complexity level the project manager™s technical task be-
comes smaller and the management task becomes larger. The percent-
ages are devised to show relativity; they are not absolutes. In the far
right column is a reference to a PM Skill Level. These levels are ex-
plained in detail as the book unfolds. Suf¬ce it to say at this point that
the quali¬cations for each level grow from top to bottom in the table.
Certainly it is understandable that responsible management assigns
project or program leadership based on the individual™s competence.
Project management is not a simple discipline. In fact, it is one of
the most complex and dif¬cult jobs in the company. The only way you
can maintain your position as a project manager is through positive
performance. But positive performance doesn™t just happen, it is a com-
plex process that begins with knowledge, is compounded by experi-
ence, and is vectored by persona.
Over the years, I have developed a formula that expresses success
in project management. This formula is:

Knowledge Experience Persona Performance Success

Notice the arithmetic factors in the formula. The factors say that
Knowledge and Experience and Persona are additive factors but that
Performance is a multiplier. Therefore it is much more important than
the other factors. The interesting thing though is that you really can™t
have positive performance without the other factors. In the formula all
factors are interdependent. The formula treats knowledge as the lever-
age that allows you to gain information quickly. It treats experience as
the opportunity that allows you to apply that knowledge, and it treats
your persona as the vector you will use to apply your knowledge and


gain experience. With all these factors working in concert, you end up
with positive performance. With positive performance, you have suc-
Throughout this book there are references to other books and arti-
cles. In addition, there are references to many Web sites. When perus-
ing these references, you should keep these things in mind: Printed
material is a matter of history. It takes time to formulate and print a
book, and, to a lesser extent, an article. Consequently, the timelines of
printed material are somewhat dated. But, once printed, the book or
article is, at least theoretically, always available. Web sites, on the other
hand, usually contain current and dynamic data and can change over-
night. Information that is available today may or may not be available
tomorrow or it may be available in a different place. This means that as
you use the references of this book, you are pretty well assured that a
book or article reference will be available but the data may be some-
what dated. The references to Web sites will probably be current but
the sites may or may not exist because they may have been updated or

This page intentionally left blank


I am indeed fortunate to have many friends and associates who are
program managers and project managers. The experience of each one
is a little different, and each of them is an expert in his or her own ¬eld.
As this book drew to a close, I asked several of them to participate in a
peer review of the manuscript so that you, the reader, could experience
the best-of-the-best. I was fortunate to have three such individuals take
time from their busy schedules to read and comment on the manu-
script. Their comments have been invaluable.
Mr. Robert Gray”Bob has more than thirty years of experience
with leading-edge technology, specializing in program management,
business development, and software engineering. He has had an excel-
lent performance with regard to pro¬t, division staf¬ng, technical qual-
ity, cost, and schedule on commercial and government contracts,
including both ¬rm ¬xed price and cost plus. Bob has been recom-
mended for the Phoenix Award (the highest program turnaround award
in program management).
Ms. Carolyn Plank, PMP”Carolyn has more than ¬fteen years™ ex-
perience as a project manager in the computer industry. She is a tech-
nology manager for a multinational computer hardware, software, and
services company. She has extensive background in software develop-
ment, international project management, training, and consulting. She
achieved her PMP certi¬cation in 1995 and is a longtime member of
the Project Management Institute (PMI). She is a founding member of
the PMI Space Coast, Florida Chapter, and is currently on the chapter™s
Board of Directors.
Mr. James Staal”Jim is a Certi¬ed Business and Executive Coach
and owns Azure Group, Inc., which provides consulting and coaching




Project management is a logical technique, and, as such, has been with
us for centuries, whether we recognize it not. Project management is
the methodology used to control task, schedule, and cost of a project.
Project management methodology was probably used to build the
pyramids and may have even been used before that, if only we had
evidence of accomplishments to prove it.
The methodology persisted in rudimentary form until about 1950,
when it became evident that something more comprehensive was nec-
essary to cope with the ever-increasing sophistication of projects. Be-
cause we were building complicated electromechanical systems and
planning to send rockets to the moon and beyond, the U.S. federal gov-
ernment sought a protocol that would result in reports that could be
checked periodically to ensure a task was on track.
Just such a protocol emerged from the design process of the Polaris
missile program. The Polaris missile program was extremely complex
and involved many, many subcontractors as well as thousands of parts.


To top it all off, the program was on a very demanding timeline. Once
again, the ingenuity of man came to the rescue, and a new protocol
was developed. That protocol is known as the Program Evaluation and
Review Technique (PERT) and was developed on a contract with the
U.S. Navy. About the same time, industry created a scheduling process
now known as the Critical Path Method (CPM). The CPM has been the
basis for nearly all the scheduling and work processing methodologies
that followed. PERT and CPM are now used jointly, and you may see
them titled as PERT/CPM. Once you have all the information necessary
for PERT, it is relatively easy to look for the minimum timeline within
all the activities. This minimum timeline is the Critical Path. In both
these techniques, you divide the elements of the project into smaller
and smaller activities and then place those activities into a network that
represents the overall project. Dividing cost into smaller and smaller
activities allows more precise control of the overall project. Dividing
the task into smaller elements allows more exacting control over the
speci¬cation and requirements for the ¬nal product.
But those techniques were just the start of a process that would
grow in depth and breadth over time. And, as the process grows, we
need to train people in the use of the techniques to control actual proj-
ects and educate them to expand the discipline. As this book unfolds,
you will see just how complex project management is today. You will
see the training, education, and experience you will need to become a
project manager, pro¬cient at the various levels of projects and pro-
grams that exist within the discipline today.


Understanding What Project
Management Is All About
Let™s start by establishing some de¬nitions, so we are all on the same
page. The ¬rst is: ˜˜Projects and Programs.™™ Here, we will look at the
structure of projects and programs and what they are all about. Then
we will go through the various stages and phases that constitute proj-
ects and programs. Next comes: ˜˜The Project Management Process.™™
An understanding of what the project management process is all about
is essential to understanding how the project manager applies his or
her talents to conducting projects and programs. Then: ˜˜The Portabil-
ity of the Process.™™ Just how applicable is the project management pro-
cess to all the disciplines, and can you take it with you? Next, ˜˜The
Project Manager.™™ Since you may have a de¬nition of this term that you
got from another book or you may have a de¬nition unique to your
organization, I will give my de¬nition, so it is clear as you read this
book. Next, we will look at the requirements for becoming a project
manager. Then, we will introduce the ˜˜Path to Success.™™ Finally, the
all-important issue: ˜˜Deciding if Project Management Is for You.™™ The
equation applied to this decision will guide Your Successful Project Man-
agement Career.

Projects and Programs
The purpose of both projects and programs is to produce a product or
service, or both, according to a requirement, by some moment in time,
for a certain cost. A project is performed for an in-house customer; a
program is performed for an out-of-house customer under the aegis of
a legal contract. In order to accomplish this, a requirement is developed
(hopefully written) and assigned to a group for execution. The group,
led by a project or program manager, plans how they will perform the
task and documents the plan. Then, they go about executing the plan.


Finally, when the task is completed, the project or program is closed,
and the product is transferred to the originator of the requirement.
Figure 1-1 shows the steps necessary to get from the requirement
to the product or service. For the sake of commonality and control,
projects and programs are ¬rst divided into stages and then into phases
to show needs, actions, and accomplishments. A rough standard has
evolved to portray this relationship. I say ˜˜rough™™ because terminology
changes with the person telling the story and the viewpoint from which
the story is told. Regardless of what the stages or phases are called, the
relationship remains the same. Each part of the portrayal has an identi-
¬er so that you can keep up with what™s going on. Figure 1-1 shows the
relationship of the identi¬ers in a linear fashion by showing the parts
called stages and the parts called phases.
The four stages constitute the ˜˜big picture.™™ To lay some ground-
work, let™s start by describing what happens in each of the stages. You
can get a feel for when each of the stages starts and ¬nishes by looking
at Figure 1-2.
Because a program is responsive to a legal contract between the
performing organization and the requiring organization, the Initiating
Stage is somewhat different in a program than in a project. In projects,
the Initiating Stage is accomplished within the company although it
may be in a different section, division, or group than the performing
organization. The customer develops and documents the requirement
and hands it over to the performing organization. In a program, the
Initiating Stage is accomplished by a customer outside the performing
company. The customer develops a requirement that is usually compet-
itively bid, negotiated, and then awarded to the performing organiza-
tion under the aegis of a contract. In a program, the Initiating Stage is

Figure 1-1. Relationship between the stages and phases.

Identify Pursue Propose Negotiate

Planning Closure


Design Implementation / Development Testing

Understanding What Project Management Is All About

Figure 1-2. Project and program stages.

A time in the project or program in which speci¬c activities dominate.
(There is some amount of overlap between stages.)

Initiating Stage Begins when a project is initiated or a program is
identi¬ed, includes the proposal and ends with

Planning Stage Begins at or before award and ends with kickoff.

Execution Stage Begins with kickoff and ends at the completion of
¬nal test.

Closure Stage Begins at the start of the ¬nal test and ends with
total completion of the project or program.

divided into several phases, but these phases overlap considerably. For
instance, making teaming agreements and alliances as well as develop-
ing the proposal are overlapping parts of the pursuit phase.
The Planning and Closure Stages are divided more by events than
by discrete phases. The Planning Stage includes developing the pro-
gram plan, selecting and training the personnel, and presenting the
kickoff meeting. These events are usually not separated because they
overlap so much. Further, the sequence is inconsistent. Usually, the
project manager creates an action list that shows the start and ¬nish of
the separate events and the actions contained in each. The action list is
posted to allow the team to see each day™s activities.
The Execution Stage is the very heart of both the project and the
program, and because of its complexity and duration, is divided into
several phases. Figure 1-3 contains the actions that are contained in
each of the phases. As you can see in Figure 1-1, the common phases
are contained solely within the Execution Stage.
Note: When you read through the PMI PMBOK (part of the recom-
mended reading for the Basic Skill Set in Chapter 6) you will ¬nd that
the Project Management Institute (PMI) chooses to use the term pro-
cesses rather than stages. PMI calls these processes: Initiating, Planning,
Executing, and Closing. Just like the stages in Figure 1-1. In the PMI
depiction, ˜˜Controlling™™ processes overlay all the other processes. In
truth, they are both processes and stages. I chose to use the term stages
here because, if we don™t, we get into a compounding of the term pro-


Figure 1-3. Project and program phases.

A time in the project or program in which speci¬c efforts dominate.

Design Phase The phase in which the product or system is
designed. Begins with the concept and ends with
the ¬nal design review. Includes the de¬nition
and sometimes the design of subassemblies.

Procurement Phase The phase in which subassemblies and
components are procured. This phase may
include the issue, performance, and closure of

Implementation Phase The phase in which the assemblies and
subassemblies are brought together to form a
hardware system or computer program.

Development Phase The phase in which a product or computer
program is brought together and ˜˜grown™™ into the
¬nal product or computer program.

Testing Phase The phase in which all tests are performed. The
recognized testing phase usually includes
assembly tests and ¬nal tests. Component tests
and subassembly tests are usually a part of
subcontracts or purchases.

O&M Phase The phase in which the system or product is
operated and maintained. Indeed, it is probably
the reason it was developed in the ¬rst place.
The Operations Phase or Operations and
Maintenance Phase may or may not be part of a
project or program task statement.

The Project Management Process
By my de¬nition, the project management process consists of the sum
of the processes, the stages, and the phases; therefore, the Project Man-
agement Process (singular) is the effective control of all the factors
during the stages and the phases of a project or program from begin-
ning to end.

Understanding What Project Management Is All About

The Applicability of the Project Management Process
The project management process is essentially applicable to all indus-
tries, disciplines, companies, and jobs. However, in a lot of documenta-
tion you will see the phrase: ˜˜The Portability of the Process.™™ The
statement goes on to say that the process is portable from job to job,
industry to industry, and company to company. Even though that state-
ment is true on the surface, the inference many people draw from this
statement is that if you are a project manager in one discipline, let™s say
pharmaceuticals, you can move to another industry, let™s say aerospace,
and lead a program there. This is not true. Even though the concepts
are portable from industry to industry, and so on, the details are not.
The reason is that the project manager must be critically attuned to the
technical details of the projects he or she is leading in order for the
project to be successful. For this reason, I use the term ˜˜The Applica-
bility of the Project Management Process.™™

The Project Manager
The most general de¬nition of a project manager is a person who em-
ploys the project management process. Although you can argue with
this de¬nition, and I do, it is the way the term is used throughout most
of the commercial world today. Why? Because it makes people feel bet-
ter and makes the job appear more important if the term ˜˜manager™™ is
used. Frankly, that de¬nition is oversimpli¬ed. In truth, a project man-
ager is, or should be, one who manages projects”that is, he or she has
the authority to truly manage the project by moving resources around
and into and out of the project. A little further in the book, the terms
supervisor and manager will be introduced. Even further, when the dif-
ferent project sizes are introduced, the de¬nition will be compounded.
When you start looking for a new position, it is up to you to use all the
de¬nitions in this chapter and decide whether the position you seek is
really a project manager, or if it is a project coordinator, or a project
supervisor that is called a project manager. There™s nothing wrong with
calling a coordinator or a supervisor a manager so long as you under-
stand what the job is all about.
There are three skill groups a project manager must have in order
to be effective: a technical skills group, a project management skills
group, and a people skills group (a skill group is different from a skill
set, which you will see later). First, the project manager must know
what the task is all about from a technical standpoint. For that reason,
we frequently see advertisements for: IT strategy project managers, or


construction project managers, or the like. Needless to say, the techni-
cal tasks these two project managers must lead are dramatically differ-
ent. Consequently, each must possess a different technical skill in order
to perform the speci¬c task assigned. Second, a project manager must
possess project management skills”that is, the ability to create sched-
ules and budgets, the ability to implement and manage change control
systems, the ability to implement and manage risk management sys-
tems, and the ability to implement and manage the many other project
management skills as well. These are frequently referred to as the
˜˜Hard™™ (I prefer the term ˜˜Firm™™) project management skills. Third, a
project manager must possess the so-called ˜˜Soft™™ skills. These skills
are frequently called the people skills. The Australian Institute of Proj-
ect Management (AIPM) presents an excellent summary of these
skills.1 They stipulate that a project manager possess these characteris-

• Leadership ability
• The ability to anticipate problems
• Operational ¬‚exibility
• The ability to get things done
• An ability to negotiate and persuade
• An understanding of the environment within which the project is
being managed
• The ability to review, monitor, and control
• The ability to manage within an environment of constant change

While all these skills do contain a certain amount of ¬rm knowl-
edge, they depend on the personal characteristics of the project man-
ager to apply them properly. They are absolutely necessary to
successfully lead a project composed of more than a single discipline
and more than a few people.
The abilities that a project or program manager must possess will
vary with the numbers of people, the value, the technical content, and
the legal content of the project or program. Consequently, the abilities
of the project or program manager need to be ˜˜matched™™ to the role to
be performed without going overboard.

• Projects or programs with large numbers of people need a man-
ager who understands the needs of people and of organizing them
to get the job done. They don™t need an on-site psychologist.

Understanding What Project Management Is All About

• Projects or programs of high dollar value need a manager with
administrative (budgeting and scheduling) skills but he or she
must avoid being so involved with the process that the other is-
sues of the task are ignored (commonly called ˜˜paralysis by anal-
• Projects or programs of high technical content need a manager
who understands all the disciplines included in the project, but
he or she must avoid being so involved in the technical design or
technical issues that the project management and people issues
are ignored.
• Programs with legal content need a manager who understands
legal issues but not an on-site lawyer.

All projects or programs require a manager who has the most im-
portant ability of all: leadership. ˜˜Leadership is in¬‚uence, nothing
more, nothing less.2
Now, what does all this mean to you and why should it be in such a
prominent position in the book? It means that, when you are applying for
a job or a new position as project manager, you must make sure the job
is a correct ¬t for you, your abilities, and even your personality. If you are
a quali¬ed and experienced project manager and are offered a job with
another company, ensure the job is what you want it to be and what you
need it to be or that you can shape it into what you want it to be.
Suppose you are accustomed to moving resources around on your
jobs and signing off on subcontracts and materials. In other words,
having complete latitude in making your project work. If your new job
does not allow you the same latitude, you may be in for a lot of frustra-
tion, even if you are making more money. This can be injurious to your
career. I had a personal experience with this condition, and it was frus-
trating. In my case, everything went well until the last interview, when
the cat came out of the bag. At the last moment, my interviewer said I
would be reporting to a level different from the one we had been dis-
cussing all along. Did I have any problem with that? I said, ˜˜Yes, I do
have a problem with that.™™ And that was the end of it. I found that the
president of the area I was supposed to be in didn™t want my position
reporting to someone else. I was fortunate enough to see the handwrit-
ing on the wall and declined the position.
Suppose you are offered a position that is within your capabilities,
and everything looks great. In fact, everything is too great. During ne-
gotiations you double your present salary, and the interviewer doesn™t


even blink. You request some heavy-duty requirements such as an ex-
tended household move, and still the interviewer doesn™t even blink.
Something is not quite right here. This happened to me once. Fortu-
nately, I had enough contacts to ¬nd out that the program I was to take
over was a disaster, and there was just no way anyone could revive it. I
found that they were looking for someone to blame for the failure. I
turned that position down as well.
Suppose you have very limited experience in running projects and
you are offered a job allowing you complete latitude to change re-
sources, and so on. You are then responsible for the results. To accept
this job could mean that you are in over your head and destined for
failure. Certainly, this will hurt your career. Granted, you should always
extend yourself or you will never grow. But, be certain that desire,
extra-achievable training, and hard work will make up the difference
and you can emerge from the project positively.
As you can see, a project manager is a complex person with a multi-
plicity of skills. Projects that vary in size, value, and complexity require
project managers with different skill sets. These skill sets are not gained
overnight, they are part of a learning process that takes a long time”
sometimes years. As you read on through this book, you will see the
several different skill sets necessary to lead the different project and pro-
gram types. In the case of project managers, one size does not ¬t all!

The Path to Success
The path to success can be expressed in a very simple formula. Achiev-
ing success, however, is not quite so simple. The path to success is:

Knowledge Experience Persona Performance Success

Knowledge is a combination of both education and training. Experience
is the application of that knowledge. Persona is the personality and
attitude you project to your team members, your management, and
your customer. Finally, performance is how well it all comes together
and how the product turns out, how satis¬ed management is, and how
satis¬ed the customer is. Performance is the most important factor,
because no matter how great each and every one of the other factors is,
if performance did not create the product the customer speci¬ed or did
not provide the pro¬t level that management established, performance
will be less than desired, and the project will have been a failure.
We will be referring to the Path to Success at a number of points in
this book.

Understanding What Project Management Is All About

Deciding if Project Management Is for You
If you™re like everyone else when making decisions that will affect your
career, you want to know: what, where, when, why, and how. I hope to
answer as many of these questions for you as I can.
So far, we™ve talked about the fact that project management is a hot
topic, and it™s a hot topic because it controls the projects that provide
the lifeblood of the company. Now is the time to start laying the
groundwork so you can make an informed decision.
My job is to present as much information as possible for you to
determine if you want to be a project manager, and if so, at what level.
I will begin that process by talking about the organizations through
which you can network to meet people and hiring organizations and
even job opportunities. Furthermore, these organizations can provide
reference materials and paths to certi¬cation.
It is a good idea to be able to ˜˜talk the talk,™™ so I™ve included a
glossary at the end of the book. It contains the terms used in the book
and the terms that will be thrown at you in the project management
Next, we will get into the detailed skill sets that are necessary to
achieve the several levels of project and program management. No
doubt you will want to improve your abilities to achieve further levels,
so I™ll provide a chapter that concentrates on this information. Gather-
ing information is one thing but applying it is quite another. The book
provides a part that outlines how these skills you worked so hard for
can be applied at the different project levels. Then we will talk about
applying those skills to projects of different sizes. At this point you may
well want to advance your own career by quantum leaps rather than
small steps. You can do this by viewing potential areas within your
company that need project managers of your advanced standing or by
changing companies. We™ll go through the details of how to handle
these changes before and after you make your moves.
Finally, you will ¬nd that project management is a constantly
changing discipline. We will look at where project management is going
and the personal advancements you need to keep up with the ˜˜bow
wave.™™ Let™s get started.

1. Australian Institute of Project Management, National Competency Standards
for Project Management, Vol. 1 (Yeronga, QLD: AIPM, 1996): 19.
2. John C. Maxwell, The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership (Nashville, Tenn.:
Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1998).


Introducing the Principal
The ˜˜movers and shakers™™ are pretty clear at this point. In Australia, it
is the Australian Institute for Project Management (AIPM); in Great
Britain, the Association for Project Management (APM) is the recog-
nized leader; the International Project Management Association
(IPMA) sets standards for participating organizations all over the
world. In the United States and many countries throughout the world,
it is the Project Management Institute (PMI).
In addition to these project management organizations, the Ameri-
can Management Association (AMA) is a leader in providing manage-
ment books and seminars. Project management is a part of their
management coverage, and the AMA is therefore an excellent source
for project management information.
As you might expect, the movers and shakers are the ones who
establish the standards and bodies of knowledge and certi¬cation pro-
cesses for their sphere of in¬‚uence. In some cases, these spheres of
in¬‚uence overlap. When they do overlap, several things happen. First,
there is competition between the two for new members. Second, there
is competition between the two for dominance. Dominance, in this
case, means whose standards and whose doctrine will be used for the
now-disputed members and area. Third, can and will they coexist?
Generally speaking, development and proliferation of the organiza-
tions has been on a geographical basis. Each country has its own re-
quirements for quali¬cation and certi¬cation (more on that later). The
Project Management Institute (PMI) has de¬ed that mold somewhat
and now reportedly has over 100,000 members in more than 125 coun-


Introducing the Principal Organizations

tries. Even though the PMI is recognized worldwide and offers its certi-
¬cation worldwide, the PMI does not offer a speci¬c international
certi¬cation as does the APM.
To get a feel of how all of this has come about, over time, consider
Figure 2-1. It shows that the PMI was the ¬rst to recognize the need for
a formal project management process. It also shows that the Australian
standards were modi¬ed by the incorporation of the PMI™s PMBOK in
1995, which leads to some degree of commonality. You can see by the
dates that project management, as a discipline, has been around for a
while, but in the late 1980s and 1990s took a giant leap. Interest and
standardization are increasing rapidly. The British APM took a bold
leap forward in 1998 and was the driving force to create an interna-
tional group for project management, the International Project Manage-
ment Association (IPMA). The IPMA is a worldwide organization and
is the ¬rst real step toward international standardization of at least the
core issues. There are now many countries where the PMI and IPMA as
well as local standards exist.
To try to make your contact with the appropriate organization a
little easier, the data in Figure 2-2 provides a list of project manage-
ment organizations. Contact details will be provided in the following

Figure 2-1. Chronology of Project Management Association
and documentation development.
ORG ACTION 1969 1976 1977 1988 1989 1995 1996 1998 1999

PMI PMI formed X

AIPM AIPM formed X



APM APM formed (?) X

APM PRINCE developed X

AIPM AIPM incorporates PMI PMBOK X

APM PRINCE2 developed X

IPMA IPMA formed X



Figure 2-2. Predominant project management organizations.
If you live in: Contact

Australia AIPM

Great Britain APM

Europe IPMA


USA asapm

Elsewhere IPMA

Because of the proliferation of PMI local chapters worldwide, you may decide
to contact the PMI no matter what other organization is available.

Australian Institute for Project Management (AIPM)
The AIPM was formed in 1976 as the Project Managers™ Forum and has
been instrumental in progressing the profession of project management
in Australia. The AIPM has over 3,000 members throughout Australia.
The AIPM developed and documented their standards as the Australian
National Competency Standards for Project Management (NCSPM).
The AIPM uses the NCSPM as its basis for required knowledge and
certi¬cation testing. The NCSPM provides for certi¬cation at six levels;
these range from team member to multilevel program director. These
levels are described in the Australian Quali¬cation Framework (AQF).
The AIPM currently certi¬es project managers only at three levels of
the AQF. These levels are the middle to upper-middle levels of the
AQF. The NCSPM incorporates the nine knowledge areas of the PMI™s
PMBOK directly into the knowledge part of their quali¬cation program.
Criteria: Australian National Competency Standards for Project
Management (NCSPM)
Project Director/Program Manager (Level 6)
Project Manager (Level 5)
Project Team Member/Project Specialist (Level 4)
Contact Information
Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM)
National Of¬ce
Level 9, 139

Introducing the Principal Organizations

Macquarie St.
Sydney NSW 2000
Phone: 02 9252 7277
Fax: 02 9252 7077
E-mail: info@aipm.com.au
Web site: http://aipm.com.au/
How to Apply for Membership
Telephone. Call the headquarters using the telephone number above
and tell them you are interested in joining. They will direct you to
the proper of¬ce.
Online. Go to the AIPM Web site listed above. From the ˜˜Member-
ship™™ pull-down menu, select ˜˜Application Forms,™™ then select the
proper form (most likely ˜˜Member™™). This is a ˜˜pop-up.™™ Follow
the instructions.

Association for Project Management (APM)
The APM was formed about 1988 and adopted PRINCE as their stan-
dard. PRINCE stands for PRojects IN Controlled Environments.
PRINCE was derived from the standards developed for the Central
Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA). They later partici-
pated with the British government and other organizations in updating
PRINCE to PRINCE2. PRINCE2 is maintained by the British govern-
ment with input from the APM. The APM currently uses PRINCE2 as
its basis for required knowledge and certi¬cation testing. PRINCE2 is
a process-based approach with ¬ve stages for ˜˜enabling ef¬cient control
of resources and regular progress monitoring throughout the project.™™1
The APM offers four levels of certi¬cation, from Associate Project Man-
agement Professional (Level 1) to Certi¬cated International Project
Manager (CIPM) (Level 4).
Criteria: PRINCE2
Certi¬cated International Project Manager (CIPM)
Senior Project Manager (Level 3)
Certi¬ed Project Manager (Level 2)
Associate Project Management Professional (Level 1)
Contact Information
Association for Project Management (APM)
50 West Wycombe Road
High Wycombe


HP12 3AE
Phone: 01494 440090
Fax: 01494 528937
E-mail: services@apm.org.uk
Web site: http://www.apm.org.uk/
How to Apply for Membership
Telephone. Call the headquarters using the telephone number above
and tell them you are interested in joining. They will direct you to
the proper of¬ce.
Online. Go to the Web site listed above. Click on ˜˜Membership.™™
Click on the appropriate membership level. Click on ˜˜Fees and
How to Apply.™™ Follow the instructions under ˜˜How to Apply.™™

American Society for the Advancement of Project
Management (asapm)
The asapm was created in 2001. The stated mission of the asapm is ˜˜to
provide opportunities for U.S. industry and individuals to improve their
project management competencies. This is accomplished through a se-
ries of programs and projects that interchange information and demon-
strate the ˜˜best practices™™ of the project management profession.™™2
The asapm offers a broad array of competency assessments for different
levels of stakeholders, with certi¬cations for many of them.
The Levels
Senior management or project sponsor (SP)
Resource Managers (RM)
Project Of¬ce Manager (PO)
Project Directors or Program Managers of complex multi-organiza-
tion projects (aCPM3)
Project Managers of large, complex projects (aCPM2)
Project Managers of medium or less-complex projects (aCPM1)
Project Team Members (TM)

Certi¬cations for the asapm Certi¬ed Project Manager (aCPM) roles
are currently under development. The asapm certi¬cations incorporate
the asapm National Competency Baseline, the Global Project Manager
Performance-based Competency Standards and PMI™s PMBOK as the
knowledge base and requires that applicants for its certi¬cations be
current practitioners in the project management ¬eld. Their certi¬ca-
tion process assesses performance-based competency, rather than just
knowledge, and follows the general guidelines of the IPMA (Interna-

Introducing the Principal Organizations

tional Project Management Association) and requires extensive inter-
views by project management peers.
The asapm staff have cleverly incorporated the elements of their
competency model into a software data set developed in the Microsoft
Access format. They call this model ˜˜CompModel SixPack.™™ A single-
user copy is available on the Web site at: http://www.asapm.org/
The asapm always prints their acronym in lower case. When asked
why, Stacy Goff said: ˜˜. . . We did it to re¬‚ect that our organization™s
purpose is to serve our members, so the lower case illustrates that sub-
ordinate status. We are here to serve our members, as opposed to the
other way around. This is something that we feel is part of our differen-
tiation, compared to some other organizations.™™3
Criteria: IPMA™s Competence Baseline, as adapted for the United
States, plus the Global Project Manager Performance-Based Com-
petency Standards
Project Directors or Program Managers of complex multi-organiza-
tion projects (aCPM3)
Project Managers of large, complex projects (aCPM2)
Project Managers of medium or less-complex projects (aCPM1)
Contact Information
American Society for the Advancement of Project Management
P.O. Box 1945
Monument, CO 80132 USA
Phone: 931 647-7373
Fax: 931 647-7217
E-mail: info@asapm.org
Web site: http://asapm.org/
How to Apply for Membership
Telephone. Call the headquarters using the telephone number above
and tell them you are interested in joining. They will direct you to
the proper of¬ce.
Online. Go to the Web site and click on ˜˜Join asapm.™™ Fill in the
application and follow the instructions. Submit.

International Project Management Association (IPMA)
The IPMA was spawned by the APM and registered as an international
organization in Switzerland in 1998. The IPMA created their Interna-
tional Project Management Base Competencies (IBC) in 1999 and uses


them as the base for their certi¬cations. The IPMA offers four levels of
certi¬cation: Certi¬cated Projects Director (Level A), Certi¬cated Proj-
ects Manager (Level B), Certi¬cated Project Management Professional
(Level C), and Certi¬cated Project Management Practitioner (Level D).
Criteria: IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB)
Certi¬cated Projects Director (Level A)
Certi¬cated Projects Manager (Level B)
Certi¬cated Project Management Professional (Level C)
Certi¬cated Project Management Practitioner (Level D)
Contact Information
International Project Management Association
P.O. Box 1167, 3860 BD NIJKERK, The Netherlands
Tel: 31 33 247 34 30
Fax: 31 33 246 04 70
E-mail: info@ipma.ch
Web site: http://www.ipma.ch/
How to Apply for Membership
Note: Contact the IPMA through one of the means listed above and
follow their instructions. You must join the IPMA through one of
their associate members. The headquarters of¬ce will lead you
through this process.
Telephone. Call the headquarters using the telephone number above
and tell them you are interested in joining. They will direct you to
the proper of¬ce.
Online. Go to the Web site listed above and click on info@ipma.ch.
Send an e-mail message stating you wish to join the organization
and request directions.

Project Management Institute (PMI)
The Project Management Institute was created in 1969 in New Castle,
Pennsylvania.4 The PMI was headquartered in Upper Darby, Pennsylva-
nia, until 1999, when it moved to Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. The
PMI is the foremost project management organization in the United
States and has over 100,000 members throughout the world. The PMI
released their ¬rst body of knowledge as the Project Management Body
of Knowledge (PMBOK) in 1986. Subsequent updates were made to
the BOK, and the last issuance was A Guide to the Project Management
Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) 2000, issued in the year 2000, also referred
to as The PMBOK Guide. The PMBOK Guide concentrates on the core

Introducing the Principal Organizations

attributes of an internal project and does a good job of that. The PMI
uses the PMBOK as its basis for required knowledge and certi¬cation
testing. The PMBOK lists nine areas that cover many subareas, which,
if placed on an indentured list, would constitute about forty-six areas
and subareas altogether. The PMI provides for certi¬cation at two lev-
els: Project Management Professional (PMP) and Certi¬ed Associate
Project Manager (CAPM). A third level, consisting of numerous subdi-
visions, was temporarily introduced to ˜˜tailor™™ quali¬cation require-
ments to speci¬c industries, but this is presently being held in

Criteria: Project Management Knowledge areas (in PMBOK)
Project Management Professional (PMP)
Certi¬ed Associate in Project Management (CAPM)

Contact Information
Project Management Institute (PMI)
Four Campus Boulevard
Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA
Phone: 610 356-4600
Fax: 610 356-4647
E-mail: pmihq@pmi.org
Web site: http://www.pmi.org

How to Apply for Membership
Telephone. Call the headquarters using the telephone number above
and tell them you are interested in joining. They will direct you to
the proper of¬ce.
Online. Go to the PMI Web site shown above. Under ˜˜Member-
ship,™™ ˜˜Become a Member.™™ Click on ˜˜Apply for Membership™™ and
follow the instructions.

American Management Association (AMA)
The AMA was founded in 1926 as a nonpro¬t organization. It is the
preeminent management association of America and offers seminars,
conferences, and forums and brie¬ngs on current issues. Through its
publications arm, AMACOM, the AMA offers books and publications,
and print and online self-study courses. The AMA offers many certi¬-
cates for attending their training courses and seminars but does not
provide certi¬cation, per se, for project managers.


Contact Information
American Management Association (AMA)
1601 Broadway New York, NY 10019
Customer Service
Phone: 800 262-9699
Fax: 518 891-0368
E-mail: customerservice@amanet.org
Web site: http://www.amanet.org/
How to Apply for Membership
Telephone. Call customer service using the telephone number above
and tell them you are interested in joining. They will direct you to
the proper of¬ce.
Online. Go to: http://www.amanet.org/joinama/index.htm. Select
one of the subsets of either ˜˜Companies™™ or ˜˜Individual™™ and fol-
low instructions.

Standards Organizations
Many of the above organizations desire that their standards be accepted
at a higher level. In order to accomplish this, the developing organiza-
tion submits its standard to the higher-level authority for consider-
ation. The considering authority usually takes some time to evaluate
the standard, comparing it to others in the same ¬eld and making rec-
ommendations for changes, if necessary. Depending on the acceptance
of the changes by the developing organization, the standard is accepted
or rejected by the considering authority. Presently, several project man-
agement organizations have submitted their body of knowledge to
higher authorities to be sanctioned by that authority. At the present
time, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has accepted
the PMBOK as a standard. The National Standards Systems Network
(NSSN), American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), and Interna-
tional Organization for Standardization (ISO) are considering that
same move. Understandably, the IPMA has submitted its body of
knowledge and standards to the ISO for consideration as well. Figure
2-3 shows a summary of these activities.

Technical Standards Organizations
In addition to the project management standards, you will encounter
the standards of many organizations that will affect the technical as-
pects of your project. The American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), the Interna-

Introducing the Principal Organizations

Figure 2-3. National and international organizations
authorizing standards.
Standard/Body of Knowledge Developer Considering Body





IPMA Competence Baseline IPMA ISO

National Competency
Standards for Project
Management AIPM None known

PRINCE2 APM None known

tional Standards Organization (ISO), the Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and the Software Engineering Institute
(SEI), just to name a few. I have to limit it to a few because the last
time I counted, I found over 150 such organizations, and I probably
missed several at that. These few will give you an idea of the scope,
content, and breadth of the bodies and their standards.
These kinds of standards are usually referenced in the ˜˜Reference
Documents™™ section of your Requirements Document. As I said, these
standards can affect the technical aspects of your project, and it is your
responsibility to ensure these standards (at least the parts that are ref-
erenced) are available to your technical people in the performance of
their tasks.

1. Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 (London: The Stationary Of¬ce,
2. http://www.asapm.org/a_mission.asp.
3. Part of the text of an e-mail from Stacy Goff, PMP, asapm VP, Webmaster,
and Education Director to the author on 20 October 2003.
4. http://www.pmi.org/info/AP_IntroOverview.asp?nav 0201.

. 1
( 7)