<<

. 3
( 7)



>>

Now, it™s time for you to broaden your effectiveness and work on your
persona. The time-honored book The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
by Stephen R. Covey is a good place to start. It is a break from the
regimen of book after book of the ˜˜Firm™™ subjects to a look at the
personal habits by which others judge you. The book presents explana-
tions of ˜˜Dependence™™ and the transition to ˜˜Independence™™ and then
to ˜˜Interdependence.™™ This book introduced the concepts of teamwork
and synergy. And its ideas are just as effective today as the day it was
written.
Ken Blanchard wrote the original The One-Minute Manager in 1981
and updated the book in 1999. Its three principles are as relevant now
as they were then. However, the book has been further updated for the
times in his newer book Leadership and the One-Minute Manager. In this
book, Blanchard talks about the one-minute manager and situational
leadership attuned to today™s strategies. It is likely we will cycle back
through all those strategies in the near future.
Gung Ho! expands the management techniques of The One-Minute
Manager to include the concept of energizing and empowering the mod-
ern employee.
In his book, The AMA Handbook of Project Management, Dr. Paul C.
Dinsmore pulls together the talents of forty-one respected practitioners
of project management to contribute their expertise, each in a selected
subject. The book covers the subjects you would expect, such as start-
up, structure and organizations, teamwork, and quality, and also covers
such subjects as research and development projects, new products, and
cross-cultural projects. It will have a place on your project management
bookshelf for years to come.
In his book Introduction to Simulation and Risk Analysis, James R.
Evans uses the Excel spreadsheet as a teaching and operational tool to
illustrate simulation modeling concepts and analysis of results. Excel
is a tool common to almost every of¬ce software set and can be used in
direct support of your project.
Tom Harris wrote I™m OK, You™re OK during the Transactional Analy-
sis phase of management techniques. This little book contains some
basic people-to-people relationships that are almost immediately recog-



TLFeBOOK
57
Acquiring Project and Program Skills


nizable but heretofore didn™t have names. The book became the starting
point for several comedic spin-offs (I™m OK, But I Don™t Know About You),
but nevertheless it has a lot to say.
Written for both team leaders and executives, Glen M. Parker™s
Cross-Functional Teams provides checklists and sample training programs
to help establish effective teams. His data is based on his consulting
experiences with many large and medium businesses and will help you
in your search for the right training courses for your projects.
The following seminars and subject areas are recommended for this
level.
The PMI seminar ˜˜Contracting and Procurement Management™™
covers the procurement process from start to negotiation and award,
then through performance and completion for project managers to un-
derstand their roles as well as the roles of procurement personnel.
The PMI ˜˜Risk Management™™ workshop uses an array of practical
management tools to build risk models for standard risk identi¬cation,
quanti¬cation, quali¬cation, response development, and risk control.
The idea is to establish a common approach that can be used for all
projects, not just one.
The AMA seminar ˜˜Effective Project Leadership: Building High
Commitment Through Superior Communication™™ covers not only basic
communication but the speci¬cs of team dynamics and con¬‚ict man-
agement as well. The seminar covers communicating during project
planning, implementation and closure and the ˜˜nits and grits™™ of run-
ning effective meetings, what to do when crisis hits, performance re-
porting, and building commitment to the project.
Suggested Reading
Allen, David. Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress Free Productivity.
New York: Penguin, 2003.
Australian National Training Authority Standards and Curriculum
Council. National Competency Standards for Project Management. Vol-
umes 1, 2, and 3. QLD, Australia: Yeronga, 1996.1
Blanchard, Ken. Gung Ho! New York: William Morrow, 1997.
”””. The One-Minute Manager. New York: William Morrow, 1999.
Blanchard, Kenneth, et al. Leadership and the One-Minute Manager.
New York: William Morrow, 2001.
Christopher, William F., ed. Handbook for Productivity Measurement
and Improvement. New York: Productivity Press, 1993.
Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1990.



TLFeBOOK
58 ACQUIRING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS


Dinsmore, Paul C. AMA Handbook of Project Management. New York:
AMACOM Books, 1993.
Dixon, Miles, ed. APM Project Management Body of Knowledge. Peter-
borough, U.K.: Association for Project Management, 2000.2
Evans, James R., and David L. Olson. Introduction to Simulation and
Risk Analysis. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Harris, Thomas A. I™m OK, You™re OK. New York: Avon Books, 1996.
International Project Management Association. IPMA Competence
Baseline, Monmouth. U.K.: International Project Management Asso-
ciation, 1999.3
MacKenzie, R. Alec. The Time Trap: The Classic Book on Time Manage-
ment, 3rd Edition. New York: AMACOM Books, 1997.
Parker, Glen M. Cross-Functional Teams. San Francisco: Jossey Bass,
2003.
Project Management Institute. PMI PMBOK. Newtown Square,
Penn.: Project Management Institute, 2000.4
Seminar Contacts
Contracting and Procurement Management
PMI SeminarsWorld Registration
P.O. Box 2686
Des Plaines, IL 60018 USA
For a summary of the seminar, see:
http://www.pmi.org/prod/groups/public/documents/info/
pdc_sw_reginfo.asp
Risk Management
Mailing address same as above.
For a summary of the seminar, see:
http://www.pmi.org/prod/groups/public/documents/info/
pdc_sw_td_risk.asp
Effective Project Leadership: Building High Commitment Through Superior
Communication”Seminar 6585-XNET
American Management Association
1601 Broadway New York, NY 10019
Phone: 212 586-8100
Fax: 212 903-8168
Customer Service: 800 262-9699
For a summary of the seminar, see:
http://www.amanet.org/seminars/cmd2/6585.htm

Expert Skill Set
The principal difference between the Advanced Skill Set and the Expert
Skill Set is that at the expert level, the manager is involved with cus-



TLFeBOOK
59
Acquiring Project and Program Skills


tomers outside the enterprise under the aegis of a legal contract that
binds the enterprise to the performance of the program. The expert-
level manager must now add business and contractual subjects to his
or her skills inventory. In many cases this also includes sales techniques
and proposal preparation. Now that you are interfacing with a customer
from outside the company, you should be more precise in handling
your customer, not only from a pro¬t standpoint but from a follow-on
business standpoint as well.

Description
The expert-level manager leads programs of moderate to high risk and
complexity and may be involved in several programs simultaneously.
The expert-level manager is responsible for program budget and sched-
ule as well as program technical performance. The expert-level manager
leads an interdisciplinary staff and team. The expert-level manager is
responsible for pro¬t or loss. The expert-level manager is the primary
customer contact, is responsible for customer satisfaction, and may be
responsible for follow-on business. Follow-on business activity may in-
volve writing and managing proposals, arranging for partnerships and
teammates, and negotiating or leading the negotiating team.

Experience
Two to ¬ve years, depending on complexity.

Subject Requirements
Figure 6-5 contains the subjects that constitute the expert skill set.
Each subject is followed by an abbreviated de¬nition. The abbreviated
de¬nitions can be expand by reviewing the documents referenced in
the columns headed PMI, APM, and ICB. PMI refers to the Project Man-
agement Institute™s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).
APM refers to the topics of the APM Project Management Body of Knowl-
edge (APM BOK). ICB refers to the elements of the IPMA Competence
Baseline (ICB).

Pro¬ciency Requirements
Figure 6-6 contains the subjects, ordered by reference number (top
row), and the pro¬ciency requirements (bottom row) that the expert-
level manager must achieve in order to operate ef¬ciently at this level.
Expert-level subjects are shown in bold.
(text continues on page 64)


TLFeBOOK
Figure 6-5. Expert-Level Skill Set.
Ref.
No. Subject Skill Abbreviated De¬nition PMI APM ICB

12.5 52 42
25 Financial Management F The evaluation and assignment of resources to a
project as opposed to the assignment of those
resources to alternatives.

26 Metrics (TPM) F Objective values applied to certain factors and 8.1.3.2 21 19
accomplishments.

27 Value Management F Assessing project value in terms of resource 5.1.1.3 44 20
utilization (Go/No-Go).

F Considerations of the health, safety, security, and 5.1.3.3 25 40
28 Health, Safety,
environment for the project.
Security &
Environment

1.2 50 34
29 Business C How this project ¬ts in the overall business plan of
Considerations the enterprise and how it will contribute to future
business. Uses the elements of the project success
criteria.

30 Design & Development C Establishing key management ˜˜Go/No Go™™ gates in 2.1.1 22, 60 & 7, 38 &
the design and development processes. 62 39



TLFeBOOK
54 41
31 Legal Considerations C The ability to recognize a situation outside the norm 1.4,
that will require specialized assistance, such as 5.5.2,
labor, commercial, or international law. 11.2.1.3
& 12.4

2.1 43 12
32 Technology C An enterprise-level plan that predicts new
Management technologies and follows their direction of growth.
Used by the project to ensure that ˜˜on-ramps™™ or
accommodations are made to implement
predictions.

33 Estimating C A process of assigning approximate value, based 7.2.2.1 42 15 & 16
on like activities, to a projected activity.

34 Prototyping C Developing a living model that re¬‚ects the 11.5.2.3 45 31
characteristics of the product to be delivered.

35 Handoff C The transfer of a requirement from one functional ” ” ”
organization (marketing) to another (programs).

36 Customer Relations/ S Documents the needs and wants of the project 8.0 ” ”
Satisfaction customer and establishes a periodic evaluation of
performance in meeting those needs and wants.

(continues)




TLFeBOOK
Figure 6-5. (Continued).
Ref.
No. Subject Skill Abbreviated De¬nition PMI APM ICB

37 Teaming & Partnering S A strategic or tactical alliance with another 2.3 53 27
enterprise for a speci¬c purpose.

1.4 51 38
38 Marketing & Sales S That part of the permanent organization chartered
to sell product and ideas between the enterprise
and its customers.

12.3 ” ”
39 Proposals S A process that generates an offer to do business
that usually consists of scope, schedule and cost/
price, and approach.

40 Negotiation S A discussion in which there is ultimately agreement 2.4.3 74 32
on the outcome of the subject of the discussion.

41 Con¬‚ict Management S Mediating a dispute to a positive conclusion before 2.4 73 26
it becomes disruptive.

42 Social Sensitivity S Acting, speaking, and writing in a manner that is 2.5 50 9
considerate of the needs of others.

43 Management S Establishing and satisfying project goals between 2.2 ” ”
Relations/ Satisfaction enterprise management and project management.

Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.

TLFeBOOK
Figure 6-6. Expert-Level pro¬ciency requirements.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 5


25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47


4 4 4 5 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 2 ” 1

Bold numbers indicate Subject Areas and pro¬ciency requirements speci¬c to this level.
Pro¬ciency requirements. Where: 1 Understands; 2 Applies Basic knowledge; 3 Applies Advanced
knowledge; 4 Applies Expert knowledge; 5 Delegates and controls.




TLFeBOOK
64 ACQUIRING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS


Pro¬ciency Enhancement
In addition to achieving the speci¬c pro¬ciency requirements shown in
Figure 6-6 you can leverage your pro¬ciency at the expert level by read-
ing the following books and attending the following seminars.

Resources
Change your customers from simply being satis¬ed customers into Rav-
ing Fans by using Ken Blanchard™s ideas that teach how to de¬ne a vi-
sion, to learn what a customer really wants, and to institute constant,
effective customer-centered systems.
Use my Blueprint for Project Recovery to recover from a problem on
your project or program, or to control the planning so you don™t have
issues to recover from.
How you handle change is really the subject of Spencer Johnson™s
Who Moved My Cheese? Just about the time you have the ˜˜cheese™™ (re-
wards) ¬gured out, someone moves them. The concepts are applicable
to the business world and to one™s personal life.
Just mention ˜˜risk™™ and watch the eyeballs of the project manager
snap. Risk is inherent to all projects and compounds exponentially as
projects become more and more complex. In Identifying and Managing
Project Risk, Tom Kendrick addresses risk from an overall project stand-
point and provides a base from which you can move to your specialty.
It appears to me that risk is the most addressed subject in the project
management list of subjects. Every month, articles about risk appear in
all the periodicals. Software has even been developed to assist the proj-
ect manager in identifying and controlling risk. Still in all, risk exists in
every project and must be controlled, and this is a good place to start.
Even though the book is titled for small business, Successful Proposal
Strategies for Small Business by Robert Frey provides insight to proposal
strategies for almost all sizes of companies and most of the agencies
you can think of from concept to printing.
Managing the Project Team is Vijay Verma™s third volume in ˜˜The
Human Aspects of Project Management Series™™ and covers team dy-
namics, inspiring performance, and creating self-motivating project
teams.
At this point in your project management career, you should have
covered just about all of the ˜˜Firm™™ subjects. Now is the time to add
depth to the ¬rm subjects, concentrate on the ˜˜Soft™™ subjects and to
work on your persona. Most of the seminars recommended at this level
are a combination of subject areas (that is, not single subjects) and lean
more to the human or people side of the business.

TLFeBOOK
65
Acquiring Project and Program Skills


Team Training. There are many approaches to team training but
Agreements for Excellence uses a ˜˜contract™™ or ˜˜agreement™™ between
team members as the basis for understanding what is needed by
who and when. Each team member ˜˜signs up™™ to provide certain
products to others at certain times. There are usually surprises in
every project when people ¬nd out they are supposed to provide a
product they didn™t even know about before. I use Agreements for
Excellence, presented by quali¬ed facilitators, in all my team training
seminars.
Contract Types Workshop. If a contract with an outside agency is part
of your task, you need to understand the different types of contracts
and what each means to you, to the customer, and to the company.
Nearly all of the project management graduate curricula (see Chap-
ter 7) offer courses in contract types, and that™s a good starting
point for information. There are some nuances of contract types
that are industry-speci¬c. For instance, a cost-plus contract in con-
struction is not the same as a cost-plus contract with the federal
government, so you need to select the course that supports the
industry you are in. Further, the fee aspects (pro¬t) of some con-
tracts such as ¬xed fee (FF), award fee (AF), and incentive fee (IF)
can be particularly complex and will require detailed knowledge of
the award or incentive factors. These details are usually spelled out
in the speci¬c contract under which you will be working.
Defective Pricing. Defective pricing falls under the general heading of
fraud, waste, and abuse. Requirements for project managers to be
exposed to the de¬nitions and penalties for defective pricing was
begun by the U.S. federal government in the 1960s. Many other
organizations have made this a requirement as well. These semi-
nars are usually developed by companies around their pricing prac-
tices.
Negotiating. Since 1968, Effective Negotiating has been the standard
for negotiating strategies and techniques. In his Effective Negotiating
seminar, Dr. Chester L. Karrass states: ˜˜They get what they want
by negotiating better deals for both parties.™™5 This is the basis for
win-win negotiations.
Proposals. New business, and, by association, proposals, are the life-
blood of any company. There are many, many proposal types, but
the proposal must match the requirements. You don™t want to write
a book when one page will do, and you don™t want to submit one
page when a full-blown proposal is required. Usually, the training
department will select a proposal seminar, so proposals will be
standardized throughout the company. If you are in commercial
business, Writing Commercial Proposals is a good seminar. If you are
in the government business, Managing Winning Proposals is the ap-
propriate seminar. Both are offered by Shipley Associates.

TLFeBOOK
66 ACQUIRING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS


Suggested Reading
Blanchard, Ken. Raving Fans. New York: William Morrow, 1993.
Blanchard, Kenneth, and Spencer Johnson. The One-Minute Manager.
New York: William Morrow, 1999.
Cagle, Ronald B. Blueprint for Project Recovery. New York: AMACOM
Books, 2003.
Frey, Robert. Successful Proposal Strategies for Small Business: Using
Knowledge Management to Win Government, Private-Sector, and Interna-
tional Contracts, 3rd Edition. Boston: Artech House Publishers, 2002.
Humphrey, Watt S. Managing Technical People. Boston: Addison-
Wesley, 1996.
Johnson, Spencer. Who Moved My Cheese? New York: Putnam Books,
1998.
Kendrick, Tom. Identifying and Managing Project Risk: Essential Tools
for Failure-Proo¬ng Your Project. New York: AMACOM Books, 2003.
Verma, Vijay, K. Managing the Project Team the Human Aspects of Proj-
ect Management. Newtown Square, Penn.: Project Management Insti-
tute, 1997.
Seminar Contacts
Agreements for Excellence
Created by and offered through:
IMPAQ Organizational Improvement Systems, East Coast Division
45 Museum Street, Suite C
Cambridge, MA, 02138
Phone: 617 354-5062
Effective Negotiating seminar
Karrass Corporation
8370 Wilshire Blvd.
Beverly Hills, CA 90211“USA
Phone: 323 951-7500
E-mail: mail@karrass.com
Web site: www.karrass.com
Writing Commercial Proposals and Managing Winning Proposals
Shipley Associates
Corporate Headquarters
653 North Main St.
Farmington, UT 84025
Phone: 888 772-9467 or 801 451-2323
Fax: 801 451-4660
Web site: www.shipleywins.com

Specialty Skill Set
The specialty project manager is an advanced-level manager or an
expert-level manager with an added specialization in a speci¬c area.
Specialty projects may include new technology or new product develop-

TLFeBOOK
67
Acquiring Project and Program Skills


ment and may be international in scope or application. Specialty proj-
ects or programs may be ˜˜virtual™™ and may encompass several
locations, including overseas locations.

Description
The specialist-level manager leads projects or programs of moderate to
high risk and complexity, manages an interdisciplinary staff, and may
be involved in several projects or programs simultaneously. The spe-
cialist-level manager is responsible for project or program budget,
schedule, and technical performance. The specialist-level manager usu-
ally acts as primary customer contact, is responsible for customer satis-
faction, and may be responsible for follow-on business.

Experience
Five to ten years.

Subject Requirements
Figure 6-7 contains the subjects that constitute the specialty-level skill
set. Each subject is followed by an abbreviated de¬nition. Specialty-
level subject areas include speci¬c areas of interest or responsibility,
such as leading virtual teams, conducting international business, work-
ing with AID (Agency for International Development), and so on, but
in truth, there is no end to the category of specialties.

Pro¬ciency Requirements
Figure 6-8 contains the pro¬ciency requirements of the specialist-level
subjects, by reference number (top row), and the pro¬ciency require-
ments (bottom row), that the specialist-level manager must achieve in
order to operate ef¬ciently at this level. Primary subjects are shown in
bold.

Pro¬ciency Enhancement
Because the specialty area is so broad, you will see an admixture of
subjects presented here. In truth, these subjects need to be whatever
you need to support your specialty. That™s not a cop-out, it™s just real-
ity, and when you reach this level, you will have no dif¬culty ˜˜¬lling in
the blanks.™™

Resources
How to Negotiate Anything with Anyone, Anywhere Around the World by
Frank L. Acuff presents in-depth information for international negotiat-
(text continues on page 70)

TLFeBOOK
Figure 6-7. Specialist-Level Skill Set.
Skill
Type Abbreviated De¬nition PMI APM ICB
No. Subject

44 Specialties C Numerous categories of specialty subjects, such as ” ” ”
international business, AID business, Foreign
Military Sales, and virtual programs.

Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.




TLFeBOOK
Figure 6-8. Specialist-Level pro¬ciency requirements.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5


25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47


4 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 2 ” 2

Bold numbers indicate Subject Areas and pro¬ciency requirements speci¬c to this level.
Pro¬ciency requirements. Where: 1 Understands; 2 Applies Basic knowledge; 3 Applies Advanced
knowledge; 4 Applies Expert knowledge; 5 Delegates and controls.




TLFeBOOK
70 ACQUIRING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS


ing. The author separates the world into six regions consisting of forty-
one countries and calls for different negotiating methods with each
one. A ˜˜Fast-Fact Summary™™ is provided for each nation allowing the
reader to quickly grasp the uniqueness of that country.
Aligned to conducting business around the globe, The Distance Man-
ager by Kimball Fisher covers the main topics that a project manager
must consider when using virtual teams through discussion of using
e-mail, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing for maximum effec-
tiveness; of mastering the people skills required to manage from a dis-
tance, of virtual team building, and of strategies for managing multiple
locations.
Written more like a white paper than a book, Martha Haywood™s
Managing Virtual Teams nevertheless asks, and answers, all the right
questions. For instance: What are the four key principles for effectively
communicating at a distance? And, questions near and dear to the heart
of all project managers: How do I know they are really working? How
do I know they are working on the right things?
The selection of specialty seminars will be directed by the character
of the specialty and will be numerous.
Suggested Reading
Acuff, Frank L. How to Negotiate Anything with Anyone, Anywhere
Around the World (Expanded Edition). New York: AMACOM Books,
1997.
Fisher, Kimball, and Mareen Duncan Fisher. The Distance Manager:
A Hands-On Guide to Managing Off-Site Employees and Virtual Teams.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.
Haywood, Martha. Managing Virtual Teams. Boston: Artech House
Publishers, 1998.

Principal Skill Set
The principal-level manager must be able to handle any project or pro-
gram the enterprise has or will have. The task of the principal-level
manager is entirely management-oriented; however, the principal-level
manager must have an understanding of all the technical disciplines
necessary to perform the project or program to ensure that it is on
track. The task of the principal-level manager is strategic insofar as the
program and the business area are concerned, and it is tactical insofar
as the day-to-day activities are concerned. The detailed, day-to-day ac-
tivities will be performed by staff specialists.



TLFeBOOK
71
Acquiring Project and Program Skills


Description
The principal-level manager leads very complex and high-risk projects
and programs. The principal-level manager oversees budget and sched-
ules and directs an interdisciplinary staff. He or she has primary re-
sponsibility for program growth, including new technology. The
principal-level manager is the primary customer contact and is respon-
sible for customer satisfaction. Programs will likely include new tech-
nology and may include new product development. Programs may be
international in scope or application. Portions of the projects or pro-
grams may be ˜˜virtual™™ and encompass several locations, including
overseas locations. The principal-level manager is responsible for pro¬t
or loss. The principal-level manager will be responsible for follow-on
business and may be responsible for new business. The principal-level
manager will likely direct the marketing of the follow-on or new busi-
ness activity.

Experience
More than ten years.

Subject Requirements
Figure 6-9 contains the subjects that constitute the Principal Skill Set.
Each subject is followed by an abbreviated de¬nition. As you can see,
these subjects are beyond the scope of the Project Management Insti-
tute™s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), the topics of the
APM Project Management Body of Knowledge (APM BOK), and the ele-
ments of the IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB) under the column labeled
ICB. Note that the subject areas are purposely broad.

Pro¬ciency Requirements
Figure 6-10 contains the pro¬ciency requirements of the principal sub-
jects, by reference number (top row), and the pro¬ciency requirements
(bottom row), that the principal-level manager must achieve in order
to operate ef¬ciently at this level. Principal subjects are shown in bold.

Pro¬ciency Enhancement
In addition to achieving the speci¬c pro¬ciency requirements shown in
Figure 6-10, you can leverage your pro¬ciency at the expert level by
reading the following books and attending the following seminars.
(text continues on page 74)


TLFeBOOK
Figure 6-9. Principal-Level Skill Set.
Skill
No. Subject Type Abbreviated De¬nition PMI APM ICB

” ” ”
45 Strategic Planning C Developing and implementing the strategy for long-
and Positioning term positioning of the project, the program, and the
enterprise. Includes cultural changes and
continuous improvement.

” ” ”
C The research and application of the Project
46 Project Management
Management Process to the needs of the
Process
enterprise.
implementation

” ” ”
47 Leading-Edge Ideas S Ideas put forth by management and technical
sources specializing in forward thinking. Knowledge
Management.

Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.




TLFeBOOK
Figure 6-10. Principal-Level pro¬ciency requirements.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5


25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47


4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4

Bold numbers indicate Subject Areas and pro¬ciency requirements speci¬c to this level.
Pro¬ciency requirements. Where: 1 Understands; 2 Applies Basic knowledge; 3 Applies Advanced
knowledge; 4 Applies Expert knowledge; 5 Delegates and controls.




TLFeBOOK
74 ACQUIRING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS


Resources
The project of¬ce is not only a way to conduct projects, it is also a way
to conduct business. In their book Creating the Project Of¬ce: A Manager™s
Guide to Leading Organizational Change, Randall Englund, Robert Gra-
ham, and Paul Dinsmore suggest that the project of¬ce leads to better
products, and can lead to organizational change by transforming the
organization from function-based to project-based.
The authors interviewed over 150 CEOs to get the inside dope on
how they run their companies. In Maximum Leadership, Charles Farkas
and Phillippe DeBacker share the results of their interviews in ¬ve
strategies for success.
Where do we stand with regard to others in our business? H. James
Harrington™s High Performance Benchmarking shows the ˜˜what™s™™ and
˜˜how™s™™ and how they come through in this ¬rst book on bench-
marking.
Originally published by nine co-authors in 1996, this book has un-
dergone editorial change by Miki Halliday and was republished in 2001.
Coaching, Mentoring, and Managing, edited by William Hendricks, advo-
cates treating your employees as real people and helping them along
the way with coaching instead of condemning, and mentoring instead
of maligning.
Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton bring their ˜˜balanced score-
card™™ concept from seminar to book form and extend it into a perfor-
mance management framework in The Strategy-Focused Organization.
Business strategy with a practical application is the theme of Strate-
gic Planning: A Practical Guide for Managers, by Drs. Harold Kerzner and
Peter J. Rea. The authors use a dozen or more case studies to show how
it™s done in different companies.
Although Alvin Tof¬‚er™s The Third Wave was written twenty years
ago, it has as much thought-provoking insight as Future Shock. It is
worth taking time to read it.
The ˜˜Reinventing Work Series™™ by Tom Peters consists of three
books. The books are titled: The Brand You 50, The Professional Firm 50,
and The Project 50. Each is a list of ¬fty actions to reinvent the work of
that subject area. Naturally, we are most interested in The Project 50 but
the others are important as well.
Now for the seminars appropriate to the Principal Skill Set.
Appraise Your World was created by the Management Research
Group of Portland, Maine. Where do your decision styles come from



TLFeBOOK
75
Acquiring Project and Program Skills


and how do they compare with a like group? Everyone is affected by a
Professional/Public Self, Leisure Self, Personal Self, and Inner Self.
Each of these factors includes four or ¬ve subfactors. The importance
you place on each of these subfactors affects the way and ways you
make decisions. Appraise Your World collects your response to these in-
dividual subfactors and compares them to a norm. The purpose is to
give you an insight to how and why you make decisions and how you
relate to your peers. Such inclinations will affect how you progress in
your career, among other things.
The Leadership Decision Styles Survey was created by the Center for
Creative Learning in Greensboro, North Carolina, and is usually pre-
sented by company training departments whom they certify in the pro-
cess. Each company is franchised to handle the course. Using a series
of case studies, the leader (you) decides how he or she will handle the
decision required for each case by using one of the ¬ve methods as a
basis. The results are analyzed by plotting your decision style against
the recommended decision style for each case and then summed into
a decision pro¬le that represents you. The ¬ve decision styles form a
spectrum, from making the decision alone to making a decision with
the entire team involved.
Suggested Reading
Englund, Randall L., Robert J. Graham, and Paul C. Dinsmore. Cre-
ating the Project Of¬ce: A Manager™s Guide to Leading Organizational
Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.
Farkas, Charles M., and Phillippe De Backer. Maximum Leadership.
(New York: Perigee Books, 1998.
Harrington, H. James. High Performance Benchmarking: 20 Steps to Suc-
cess. New York: McGraw-Hill Trade, 1995.
Hendricks, William, ed. Coaching, Mentoring, and Managing. Franklin
Lakes, N.J.: The Career Press, Inc., 2001.
Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. The Strategy-Focused Organi-
zation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001.
Kerzner, Harold, and Peter J. Rea. Strategic Planning: A Practical
Guide for Managers. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997.
Peters, Glen. Beyond the Next Wave. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Financial
Times Prentice Hall, 1996.
Peters, Tom. Reinventing Work Series. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1999.
Tof¬‚er, Alvin. The Third Wave. New York: Bantam Books, 1984.
Seminar Contacts
Appraise Your World
Management Research Group



TLFeBOOK
76 ACQUIRING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS


14 York Street, Suite 301
Phone: 207 775-2173
Fax: 207 775-6796
E-mail: Info@mrg.com
Web site: http://www.mrg.com
Leadership Decision Styles Survey
Center for Creative Leadership
One Leadership Place
P.O. Box 26300
Greensboro, NC 27438
Phone: 336 545-2810
Fax: 336 282-3284
E-mail: Info@Leaders.ccl.org
Web site: http://www.ccl.org

In this part we talked about the preparatory skills as well as the
company, customer, and industry skills you need for project manage-
ment. Then we went into each of the ¬ve levels and showed what sub-
ject areas were necessary to satisfy the needs of each level. We found
that exposure to all the subject areas was desirable at every level but
concentration on certain subject areas was essential in order to be com-
petent at a speci¬c level.
One thing I hope you learned in this part is that project manage-
ment learning is progressive. It is progressive in both scope and depth.
It is a learning process that never ends. This part presented those sub-
ject areas necessary for basic project management training and for get-
ting a good start in expanding that basic training to advanced, expert,
specialist, principal levels, and beyond.
Part III will build on this start and give you insight into more exper-
tise through additional reading, workshops, and seminars.

Notes
1. Also available at: http://www.aipm.com.au/html/ncspm.cfm Down-
loads (several).
2. Also available at: http://www.apm.org.uk/copyright/next.htm (document
requires registration).
3. Also available at: http://www.ipma.ch/ Certi¬cation IPMA Compe-
tence Baseline Download.
4. For an excellent comparison of the PMI PMBoK and PRINCE2, see: http://
www.pmforum.org/library/papers/Prince2vsGuide3.htm.
5. Dr. Chester L. Karrass, Effective Negotiating (New York: HarperBusiness,
1994), see: www.karrass.com.




TLFeBOOK
PA R T

III

IMPROVING Y OUR
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
ABILITIES



˜˜Good, Better, Best”Never let it rest”til™ good is better, and better is
best.™™1 Although this quote has been used over and over again, it™s still
very timely. No matter where you are in your career, you need to keep
abreast of what™s going on. As Will Rogers said: ˜˜Even if you™re on the
right track, you™ll get run over if you just sit there.™™ So, we all must
keep moving and improving. The intent of this part is to present an
assessment tool that lists all the subject areas talked about in Part II,
to be used as a checklist to make your self-assessment. Once you have
made your assessment, you can see your strong points and your weak
points. The action now is to assess where you are and create a plan for
improving your position.

Note
1. Rev. William Long Dowler, First United Lutheran Church, 1948. Origina-
tor unknown.



77

TLFeBOOK
This page intentionally left blank




TLFeBOOK
CHAPTER 7




Expanding Your Knowledge
Expanding your knowledge is a good idea no matter what profession
you are in, and you should constantly be putting effort into doing it. If
you want to expand your knowledge in a speci¬c area, however, it is a
good idea to ¬rst take inventory of where you are. This chapter will
recommend that you assess your capabilities in order to have an under-
standing of where you are now. Then you can expand your knowledge
through education and training to where you want to be. Remember,
knowledge is the ¬rst element of the Path to Success.

Assessing Your Capabilities
Now that you have an understanding for what is required for each level
of pro¬ciency, it is a good time to take inventory of your own skills and
abilities. Below are ¬ve skill set tables (Figures 7-1 through 7-5) for
evaluating your abilities. One table is provided for each skill set, and
each subject area is provided with the nominal pro¬ciency level needed
for that subject. The nominal levels use the following taxonomy:

1. The individual must be able to apply the Basic Skill Set and have
a pro¬ciency of the remaining subjects as indicated.
2. The individual must have an advanced level of knowledge of the
subjects indicated as well as all subjects in prior levels. This
knowledge must be backed by appropriate experience on previ-
ous projects. The individual must be able to apply this knowl-
edge and experience to the projects he or she is leading.
3. The individual must have an expert level of knowledge of the
subjects indicated as well as all subjects in prior levels. This
knowledge must be backed by appropriate experience on previ-
(text continues on page 88)

79

TLFeBOOK
Figure 7-1. Basic Skill Set pro¬ciency level.
Skill Your
No. Subject Type Abbreviated De¬nition Standard Pro¬ciency

1 Project Management F The context within which a project is conceived, 2
Context issued, conducted, and accepted.

2 Project/Program F Management of the scope, cost, schedule, and 2
Management Process quality of a speci¬c task.

3 Work Content and F Management of project content (deliverables). 2
Scope Management

2
4 Time Scheduling/ F Developing and applying the time necessary for
Phasing accomplishment of individual activities and linking
these activities to portray a project.

2
5 Budgeting & Cost F De¬ning project element ˜˜should cost™™ and
Management managing activities to ensure that those costs are
controlled.

6 Project F Application of the project plan to the task at hand. 2
Implementation

2
7 Project Close Out F The process of concluding a project, delivering the
product to the customer, and returning the
resources to the enterprise. Also called ˜˜Hand-
Over.™™

Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.
TLFeBOOK
Figure 7-2. Advanced Skill Set pro¬ciency levels.
Your
Skill
Pro¬ciency
Type Abbreviated De¬nition Standard
No. Subject
C The objective factors that de¬ne project success. 3
8 Project Success
Criteria
9 Strategy/Project C The process of developing a project plan that is 3
Management consistent with enterprise and customer
Planning requirements.
10 Communication C Two-way oral, written, or graphic interchange of 3
data between people and/or machines.
F De¬nition and control of the facilities, ¬nances, 3
11 Resource
Management equipment, and real estate in support of a project.
12 Change Control F Management of changes to project content. 3
13 Information F Management of the ¬‚ow of information into, within, 3
Management and out of the project.
14 Structures F Organization of project activities to show 3
relationships between the elements of the activities,
such as a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).
F Management of changes to the product baseline. 3
15 Con¬guration
Management
(continues)



TLFeBOOK
Figure 7-2. (Continued).
Skill Your
No. Subject Type Abbreviated De¬nition Standard Pro¬ciency
16 Project Lifecycle F Determination of the lifecycle a project is to have 3
Design & and then developing a plan to ensure
Management accomplishment.
17 Procurements & F The processes of buying products and services 3
Subcontracts from other entities.
18 Earned Value F A process that assigns value to events. The 3
Management predetermined value is then awarded to the
performer whenever the event is completed.
19 Organization C A structured relationship between the people of the 3
project at a particular moment in time.
20 Risk Management C Identi¬cation and control of risks that could affect 3
the project.
21 Quality Management C Management of the quality processes of a project. 3
22 Personnel C Evaluating personnel needs, the recruiting and 3
Management assignment of personnel, and the evaluation of the
performance of those personnel.
23 Team Building/ C Processes by which people work together for the 3
Teamwork common good of the project rather than individual
desires.
24 Training C Exposing individuals to selected project-related 3
courses.
Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.
TLFeBOOK
Figure 7-3. Expert Skill Set pro¬ciency levels.
Skill Your
No. Subject Type Abbreviated De¬nition Standard Pro¬ciency

25 Financial F The evaluation and assignment of resources to a 4
Management project as opposed to the assignment of those
resources to alternatives.

26 Metrics (TPM) F Objective values applied to certain factors and 4
accomplishments.

27 Value Management F Assessing project value in terms of resource 4
utilization (Go/No Go).

28 Health, Safety, F Considerations of the health, safety, security, and 5
Security, & environment for the project.
Environment

3
29 Business C How this project ¬ts in the overall business plan of
Considerations the enterprise and how it will contribute to future
business. Uses the elements of the project success
criteria.

30 Design & C Establishing key management, ˜˜Go/No Go™™ gates 3
Development in the design and development processes.

(continues)


TLFeBOOK
Figure 7-3. (Continued).
Skill Your
No. Subject Type Abbreviated De¬nition Standard Pro¬ciency

31 Legal Considerations C The ability to recognize a situation outside the norm 2
that will require specialized assistance such as
labor, commercial, or international law.

2
32 Technology C An enterprise-level plan that predicts new
Management technologies and follows their direction of growth.
Used by the project to ensure that ˜˜on-ramps™™ or
accommodations are made to implement
predictions.

33 Estimating C A process of assigning approximate value, based 3
on like activities, to a projected activity.

34 Prototyping C Developing a living model that re¬‚ects the 3
characteristics of the product to be delivered.

35 Handoff C The transfer of a requirement from one functional 4
organization (marketing) to another (programs).

36 Customer Relations/ S Documents the needs and wants of the project 4
Satisfaction customer and establishes a periodic evaluation of
performance in meeting those needs and wants.

37 Teaming & Partnering S A strategic or tactical alliance with another 4
enterprise for a speci¬c purpose.
TLFeBOOK
4
38 Marketing & Sales S That part of the permanent organization chartered
to sell product and ideas between the enterprise
and its customers.

4
39 Proposals S A process that generates an offer to do business
that usually consists of scope, schedule, and cost/
price, approach.

40 Negotiation S A discussion in which there is ultimately agreement 4
on the outcome of the subject of the discussion.

41 Con¬‚ict Management S Mediating a dispute to a positive conclusion before 3
it becomes disruptive.

42 Social Sensitivity S Acting, speaking, and writing in a manner that is 3
considerate of the needs of others.

43 Management S Establishing and satisfying project goals between 4
Relations/Satisfaction enterprise management and project management.

Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.




TLFeBOOK
Figure 7-4. Specialist Skill Set pro¬ciency levels.
Your
Skill
Pro¬ciency
Type Abbreviated De¬nition Standard
No. Subject

44 Specialties C Numerous categories of specialty subjects, such as 4
international business, AID business, foreign
military sales, and virtual programs.

Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.




TLFeBOOK
Figure 7-5. Principal Skill Set pro¬ciency levels.
Skill Your
No. Subject Type Abbreviated De¬nition Standard Pro¬ciency

45 Strategic Planning C Developing and implementing the strategy for long- 4
and Positioning term positioning of the project, the program, and the
enterprise.

46 Project Management C The development and implementation of a properly 4
Of¬ce Implementation reasoned, sized, and organized project or program
management of¬ce.

47 Leading-Edge Ideas S Ideas put forth by management and technical 4
sources specializing in forward thinking. Knowledge
Management.

Skill Type. Where: F Firm; S Soft; C Combination of F and S.




TLFeBOOK
88 IMPROVING YOUR PROJECT MANAGEMENT ABILITIES


ous projects. The individual must be able to apply this knowl-
edge and experience to the projects he or she is leading.
4. The individual must have an advanced or expert level of knowl-
edge of the subjects indicated as well as of all subjects in prior
levels. The individual must be an expert in the specialty required
by the project and must have appropriate experience on previous
projects. The individual must be able to apply this knowledge
and experience to the projects he or she is leading.
5. The individual at this level must be an expert in all subjects.
Much of the detail level of the subjects will be delegated to sub-
ordinates, but this individual must fully understand the subject
area, approve the subject delegation, and be responsible for the
resulting product.

Take a few minutes to ¬ll in the far-right column and give yourself a
baseline of where you stand. Then we will be ready to talk about im-
proving your abilities in all the areas.
Now you should be able to see where you excel and where you need
to improve. But simply meeting the standards won™t be suf¬cient as
you progress through your career. Remember the opening line”
˜˜Good, Better, Best.™™ You will want to increase the level of each subject
area as you progress in your career. The next section of this chapter
offers some insight into how and where you can do just that.

Expanding Your Knowledge
Knowledge, as I said before, is a combination of education and training.
Education consists of formal courses given by accredited educational
institutions such as colleges and universities. The ¬rst part of this chap-
ter will address formal education.
Training is offered in both formal and informal environments, but
training does not lead to a degree in any ¬eld. Formal training usually
culminates in a certi¬cate or some similar type of recognition. Training
will be discussed in the second part of this chapter.
Certi¬cation is offered by some project management organizations,
and important enough to discuss separately.

Expanding Your Education
There are a few questions to consider before expanding your education:
Where are you now in your education? What career ¬eld do you want



TLFeBOOK
89
Expanding Your Knowledge


to consider? What level of that career ¬eld do you want to enter? In
what location do you want to go to school? What particular school do
you want to go to? Do you want to go to school full-time, part-time,
day, night, correspondence, via e-learning? How will you pay for your
schooling?
Let™s take the questions one by one and give them enough speci¬c-
ity to get you started on your search.

Where Are You Now in Your Education?
The answer to this question will vector you to the level you would like
to achieve next.
If you are in high school, the whole world is potentially open to
you. The breadth of these options begins to narrow immediately by the
next set of considerations: Do you have the GPA to achieve your dream,
and do you have the ¬nancing to do what you want to do? These two
questions are the most basic in pursuing your education. If you do not
have an appropriate GPA (and SAT) to go into your chosen ¬eld, you
may have a problem. I hope you are reading and heeding this early in
your career when you have time to overcome the problem. If you do
not have the appropriate GPA for College A, you may be accepted by
College B, or if not there, you may able to attend Community College
C and then transfer to the upper division of State College D. This is not
the best way to get there, but it will work.
If you are at the undergraduate level, you essentially have two
choices: Go into the workplace or continue on to get your undergradu-
ate degree. If you choose to go on with your undergraduate program,
you need to decide what career ¬eld you want to go into? It is after
primary education is established that most people go into project man-
agement, and that™s the baseline we will use to approach this career
question. So if you are looking at your undergraduate ¬eld, that ¬eld
will be your primary ¬eld. Your primary ¬eld may be computer science,
chemical engineering, ¬nance, banking, construction, or dozens of
other ¬elds. Whatever it is, you must make a careful consideration at
this point. You need to enter at least the general ¬eld you want to
pursue.
Granted, you don™t need to make your ¬nal commitment to a major
before entering your freshman year of college but you must make that
decision before entering your junior year (upper division) of college.
Why? Because if you don™t, you will spend a lot of time unproductively,



TLFeBOOK
90 IMPROVING YOUR PROJECT MANAGEMENT ABILITIES


when you should be making progress toward your goals. If you choose
incorrectly and then want to change later, you may have amassed (and
paid for) college hours that are of no use to your new major. Granted,
education is never wasted, but if it doesn™t apply directly to your major,
you will be taking time away from your ¬nal career choice.
The most important point to research in choosing a college is the
accreditation of the program and the college. There are many programs
that are offered and look good, but that are not accredited by an accept-
able source. I recommend that you avoid these kinds of programs.
If you are near the end of your undergraduate program, you once
again have the option of going into the workforce or going into a gradu-
ate program. At this point, you may have a watershed. By this I mean,
you may continue on at the graduate level with your primary career
¬eld or you may change career ¬elds. At this point you are probably
asking: ˜˜Why is this guy talking about changing a career ¬eld when
he™s been preaching stay the course all along?™™ Good question. But, this
is the point when you determine whether you want to stay operating in
your primary ¬eld, go into management of your primary ¬eld, or go
into project management at the graduate level. That™s the purpose. Nat-
urally, you can choose to extend your primary career ¬eld and become
expert there. Or, you can choose the management option and change
to an MBA or a master™s degree in Project Management. If you have
been in some related ¬eld”say, ¬nance”and want to get an MBA, you
can probably go directly into your graduate program. If, on the other
hand, you choose to change your ¬eld from, say, electrical engineering
to management, you will probably need to take some prerequisite
courses to make the change. These prerequisites will likely be under-
graduate courses at the 200 to 400 level. This is part of the tax you pay
whenever you change majors. In some cases, you can take prerequisites
as electives, but in the hard technical courses, such as engineering,
there are generally not enough elective hours available to include the
accounting courses and the other courses you will need in order to
make the change.

What Level of That Career Field Do You Want to Enter?
This is an important question for several reasons. The answer to this
question may be by choice or by necessity. You may choose to go on to
graduate school after you get your bachelor™s degree but may not be
able to do that for ¬nancial reasons. With the proper strategy, you can



TLFeBOOK
91
Expanding Your Knowledge


factor that into your career equation. Go ahead and enter the workforce,
and then, when the opportunity presents itself, go on to grad school at
night. Believe me, you will not be the ¬rst to take this route. The level
you ultimately choose for your education will likely be a limiting factor
in your career.

In What Location Do You Want to Go to School?
The answer to this question may be open or self-limiting. If you have
plenty of money and a great GPA, it™s probably a super¬‚uous question,
but most of us are not in this situation. First, not all colleges offer all
disciplines. Your choice of discipline may be a determining factor. In
other words, if that lovely, ivy-covered college sitting on the river only
offers a liberal arts education and you want engineering, it™s obviously
not a match. Although this is pretty obvious, what is not so obvious is
the limitation of a location once you are in the workforce. By this I
mean if you live in Tucson, Arizona and want to get your graduate de-
gree from Stetson University in Florida at night, you™ve got a problem.
Your college locations are limited by: 1) Money, 2) Your GPA, 3) Where
you live if you want part-time schooling. The point being, to the best
of your ability, select your college, don™t let exigencies select it for you.

What Particular School Do You Want to Attend?
You may want to go to Harvard or MIT or Stanford or some other highly
rated school (who doesn™t?) but that option may not be realistic. If you
are in high school, you likely have more ¬‚exibility in the choice of
schools than if you are in your undergraduate program. If you are inde-
pendently wealthy and will be a legacy to MIT or Harvard, you can stop
reading here and go on to the next section. Otherwise choose the best
college that will take you, at any level. It does make a difference to your
career.

Do You Want to Go to School Full-Time, Part-Time, Day, Night,
Correspondence, Via E-Learning?
Ideally, you will probably want to go to the school of your choice, have
your education paid for, attend classes during the day, and have an
extensive social life at night. I read a book like that a long time ago,
and that was the closest I ever came to this option. If you™re like the
rest of us, you will need some other combination of options. An alter-
native option is to work and go to school part-time. This is a real viable



TLFeBOOK
92 IMPROVING YOUR PROJECT MANAGEMENT ABILITIES


option, and it™s done by a lot of people every day. It requires determina-
tion and severely impacts your social life. If you go to school full-time,
you will probably go in the daytime. If you go to school part-time, it™s
probably because you are working, and you will probably have class at
night. Some will take a night job just so they can go to school during
the day. Correspondence courses are another viable option, but these
are generally limited to undergraduate courses and very speci¬c parts
of graduate curricula. An extension of correspondence courses is the
˜˜distance learning™™ approach where you do most of your work through
correspondence and then attend seminars at the university, usually in
the summer. This is a great option, but it is limited in its career ¬eld
offerings.
In the last few years, e-learning has come to the fore. This is a great
approach even if you are working full-time and traveling. You can take
a sack full of books and your laptop, and have some productive time at
the airport waiting for the next plane or on the a long ¬‚ight. Again, this
approach is somewhat limited, and this approach may also be con-
ducted in the same way as the extended campus option. This option
will take a lot of planning and will eat into your social life, but so what?
It™s an option that™s available, and if you choose to take it, go for it and
good luck.

How Will You Pay for Your Schooling?
This is usually a grabber, at least for most of us. There are several op-
tions. First, you can have your education paid for by your family. That™s
wonderful.
Second, you can get a scholarship or a grant, several scholarships,
or multiple grants. Good for you. This takes a lot of research and a lot
of time answering questionnaires and interviewing, but otherwise is a
good deal.
Third, you can take out student loans. Student loans are generally
offered by ¬nancial institutions and backed by the federal government.
Education loans are offered at very low interest rates.
Fourth, you can join the military and take advantage of their educa-
tional program. At one time, military personnel quali¬ed for the so-
called ˜˜GI Bill.™™ But that speci¬c instrument has been replaced with
the military educational program. This is basically a matching annuity.
A very good option. If you have taken the SATs and then the military
entrance exams, you will likely show very well. If your scores are high



TLFeBOOK
93
Expanding Your Knowledge


enough, the military will send you to one of their schools that you
choose. That™s a great start on vectoring your ¬eld of work, and you can
take correspondence or even some residence courses while you are in
the service. Needless to say, you will have a service option of four or
more years, but if you can get at least two years of college under your
belt while you™re in the service, you™re way ahead of where you would
be otherwise.
Fifth, some employers will pay or help pay for your education. A
typical offering is for the employer to pay 75 percent of undergraduate
tuition and 100 percent of graduate tuition. Paying for books, lab fees,
and so on is up to you. This is a terri¬c way to get a degree but it takes
a lot of grit to work all day and go to school at night. Besides that, you
may be starting a family at the same time. This is a good place to put
your scheduling skills to work.
Finally, you can work your way through college. That™s a tough
option, but it™s done every day. Working takes its toll on homework
and certainly on social life but in the long run it™s de¬nitely worth it.
You must understand that, if you intend to work your way through, it
will likely limit the schools you can attend and the way you do it.
Chances are that you™ll need to take the ¬rst two years at a community
college while living at home and the last two years at a state university.
If you are going to grad school under these conditions, you are likely
working days and going to school at night. It works, but it requires
drive and determination.
There are dozens of colleges and universities in the United States
and dozens of colleges and universities internationally offering gradu-
ate-level project management degree programs and certi¬cates. As you
might imagine, the offerings are a conglomeration of just about every
combination of on-campus, off-campus, Internet, degree, certi¬cate
combination you can think of. They are so complex that I can only
generalize about these offerings. I organize these colleges and universi-
ties into ¬ve groups:

1. Colleges and universities that offer traditional, on-campus,
graduate degree programs in project management
2. Colleges and universities that offer traditional, on-campus,
graduate degree programs in business administration with a
specialization in project management



TLFeBOOK
94 IMPROVING YOUR PROJECT MANAGEMENT ABILITIES


3. Colleges and universities that offer traditional, on-campus,
graduate degree programs in technical disciplines with options
in project management
4. Colleges and universities that offer, off-campus, one or more of
the above graduate degree programs through the Internet
5. Colleges and universities that offer certi¬cate programs in proj-
ect management, either on-campus or through the Internet

<<

. 3
( 7)



>>