. 7
( 7)

one? Does the one it has need changing? Now, as a senior project man-
ager, you will have the opportunity to be heard on the subject. You may
want to tackle the book The Advanced Project Management Of¬ce by Parvis
Rad and Ginger Levin and apply some of the appropriate tricks the
author talks about. Some of the best program-oriented companies in
the world use the PMO concept. The concept keeps IBM on the straight
and narrow, and it helped Federal Express turn around.
If you don™t want or can™t afford a PMO of¬ce, how about a project
management executive committee; an ad hoc group specializing in best
practices of project management and ¬‚owing these ideas through the
organization? The group can have a yearly conclave with an inspira-
tional speaker to rev up the troops and send them on their way for the
next year. A panel can present the ¬ndings of their research. Awards
and recognition can be given at the annual meeting. The meeting will
follow the same format as a marketing and sales meeting. To do the job
we have to do, we need to be pumped too. We need to be inspired and
need to take away new ideas from the conclave. And, probably most
important of all, we need to meet new project and program managers;
get to know their capabilities and personalities, and see their awards;
and see what it takes to make it to the top in this company and in
project management as a whole.


Suggested Reading
Gibson, Rowan (ed.), Alvin Tof¬‚er, and Heidi Tof¬‚er. Rethinking the
Future: Rethinking Business, Principles, Competition, Control & Complex-
ity, Leadership, Markets, and the World. New York: Nicholas Brealey,
Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. The Strategy-Focused Organi-
zation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001.
Rad, Parvis, and Ginger Levin. The Advanced Project Management Of-
¬ce. New York: CRC Press, 2002.
Developing and Executing a Customer-Centric Strategy
See: http://www.amanet.org/seminars/cmd2/2585.htm


Continuing Your Success!
Once you enter the success continuum, you will want to continue on
and on, broader and broader, and higher and higher.
Continuing success in project management is a matter of conjoin-
ing the two most cogent facts of this book. First, recognizing that proj-
ect management is a growing, evolving discipline. Second, that the path
to success really is: Knowledge Experience Persona Per-
When you started this book, where did you ¬nd yourself ? Were you
at the beginning? Were you somewhere in the middle? Did you assess
your capabilities along the way so you could have a baseline for im-
provement? Did that tell you anything about yourself ? Where are you
now? Will you continue to assess yourself throughout your career? No,
this is not a test. It is simply an assessment of the book as it applies to
you and an assessment of you as you apply to the continuum of project
management learning.
We started this book with some pretty basic stuff. I described what
project management is all about, who and what a project manager is,
and the project management process, and then introduced the path to
success. Then, I introduced the principal organizations, the differences
between them, and the commonalities they shared.
In this book, you were introduced to project and program types, to
project and program skill sets, and then to the differences between lead-
ership roles. Then you saw how the skill sets were used in leading the
different project and program types. What came through was that each
skill set and each project type was more involved than the previous one
and that they were all linked together. They were part of a continuum.
Then, you learned the language, as it applies to this book, and with
an understanding that each organization and each industry has its own
language. There is a move to commonality, but we are not there yet.
What about the project management skills presented in Part II? Did


you see yourself here? Are you planning to expand your knowledge?
Are you planning to gain more experience? What about developing
your persona? Is that a worthwhile thing for you to do?
I presented a lot of references to books and seminars and courses
and threw a lot of ideas on the table. I hope one thing is clear, though,
and that is that your success is up to your performance. You can read
all the books, attend all the seminars, and lead some projects, but if the
projects are not successful, you will not have success. This all boils
down to the fact that success is really up to you.
But, I believe, if you™ve had the stick-to-it-iveness to do all these
things, and reach this point in the book, you will succeed.
I hope, after reading this book, you found that you need to:

1. Get the best education and the highest you can get by choosing
the best curriculum and the best college available to you.
2. Get the most training you can get by choosing the appropriate
seminars and workshops that will provide you with the most
3. Get the best experience in the proper order that will allow you to
grow to greater and greater heights in your project management
4. Join a professional organization that will provide you with op-
portunities to network and to look for job opportunities as well
as extending your training.
5. Get a certi¬cation and certi¬cates to enhance your background.
6. Keep a positive mental attitude in your education, training, and
performance at every level.
7. Constantly strive to perform the best you possibly can for the
sake of your project, your company, and yourself and work every
job every day of your professional career as if your reputation
depends on it”because it most certainly does!

Finally, remember that project management is evolving, and you
must evolve with it. You must continue with your education and train-
ing. You must apply what you know and gain experience in the real
world. You must present yourself as a leader and as a winner. And,
most of all, you must show positive performance in all that you do. At
this point you will have applied all the elements of the formula for
success and can enjoy:



After Receipt of Order (ARO) A number, usually expressed in days, weeks,
or months, as a point after the of¬cial noti¬cation of the start of the
project. Example: The PDR is due 90 days ARO. This technique allows
the elements of a project schedule to move relative to the award or
beginning of a project or program.
AID The Agency for International Development. Also USAID or U.S.
Agency for International Development. An independent federal govern-
ment agency that supports low-term and equitable economic growth,
and advances U.S. foreign policy objectives.
Alliance A grouping of two or more companies for one project or program
(a tactical alliance) or for all projects or programs (strategic alliance)
that require a particular combination of products or services.
Architecture The structure established for the system as a whole or the
structure established for a subsystem within the system.
Arm™s Length A legitimate deal, open for view.
Assertion An af¬rmative statement.
Award Fee (AF) A fee arrangement where fee payment is based on some
predetermined factors such as schedule, quality, and cost performance.
Usually awarded unilaterally by the customer.
Balanced Scorecard A complex process that ties four distinct perspectives
to strategies that drive and measure performance.
Benchmark Also referred to as Best Practices, Exemplary Practices, and
Business Excellence. Usually a series of studies regarding business
processes and practices among businesses in the same or sometimes
disparate business areas. One can use the benchmarks to compare their
performance to others. The benchmarks may or may not be the best
measure of excellence.
Best and Final The absolute last opportunity to submit your most favor-
able position.
Best-of-Breed A term applied to a system or process that has singular or


limited application but is the best there is for that application. The
highest level of achievement for that element.
Boilerplate Standard terminology, paragraph, page, or section used in all
documents of the same type.
Brainstorming Method A method used to get every conceivable input from
all participants. Usually conducted in a classroom environment with all
attendees™ participation. The idea is to get as much input as possible
and then go back and eliminate, by consensus, those duplicated inputs
and those that have no validity.
Brassboard Similar to Breadboard (see below) but usually with hard parts
that are soldered or welded together. Not a deliverable.
Breadboard A table layout of the article being developed so that parts and
wiring can be changed easily. Breadboards are usually many times the
physical size of the ¬nal product. Not a deliverable.
Budget Review A review of the budget associated with all or part of a task
or contract. Usually, but not always, budget reviews are conducted con-
currently with schedule reviews and performance reviews in project,
program, or division reviews.
Business Factors Having to do with the processes necessary to achieve and
maintain business. May include the Research and Development (R&D)
processes and the proposal processes.
Business Process Improvement A generalized term that includes such spe-
ci¬c programs as Total Quality Management (TQM), Business Process
Reengineering (BPR), Benchmarking, and Best Practices, as well as
other less well-known programs aimed at improving the process of a
Buying In The act of bidding a project or program at cost or less than cost
for any number of reasons.
Capability Matrix A matrix consisting of tasks up the side and previous
projects across the top. An intersect is acknowledged whenever the
project contained the task and was successfully completed. The pur-
pose of the capability matrix is to determine whether or not to bid a
program or to identify those capabilities in inventory and those needed
to approach a program or project.
Capability Maturity Model (CMM) A model for judging the maturity of the
software processes of an organization and for identifying the key prac-
tices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.
Cellar Agency A government agency that is not known to the public and
may not be known to anyone outside a carefully controlled ring of
cleared persons.
Challenge (Tasking) A top-down application of budget and/or schedule
and/or manpower that is less than requested. The Challenge (tasking)
imposed upon a Work Package leader by the Project Of¬ce (project


Change Order (CO) A formal change introduced into a project controlled
by a Change Management process.
Chomping at the Bit Anxious to get started.
Column of Mobs An old Army expression indicating that the situation is
total chaos.
Communication Meetings, reports, and verbal transfers between team
members, between the team and the customer, and between the team
and its subcontractors and other providers.
Company A corporation or partnership.
Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) A list of documents that are con-
tractually deliverable under the terms of a contract.
Contract Line Item Number (CLIN) An ordering or sequencing number as-
signed to functional or physical deliverables that are contractually re-
quired on a program.
CONUS Continental United States.
Core Team The management element of the team usually consisting of the
project manager, the chief engineer, and others of the same ilk.
Corporation A legal entity composed of a number of people joined to-
gether for a common purpose. Such legal entities are formed under
local, state, or federal laws. Some are public corporations, and some are
private corporations. Some private corporations are organized for
pro¬t, and some are organized for nonpro¬t. Public corporations often
issue stock to their owners in return for the money they invest.
Cost The direct cost of labor or the labor hours used on your project.
Depending on your company ¬nancial procedures, it may include bene-
¬ts, overhead, and General and Administrative (G&A) costs.
Cost of Quality A cost factor added to the basic bid cost by a subcontractor
for labor and materials to bring the subcontractor™s product up to the
quality he should have produced, but didn™t. The Cost of Quality is a
consideration when evaluating bids by subcontractors. The amount bid
by a subcontractor plus the quanti¬ed Cost of Quality is the true bid of
that subcontractor.
Cost Plus Contract A contract that recognizes that pro¬t is a necessary part
of getting a job done. Cost plus contracts allow a pro¬t over and above
the cost involved.
Cost Review A review of the cost associated with all or part of a task or
contract. Usually, but not always, cost reviews are conducted concur-
rently with schedule reviews and performance reviews in project, pro-
gram, or division reviews.
Cost Type Contract A contract that includes cost plus provisions. The fee
structure may be a percentage of cost, a ¬xed percentage or original bid
cost, an award amount or an incentive amount. All structures are above
the cost of getting the job done except that some Cost Plus Incentive
Fee (CPIF) contracts have negative fee considerations as well as posi-
tive fee considerations.


Customer Meeting A meeting with the customer usually on a formal basis
where an agenda and minutes are a part of the meeting. May be sched-
uled and required by the requirements document (contract) or may be
quickly called by the customer.
Customer Relations The relations between a provider and all its customers.
Data Item Description (DID) A document consisting of a few sheets that
outlines the format and requirements of a speci¬c data report to be
submitted as part of a contract. DIDs are assigned descriptive alphanu-
meric sequences. Originally issued to support federal government con-
tracts, they are now more widely used.
Data Trail A documented trail that leads from a present point to a require-
ment point. Sometimes called a ˜˜Rabbit Trail™™ or ˜˜Audit Trail.™™
Design Review A periodic review of the design and its requirements. Typi-
cally the performer (contractor) presents and defends the design to-
gether with all supporting data. Design reviews are typically performed
on an ever more detailed basis and are frequently performed on an in-
cremental basis.
Design to Cost The cost is ¬xed. The design must work and meet the cost
Discrepancy Reports A report initiated to document the fact that an item
under test did not meet its requirements. A Discrepancy Report must
be assigned and corrected and the discrepancy must be resolved before
the process can proceed.
Disposition To quantify and assign a particular action to a person or group
to be completed by a speci¬ed date.
DOD The Department of Defense of the United States. Most other coun-
tries refer to this agency as the Ministry of Defense or MOD.
Dog and Pony Show A formal presentation using a lot of visual aids. Some-
times the visual aids are more compelling than the data presented.
Drop Ship To purchase materials from a vendor and have them shipped to
a third location (that is, installing location or direct to the customer)
without being seen at the procuring location.
Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) A proposal presented to the customer
during the progress of work when a change is evidenced by events hap-
pening on the program. An ECP usually contains all the technical and
cost elements of a ˜˜full blown™™ proposal.
Enterprise The current term for an economic unit. An enterprise may be a
corporation, a company, a pro¬t center, or cost center within a com-
pany or corporation.
Enterprise (Corporate/Company) Requirements The policies, plans, pro-
cesses, and procedures at the enterprise level that drive the content of
project and technical plans and the conduct of project activities.
Environment The environment contains the programmatic factors in-
volved in producing the product. This means the safety of the work-
place, the security of the workplace, and so on. It does not include


product safety and security and such. These factors are technical fac-
Experience Window A tool to quickly evaluate whether or not you should
bid or can perform a certain task. The principal variables are customer
experience and product experience.
Farm Out To distribute with purpose.
Fast Track A method of conducting elements of a project in parallel, rather
than in series, or by deleting a task, or truncating the elements of a task
in terms of time or by taking a risk on one or more elements of the
project to shorten the overall time involved in that element and ulti-
mately, the project.
Fee As used in this document, fee is the same as pro¬t”that is, the
amount of money bid above cost and overhead or burden. In some spe-
cialties, such as architectural and engineering (A&E) ¬rms and legal
¬rms, fee has a different meaning. In these cases, fee means the money
charged for doing a job. For example, an A&E ¬rm manages the design
and construction of a building. Their fee is the amount of money they
charge for the service.
Financial Factors The ¬nancial policies your company has established
based on law and accepted practices and dictate how your company
does business.
Firm Fixed Price (FFP) A contract that is bid and awarded as a ¬xed amount.
The customer pays a ¬rm ¬xed price for some amount of work. The
contractor™s fee or pro¬t is contained within that price.
First Article The ¬rst article produced by the production process. The ¬rst
article is used not only to validate the design but to validate the produc-
tion process as well. Sometimes the ¬rst article is delivered ¬rst, but
most often, its delivery is held in abeyance, and it is used to try out
improvements in design and processes. Frequently, the ¬rst article is
delivered last.
Fixed Price Contract A contract in which the basic price is ¬xed but the fee
structure can be of several different types such as Fixed Price/Incentive
Fee (FP/IF), Fixed Price/Award Fee (FP/AF), and Firm Fixed Price
Force Majeure French phrase, generally meaning an act of God, but now
used as a legal term that allows recovery of costs or limits liability (de-
pending on how written) when an act of war or superior force, such as
a ¬‚ood or ¬re, impacts the performance of the task.
Functional Manager A line manager in charge of a function such as soft-
ware engineering, hardware engineering, and so on.
General and Administrative (G&A) An element of cost that generally in-
cludes the salaries of nonoperating personnel such as corporate man-
agement, human resources, ¬nance, and so on, as well as Bid and
Proposal (B&P) costs. Some companies include these costs as overhead
or burden. The breakout of costs into different categories is an account-


ing function and is usually standardized within the type of industry in
which you operate.
Give-Aways Trinkets, usually with a company logo or name, given away to
advertise a product or company.
Hedge A protection against ¬nancial loss.
Hot Cutover Integrating a new element of a system into the existing sys-
tem while both systems are operating.
Ilities The indirect engineering disciplines that provide Reliability, Main-
tainability, Availability, and so on. Also included are Health, Safety, and
Incentive Fee (IF) A fee arrangement where fee payment is based on some
predetermined factors, such as schedule, quality, and cost performance.
Usually awarded by the customer with concurrence by the contractor.
Incremental Testing A concept of testing that creates ¬nished increments,
so if a problem occurs, you can return to the last completed increment
to ¬x the problem.
Independent Research and Development (IR&D) Usually an in-house Re-
search and Development (R&D) program funded by the company.
When the company funds this research, all results are the property of
the company and are usually patented.
In-Process Review A review, frequently informal, that is conducted while a
project is in process and before a major, formal review.
International Standards Organization (ISO) A worldwide federation of na-
tional standards bodies whose mission is to promote the development
of international agreements that are published as International Stan-
Jabberwocky Bird A mythical bird that ¬‚ew backward just to see where he
had been. Introduced in a song by Phil Harris on the ˜˜Phyllis™ Boy-
friend™™ show, October 17, 1948.
Legal Factors The legal conditions existing between the program (com-
pany) and the customer and the legal conditions between the program
(company) and the subcontractors or materials providers as required
by law or by contractual agreement.
Lessons Learned A conference or simply a report at the end of a project to
review the situations that occurred during the project and their impact
on the project and how the situations could be avoided or cured in
Liquidated Damages An amount of money agreed to in a contract that is an
estimation of damages owed to one of the parties in the event that
there has been a breach by the other.
Load List The routing of a particular pin or location on a terminal board.
Materials Items where the speci¬cation is determined by the vendor. You
are buying to his speci¬cation, not yours.
MIL-HDBK Military Handbook.
MIL-SPEC Military Speci¬cation.


MIL-STD Military Standard.
Mission Statement A stated action to be taken by an organization and the
intended outcome of this action contained in one sentence. As an ex-
ample, Abraham Lincoln™s mission: to preserve the Union.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A four-character designator derived
from a four-pair, eight character set resulting in sixteen combinations
that represent a type of person (or later a company). Originated by
Peter B. Myers and Katherine Briggs. Example: An ENTJ is an Extrovert
(as opposed to an Introvert), INtuitive (as opposed to Sensing), Think-
ing (as opposed to Feeling), Judgmental (as opposed to Perceiving)
type of person.
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Negotiating Team An ad hoc group created to ¬nalize the requirements for
a program.
Negotiation Envelope Predetermined limit to which the Negotiating Team
cannot exceed. Usually includes scope, schedule, cost, and manpower.
OCONUS Outside the Continental United States.
On-the-Job Training (OJT) Informal training provided on the job by others
involved in the same category of work.
Out-of-tolerance A measured parameter that is beyond its nominal value,
plus or minus a percentage of that value that is the allowable range in
which that parameter may operate.
Parse To resolve or divide into component parts.
Personnel The ˜˜people™™ assigned to the project, the organization, and the
role descriptions.
Pin Out A pin listing and its function on a terminal board, or a connector,
Planning A process of intended actions that precede an event or events.
Procurement The purchasing of subcontracts and materials to be used in
the output product.
Pro¬t and Loss (P&L) The result of a contract beyond cost. A contract that
returns money beyond all costs is a pro¬t. A contract that costs more
than its income is a loss.
Pro¬t and Loss (P&L) Responsibility Responsibility assigned to a program
manager for operating the program and returning a pro¬t to the com-
Program A task external to an organization, under the aegis of a legal con-
tract, requiring task enumeration, schedule, and cost. A program has a
beginning and an ending.
Program Advisory Council A special purpose management team that ad-
vises, but does not manage, the project or program team. The Program
Advisory Council acts as a transparent link between the project team
and management and the customer.
Program Manager (PM) The same as a project manager, except a program


manager has P&L responsibility and manages a contract with a cus-
tomer outside the parent organization.
Programmatic Those issues associated with the management of a project
or program. Such issues include budget, schedule, and so on. Program-
matic issues are separate and distinct from technical issues.
Project Management Of¬ce (PMO) A dual-use term. 1) A centralized staff
function that establishes and maintains project management processes
and procedures, which does not have a line function. The APM refers
to this function as the Project Support Of¬ce or PSO. 2)A major project
or program of¬ce (frequently called Big PMO) that has other projects
or programs reporting to it. In this case, the PMO has line responsibil-
ity and authority.
Project A task internal to an organization requiring task enumeration,
schedule, and cost. A project has a beginning and an ending.
Project Manager (PM) The individual responsible for managing the entire
project internal to the parent company.
Project Meeting A meeting, usually somewhat informal, of the entire
team, where project issues are discussed.
Project Of¬ce The group of people and functions that surround the man-
agement of a project or program. These functions are usually the proj-
ect manager, the administrator, the scheduler, and the secretarial
function. Sometimes the chief engineer is considered as a part of the
project of¬ce.
Projectized A project or program that essentially stands alone within an
organization. The projectized organization contains all the line func-
tions necessary to meet the requirements of the task or contract. Staff
functions such as ¬nance and human resources are usually not in-
cluded, although they may be in extremely large projects or programs.
Proposal A presentation of a speci¬c approach to solve a problem. In the
program context it is usually an offer to do business based on a speci¬c
Prototype A nonproduction build of hardware or software generally used
to test concepts, content, and interfaces. Older terms, still in use in
some places, are: Breadboard and Brassboard. This term is sometimes
extended to include the First Article of a production run. Prototypes
should not be deliverable.
Purchase Order (PO) A document used to commit project, program, or
company funds to a certain purchase. The PO must contain the item,
the vendor, the price, and the delivery date. Other contents are at the
option of the company.
Quality The project quality program, including the Quality Assurance
Plan and the Quality Control Program.
Rabbit Trail A documented trail that leads from a present point to a re-
quirement point. Sometimes called a ˜˜Data Trail™™ or ˜˜Audit Trail.™™
Ramp-Up To get started on an incremental basis.


Rapid Prototype A methodology of ˜˜build a little, test a little™™ rather than
building the entire system.
Reengineering The common form of Business Process Management (BPM)
used to establish standards for process design, deployment, execution,
maintenance, and optimization.
Requirements Webster™s de¬nes requirements as something wanted or
needed or something essential.
Requirements De¬nition Team An ad hoc group created to formalize the
requirements for a project.
Requirements Flow-Down Matrix (RFM) A matrix created to track those re-
quirements that must be ¬‚owed down to various Work Packages, sub-
contracts, and purchases. Also includes how these requirements will
be ¬‚owed down. Example: Buy American Clause in a contract.
Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) A matrix formed to track each re-
quirement through the lifecycle of the project. The horizontal axis of
the matrix begins at project start (program award) and ends with hand-
over. The vertical axis lists each requirement.
Research and Development (R&D) A project or program on the leading edge
of technology. R&D projects can be performed in-house (see Indepen-
dent Research and Development) or for a customer as a Research
and Development program.
Resources The indirect elements necessary to support a project such as
facilities and equipment. Resources are normally provided by the com-
pany, rather than the project.
Reverse Contract To take a course of contractual action and advise your
customer that you intend to incorporate this change unless otherwise
directed. (Be careful”some customers take a dim view of this action.)
Reverse Engineer To make a change in the speci¬cation or design and ad-
vise the customer that you intend to incorporate this change unless
otherwise directed. (Be careful”some customers take a dim view of
this action.)
Risk The probability that the project (programmatic risk) or the product
(technical risk) will not meet some requirement while conducting the
Risk Mitigation Plan A plan to recognize, evaluate, and provide an ap-
proach to eliminating, mitigating, or neutralizing a technical or pro-
grammatic risk.
Root Cause The essential heart or underlying reason.
Safe Point A point or place in a process that is known to be good.
Schedule A timeline that directly supports the scope of the project.
Schedule Review A review of the schedule associated with all or part of a
task or contract. Usually, but not always, schedule reviews are con-
ducted concurrently with cost reviews and performance reviews in proj-
ect, program, or division reviews.
Show Cause (Letter) An order for a company (usually a contractor or sub-


contractor) to tell why they think the sender (usually the customer)
should not take a certain action, such as cancellation of the contract.
The letter also outlines the next step that will be taken should the
Show Cause not be answered.
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) The Software Engineering Institute
(SEI) is a federally funded research and development center sponsored
by the U.S. Department of Defense for the purpose of establishing stan-
dards and assisting others to make improvements in their software en-
gineering capabilities.
Software Kernel An element of completed software around which other
software is built.
Speci¬cation (Spec) That part of the requirements document (contract)
that establishes how the system, as a whole, will perform.
Standard Requirements Reference documents common to your business
area or product, such as IEEE Standards, SEI Standards, and EIA Stan-
dards that are invoked by the requirements document (contract) or the
enterprise polices, plans, processes, or procedures. These standards are
usually referenced rather than being reprinted simply to save space.
Statement of Work (SOW) That part of the requirements document (con-
tract) that describes what the task is and when the task will be accom-
Subcontract (S/C) A contract that delegates work to a third party that con-
tains a Statement of Work (SOW) and usually a speci¬cation.
Subcontract Requirements Traceability Matrix (SRTM) A Requirements
Traceability Matrix (RTM) used by a subcontractor.
Subprogram Of¬ce (SPO) The SPO has the same responsibilities as the Pro-
gram Of¬ce except that the SPO is responsible for only a portion of the
overall system and usually does not have contractual responsibility and
may not have P&L responsibility.
System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) A top-level plan that identi-
¬es and controls the overall engineering process. The SEMP is usually
supported by a number of specialty engineering plans that contain
much of the engineering detail.
Targeted Selection Process A behavioral approach introduced by Develop-
ment Dimensions International (DDI) that improves hiring decisions
by using ¬ve basic interview principles. All interviewers work in har-
mony to collect and share the interview data.
Task (Challenge) See Challenge (Tasking).
Team A group of people, usually interdisciplinary, brought together to
perform a task. A team has a casual relationship, as opposed to Team-
ing, which denotes a legal relationship.
Team Meeting A meeting, usually somewhat informal, of the entire team
where project issues are discussed.
Teaming The legal association of two or more organizations (companies)


to perform a speci¬c task. Teaming (between companies) is separate
and distinct from a team (individuals).
Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) A meeting wherein technical issues
are discussed. Contractual issues are not discussed.
Tiger Team An ad hoc group formed to pursue a speci¬c problem or issue.
Their charter may be to study the issue or to ¬nd a ¬x or to ¬x it.
Total Quality Management (TQM) A structured system for meeting and ex-
ceeding internal and external customer needs and expectations by in-
volving the entire organization in the planning and implementation of
continuous and breakthrough processes improvement.
Trans Ship To purchase materials from an international location, have
those materials received by your location, without import fees, and be
included in the product to be shipped overseas, without export fees.
This action requires considerable paperwork between all locations and
governments but allows you to buy and sell materials that will be used
out of your country without paying multiple import and export taxes
on the materials.
Troika A Russian word meaning three. Originally intended to portray a
three-horse wagon pull with the horses side-by-side. Now used in busi-
ness to suggest a three-person leadership team.
Vendor A person or company that provides a product or line of products
to a speci¬cation that is usually his own.
Version Description Document (VDD) A document that references and de-
scribes the changes included in this version of software.
Vision The highest view of what a company is and where it wants to go.
War Room A term ¬rst used by the military indicating a room where strat-
egies, tactics, and general information are posted. Usually, the informa-
tion is con¬dential, so the room is secured.
Water Cooler A common meeting place where information is exchanged.
Taken from the days when every of¬ce had a water-dispensing location.
WBS See Work Breakdown Structure.
Work-Arounds Alternative approaches to avoid a problem or issue or situ-
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The presentation of the division of work
to be accomplished on the project. Each element of the WBS must be
costable and schedulable. The sum of the elements of the WBS is equal
to the whole of the project.
Work Package (WP) The lowest level of the WBS that is the most ef¬cient
and cost-effective way of controlling schedule, cost, and technical per-
formance consistent with the requirements of the customer and the
performing agency (the company).

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ability(-ies), 102“108 asapm, See American Society for the Ad-
experience as, 102“103 vancement of Project Management
improving your, 105“106 ASQC, See American Society for Quality
and performance, 106“108 Control
and persona, 103“105 Association for Project Management (APM),
Acuff, Frank L., 67, 70 12, 13, 15“16, 22, 24, 25, 39, 51, 101
The Advanced Project Management Of¬ce (Parvis attitude, 52
Rad and Ginger Levin), 187 audits, 162, 180, 182
Advanced Skill Set, 30, 51“58, 79, 81“82, Australian Institute of Project Management
111 (AIPM), 8, 12“15, 22, 25, 51, 101
˜˜Agreements for Excellence™™ workshop, 65 Australian Quali¬cation Framework (AQF),
AIPM, See Australian Institute of Project 14
Management authority, 27, 32“33
alliances, 180“181 awareness, 35
AMA, See American Management Associa-
tion balanced scorecard, 74
AMACOM, 19 Basic Skill Set, 30, 47“51, 79, 80, 111
The AMA Handbook of Project Management benchmarking, 74
(Paul C. Dinsmore), 56 Berne, Eric, 176
American Management Association (AMA), Blanchard, Ken, 38, 56, 64, 105
12, 19“20, 24“25, 38, 57, 96, 101
Blueprint for Project Recovery (Ronald Cagle),
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 20, 43“44
bodies of knowledge (BOKs), 24
American Society for Quality Control
BOKs (bodies of knowledge), 24
(ASQC), 20, 43
The Brand You 50 (Tom Peters), 74
American Society for the Advancement of
business strategy, 74
Project Management (asapm), 16“17,
22, 24, 25, 51, 101
Cagle, Ronald, 64
ANSI, See American National Standards In-
CAPM (Certi¬ed Associate Project Man-
ager), 19
APM, See Association for Project Manage-
career levels, 90“91
career moves, 165“166
APM BOK, See APM Project Management Body
CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommuni-
of Knowledge
cations Agency), 15
APM Project Management Body of Knowledge
CDR (Critical Design Review), 137
(APM BOK), 48, 52, 59, 71
Center for Creative Learning, 75
˜˜Appraise Your World™™ seminar, 74“75
Central Computer and Telecommunications
AQF (Australian Quali¬cation Framework),
Agency (CCTA), 15



certi¬cation(s), 98“101 Critical Path Method (CPM), 2
Australian, 14 Cross-Functional Teams (Glen M. Parker), 57
British, 15 culture, organization, 174“176
competency-based, 22 customer-centered systems, 64
international, 17“20 Customer Furnished Equipment (CFE), 116
and job descriptions, 169“170 customer standards, 43
and skill sets, 101
U.S., 16“17 DeBacker, Phillippe, 74
Certi¬ed Associate Project Manager decision styles, 74“75
(CAPM), 19 ˜˜Defective Pricing™™ seminar, 65
CFE (Customer Furnished Equipment), 116 Defense Industry Initiative (DII), 38
change, 64 defense sector, 38
civic organizations, 172 ˜˜Developing and Executing a Customer-
classi¬ed ads, 173 Centric Strategy™™ seminar, 186
closure stage, 5 DII (Defense Industry Initiative), 38
of intermediate projects, 124“125 Dinsmore, Paul C., 56, 74
of international programs, 152“153 diplomacy, 175
of large projects, 129“130 distance learning, 92
of large-scale projects/programs, 160“161 The Distance Manager (Kimball Fisher), 70
of programs, 139“141 documentation, 41“42
of small projects, 119“120
of virtual projects, 145“146 education, 35, 88“96
CM (Con¬guration Management), 140 assessing your level of, 89“90
coaching, 74 and career levels, 90“91
Coaching, Mentoring, and Managing (William graduate-level, 93“96
Hendricks), 74 and location of school, 91
colleges, 40, 91 paying for, 92“93
communications tool, 141 selecting a school for, 91
Company/Customer/Industry Skill Set, time commitment for, 91“92
41“44 ˜˜Effective Negotiating™™ seminar, 65
company(-ies), 174“182 Effective Presentation Skills (Steve Mandel), 40
culture of, 174“176 ˜˜Effective Project Leadership™™ seminar, 57
friendships/alliances in, 180“181 e-learning, 92
power structure of, 178“179 employees, treatment of, 74
structure of, 176“178 employer-funded education, 93
taking over projects within, 181“182 Englund, Randall, 74
company policies, 41“43 equipment, 116
competency-based certi¬cations, 22 ethics, 38“39, 41
complexity, 116 Ethics for Executives (Samuel Southard), 38
CompModel SixPack, 17 Evans, James R., 56
con¬dence, 180 Excel spreadsheets, 56
Con¬guration Management (CM), 140 execution stage, 5
continental United States (CONUS), 146 of intermediate projects, 123“124
˜˜Contracting and Procurement Manage- of international programs, 150“152
ment™™ seminar, 57 of large-scale projects/programs, 160
contracts, 28, 38, 65 of large projects, 128“129
˜˜Contract Types™™ workshop, 65 of programs, 137“139
of small projects, 118“119
CONUS (continental United States), 146
of virtual projects, 145
core team, 180“181
experience, 10, 102“103, 162“164
correspondence courses, 92
experts, 186
cost-plus contracts, 65
Expert Skill Set, 31, 58“66, 79, 83“85, 88,
Covey, Stephen R., 56
CPM (Critical Path Method), 2
Creating the Project Of¬ce (Randall Englund,
Robert Graham, and Paul Dinsmore), 74 face-to-face networking, 171
facilities, 116
Critical Design Review (CDR), 137


Farkas, Charles, 74 ICDs (Interface Control Documents), 151
FARs (Federal Acquisition Regulations), 41 ideas, leading-edge, 186
FDR (Final Design Review), 137 Identifying and Managing Project Risk (Tom
Federal Acquisition Regulations, 41 Kendrick), 64
Federal Express, 187 IEEE, See Institute for Electrical and Elec-
fees, contract, 65 tronic Engineers
Final Design Review (FDR), 137 I™m OK, You™re OK (Thomas Harris), 56“57,
¬rm skills, 8, 31, 46, 64 106
Fisher, Kimball, 70 industry standards and regulations, 43“44
Franklin, Ben, on prevention, 124 infrastructure, 178“179
Frey, Robert, 64 in-house training, 96“97
friendships, 180“181 initiate stage
full-time schooling, 92 of intermediate projects, 120
Fundamentals of Project Management (James of international programs, 146, 148“149
Lewis), 48, 51 of large projects, 125, 127
Future Shock (Alvin Tof¬‚er), 74 of large-scale projects/programs, 153,
Games People Play (Eric Berne), 176 of programs, 4“5, 130, 132“135
GFE (Government Furnished Equipment), of small projects, 118
116 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engi-
GI Bill, 92“93 neers (IEEE), 21, 43
Gibson, Rowan, 186 Interface Control Documents (ICDs), 151
Global Project Manager Performance-based intermediate projects, 28, 120“125
Competency Standards, 16 internal training, 96“97
Goff, Stacy, on asapm acronym, 17 international negotiating, 67, 70
government contracts, 38 International Organization for Standardiza-
Government Furnished Equipment (GFE),
tion (ISO), 20“21
international programs, 29, 146“153
graduate-degree programs, 93“96
characteristics of, 147“148
Graham, Robert, 74
closure stage of, 152“153
grants, 92
execution stage of, 150“152
group interviewing, 180
initiate stage of, 146, 148“149
A Guide to the Project Management Body of
planning stage of, 149“150
Knowledge, See Project Management Body
International Project Management Associa-
of Knowledge
tion (IPMA), 12, 13, 16“18, 20, 22, 23,
Gung Ho! (Ken Blanchard), 56
24, 25, 51, 101
International Project Management Base
Halliday, Miki, 74
Competencies (IBC), 17“18
hard skills, See ¬rm skills
International Standards Organization (ISO),
Harrington, H. James, 74
41, 43
Harris, Thomas, 56, 106
interviewing, 180
Haywood, Martha, 70
Introduction to Simulation and Risk Analysis
Hendricks, William, 74
(James R. Evans), 56
Hersey, Paul, 105
IPMA, See International Project Management
High Performance Benchmarking (H. James Har-
rington), 74
IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB), 48, 52, 59,
How to Negotiate with Anyone, Anywhere
Around the World (Frank L. Acuff ), 67,
ISO, See International Standards Organiza-
˜˜The Human Aspects of Project Manage-
ment Series,™™ 64
Japan, 25
job fairs, 172“173
IBC, See International Project Management
Johnson, Lyndon, 179
Base Competencies
Johnson, Spencer, 64
IBM, 187
ICB, See IPMA Competence Baseline JPMF, 25, 101


Kaplan, Robert S., 74, 186 master of project management, 94“95
Karrass, Chester L., 65 master of science in project management, 94,
Kendrick, Tom, 64 95
Kerzner, Harold, 74 matrix organizations, 177
KM (Knowledge Management), 24 Maximum Leadership (Charles Farkas and
knowledge, 35, 79“101 Phillippe DeBacker), 74
assessing your, 79, 88 Maxwell, John, on leadership, 38
and certi¬cation, 98“101 MBTI, See Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
and education, 88“96 meeting skills, 39
expanding your, 88 mentoring, 74, 185“187
in success formula, 10 Microsoft Power Point, 40
and training, 96“98 military, 92“93
knowledge-based certi¬cations, 22 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI),
Knowledge Management (KM), 24 104“106
Kouzes, James, 105
NASA Procurement Regulations (NASA
large projects, 28, 125“130 PRs), 41
large-scale projects and programs, 29, National Competency Baseline, 16
153“161 National Competency Standards for Project
characteristics of, 154“155 Management (NCSPM), 14, 24
closure stage of, 160“161 National Standards Systems Network
execution stage of, 160 (NSSN), 20
initiate stage of, 153, 155“158 NCSPM, See National Competency Standards
planning stage of, 158“160 for Project Management
leadership, 9, 27, 31“34, 38 negotiating, 65, 67, 70
Leadership and the One-Minute Manager (Ken networking, 171“172
Blanchard), 56 Norton, David P., 74, 186
Leadership Decision Styles, 75 NSSN (National Standards Systems Net-
Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), 105, work), 20
leading-edge ideas, 186
The One-Minute Manager (Ken Blanchard), 56
Levin, Ginger, 187
organization charts, 174
Lewis, James, 30, 48, 51
organization culture, 174“176
listening, 180, 182
organizations, PM, 12“25
loans, student, 92
Australian, 14“15
LPI, See Leadership Practices Inventory
British, 15“16
chronology of, 13
Management Research Group, 74
by country, 14
Managing the Project Team (Vijay Verma), 64
international, 17“20
Managing Virtual Teams (Martha Haywood),
membership numbers of, 22
networking in, 171“172
˜˜Managing Winning Proposals™™ seminar, 65
standards, 20
Mandel, Steve, 40
technical standards, 20“21
market, 167“173
U.S., 16“17
assessing the, 167“170
out-of-house courses, 97“98
and civic organizations, 172
and classi¬ed ads, 173
Parker, Glen M., 57
companies involved in the, 168“169
part-time schooling, 91“92
direction of, 168
Path to Success, 10
and job descriptions, 169“170
PDR (Preliminary Design Review), 137
and job fairs, 172“173
people skills, See soft skills
and networking, 171“172
performance, 10, 106“108
opportunities in the, 169
persona, 10, 51“52, 64, 103“105
and PM organizations, 171“172
Personal Skill Set, 37“41
and point of view, 170“171
stopover vs. destination positions in, 170 personnel, 74, 116, 177


PERT (Program Evaluation and Review The Project 50 (Tom Peters), 74
Technique), 2 project coordinator, 28, 32
Peters, Tom, 74 project engineer, 32
planning stage, 5 ˜˜projectized™™ projects, 177
of intermediate projects, 120, 122“123 project lead, 32
of international programs, 149“150 project management, 1“2
of large projects, 127“128 career moves in, 165“166
of large-scale projects/programs, 158“160 current state of, 22
of programs, 135“137 future of, 22“24
of small projects, 118 principle organizations of, 12“21
of virtual projects, 142, 144“145 process of, 6, 7
plans, updating, 187 success factors of, 11
PMBOK, See Project Management Body of Project Management Body of Knowledge
Knowledge (PMBOK), 13, 14, 16, 18“20, 24, 48, 51,
The PMBOK Guide, See Project Management 52, 59, 71
Body of Knowledge Project Management Institute (PMI), 5, 12,
PMI, See Project Management Institute 13, 16, 18“19, 23, 24, 39, 57, 94, 96, 98“
PMO, See project management of¬ce 99, 101
PMP, See Project Management Professional project management of¬ce (PMO), 176“178,
Polaris missile program, 1“2 185, 187
policies, 41“43, 187 Project Management Professional (PMP), 19,
Posner, Barry, 105 94
power structure, 178“179 project management skills, 8
Preliminary Design Review (PDR), 137 project management tool, 141“142
preparatory skills, 37“44 project managers, 7“10, 28, 29
˜˜Preparing for Leadership™™ seminar, 38 characteristics of, 8
presentation skills, 39“40 responsibilities of, 33
pricing, defective, 65 skills required by, 7“8
PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environ- projects, 28
ments), 15 categories of, 26
PRINCE2, 15 characteristics of, 113“116
Principal Skill Set, 31, 70“76, 79, 87, 88, 111 leadership roles for, 31“34
programs vs., 3“4
problem recovery, 64
skill sets for, 26“27, 30“32, 111“116
problem solving, 37“38, 175“176
stages and phases of, 4“6
procedures, 187
taking over existing, 181“182
process(es), 5, 6, 187
types of, 27“30
The Professional Firm 50 (Tom Peters), 74
see also programs
program director, 29, 33
Projects in Controlled Environments
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
(PRINCE), 15
(PERT), 2
project supervisor, 28, 32“33
program manager, 28, 29
˜˜Proposals™™ seminar, 65
programmatic virtual projects, 25n.
proposal strategies, 64
programs, 28, 130“141
purpose of the meeting, 39
categories of, 26
characteristics of, 113“116, 131
closure stage of, 139“141 Rad, Parvis, 187
execution stage of, 137“139 Raving Fans (Ken Blanchard), 64
initiate stage of, 130, 132“135 R&D (Research and Development), 176
leadership roles for, 31“34 Rea, Peter J., 74
planning stage of, 135“137 recognition, 106“107
referred training, 96“97
skill sets for, 26“27, 30“32, 111“116
regulations, 43“44
stages and phases of, 4“6
Reinventing Work Series (Tom Peters), 74
taking over existing, 181“182
Reliability, Maintainability and Availability
types of, 27“30
(RMA), 140
see also projects
remote networking, 171
program vice president, 29, 33


Request for Proposal (RFP), 153, 155 taxonomy of, 46“47
Request for Quotation (RFQ), 155 for virtual projects, 141“146
Research and Development (R&D), 176 SL, See Situational Leadership
Rethinking the Future (Rowan Gibson, Alvin small projects, 28, 112, 116“120
Tof¬‚er, and Heidi Tof¬‚er), 186 soft skills, 8, 31, 46, 64
RFP, See Request for Proposal Software Engineering Institute (SEI), 21, 41,
RFQ (Request for Quotation), 155 43
risk, 64 Southard, Samuel, 38
˜˜Risk Management™™ workshop, 57 Specialist Skill Set, 27, 66“70, 79, 86, 88, 111
RMA (Reliability, Maintainability and Avail- Specialty Skill Set, 31
ability), 140 spreadsheets, 56
RMS (Root Mean Square), 107 standards, 43“44
Rogers, Will, on improvement, 77 Strategic Planning (Harold Kerzner and Peter
Root Mean Square (RMS), 107 J. Rea), 74
rumor ¬lters, 179 The Strategy-Focused Organization (Robert S.
Kaplan and David P. Norton), 74, 186
salutations, 39 student loans, 92
scholarships, 92 success formula, xii, 10
SEI, See Software Engineering Institute Successful Proposal Strategies for Small Business
self-assessment courses, 97 (Robert Frey), 64
seminars, 57
for leadership/ethics, 38 Targeted Selection Process, 180
for leading-edge ideas, 186 teams, 57, 64, 70, 180“181
for skills development, 65, 74“75 team training, 65
for training, 98“99 technical skills, 7“8
Web sites for, 96 technical tool, 142
The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (Stephen technical virtual projects, 25n.
R. Covey), 56 terminology, 26“34
Shipley Associates, 65 There™s No Such Thing As ˜˜Business™™ Ethics
Situational Leadership (SL), 105“106 (John Maxwell), 38
skill set(s), 45“76, 79“88, 111“161 The Third Wave (Alvin Tof¬‚er), 74
acquiring, 35“36 time commitment (for school), 91“92
advanced, 51“58
Toastmasters International, 40
applying your, 185“187
Tof¬‚er, Alvin, 74, 186
basic, 47“51
Tof¬‚er, Heidi, 186
categories of, 26“27
training, 35, 65, 96“98
and certi¬cations, 101
training department, 40
company/customer/industry, 41“44
expert, 58“66
Underwriter™s Laboratory (UL), 41, 43
for intermediate projects, 120“125
United Kingdom, 15“16, 25
for international programs, 146“153
universities, 91
for large projects, 125“130
for large-scale projects/programs,
Verma, Vijay, 64
virtual projects and programs, 23“24, 25n.,
personal, 37“41
29, 141“146
preparatory, 37“44
virtual teams, 70
principal-level, 70“76
visual aids, 40
for programs, 130“141
and project/program categories, 111“116
Who Moved My Cheese? (Spencer Johnson), 64
for projects and programs, 30“32
˜˜Writing Commercial Proposals™™ seminar,
for small projects, 112, 116“120
specialty, 66“70



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