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( 21)



Raman discovers scattering effect of Beadle and Tatum begin work in
molecules on light. bacterial genetics.
Berger introduces EEG. Rossby discovers the atmospheric
Hubble announces his law on recession waves named after him.
of galaxies. Alfv©n predicts magnetohydrodynamic
Matuyama discovers remanent waves in plasma.
magnetization reversals of rocks. First nuclear reactor begins operation,
Tombaugh discovers Pluto. in Chicago.
Gödel proves incompleteness of Baade classifies stars as Population I or
1931 1943
arithmetic. II.
Van de Graaf builds high voltage Martin introduces paper chromato-
electrostatic generator. graphy.
C D Anderson discovers positron. What is Life? (Schrödinger).
Chadwick identifies neutron. Principles of Physical Geology (Holmes).
Cockcroft and Walton induce nuclear Avery shows importance of DNA.
reaction artificially. First atomic bombs (using nuclear
Deuterium isolated by Urey. fission) exploded.
Jansky announces radio emission from Royal Society of London accepts women
stars. as Fellows.
c.1933 Ruska develops transmission electron Beadle and Tatum propose one-gene-
microscope, achieving 12000 —. one-enzyme hypothesis.
Beebe reaches 1000m below sea level Bloch and Purcell independently
1934 1946
Joliot-Curies discover artificial radioac- develop nuclear magnetic resonance
tive isotopes. (NMR).
Stanley obtains a crystalline virus Lederberg and Tatum discover
(TMV). sexuality in bacteria.
Richter devises scale of earthquake Pi-meson discovered by Powell.
strength. Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley
Bergeron proposes theory of rain develop point-contact transistor.
precipitation. Libby develops radiocarbon dating.
K Z Lorenz describes imprinting in Cambridge University admits women
animal development. to membership and degrees.
First public high-definition (405 line) H W and H D Babcock detect Sun™s
1936 1948
television service (BBC, London). magnetic field.
Dobzhansky™s Genetics and the Origin of Alpher, Bethe and Gamov propose
Species links Darwinian evolutionism scheme to explain evolution of
with modern Mendelian genetics. chemical elements in early universe
Carlson makes first Xerox copies. (alpha-beta-gamma theory).
Meitner and Frisch recognize nuclear Alpher and Herman suggest that ˜Big
fission as explanation for Hahn™s Bang™ should have left residue of weak
experiments. radiation.
Alvarez measures magnetic moment of Shockley develops junction
neutron. transistor.
A L Hodgkin and A F Huxley show that a Gabor invents holography.
nerve impulse involves a depolarization The Steady-State Theory of the Expanding
wave. Universe (Bondi and Gold).
World War Two begins. Burnet discovers acquired
The Nature of the Chemical Bond (Pauling). immunological tolerance.
Energy Production in Stars (Bethe). North Korea invades South Korea.


Barton introduces conformational Esaki discovers tunnelling effect in
analysis in chemistry. semiconductor junctions.
Purcell detects 21 cm radiation from Sandage and Matthews discover
1951 1960
interstellar hydrogen. quasars.
Burnet proposes clonal selection Maiman constructs first laser.
theory in immunology. Moore and Stein determine sequence of
The Study of Instinct (Tinbergen). all 124 amino acids in ribonuclease.
Pauling proposes some protein First men in space.
molecules are helical. Brenner and Crick show that genetic
Hershey and Martha Chase prove DNA code of DNA consists of a string of non-
is genetic information carrier. overlapping base triplets.
Lederberg and Zinder discover bacterial Good shows importance of thymus
transduction. gland in the development of immunity.
Glaser makes first bubble chamber. Gell-Mann and Ne™eman develop
Watson and Crick deduce structure of scheme for classifying elementary
DNA and its implications. particles.
Gell-Mann introduces concept of Josephson discovers effect named after
˜strangeness™ in particle physics. him.
Kettlewell shows industrial melanism Rossi detects cosmic X-ray source in
in moths. Scorpio.
Backus publishes first high-level Venus examined by passing US space
programming language (FORTRAN). probe Mariner 2.
Pincus introduces oral contraception. Bartlett makes first noble gas
Townes devises maser. compounds.
Seismicity of the Earth (Richter and H H Hess proposes sea-floor spreading
Gutenberg). hypothesis.
De Duve identifies lysosomes. Marguerite Perey elected as first woman
Sanger determines amino acid member of Acad©mie des Sciences.
sequence of first protein (insulin). Cormack and Hounsfield indepen-
Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes dently develop X-ray tomography (CAT
(Prigogine). scanning).
Segrè and Chamberlain discover Matthews and Vine find evidence for
antiproton. sea-floor spreading.
Berg discovers first transfer RNA. Gajdusek describes first human slow
Palade discovers ribosomes. virus infection.
Tijo and Lavan report that human cells Penzias and Wilson detect cosmic back-
have 46 chromosomes (not 48, as ground radiation, providing important
believed since 1920s). evidence for ˜Big Bang™
Ewing plots mid-Atlantic ridge. origin of universe.
F Reines detects neutrino. North Sea gas discovered.
First artificial satellites (Sputnik I, and Mars photographed by Mariner 4.
II containing dog Laika) in orbit Hewish and Jocelyn Bell discover first
around Earth. pulsar.
Meselson and Stahl verify Watson and First human heart transplant.
Crick™s ideas on replication. First manned lunar landing.
Explorer I discovers Van Allen belts: Edelman finds amino acid sequence of
other space probes follow. immunoglobulin G.
Dausset discovers human histo- Baltimore discovers reverse transcrip-
compatibility system. tase which transcribes RNA into DNA.


Khorana completes synthesis of first Probes land on Venus.
artificial gene. Discovery of W vector boson.
North Sea oil discovered. Compact disc (CD) system for sound
Boyer uses recombinant RNA to recording introduced
produce chimera. Navigational satellites give speed of
J/psi particle first observed. tectonic plate movement (eg Europe
moving away from USA at ≈ 10cm
Sociobiology (E O Wilson).
Milstein produces first monoclonal
antibodies. Alec Jeffreys devises genetic finger-
Sanger describes full sequence of bases printing.
in a viral DNA. Details given of the deepest hole,
Quantum Hall effect discovered by drilled at Kola Peninsula in Soviet
von Klitzing. Arctic, and now at 12 000m and sam-
First personal computer (the Apple II) pling very old rocks. It finally reached
introduced. over 15 000m.
Pluto discovered to have a satellite Laser clock developed with accuracy
1978 1985
(Charon) with half Pluto™s diameter. around 1s in 50 million years, of value
Saturn and Jupiter examined by to cosmologists.
passing space probes. Increasing evidence for a black hole at
Antarctic meteorite (uncontaminated the centre of our Galaxy.
by Earth) found to contain traces of Halley™s Comet investigated by space
amino acids. probes and shown to have a rotating
Evidence from deep sea bed cores nucleus of ˜dirty ice™, ie dust with water
shows that all fossils are absent for a and CO2 ice; the probe Giotto passes
period of nearly 100 000 years about within 605 km of the nucleus, found to
65 000 000 years ago; evidence favours be potato-shaped and about 15 km long
asteroid impact resulting in dust and 8 km wide.
clouds cutting off sunlight as cause of Fire at a nuclear reactor at Chernobyl,
destruction. Ukraine, produces massive radioactive
Microbial fossils from W Australia contamination.
found to be 3500 million years old. Voyager 2 examines planet Uranus, and
S B Prusiner proposes that some fatal finds strange features such as its large,
neurodegenerative diseases of animals oddly-shaped magnetic field and
are due to infective proteins (prions) satellites with ˜bizarre geology™.
free from DNA or RNA. Only after Much work done on superconductors,
15 years is this idea accepted: scrapie mainly ceramics based on copper, oxy-
in sheep, BSE (˜mad cow disease™) and gen, barium and a rare earth metal,
Creutzfeldt“Jakob disease in humans with critical temperatures up to 240 K
have this cause. (classical superconductivity had
First reusable spacecraft (space shuttle) been seen only near 0 K): and with
launched and recovered. possible uses of great interest in
First flare (lasting ≈1min) observed on a electronics.
distant star. Canadian astronomers find new and
Chain of 11 carbon atoms detected in better evidence for planets round stars
molecules in star 600 light years other than the Sun, and by 1988
distant: biggest space molecule. believed the case proved.
Rohrer develops scanning tunnelling The star Sanduleak, a B3 supergiant
microscope, giving 108— and able to hotter and heavier than our Sun,
show individual atoms. explodes as the 1987a supernova: this


rare chance event allows observation of fire™ seen during thunderstorms and
a rapid phase in the evolution of some behaving strangely, is removed from
stars. fantasy and made in the laboratory,
Increasingly, international scientific confirming that the phenomenon
efforts directed to problems of world- results from a plasma discharge caused
wide concern, notably: ozone loss in by interference between radio waves of
the upper atmosphere over both poles, microwave frequency; Y H Ohtsuki and
which allows more UV light to reach H Ofuruton in Tokio make typical balls
Earth with effects on the weather and of fire, about 25 cm in diameter and
health; acid rain, now shown to be due brightly coloured, using a microwave
as much to lightning (see p. 66) as to generator and suitable waveguides.
fuel burning, and having effects espe- Final collapse of USSR with Russian
cially on plant life; and the nature and parliament™s declaration of sover-
spread of the viral disease AIDS eignty.
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Fullerene-60, a pure carbon molecule
Syndrome). with the formula C60 is composed of 20
New knowledge of dinosaurs result six- and 12 five-membered rings of car-
from the discovery at one site near Egg bon atoms in a cage configuration with
Mountain, MT, USA, of fossil eggs, the same pattern as a modern soccer
embryos, juveniles and adult ball. It was first detected and its struc-
dinosaurs. ture deduced in 1985 by H W Kroto, J R
The probe Pioneer 10, the first space- Heath, S C O™Brien, R F Curl and R E
craft to leave the solar system, trans- Smalley. In 1990 it was isolated in
mits data that allows the position of crystalline form, by a group led by W
the Sun above the plane of our Galaxy. Kr¤tschmer and D R Huffman. It was
to be recalculated, as about 40 light near simultaneously isolated and struc-
years above this plane. turally characterized by R Taylor, J P
Voyager 2 passes Neptune and pho- Hare, A Abdul Suda and H W Kroto. The
tographs rings around the planet and possibility that C60 might be stable was
six new moons. first postulated by E Osawa in 1970; and
Discovery of a new particle, Z0, D Jones in 1966 had suggested that
announced by physicists at CERN and carbon could exist in the form of
at Stanford University, CA; related ˜hollow graphite spheroids™.
work indicates that the universe con- The death of dinosaurs about 65 million
tains only three families of neutrinos. years ago is thought to be due to a
The wooden track over the Somerset major meteorite impact with Earth;
Levels in the UK, 1000 m long and the new support for this now comes from
oldest man-made track known in study of a buried meteor impact crater
Europe, shown by dendrochronologists some 135 km across, in Mexico.
to be made of timber felled in 3807“ The oldest known land dwellers are
3806 bc. found in the Ludlow bone bed in
Volcanic activity, familiar on Earth and Shropshire, UK, aged 414 million years
more recently observed on Venus, is and consist of two centipedes and an
seen by Voyager 2 on Triton, the largest arachnid. These animals may have left
of Neptune™s moons; an earlier Voyager the sea for the land much earlier.
had detected volcanoes on Io, the Discovery of a well-preserved 4 t
innermost of Jupiter™s four large mastodon in a peat bog in Ohio, USA
moons. allows study of its last meal some
Ball lightning, long known as ˜balls of 11 000 years ago.


A man™s body found in the alpine A fourth black hole is found in our
glacier on the Italian“Austrian border Galaxy, the Milky Way: named Nova
is dated about 3300 bc (Stone Age). He Muscae 1991, it is about 18 000 light
was arthritic (and so over 30), with bev- years from Earth.
elled teeth (and so had eaten processed Human babies are shown to grow in
grain). His dagger and arrowheads were ˜spurts™ (up to 2.5 cm in 24 h) rather
flint, with a 6 ft/1.8 m yew bow and a than steadily.
copper-headed axe. His clothes were Human genes are identified which are
leather and fur, and he carried flint associated with some human diseases,
and tinder. including cystic fibrosis.
A cheap and simple method is devised ˜Gravitational lensing™, an effect pre-
for focussing X-rays by bundles of fine dicted by Einstein, is detected and con-
glass tubes. firms that quasars are very distant
IBM report moving a single xenon atom galaxies.
from one position on a surface to The Cosmic Background Explorer satel-
another position: the ultimate minia- lite (COBE) went into orbit round the
turization, with implications for novel Earth in 1989, carrying instruments to
computer switches. detect if the cosmic background radia-
A new application of computer technol- tion is at a uniform temperature, or
ogy “ virtual reality or cyberspace “ is not. This radiation, in the microwave
devised, giving a three-dimensional region, represents the residue of radia-
simulation of an object with its visual, tion from the ˜Big Bang™ when the
aural and behavioural attributes; the universe began; its discovery in 1964
applications of this are unclear. confirmed this theory of the universe™s
The space-craft Galileo obtains the first origin. However, the universe is not
close photograph of an asteroid, 951 uniform; its matter is ˜clumped™ in
Gaspra, at 1600 km; heavily cratered, galaxies, dust and gas clouds, and so
its size is about 12 — 11 — 20 km. the radiation should not be entirely
A new largest prime number is found ˜smooth™. Careful analysis of COBE™s
by a team using computers at Amdahl results shows that the microwave
Corp., CA. It is (391 581 — 2216193) “1. radiation does have variations,
corresponding to ripples of about 30 —
The claim by M Fleischman and S Pons
10“6 K. However, these small fluctua-
to have achieved a ˜cold fusion reaction
in a test tube™ using D2O and Pd elec- tions give important support for the
trodes to generate neutrons is widely, broad correctness of the ˜Big Bang™
but not universally, held to be theory, and are held by cosmologists to
disproved. be a major discovery.
One form of Alzheimer™s disease is The Hubble space shuttle telescope is
shown by D Selkoe and I Lieberburg of ingeniously repaired in space to
Harvard to result from a defect in a improve its image quality, and highly
gene on chromosome 21, which leads successful photographs of deep space
to over-production of a protein (amy- are received from it in early 1994.
loid) known to congest the brain in vic- A rail tunnel is completed to give a
tims of the disease. 31-mile land route between England
Measurement of the mass of Pluto™s and France for the first time since the
satellite, Charon, show it to have a den- Ice Ages.
sity of only 1.4 g cm“3 so it must be M Irwin at the Royal Greenwich
mainly water-ice, whereas Pluto itself Observatory shows that a small galaxy
(density 2.1) is mainly rock. in Sagittarius is being absorbed by our


own Galaxy, the Milky Way, as a result A ˜living fossil™, the Wollemi pine tree,
of gravitational pull. is found in an Australian rainforest;
A new study of past climatic evidence this newly-found species and genus of
casts doubt on the reality of the ˜Little conifer is unchanged from the Jurassic
Ice Age™ of 1550“1850: in Europe a sus- period, before Australia became a sepa-
tained cold period then appears absent rate continent.
and a general warming (of less than The first dwarf brown star, a ˜failed
1°C) has been concentrated in the star™ not massive enough to sustain
20th-c. nuclear reactions, is observed.
The first nearly complete skeleton of a E Cornell and C Wieman at Boulder,
pliosaur, with a 6 ft/1.8 m skull and 150 CO, cool a rubidium-87 sample to 170
nanokelvins (1 nK =10“9 K), a new low.
million years old, is found in a quarry
in Wiltshire, UK. They confirm the Bose“Einstein predic-
A hominid shinbone found at tion of 1924: at this temperature the
Boxgrove, UK, shows that archaic Homo near-stationary atoms are at the same
sapiens occupied the site about 500 000 energy level and the condensate
years ago; Boxgrove Man was behaves as a new state of matter
6 ft/1.8 m tall, robust and used flint (a ˜superatom™) without atomic
hand axes; it is not clear whether he individuality.
hunted or scavenged for food. Stone tools are found at Orce, Spain,
A fragmented comet, in pieces over implying that our own genus (Homo)
1.5 km/1 mi wide, collides with the dis- reached Europe from Africa over
tant side of the planet Jupiter, causing 1 million years ago, about twice as
major impact explosions. long ago as previously thought.
Glycine, the simplest amino acid and a A US group led by C Venter reports the
building block for proteins, is detected first full genetic blueprint of a free-liv-
in Sagittarius B2, a cloud of interstellar ing organism, the bacterium
gas near the centre of our Galaxy, the Haemophilus influenzae, which has 1743
Milky Way. genes (about 1.8 million base-pairs: the
The oldest DNA from a vertebrate is iso- human genome has 3 billion base
lated from 80 million year-old bone pairs).
fragments by S R Woodward of Utah; UN Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
their genetic sequence matches no concludes that global warming is
known bird, reptile or mammal and certainly occurring and is partly
may belong to a Cretaceous-period man-made.
dinosaur. Galileo orbiter and probe reach Jupiter
The spacecraft Ulysses, launched in the after 6-year trip in December 1995; the
USA in 1990 and the fastest first Earthly object to enter a giant
(100000mph) yet, travels out of the planet™s atmosphere and report its
plane of the ecliptic for the first time composition, temperature and pres-
and passes below the Sun™s south pole. sure, windspeed and lightning bursts.
For the first time the Royal Institution The spacecraft Pioneer 10, launched
Christmas Lectures are given by a from Cape Canaveral, FL, USA in 1972,
now 5.8 — 109 miles away and heading
woman, Susan Greenfield.
Fossilized bones found at Afar, into deep space, maintains radio con-
Ethiopia, appear to come from the old- tact. It carries a plaque with atomic,
est (4.4 million years) and most ape-like mathematical and solar system dia-
hominid yet found; this human rela- grams and male and female human
tive is named Australopithecus ramidus. images. The most remote object made


by man, it should survive after Earth is from cattle infected with bovine
destroyed. spongiform encephalopathy ('BSE'). The
A team at Fermilab, Chicago, secure UK government is widely judged to
experimental evidence for the existence have been lax in instituting and enforc-
of the top quark: in completing the set ing controls on the spread of BSE.
of six types of quark, this provides con- The Hubble space telescope finds evi-
firmation of the ˜standard model™ for dence for a black hole in the centre of
atomic nuclei. The new quark is 35 times the elliptical galaxy NGC 4261: the
heavier than ˜bottom™ being nearly as black hole is the second largest known.
heavy as a gold atom. Also known as Although a few antiparticles have been
˜truth™, it has charge and is the most known for some years (eg the positron,
difficult quark to produce and to detect. the positively charged counterpart of
M Mayor and D Queloz of Geneva dis- the electron), the first antiatom is
cover the first planet outside our Solar made by W Oerlert at CERN, the
System, circling 51 Pegasi, a Sun-like European Centre for Particle Physics at
star 50 light years from Earth. Geneva. This is antihydrogen, with
Andrew Wiles proves Fermat™s Last atoms each composed of a positron and
Theorem. an antiproton nucleus. Its life is short
1996 Organic chemistry deals with over 7 (30 nanoseconds) because antimatter is
million compounds. It is now found destroyed on contact with normal
that, curiously, about 15% more of matter, such as a detector, with release
them contain an even number of of much energy.
carbon atoms than contain an odd 1997 New evidence from genetics and from
number. linguistics implies that human colo-
A meteorite found in Antarctica in nization of America (from Siberia into
1984, and widely agreed to have been Alaska) began over 20 000 years ago, ie
splashed to Earth from the surface of much earlier than was previously
Mars by an impact, is claimed by a believed.
NASA group to contain bacteria-like Some chemistry of the elusive element
microfossils indicative of primitive 106 is studied, using only seven atoms
life on Mars. The claim is treated of it.
sceptically by many scientists. DNA 'fingerprints' for forensic use are
Seismologists confirm by computer obtained from single cell samples.
models that Earth's solid inner core Migrating rainbow trout, and salmon,
(diameter about 2400 km) rotates east- are shown to use the Earth's magnetic
ward at about one or two degrees per field to navigate, through magnetic
year faster than the surrounding receptors in the brain.
mantle and crust. The NASA space probe Mars Pathfinder
For the first time an organism more lands a six-wheeled 12 kg vehicle on
complex than a bacterium has its Mars to examine rock and soil samples.
entire genome sequenced. It is brewer's Results show that the surface geology
yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: it has 16 of Mars is similar to that of Earth.
chromosomes, and the work was done Migrating birds use two navigation sys-
worldwide, in nearly 100 laboratories, tems: one based on star positions; and
and took 7 years. The chromosomes one using the Earth's magnetic field.
carry about 6000 genes, in DNA with Ingenious experiments at Goethe
over 12 million base pairs. University (Frankfurt), using an artifi-
The fatal human Creutzfeldt-Jakob dis- cial sky with false stars and an
ease ('CJD') is linked with eating beef adjustable magnetic field, show that


(for garden warblers, and probably embarrassing confusion between
other birds) both systems are needed. pound-seconds and newton-seconds.
Dolly, a lamb cloned from an adult cell 2000 Ball lightning: a new theory proposes it
of its single parent, is made by I Wilmut results from a normal strike on soil
and co-workers at the Roslin Institute, which, by reducing silicaceous mater-
Edinburgh. She dies in 2003. ial with soil carbon compounds at high
1998 Cosmologists deduce that the expan- temperature, releases silicon nanopar-
sion of the universe is speeding up, and ticles. The silicon particles then emit
will never stop. light as they oxidize. The theory
Assembly in space of a large explains most of the observed features
International Space Station begins. of ball lightning.
An anti-impotence drug for men, Studies of rainfall and drought in equa-
Viagra, is marketed. torial East Africa over 1100 years reveal
Neutrinos (or, at least, a new fourth three periods of high aridity lasting up
type of neutrino) are claimed by a to 80 years, more severe than any previ-
Tokyo group to have mass. ously recorded. It bodes ill for contin-
Groups working at 250 labs led by those ued settlement in the region.
at Washington University (USA) and the Adaptive optics which use multi-
Sanger Centre (UK) achieve near-com- element telescope mirrors, deformable
plete sequencing of an animal genome, to compensate for optical distortions
that of the nematode C. elegans. This 1- due to the atmosphere, are increas-
mm-long invertebrate roundworm has ingly improved and can be used even
959 cells: its genome has about 97 — 106 when bright 'guide stars' are absent;
base pairs of DNA making up over so a better future for ground-based
19000 genes, including about 7000 telescopes is foreseeable.
whose function is known. Over 40% of About 50 stars are now known to
the genes are matched in other organ- possess planets, in some cases more
isms, including man. (See also than one. The closest to Earth of these
Brenner's work on this animal.) extrasolar planets is 10.5 light years
The year was the warmest in the away, orbiting the just-eye-visible
warmest decade in the warmest cen- Epsilon Eridani.
tury for 1000 years. Storms, floods and Physicists at Nagoya University (Japan),
fires are increasing in frequency and using samples made in the tevatron
severity. accelerator at Fermilab (Chicago),
1999 New superheavy elements (114, 116 detect the 'missing' tau neutrino: the
and 118) are made in Russia and last of the 12 fermions predicted by the
California, all relatively stable and so standard model of particle theory as
confirming the idea of an 'island of making up all matter.
stability' for elements of atomic A Helsinki group makes the first com-
number 110“118. (But see note, pound of argon: HArF. This leaves only
p. 239.) two elements (He and Ne) for which no
Bacteriologists find oversize bacteria neutral molecule or compound is
(0.75 mm spheres, easily visible) in ooze known.
off the Namibian coast. These marine Ice cores from a Himalayan glacier con-
megabacteria, which scavenge hydro- firm that the last decade has been the
gen sulphide, are named Thiomargareta warmest for 1000 years.
namibiensis. A 'working draft' of the human genome
The NASA Mars Climate Orbiter is lost is announced jointly in mid-2000 by the
in space, apparently as a result of an Human Genome Project (HGP) and by


Celera Genomics of Rockville, MD. atures have risen between 0.4 and 0.8 C
With 97% of the genome mapped, 85% since 1860, mainly due to carbon diox-
sequenced and 24% finished, the draft ide from fossil fuel burning. From
is estimated to include 90% of the 1990“2100 global mean temperature
genes. Agreed to be a scientific advance will rise by 1.5 C to 5.8 C, more than
of the first rank, it remains unclear previous estimates. Sea levels will rise
how and when its practical benefits by almost one metre, swamping some
will be found: and conflict between land areas. Rising nitrogen oxide levels
patented (commercial) usage and pub- will lead to toxic ozone gas 'smogs'.
lic 'free' usage remains unresolved. (See The Earth, as a planet with an outer sur-
also HGP panel p. 368. ) face both solid and cool enough for liq-
Inclusions in a salt crystal, itself within uid water to be present, is found to be
a stable New Mexico rock formation much older than previously believed.
250 million years old, are found to con- A group at Edinburgh, by analysis of a
tain viable bacterial spores. (Previously, crystal of the mineral zircon from
the oldest living organisms known Australia, showed it to be 4.4 billion
were bacteria within a bee preserved in years old; the oldest rock previously dis-
amber, 25“40 million years old.) covered was 3.8 billion years old.
Native Americans were crop farmers at Biomedical interest intensifies in
least 7000 years ago: dateable mill- human stem cells, so named because a
stones from Panama contain starch plant stem can develop into leaves and
grains from maize, manioc and yams. buds. While lizards can regrow entire
Uncertainty about the nature of the limbs, humans can regrow only some
Black Death, which killed a fair propor- tissues (eg muscle “ but not heart
tion of Europe's population around muscle). However, human embryos at
1350, is solved by a team in Marseilles. an early stage, before differentiation
Within a tooth from a victim who died occurs which leads to them forming
in Montpellier at that time, they identi- into specialized cells (eg neurons), are
fied the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the 'totipotent', and can form all types of
cause of bubonic plague, long sus- human tissue. Harvesting such stem
pected to be the likely cause of the cells from unwanted human embryos,
Black Death. and culturing them in lab conditions as
2001 US astronomers at Berkeley led by G is now found possible, offers much
Marcy report the discovery of two promise both for research and for
bizarre planetary systems. One of them, replacing tissue damaged by disease.
based on the red dwarf star Gliese 876, Ethical issues proliferate in this field of
consists of two large planets that orbit work. Fortunately, a minority of some
the star with periods in the ratio 2:1. adult cells have recently been shown to
The other novel solar system has a huge be multipotent, and can be separated
and heavy gas planet circuiting the star and cultured.
HD 168443. As is the case with other NASA's Near Earth Asteroid
solar systems outside our own, these Rendezvous spacecraft, NEAR-
strange new systems have not been Shoemaker, lands on asteroid 433 Eros,
a potato-shaped rock 33 — 13 — 13 km
seen directly, but are detected by their
gravitational effect on their central star. orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. It is
The IPCC records that the 1990s were found to be one large rubble-strewn
the hottest decade in the last 1000 rock.
years; and that this is the result of Many geneticists have thought that the
human activity. Global average temper- human genome probably contained


100000 (or more) genes. However, which had teased mathematicians for
recent evidence points to about 30000 centuries. The method will be valuable
as the true figure: the HGP (publicly for encryption and security uses.
funded) research group proposes The fossilised skeleton of a Jurassic sea
30“40000, and Celera Genomics (the monster, Liopleurodon ferox, is discov-
commercial group) 26“40000. This ered at Aramberri, Mexico. Fossil frag-
compares with 29000 for the mouse, ments of the species were known from
19000 for a nematode worm, and 6000 1873, but a complete skeleton of this
for a yeast. The 30000 human genes fearsome marine predator is novel. It
could produce up to 250000 proteins had four flippers, was 21 m long and
which make up the body components, weighed up to 50 t, and lived in the late
and elucidating these will be a major Jurassic, 150“165 million years ago.
problem. The idea that many diseases Carnivorous, its diet was mainly
are derived from a single gene making smaller dinosaurs.
a single defective protein and so cor- Ingenious experimentation involving
rectable perhaps by a single drug, is the alignment of Jupiter and a quasar
seen to be simplistic; such situations is interpreted by the US astrophysicists
must be rare. S Kopeikin and E B Fomalont as proof
Magnesium boride MgB2 is shown by of Einstein™s assumption that gravity
J Akimitsu in Tokyo to superconduct at travels at the same speed as light.
39 K, the highest temperature recorded However, other physicists are critical
for a material easy to fabricate at room of the theory involved in this work.
temperature. The year saw important advances in
A Canadian experiment using 1000 t of palaeoanthropology. Two decorated
heavy water as detector confirms that ochre ornaments found at Blombos
neutrinos have mass: but insufficient Cave near Cape Town and dated at over
mass to prevent the limitless expansion 70 000 years old show that man had
of the universe with time. evolved mentally, to include abstract
Studies of mitochrondrial DNA by an and artistic thinking, much earlier
Oxford team led by B Sykes show that than had previously been believed.
most modern Europeans are descended Later in 2002, new analyses of animal
from one of seven women who lived bones butchered with tools and found
between 15000 and 45000 years ago. in Somerset are shown to be 700 000
A cloned human embryo is made by years old, older than Boxgrove Man
transfer of nuclei, to obtain stem cells (p 403).
for medical use. Another important find is a skull and
2002 Two physicists in the USA are fired for bone fragments from Chad in west
falsifying research data: one for work Central Africa, dated at between six
in Germany and the USA in the field of and seven million years old. This makes
superconductivity, the other in a it the earliest known hominid, and a
claimed discovery of element 118. creature that had already become sepa-
A group of Indian mathematicians led rate from the earlier common ancestor
by Manindra Agrawal publish a brief of both chimpanzees and human beings.
and ingenious algorithm which shows Whether this new fossil represents a
whether any number, however large, direct distant ancestor of modern man,
is prime: thereby solving a problem Homo sapiens, or a relative is uncertain.

Nobel Prizewinners in Science

1901 Wilhelm Konrad von 1932 Werner Karl Heisenberg Eugene Paul Wigner
Röntgen 1933 Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac Charles Hard Townes
1902 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz Erwin Schrödinger Nikolai Gennadiyevich Basov
Pieter Zeeman 1934 No award Alexander Mikhailovich
1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel 1935 James Chadwick Prokhorov
Pierre Curie 1936 Victor Francis Hess Julian S Schwinger
Marie Curie Carl David Anderson Richard P Feynman
1904 John William Strutt, 3rd 1937 Clinton Joseph Davisson Sin-Itiro Tomonaga
Baron Rayleigh George Paget Thomson Alfred Kastler
1905 Philipp Eduard Anton 1938 Enrico Fermi Hans Albrecht Bethe
Lenard 1939 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Luis Walter Alvarez
1906 Joseph John Thomson 1943 Otto Stern Murray Gell-Mann
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson 1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi Louis Eugène F©lix N©el
1908 Gabriel Lippmann 1945 Wolfgang Pauli Hannes Olof Alv©n
1909 Guglielmo, Marchese 1946 Percy Williams Bridgman Dennis Gabor
Marconi 1947 Edward Victor Appleton John Bardeen
Karl Braun 1948 Patrick Maynard Stuart, Leon Neil Cooper
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Baron Blackett John Robert Schrieffer
Waals 1949 Hideki Yukawa Leo Esaki
1911 Wilhelm Wien 1950 Cecil Frank Powell Ivar Giaever
1912 Nils Gustav Dal©n 1951 John Douglas Cockcroft Brian David Josephson
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Ernest Thomas Sinton Martin Ryle
1914 Max von Laue Walton Antony Hewish
1915 William Henry Bragg 1952 Felix Bloch Aage Niels Bohr
(William) Lawrence Bragg Edward Mills Purcell Benjamin Roy Mottelson
1916 No award 1953 Frits Zernike (Leo) James Rainwater
1917 Charles Glover Barkla 1954 Max Born Burton Richter
1918 Max Karl Ernst Planck Walther Bothe Samuel Chao Chung Ting
1919 Johannes Stark 1955 Willis Eugene Lamb, Jr Philip Warren Anderson
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Polykarp Kusch Nevill Francis Mott
1921 Albert Einstein 1956 William Bradford Shockley John Hasbrouck van Vleck
1922 Aage Niels Bohr John Bardeen Pjotr Leonidovich (Peter)
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan Walter Hauser Brattain Kapitza
1924 Karl Manne Georg 1957 Tsung-Dao Lee Arno Allan Penzias
Siegbahn Chen Ning Yang Robert Woodrow Wilson
1925 James Franck 1958 Pavel Alekseevich Cherenkov Steven Weinberg
Gustav Ludwig Hertz Ilya Mikhailovich Frank Sheldon Lee Glashow
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm Abdus Salam
1927 Arthur Holly Compton 1959 Emilio Segrè James Watson Cronin
Charles Thomson Rees Owen Chamberlain Val Logsdon Fitch
Wilson 1960 Donald Arthur Glaser Nicolas Bloembergen
1928 Owen Williams Richardson 1961 Robert Hofstadter Arthur Leonard Schawlow
1929 Louis Victor, 7th Duc de Rudolf Mössbauer Kai M Siegbahn
Broglie 1962 Lev Davidovich Landau Kenneth Geddes Wilson
1930 Chandrasekhara Venkata 1963 (Johannes) Hans (Daniel) Subrahmanyan
Raman Jensen Chandrasekhar
1931 No award Maria Goeppert-Meyer William Alfred Fowler
Nobel Prizewinners

1984 Carlo Rubbia Henry Kendall Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
Simon van der Meer Richard Taylor Robert Laughlin
1985 Klaus von Klitzing Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Hans Störmer
1986 Gerd Binnig Georges Charpak Daniel Tsui
Heinrich Rohrer Joseph Taylor Garadus t™Hooft
1993 1999
Ernst Ruska Russell Hulse Martinus Veltman
1987 George Bednorz Bertram N Brockhouse Zhores I Alferov
1994 2000
Alex Müller Clifford G Shull Herbert Kroemer
1988 Leon Lederman Martin Perl Jack S Kilby
Melvin Schwartz Frederick Reines Eric A Cornell
Jack Steinberger David Lee Wolfgang Ketterie
1989 Hans Dehmelt Douglas Osheroff Carl E Wieman
Wolfgang Pauli Robert Richardson Raymond Davis Jr
Norman Ramsay William Phillips Masotoshi Koshiba
1990 Jerome Friedman Steven Chu Riccardo Giacconi

Jacobus Henricus van t™Hoff 1931 Carl Bosch Frederick Sanger
1901 1958
Emil Hermann Fischer Friedrich Bergius Jaroslav Heyrovsky
1902 1959
Svante Arrhenius 1932 Irving Langmuir Willard Frank Libby
1903 1960
William Ramsay 1933 No award Melvin Calvin
1904 1961
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm 1934 Harold Clayton Urey John Cowdery Kendrew
1905 1962
Adolf von Baeyer 1935 Jean Fr©d©ric Joliot-Curie Max Ferdinand Perutz
Henri Moissan Irène Joliot-Curie Giulio Natta
1906 1963
Eduard Buchner 1936 Peter Joseph Wilhelm Debye Karl Ziegler
Ernest Rutherford, 1st 1937 Walter Norman Haworth Dorothy Mary Hodgkin
1908 1964
Baron Rutherford Paul Karrer Robert Burns Woodward
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald 1938 Richard Kuhn, declined Robert Sanderson Mulliken
1909 1966
Otto Wallach 1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Manfred Eigen
1910 1967
Marie Curie Butenandt, declined Ronald George Wreyford
(Fran§ois Auguste) Victor Leopold Ruzicka Norrish
Grignard 1940 George de Hevesy George Porter, Baron Porter
Paul Sabatier 1944 Otto Hahn Lars Onsager
Alfred Werner 1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Derek H R Barton
1913 1969
Theodore William Richards 1946 James Batcheller Sumner Odd Hassel
Richard Willst¤tter John Knudsen Northrop Luis Federico Leloir
1915 1970
No award Wendell Meredith Stanley Gerhard Herzberg
1916 1971
No award 1947 Robert Robinson Stanford Moore
1917 1972
Fritz Haber 1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius William Howard Stein
No award 1949 William Francis Giauque Christian Boehmer
Walther Hermann Nernst 1950 Otto Diels Anfinsen
Frederick Soddy Kurt Alder Ernst Otto Fischer
1921 1973
Francis William Aston 1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan Geoffrey Wilkinson
Fritz Pregl Glenn Theodore Seaborg Paul John Flory
1923 1974
No award 1952 Archer (John Porter) Martin John Warcup Cornforth
1924 1975
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Richard Laurence Vladimir Prelog
Theodor Svedberg Millington Synge William Nunn Lipscomb
1926 1976
Heinrich Otto Wieland 1953 Hermann Staudinger Ilya Prigogine
1927 1977
Adolf Otto Reinhold 1954 Linus Carl Pauling Peter Dennis Mitchell
1928 1978
Windaus 1955 Vincent du Vigneaud Herbert Charles Brown
Arthur Harden 1956 Nikolai Nikilaevich Semenov Georg Wittig
Hans Karl August Simon Cyril Norman Hinshelwood Paul Berg
von Euler-Chelpin 1957 Alexander Robertus Todd, Walter Gilbert
Hans Fischer Baron Todd Frederick Sanger
Nobel Prizewinners

1981 Kenichi Fukui Hartmut Michel 1997 Paul Boyer
Roald Hoffmann Sydney Altman John Walker
1982 Aaron Klug Thomas Cech Jens Skou
1983 Henry Taube Elias James Corey 1998 Walter Kohn
1984 (Robert) Bruce Merrifield Richard Ernst John Pople
1985 Herbert Aaron Hauptman Rudolph Marcus 1999 Ahmed Zewail
Jerome Karle Kary Mullis 2000 Alan J Heegar
1986 Dudley R Herschbach Michael Smith Alan G MacDiarmid
Yuan Tseh Lee George A Olah Hideki Shirakawa
John C Polanyi Paul Crutzen 2001 William S Knowles
1987 Charles Pedersen Mario Molina Ryoji Noyori
Donald Cram Sherwood Roland K Barry Sharpless
Jean-Marie Lehn Robert Curl 2002 John B Fenn
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Harold Kroto Koichi Tanaka
Robert Huber Richard Smalley Kurt Wüthrich

Physiology or Medicine
Emil von Behring 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1952 Selman Abraham Waksman
Ronald Ross 1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg 1953 Fritz Albert Lipmann
Niels Ryberg Finsen 1932 Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Hans Krebs
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Baron Adrian 1954 John Franklin Enders
Robert Koch Charles Scott Sherrington Thomas Huckle Weller
Camillo Golgi 1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan Frederick Chapman Robbins
Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1934 George Hoyt Whipple 1955 (Axel) Hugo Theodor Theorell
Charles Louis Alphonse 1935 Hans Spemann 1956 Werner Forssmann
Laveran 1936 Henry Hallett Dale Dickinson Woodruff
Paul Ehrlich Otto Loewi Richards
Ilya Ilich Mechnikov 1937 Albert von Nagyrapolt Andr© Fr©d©ric Cournand
Emil Theodor Kocher Szent-Györgyi 1957 Daniel Bovet
Albrecht Kossel 1938 Corneille Jean Fran§ois 1958 George Wells Beadle
Allvar Gullstrand Heymans Edward Lawrie Tatum
Alexis Carrel 1939 Gerhard (Johannes Paul) Joshua Lederberg
Charles Robert Richet Domagk, declined 1959 Severo Ochoa
Robert Bárány 1940 Carl Peter Henrik Dam Arthur Kornberg
No award Edward Adelbert Doisy 1960 Frank Macfarlane Burnet
No award 1944 Joseph Erlanger Peter Brian Medawar
No award Herbert Spencer Gasser 1961 Georg von B©k©sy
No award 1945 Alexander Fleming 1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick
Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Ernst Boris Chain James Dewey Watson
Bordet Howard Walter Florey, Maurice Hugh Frederick
Schack August Steenberg Baron Florey Wilkins
Krogh 1946 Hermann Joseph Müller 1963 John Carew Eccles
No award 1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Archibald Vivian Hill Gerty Theresa Cori Andrew Fielding Huxley
Otto Fritz Meyerhof Bernardo Alberto Houssay 1964 Konrad Emil Bloch
Frederick Grant Banting 1948 Paul Hermann Müller Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
John James Rickard Macleod 1949 Walter Rudolf Hess 1965 Fran§ois Jacob
Willem Einthoven António Caetano de Abreu Jacques Monod
No award Freire Andr© Lwoff
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Egas Moniz 1966 Charles Brenton Huggins
Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1950 Philip Showalter Hench Francis Peyton Rous
Charles Jules Henri Nicolle Edward Calvin Kendall 1967 Haldan Keffer Hartline
Christiaan Eijkman Tadeusz Reichstein George Wald
Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1951 Max Theiler Ragnar Arthur Granit
Nobel Prizewinners

1968 Robert William Holley Daniel Nathans 1990 Joseph Edward Murray
Har Gobind Khorana Hamilton Othanel Smith (Edward) Donnall Thomas
Marshall Warren Allan MacLeod Cormack 1991 Erwin Neher
Nirenberg Godfrey Newbold Bert Sakmann
1969 Max Delbrück Hounsfield 1992 Edmond H Fisher
Alfred Day Hershey Baruj Benacerraf Edwin K Krebs
Salvador Edward Luria George Davis Snell 1993 Richard R Roberts
1970 Julius Axelrod Jean Dausset Phillip A Sharp
Bernard Katz Roger Wolcott Sperry 1994 Alfred G Gilman
Ulf von Euler David Hunter Hubel Martin Rodbell
1970 Earl W Sutherland Torsten Nils Wiesel 1995 Edward B Lewis
1972 Gerald Maurice Edelman Sune Karl Bergström Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Rodney Robert Porter Bengt I Samuelsson Eric F Wieschaus
1973 Konrad Zacharias Lorenz John Robert Vane 1996 Robert Doherty
Nikolaas Tinbergen Barbara McClintock Rolf Zinkernagel
Karl von Frisch Niels Kai Jerne 1997 Stanley Prusiner
1974 Albert Claude Georges J F Köhler 1998 Robert Furchgott
George Emil Palade C©sar Milstein Feris Murad
Christian Ren© de Duve Joseph Leonard Louis Ignarro
1975 David Baltimore Goldstein 1999 Günter Blobel
Renato Dulbecco Michael Stuart Brown 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Howard Martin Temin Seymour Stanley Cohen Paul Greengard
1976 Baruch Samuel Blumberg Rita Levi-Montalcini Eric R Kandel
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek Susumu Tonegawa 2001 Leland H Hartwell
1977 Rosalyn Sussman Yalow James Black R Timothy Hunt
Roger (Charles Louis) Gertrude Elion Sir Paul M Nurse
Guillemin George Hitchings 2002 Sydney Brenner
Andrew Victor Schally (John) Michael Bishop H Robert Horvitz
1978 Werner Arber Harold Elliot Varmus John E Sulston

Winners of The Fields Medal for Mathematics

1936 L V Ahlfors 1970 A Baker 1990 V Drinfeld
J Douglas H. Hironaka V Jones
1950 L Schwartz S P Novikov S Mori
A Selberg J G Thompson E Witten
1954 K Kodaira 1974 E Bombieri 1994 P-L Lions
J-P Serre D B Mumford J-C Yoccoz
1958 K F Roth 1978 P R Deligne J Bourgain
R Thom C L Fefferman E Zelmanov
1962 L V Hörmander G A Margulis 1998 R Boicherds
J W Milnor D G Quillen W T Gowers
1966 M F Atiyah 1982 A Connes Maxim Konsevich
P J Cohen W P Thurston C McMullen
A Grothendieck S-T Yau
S Smale 1986 S Donaldson
G Faltings
M Freedman


Almagest 297 argon 300
Bold type indicates that a scientist has
alpha-beta-gamma theory 4 Aristarchus (of Samos)
his or her own entry; italic page
11, 61
alpha particle 139, 312 Aristotle
number indicates a panel.
Alpher, R A Armstrong, E H
± Centauri 12, 13
165 Alsos mission 146 Armstrong, N A
Abbe, E Alter, D aromaticity 183
Abegg, R alternating current ARPANET
Abel, F A induction motor 346 Arrhenius, S A
Abel, J J transmission 346 arthropods 242, 366
Abel, N H Altounyan, R E C artificial intelligence 355
Abelian groups 1 aluminium 94 artificial kidney 1
Abelson, B 322 Alvarez, L W ascorbic acid 226, 341
aberration, of light due to Earth™s Alzheimer™s disease 297, 402 aseptic surgery 228, 237
motion 49 Amalthea, discovery of 26 asparagine 360
absolute magnitude 312 America, discovery of 73 astatine 323
absolute temperature 351 American Indian music 126 aster 126
180 180
Acad©mie Royale des Sciences American Philosophical Society asteroid, landing spacecraft on 406
Accademia dei Lincei americium 239 asteroids
accommodation, of eye 387 Amici, G B farthest from and nearest to Sun 20
accumulator 291 amines 176, 385 gap in orbits 202
ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) 355 amino acids, asthma, treatment of 5, 378
acetone 372 analysis of 259 astigmatism 3, 387
acetylcholine 86 in blood 1 Aston, F W
achromatic lens 99 ammonia synthesis 153 astronautics
acids 53, 331 Amontons, G astronomical distances,
acoustics 298, 315 Ampère, A M early estimates of 11, 32, 219
acromegaly 85 ampere (amp) 6 astronomical unit 65, 331
actin 184 amplitude modulation 12, 123 astronomy
actinides 322 anaesthesia 29, 91, 327 entry of women into
actinium K (francium), discovery of 287 ˜analytical engine™ 21 history of
ADA, programming language 21 anaphylaxis 303 Atiyah, M F
15, 334, 342
Adams, J C anatomy 361 Atkins, A
Adams, W S Anaximander (of Miletus) Atlantic, first bathymetric profile 245
Addison, T Anderson, C D atmosphere
7, 192
adiabatic demagnetization 141 Anderson, E G circulation of 154
adrenal cortex 199 Anderson, P W temperature variations 346
adrenal gland 2, 342 Andreesson, M upper 308, 346
adrenalin 2, 342 Andrews, R C atmospheric fronts 40
Adrian, E D Andrews, T atmospheric waves 308
adsorption 213 Andromeda galaxy atom, structure of
67, 384 132, 276
aerodynamics velocity of 325 atomic bomb
aerofoil 34 androsterone 58 atomic clock 299
67, 384
aeronautics Anfinsen, C B atomic heat 101
43, 107
Afar 194 angiography 127 atomic model
Afzelius, J 35 angiosperms 347 atomic nuclei 144, 177, 334
agar 205 …ngström, A J atomic theory 87
Agassiz, J L R animal behaviour 232, 352 atomic weights 60, 87, 303
age of universe 182 animal electricity 136 atomism 87, 92
Agent Orange Anning, M ATP 353, 367
annus mirabilis
Agnesi, M G 269 Auenbrugger, J L 210
304, 306, 307 Auer, C see Welsbach, Baron von
Agricola, G Antarctica
agricultural chemistry 48, 216 delineation of 74 Auerbach, C
agriculture, history of anthrax 204, 283 Auger, P V
AIDS anthropology 31 aurorae 39
Aiken, H antiatom 404 auscultation 210
383, 384 75
aircraft antibiotics 125, 126, 366 Australia, exploration of
Australopithecus 218
air-pump 49, 150 antibodies 103, 105, 255, 293
Airy, G B anticyclone 58, 136 191
africanus 54, 87, 218
Akasosu, S I 69 antiferromagnetism 267
ramidus 218
alchemy 139, 281 antihistamines 48
384 robustus 54, 218
Alcock, J W antihydrogen 404
aldehydes 60 antiknock 254 autonomic nervous system 171
Alder, K 96 antiparticle 97, 323 autotrophs 276
13 162
Aldrin, E E antiproton, discovery of 68 Averro«s (Ibn Rushd)
Alembert, J L R d™ antisepsis 228 Avery, O T
Alexander the Great 11 antitoxic immunity 29 aviation
Alferov, Z I antitoxin 29, 202, 309 Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
Alfv©n, H O G aphids 353 Avogadro, L R A C
algae 15 Apollo spacecraft Avogadro™s Law 18
algebra 4 Apollonius (of Perga) Avogadro™s number 18
algebraic invariants 67, 173 Appert, N F Axelrod, J 114
algebraic number theory 98 Appleton, E V axon 302
Algol, explanation of variability 145 Appleton layer, discovery 9 Ayrton, H
algorithm 4 Arago, D F J AZT
10, 334
Alhazen Arber, A
251, 326
alkaloids 238, 287 Arber W Baade, W H W
10, 342
Al-Khwarizmi Archer, F S Babbage, C
allele 248 Archimedes (of Syracuse) Babcock, H D 21
Allen, J A Van see Van Allen architectural acoustics 315 Babcock, H W
208 224
allotropes arctic exploration 267, 306 Babcock, S M
allotropy 8 Arctic Ocean 267 Backus, J

bacteria, oldest 405 Benacerraf, B 89 Bloch wall 43
Bacon, F Beneden, E van Bloemberger, N
Bacon, F T 150 Benedict, R blood, transfusion of 89, 211, 234
Bacon, R Bentham, G blood groups 211
bacteria, staining of 105, 146 benzene 257 blood pressure 156
bacterial enzymes 336 structure 199 Blundell, D 244
bacterial genetics 219 benzo[a]pyrene 99 Bocchi, D
bacteriology 204, 282 benzoyl compounds 382 Bode, J E
bacteriophage 169, 355 Berg, O 272 body scanner 77, 181
Baekeland, L H Berg, P Boerhaave, H
Baer, K E von Bergen frontal theory 40 Bogoliubov, N N
Baeyer, A von Berger, H Bohr, A 43
Baily, F Bergeron, T H P Bohr, N
Baird, J L Bergeron“Findeisen theory 32 Bois-Reymond, E du
Bakelite 22 Bergius, F K R Boivin, Marie
Bakewell, R Bergström, S Boksenberg, A
Ballard, R 245 beriberi 105 Boll, F 207
Balle, W 65 Beringia 66 bolometer 212
215, 239
balloon berkelium Boltwood, B B
first hydrogen 69 Bernard, C Boltzmann, L E
hot air 259 Berners-Lee, T Bolyai, J 228
Balmer, J J Bernoulli, D bomb, ˜bouncing™ 368
Balmer series 23, 314 Bernoulli™s principle 33 bombykol 116
Baltimore, D Berthelot, M P E Bondi, H
34, 35
Banach spaces 146 Berthollet, C L Bonpland, A 183
Banks, J berthollides 34, 296 Boole, G
Banting, F G beryl 360 Boolean algebra 46
Barbier, P A 150 beryllium 360 Boot, H A H
Bardeen, J Berzelius, J J Bordet, J
Barger, G 86 Besicovitch, A S Borelli, G A
Barkhausen, H G Bessel, F W Borlaug, N E
Barlow, P Bessel functions 36 Born, M
Barnard, E E Bessemer, H Borodin, A
Barnard™s star, discovery of 26 Bessemer converter 38 boron 139, 257
Barr, M L Bessemer process 38 boron hydrides 228, 337
Barr body 26 Best, C H 25 Bosch, C 153
Barry, James Miranda beta-blockers 40 Bose, S N
Bartholin, E beta decay 220, 284, 383 Bose“Einstein condensate 403
Bartlett, N beta particle 120, 311 Bose“Einstein statistics 47
Barton, D H R Bethe, H A boson 47
Bary, H A de see de Bary 180
Bevan, E J 83 Boston Philosophical Society
38, 162
barycentric calculus 257 Bichat, M-F X Botany Bay 24
basalt, origin of 93 Biffen, R H Bothe, W
bases 53 ˜Big Bang™, microwave background Bouguer, P
Basov, N G from 151, 287 Bouguer correction (gravity) 47
Bass, G ˜Big Bang™ theory 5, 137 Bouguer™s Law (photometry) 47
Bassi, L 27 early form of 221 Boulton, M
bathyscaphe 81 evidence for 94 bouncing bomb 368
bathysphere 29 bile 124 boundary-value problem 98
Bates, H W 367 bile acids 375 Bourbaki, N
Bateson, W bilirubin 124 Bourgeois, L
bats 331 Bini, L 104 Boussingault, J-B J
battery, electric 57, 219, 362 Binnig, G K 305 Boveri, T H
Bauer, G see Agricola biological sciences, entry of women into 334 Bovet, D
Bayliss, W M 333 Biot, J Bowen, I S
BCPL (Basic Computer Programming biotin 102 Bowen, N L
Language) 338 birefringence, in electrical field 200 Boxgrove Man 403
BCS theory 25, 76 Birkeland, K O B Boyer, H
early form of 65 Birkoff, G D Boyer, P D 367
verification of 195 BIRPS 244 Boyle, R
Beadle, G W birth control 290, 338 Boys, C V
Beaufort, F Bishop, J M Bradley, J
Beaufort wind scale 28 bit, of information 324 Bragg, W H
Beaumont, W Bjerknes, J 40 Bragg, W L
Beche, H T de la see de la Beche Bjerknes, V F K Brahe, T
Becher, J J 332 Black, James brain tumours 85
Beckmann, E O Black, Joseph brain waves 2, 32
Becqueral, A-E 29 black body radiation Branly, E E
Becquerel, A H early work on 234, 333, 376 Brans“Dicke theory 94
Beddoes, T quantum theory of 291 Brattain, W
Bednorz, J G Black Death 406 Braun, K F
Beebe, C W black holes 160, 287 Braun, W M M von
Beer, G R de see de Beer limiting size 321 breadfruit, introduction in Caribbean 24
bees, dance of 132 predicted existence of 253 Breit, G
29, 162
Behring, E von Blackett, P M S Breit“Wigner formula 52
Beilstein, F K Blackman, F Brenner, S
42, 192
Bel, J A Le 175 Blackwell, E Brequet, L F C 125
42, 61
Bell, A G Blagg, M Brewster, D
Bell, C Blau, Marietta Bridgman, P W
Bell™s palsy 30 Bl©riot, L Bridgman effect 52
30, 78
Bell (Burnell), (S) J Briggs, H
Bloch, F

Bright, R Carlsson, A chemistry in Britain, the entry of women
British anti-Lewisite (BAL) 289 Carnot, N L S into 329
Brockhouse, B N carotenoids 198 chemotherapeutic agents, early 287
Broensted, J N Carothers, W H chemotherapy 104
Broglie, L-V P R de carpel 59 Cherenkov, P
Cherwell, Lord see Lindemann, F A
Brongniart, A Carrel, A
Brooks, H Carrington, R C Chevreul, M E
Broom, R Carson, R chicken cholera 283
Brouncker, W 125 Cartesian geometry 93 chi-square test 286
Brown, A C 81 Casimir, H B G chlorine 90, 318
Brown, A W Cassini, G D chlorofluorocarbons 119, 254, 307
Brown, H C Castellani, A chloroform 327
Brown, M S 145 CAT scanning 77, 181 chlorophyll 124, 287, 382
Brown, R catadioptric telescopes 95 chlorpromazine 104
Brownian motion 54, 288 catalysis 36, 212 cholera 205
brown dwarf star 403 catheterization, cardiac 127 cholesterol 96, 145, 382
browser 350 cathode ray tube for TV 389 Christensen, J 83
Bruce, D 55 cathode rays 83, 221, 348 chromatic aberration 99
Bruce, M 55 Cauchy, A L chromatin 126, 204
brucellosis 55 Cavalli-Sforza, L L chromatography 243, 354
Brunel, I K Cavendish, H chromium 359
Brunel, M I 55 Caventou, J 287 chromosomal basis of sex
Brunner, J T 258 Cayley, A determination 336
Bruno, G Cayley, G chromosome 48, 126, 367
44, 95
BSE (˜mad cow disease™) 133, 297, 404 CCD (charge-coupled device) map 260, 339
bubble chamber 5, 142 Celera Genomics 360 number 31
Buchner, E celestial mechanics 3, 213 theory of heredity 260
Buchner, H 56 cell chronometer 158
buckyballs dry electric 219 Chu, S 290
Buffon, G-L de first use of word in biology 178 Chugaeff, L 187
Bullard, E C in biology 319, 320 cimetidine 40
Bullen, K E 190 Cellophane 83 cinema 266
Bunsen, R W cellulose 74, 257 cinematography 243
Burbidge, M Celsius, A underwater 81
Burgess Shale 366 Cepheid variables 103, 217 cipher 21, 355, 361, 368
Bürgi, J 267 period“luminosity relationship 217 cipher, Vigenère 21
Burke, R O Ceres circuits, analysis of 202
Burkitt, D P discovery 290 circulation
Burnell, (S) J (Bell) see Bell Burnell rediscovery 275 oceanic 347
Burnet, F M Cerf, V 350 of air 154
cerium 373 of blood 159
Bury, C R
104 206
Butenandt, A F J Cerletti, U citric acid cycle
butterfly effect CERN 109, 309 civet 313
CFCs 254 CJD 297
Buys Ballot, C H D
Buys Ballot™s Law 58 Chadwick, J new variant CJD 297
384 Clark, A 37
Byrd, R Chain, E B
Challenger expedition 13, 71
Clarke, A C
cacodyl 57 Challis, J 1 classification
caesium, discovery of 202 Chamberlain, O of animals 85
caesium clock 300 Chandler, S C of elements 248
Cagniard de la Tour, C Chandler wobble 68 of plants 227, 301
Cailletet, L P Chandrasekhar, S Clausius, R J E
16 16, 254, 406
Cairncross, F Chandrasekhar limit 68 climatic change
Cairns-Smith, A G Chanel, C 123 climatology 211
calculator Chang, M C 290 clock, pendulum 185
Chang Heng see Zhang Heng
calculus 221, 269 clonal selection theory 57
215, 239
californium Channel tunnel 402 clone 379
caloric 311 chaos cloning 404
calotype process Chapman, S cloud chamber
Calvin, M Chapman layer 68 discoveries with 7, 41
Cambrian period 322 Chapman“Enskog theory, of gases 68 failure of 142
86, 342
camera obscura Chapman“Ferraro theory, of magnetic invention of 379
Camerarius, R J storms 68 cloud physics 32
Camm, S Charcot, J M coal 32, 338
cancer 39, 99, 367 Chargaff, E COBE 152, 402
Candolle, A P de charge conjugation, conservation in COBOL 180
cannabis 352 particle physics 83 cochlea 165
cannibalism 133 charge-to-mass ratio 348 Cockcroft, J D
Cannizzaro, S Charles, J A C Cockerell, C S
Cannon, A J charm 142 codebreaking 21, 355, 361, 368
Cannon, W B charm quarks, evidence for 303 codon 52, 81
capillary circulation 240 Charney, J G codons, dictionary of 201
carbon, the three forms of Charnley, J Cohen, S 223
carbon-14 223 Charpak, G Cohen-Tannoudji, C N 290
carbon cycle, in stars 38 Chase, M 169 coherent wave 133, 354
carbon suboxide 96 Châtelet-Lomont, G-E du coherer 51
Chatelier, H L Le see Le Chatelier, H L
carbonium ions 274 Cohn, F J
carcinogenesis 39, 99, 309 chemical gardens 143 Cohnheim, J F
Chemical News 13
Cardan, J (Cardano) 83 Collins, M
cardiac catheterization 127 chemical warfare Collip, J B 25
Carlson, C chemiosmotic theory 256 collodion

colloids 146, 388 Corey, E J cyclones
Colmar, T de Cori, C F formation 40
Colombo, M R Cori, G rotation of 58, 97
Columbus, C Coriolis, G G de cyclotron 216
colour, of quarks 142 Coriolis force 77 Cygnus A 256
coma (optical) 319 Coriolis force, effect on ocean cytology of plants 318
combustion currents 110
early theory of 246, 332 Cormack, A M D (2, 4-D)
85, 342
oxygen theory of 215 Cornforth, J W Daguerre, L J M
comet, Halley™s 156, 400 coronagraph 235 daguerreotype 85
comets 219 coronary disease 72, 127 dairy chemistry 362
model of 374 corpuscular theory of light 270 Dale, H H
D™Alembert, J L R see Alembert
origin of 209, 275 correlation coefficient 136
periodic motion 156 correspondence principle 44 D™Alembert™s principle 3
commensalism 91 corticosteroid 199 Dalton, J
commissure 332 cortisone 199 Dam, C P H
communication satellites 71 Corvisart, J N Daniell, J F
communication theory 323 cosmic dust 219 Daniell cell 87
commutative groups 1 cosmic microwave background 94, 380, 402 dark matter 310
compass, magnetic, deviation of 73 cosmic rays 47, 309 DARPA 350
complement 46 early work on 47, 74, 171, 255 Dart, R A
88, 135
complementarity principle 46 photographic studies of 293 Darwin, C R
135, 180
complexes, inorganic 373 cosmological principle 255 Darwin, E
compound radicals 382 Coulomb, C A de Dausset, J
7, 334
compression-ignition engines 96 coulomb (unit) 80 Davies, E
comptometer Coulomb™s Law of Force 80 Davis, W M
Compton, A H Coulomb™s Law of Friction 80 Davisson, C J
Compton effect 74, 139 Coulson, C A Davisson“Germer experiment 141
computability 355 Couper, A S Davy, H
computer Cournand, A F 127 Davy, J 381
communication theory 323 Courtois, B 90 day, length of 265
delay storage 337, 377 Cousteau, J V DDT 264
development of covalent bond 223, 324 de Bary, H A
early 377 cowpox 190 de Beer, G R
de Broglie, L-V P R see Broglie
EDSAC 377 Cox, A 244
de Buffon, G-L see Buffon
first programmable 20 CPL (Computer Programming
high-level programming languages 21 Language) 338 Debye, P J W
de Candolle, A-P see Candolle
logic 45 Crab nebula, X-ray source 132
memory 20 Crafts, J M 131 decimal system, of notation 267, 337
de Coriolis, G G see Coriolis
origins 20 Cray, S R
de Coulomb, C A see Coulomb
programming languages 180, 338 Crelle, L 1
stored-program 364 Creutzfeldt“Jakob disease 400 Dedekind, J W R
81, 251 de Duve, C R see Duve
theoretical 355 Crick, F H C
Turing machine 355 Crile, G W deep-sea exploration 29, 81
Concorde critical phenomena 380 defects, in solids 263
de Fermat, P see Fermat
conditioned reflex 285 critical state, of liquids 8
condom 117 critical temperature of gases 8 De Forest, L
Condon, E 128 crocoite 359 degaussing 56
de Graaf, R see Graaf
conducting polymers 236 Croll, J 254
conductors 147 Cro-Magnon Man Dehmelt, H 283
conformation, of molecules 26 Cronin, J W Deimos, discovery of 156
conic sections 9 Crookes, W de la Beche, H T
de Laplace, P S see Laplace
consciousness 149 Crookes radiometer 83
de la Tour, C C see Cagniard de la Tour
conservation Cross, C F
of energy 196 cross-over of genes 261 delay storage, in computers 377
Crum Brown, A see Brown, A C
of parity 383 Delbrück, M
contact process, for making crust, thickness of Earth™s 257 Delbucco, R
sulphuric acid 289 crust“mantle boundary 257 della Donne, M
contact transformation 224 Crutzen, P 119 delta function 321
De magnete
contagion 128 crystal field theory 359 142
continental drift crystallography 160 dementia-type disease 297
existence of former supercontinent 339 crystals, Democritus (of Abdera)
mechanism for 178 characteristic angles of 160, 336 de Moivre, A
modelling of 56 X-ray diffraction by 49, 50 de Moivre™s theorem 93
De motu cordis
theory of 371 cubic equation 159
continuous transformation 224 solution to 61 dendrochronology 100
contraception 338 trigonometric solution to 361 2-deoxyribose 222
de R©aumur, R F see R©aumur
contraceptives, oral 290 curare 48
De re metallica
Cook, J Curie, J 84 3
Cooke, W F 374 Curie, M de Rochas, A B
Coolidge, W D Curie, P Desaga, P 57
cooling, law of 270 curium 329 Descartes, R du P
de Sitter, W see Sitter
Cooper, L N Curl, R F 208
Cooper pair 25, 76 Curtius, T Desmarest, N
co-ordinate geometry 93 Cushing, H W Deventer, H van
co-ordination compounds 373 Cushing™s syndrome 85 Deville, H E S-C
Copernicus, N Cuvier, G Devonian period 265, 322
copying processes 62, 371 cyanides 139 Devonshire, 2nd/7th Duke of 66
de Vries, H see Vries
cordite 1 cyanogen 139
core, Earth™s inner 220 cyanotype process 167 Dewar, J
core“mantle boundary 151 cybernetics 376 d™Herelle, F H 355

diabetes dualism in chemistry 36 early theory of 129
110, 231
and insulin 25 Dubois, M E F T electrocardiography (ECG)
du Bois-Reymond, E H see Bois-Reymond
early work on 378 electrodynamics 6
du Châtelet-Lomont, G-E see Châtelet-
dialysis 146 electroencephalography (EEG) 2, 32
of blood 1 Lomont electrolysis 90, 118, 270
diamagnetism 119 Dufay, C electrolytes 12, 91


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