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diamond Dulbucco, R 24 electromagnet 166, 325, 338
diborane 54 Dulong, P L electromagnetic theory 230, 246
dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethane 264 Dumas, J B A electromagnetic wave 169, 246
Dicke, R H du Pont, E I 215 electron
Dicksee, C B 97 Dutrochet, R J H acceleration of 213
Diels, O Duve, C R de capture detector 233
Diels“Alder reaction 96 Du Vigneaud, V demonstration of negative charge 288
Diels™s hydrocarbon 96 dwarfism 85 diffraction 90, 348
96, 278
Diesel, R C K dynamite 271 measurement of charge/mass ratio 259, 288,
334
Dietrich, A K dynamo (direct current generator) 119 348
˜difference engine™ 20 dynamo theory, of Earth™s magnetic negative charge of 255
differential equation 286 field 56, 111 origin of name 338
differential geometry 373 dysentry 318 precession in magnetic field 213
diffusion 146 Dyson, F J spin 357
digestion electron microscope 311
and reflexes 285 E-layer, discovery of 10 electron microscopy 203
observation of 28, 331 ear, analysis of sound 165 electron-pair bond 223
Digges, L 97 Earth electron theory 230
Digges, T 97 age of 406 electro-optical Kerr effect 200
digitalis 381 circumference of 111 electrophoresis 352
dimorphism 256 density of 49, 66 elements 48, 215
Dines, W H estimate of age 195, 351 periodic classification of 248, 249
dinitrogen pentoxide 94 inner core 404 superheavy (numbers 112, 114,
dinosaur eggs 8, 401 magnetic field 56, 111, 142 116, 118) 239
dinosaurs 241 orbital radius 65 elinvar 151
diode 125 origin of 357 Elion, G
Dione, discovery 65 variation in rotational period 331 ellipse 9, 245
Diophantine equations 97, 123 earthquakes 302 elliptic integral 1
Diophantus P and S waves 275 Ellis, G F R 160
diorama 86 strength of 304 Elsasser, W M
diphtheria 29, 230 travel times 190 e-mail 350
antitoxin 309 Earth™s core embryo 22
dipole moments 91 first evidence for 275 embryology 115, 117, 238
Dirac, P A M inner 220 Emel©us, H J
Dirichle, P G L liquid 151 emerald 360
dislocation, in solids 263, 345 Earth™s magnetic field, reversals 362 Emiliani, C
342
disordered magnetic media 8 Eastman, G emission spectra 202
disordered materials 263 Empedocles (of Acragas)
Eccles, J C 175
116
dissipative structures 296 Enceladus, discovery 167
ecdysone
363
dissociation, thermal 94 Enders, J F
Eckert, P
dissymmetry 175, 282 endocrinology 2, 333
eclipses, lunar 388
DNA 353 endoderm 22
ecliptic, obliquity of 112
as genetic material 169 endorphins 327
ecology 64, 236, 246
base sequence in 317 endoscopy 180
ECT 104
early work on 18, 222 engine 278
ectoderm 23
fingerprinting 190 Diesel 96
Eddington, A S
polymerase 205, 265 gas 278
Edelman, G M
production of proteins by 137 petrol 280, 369
Edison, T A
structure of 81, 370 steam 278, 371
Edison effect 104
363, 377
DNS 350 turbo-jet 375
EDSAC
Döbereiner, J W engineering, bridge, ship 55
Edwards, R G
Döbereiner™s lamp 98 engineering, civil 325
effusion 146
Dobzhansky, T ENIAC 363
Egas Moniz, A
Doering, W von E 288 entomology 115, 234, 340
Ehrlich, P
Doisy, E A economic 277
Eigen, M 272
Doll, R entropy 45, 71
Eijkman, C
Dollond, J environmental pollution, early warning of 64
Einstein, A
Dollond, P 99 enzymes
Einstein“de Sitter universe 325
Dolly 379 activity of 353
Einstein red shift 106
Domagk, G crystalline 272
Einthoven, W
192
Donne, M della early work on 56
Ekman, V W
molecular shape of 8
dopamine 63 elastic rebound theory 302
origin of name 207
Doppler, C J elasticity 178, 387
enzymology 114
Doppler effect 99 electric arc, early work on 19
Epicurus 92
double helix 81, 370 electric battery, invention 362
epidermal growth factor 223
double refraction 26 electric current, magnetic force
Epstein“Barr virus 57
double stars 253 generated by 6
equinoxes
Douglass, A E electric furnace 257
dating of 6
Draper, H 245 electric lamps 75
precession of 174
Draper, J W electric light bulb 104
Drosophila Eratosthenes (of Cyrene)
260 electric motor 119
sieve of 112
drug design 110, 174 AC induction type 346
262 Erdös, P
drug resistance 105 electric telegraph system
ergot 86
dry cell 219 electricity
Dryopithecus Ericsson, J 271
213 and magnetism 10, 119, 274
417
Index

153
Erlanger, J 137 First World War, science in galaxies
Erlanger Programm 203 Fischer, E H accurate masses of 57
erosion, cycle of 90 Fischer, E O 377 rotation of 226, 275, 310
Erxleben, D 112 Fischer, H recession of 100, 182, 325
Esaki, L Fisher, R A red-shift survey of 140
Eschenmoser, A 382 Fitch, V L 83 Galaxy
Eskola, P E FitzGerald, G F position of Sun in 324, 401
ethanol, early synthesis of 34 FitzRoy, R 88 radio emissions in 189
ether (in physics) 229, 245, 253 fixed air 41 size of 324
ethology 232, 352 Fizeau, A H L structure of 324
162
Euclid Flamsteed, J Galen
95, 134
Euclid™s fifth postulate 228 flash photolysis 293 Galilean telescope
95, 133
eugenics 136 Fleming, A Galileo Galilei
147
Euler, L Fleming, J A gall bladder disease
Euler, U S von Flemming, Walther Galle, J 2, 223
61 258, 260
Euler-Chelpin, H K A S von Flemming, Williamina Gallo, R
event horizon 160, 287 Fletcher, A C Galois, E
75
Everest, G 294 Flinders, M Galton, F 135, 136
61
Evershed, M A Florey, H W Galvani, L
evolution Flourens, J P M galvanometer 6, 110, 349
advocacy for 184 Flow-Matic 180 game theory 364
biological 146 fluid mechanics 33, 270 gamete 248
early ideas on 56, 210 fluorescence 338 gamma ray 312
of species 88, 98, 367 fluoromethyl compounds 111 Gamow, G
Garrett, E see Anderson E
punctuated 146 FM radio 12
Ewen, H 183 Fock, V A Garrod, A E
Ewing, W M 114, 170 food canning 9 gas, origin of word 165
exchange force 387 foot and mouth disease 230 gas analysis 57
279
exclusion principle 284 Forbes, E gas engine
expanding universe 182 Ford, H 224 gas mantle, invention 373
13 Forest, L De see De Forest
exploration of space gases
13, 51
Explorer I, rocket Forssman, W pressure“volume relationship 49
explosives 1, 271 FORTRAN 22 solubility of 166
329
extraterrestrial life 182 Foster, M temperature-pressure relationship 6, 69
Eyring, H Foucault, L Gasser, H S
four-colour problem 257 Gauss, K F
F-layer, discovery 10 four-element theory 111 Gay-Lussac, J L
Fabre, J H Fourier, J B J Geber
Fabricius, D Fourier series 128 Geiger, H W
Fabricius ab Aquapendente, H see 79
Fowler, W A gelignite 272
Fabrizio foxglove 381 Gell-Mann, M
115, 162
Fabrizio, G Fracastoro, G Geller, Margaret J
231, 240
˜Fagot, Henry™ 56 fractals gene
Fahrenheit, G D francium 287 number of human 406
251, 368
Fajans, K Franck, J physical mapping of
Fallopius, G Franck“Condon principle 128 structure of 82, 317
Faltings, G Frank, I M 70 synthesis of 201
farad 119 Frankland, E general relativity 105, 160, 221
Faraday, M Frankland™s notation 129 genetic drift 382
Farman, H 384 Franklin, B genetic engineering 32
Farman, J Franklin, J 308 genetic fingerprints 190
fats 70 Franklin, R genetics 248
Faure, C A 291 Frasch, H biochemical basis of 27, 137
251
Fehling, H C von Fraunhofer, J von history of
334
Fell, Honor Fraunhofer lines 131 genome 190, 317, 339, 360
368
Fermat, P de Fredholm, E I Genome Project
Fermat™s ˜last theorem™ 120, 140, 377 freon 254 geocentric systems 297
fermentation 56, 158 frequency modulation (FM) 12 geochemistry, modern foundations 48, 145
fermentation synthesis 372 Fresnel, A J geological mapping, of Britain 92, 326
329
Fermi, E Freund, I geological time scale 148
Fermi“Dirac statistic 47 Friedel, C geomagnetic field
fermion 47, 120 Friedel“Crafts reaction 131 origin of 56, 111
fermium 239 Friedman, H reversals in polarity 244
Fernel, J F Friedman, J geometry 9, 113, 281
ferrimagnetism 267 Friedmann, A A descriptive 258
ferrite 267 Friedmann universes 132 unification of 203, 304
ferrocene 377 Friedrich, W 213 geomorphology 89
ferromagnetism 267 Frisch, K von geothermal heat flow, through oceanic crust 56
Fessenden, R A Frisch, O R 132 Gerhardt, C F
Feynman, R P fronts (polar) 40 Gerlach, W 336
Fibonacci, L Frosch, P 230 germ plasm 372
field-emission microscope 263 fuel cell 150 Germain, S
329
field-ion microscope 263 Fulhame, E Germer, L H
207, 208
Fields Medal, winners of 412 fullerenes Giaever, I 112
295
fifth postulate 228 Furchgott, R F Giauque, W F
filament lamp 104, 212 gibberelic acid 77
filariasis 240 Gabor, D Gibbs, J W
13
Findeisen, W 32 Gagarin, Y Gilbert, Walter
fingerprints 136 Gaia hypothesis 233 Gilbert, William
Finlay, C 302 Gajdusek, D C Gilchrist, P 38
384
Finsen, N Galápagos Islands 88 Giffard, H
418
Index

ginkgo tree 77 H-bomb 346 Herschel, C
147, 311
ginkgolid 77 H“R diagram Herschel, F W
glaciations (ice ages), evidence for 2, 234 Haber, F Herschel, J F W
Glaser, D A Hadamard, J S Hershey, A D
Glashow, S L Hadfield, R A Hertz, G 128
Glauber, J R Hadley, G Hertz, H R
153
Glauert, H Hadley, J hertz, unit of frequency 169
Gleditsch, E Haeckel, E 91 Hertzsprung, E
16, 406
global warming haemin 124 Hertzsprung“Russell diagram 147
globulins, separation of 352 haemoglobin 181, 289 Herzberg, G
Glossopteris, widespread occurrence of 339 hafnium 171 Hess, G H
glucose 77, 124 Hahn, O Hess, H H
gluon 387 hahnium 239 Hess, V F
glycerol 70 Haldane, J B S Hess, W R 104
glycogen 33, 77 Haldane, J S 155 heterotrophs 276
Goddard, R H Hale, G E Hevesy, G C
Gödel, K Hales, S Hewish, A
Goeppert Mayer, M Hall, A Hey, J S
goitre 199, 205 Hall, C M 99 Heyrovsky, J
339, 360, 368
Gold, T 30, 144 Hall effect 214 HGP
Goldbach, C Hall resistance 203 Higgs, P W
Goldschmidt, H Haller, A von Higgs boson 178
Goldschmidt, V M Halley, E high energy particles, detection 142
Goldstein, J L Hamilton, W D high explosive lens 364
Golgi, C Hamilton, W R high level programming languages 180
Gondwanaland 339 Hanson, J high pressure studies 52
goniometer 382 Harden, A Hilbert, D
Goodricke, J Hardy, G H Hill, A V 253
384
Gordon, A 323 Hargrave, L Himalayas, gravitational attraction of 294
Gorgas, W C 302 harmony 298 Hinshelwood, C N
Goudsmit, S A Harrison, J hip joint replacement 69
Gould, J L Harteck, P Hipparchus (of Rhodes)
162, 174
Gould, S J Hartmann, J F Hippocrates
gout 174 Hartree“Fock approximation 127 His, W
Gowers, W T Harvey, W histamine 86, 381
Graaf, R de 22 Hassel, O 27 histidine 206
Graaff, R J Van de see Van de Graaff Haüy, R J histology 38, 105
Graham, T Hawking, S W Hitchings, G H
Gram, H C J Haworth, W N 198 Hittorf, J W 83
208
graphite Hayashi, C Hitzig, E
260
gravitation 66, 269, 292 heart HIV
lack of transmitting medium for 197 and circulation 159 Hodgkin, A L
variation of 94 diseases of 41, 110, 127, 237 Hodgkin, D C
gravitational anomalies 3 heat hoe 354
explanation for 294 mechanical equivalent of 195 Hoff, J H van ™t
gravitational mass, and inertial mass 94 theory of 310 Hofmann, A W von
278
gravity heat engine, history of Hofmann exhaustive methylation 176
gravitons 345 Heatley, N G Hofmann rearrangement 176
gravity waves 345 Heaviside, O Hoffmann, P E 318
gravity, submarine 360 Heeger, J 237 Hofmeister, W F B
Gray, S Heezen, B C Hofstadter, R
Great Britain 192
55 Heidenreich, C von S hog cholera 326
Great Eastern 55 Heisenberg, W K Hollerith, H
Great Western Helicobacter pylori
55 41 Holley, R W 201
Great Western Railway 55 heliocentric system 76, 134 Holmes, A
Green, G helium hologram 133
Green, M B abundance of in universe 4, 285 holography 133
224
green revolution discovery in Sun 229 homeostasis 33, 61
Greenfield, Susan discovery on Earth 300 hominids
Australopithecus afarensis
Greengard, P 63 liquid 197, 211 191
12, 16 Australopithecus africanus 218
greenhouse effect nucleosynthesis of 137
Australopithecus ramidus 218
Greenland, ice sheet 267 helium II 197
Australopithecus robustus 218
Gregory, J helium-3 303
Grignard, F A V Helmholtz, H L F definition of 227
218
group theory 134, 195 Helmont, J B van earliest
Grove, W R Hench, P S 199 evidence of bipedalism 54
Homo erectus (Java Man) 100, 218
Guericke, O von Henderson, T
Homo habilis
Guettard, S A Henry, J 217
Homo sapiens 218
Guillaume, C E henry (unit) 166
Guldberg, C M Henry, W Java Man 100
Henry Draper Catalogue of Stellar
Gulf Stream 130 Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 217
Gulliver™s Travels Spectra
156 60 Taung skull 88
384 Zinjanthropus boisei
guncotton 1 Henson, W 217
Homo
GUT 149 Herapath, J 246
erectus 100, 218
Gutenberg, B heredity 48, 136, 248
habilis
Guth, A H Herelle, F H de 355 217
sapiens 218, 227
Guyot, A 170 Herman, R C 287
guyots 170 Hermite, C homotropy 323
gymnosperms 347 Hermitian form 166 t™Hooft, G
gyroscope 128 Hero Hooke, R
for rocket guidance 143 Herrick, J B 73 Hooker, J D
419
Index

Hooker 100in telescope 156 inductive method 22, 374 Joule“Thomson effect 196, 351
hookworm 318 inert gases (noble gases) 26, 300 Joule™s Law 196, 222
Hoover, President 3 inertial mass 237 jumping gene 236
Hopkins, F G infertility 104 Jupiter
Hopkins, H H infinity, symbol for 368 comet impact on 403
Hoppe-Seyler, E F inflammation 72, 247 discovery of moons 134
Hopper, G inflation hypothesis 151 effect on asteroids 202
hormone 333, 342 information theory 323, 341 rotational period 65
horology 158 Ingen-Housz, J Jurine, L 331
192
Horrocks, J Inglis, E
hot spot hypothesis, of formation of mid-ocean Ingold, C K K capture 387
islands 380 insect pests 277 Kadanoff, L 380
13, 384 35
HOTOL Institute of Egypt Kahn, R 350
Hounsfield, G N insulators 147 kaleidoscope 52
Houssay, B A 77 insulin 1, 25, 77 Kamerlingh-Onnes, H
hovercraft 72 structure of 175, 317 Kandel, E 63
Intal see sodium cromoglycate
Hoyle, F 5 Kant, I
HTML 350 integral equation 131, 376 kaons, decay of 83
HTTP 350 integrated circuits 201 Kapitsa, P
78, 226
Hubble, E P interference, of light 125, 387 Kapteyn, J
95, 402
Hubble space telescope interferometer 253 Kármán, T von
Hubble™s constant 182 internal combustion engine 278 Karrer, P
Hubble™s Law 182 Internet 350 Katz, B 114
95
Hubel, D H interstellar dust, detection of 354 Keck I and II
Hückel, E interstellar hydrogen 183 Kekul©, F A
61 Kelvin, Lord see Thomson, W
Huggins, M intron 190
Huggins, W invar 151 kelvin scale 67
Hughes, E D 187 inverse square law Kendall, E C
Hulse, R A 345 between electric charges 66, 80 Kendrew, J C 289
Hulst, H C van de between magnetic poles 66 Kennelly, A E 9, 161
368
Human Genome Project ionosphere Kepler, J
218
human origins effect of ultraviolet light 69 Kerr, J
Humboldt, F von height of 355 Kettlewell, H B D
Hume-Rothery, W reflective layers 9, 161, 346 Kew, botanic garden 24, 179
162
humoral theory Ipatieff, V N Khorana, H G
Khwarizmi, Al- see Al-Khwarizmi
Hund, F 264 IPCC 16
162 363
Hunter, W iron“nickel alloys 151 Kilby, J
224
husbandry irrational number 298 Kilby, J S C
Hutton, J irreversible thermodynamics 296 kinetic energy, formula for 77
Huxley, H E irritability 156 kinetic theory of gases 45, 68, 245
Huxley, T H Isaac Newton telescope 57 Kipping, F S
Huygens, C Isaacs, A Kirchhoff, G R
hybridization (of bonds) 284 isochronism of simple pendulum 134, 185 Kirkwood, D
hybridoma 256 isomorphism 256 Kitasato, S
hydrazine 85 isoprene 187 Klaproth, M H
hydroboration 54 rule for terpenes 313 Klein, C F
hydrodynamics 33, 338 isostasy 3, 294 Klitzing, K von
hydrogen evidence for 355 Klug, A
detection in space 183, 297 isotope 12, 327 Klumpke, D
in the Sun 8 Israel 372 Knipping, P 213
liquid 94, 197 Issigonis, A Koch, H H R
hydrogen azide 85 IVF 104 Kocher, E T
342
hydrogen bomb 316, 346 Kodak system
16
hydrogen economy J/psi particle 130, 273, 318 Kögl, F 102
Jacob, F 258
hydrogen maser 300 Köhler, G. 256
Jacobi, K G J
hydrogen, o- and p- forms 159, 164 Kolbe, A W H
Jacquard, J M
hydrogen spectrum 23, 44 Kolmogorov, A N
Jansky, K G
hydrostatic pressure 282 Korff, S 223
Janssen, P 229
hydrostatics 11, 282 Kornberg, A
13
jargonium 329
Hypatia Korolev, S P
Java Man 100
hyperbola 9 Kossel, A
Javan, A 239
hypersensitivity 303 Kovalevsky, S
Jeans, J H
hypothalamus 171 Kr¤tschmer, W 208
Jeffreys, A J Krebs, H A
Kremer, Gerhard see Mercator, Gerardus
Jeffreys, H
Iapetus, discovery 65
Jenner, E
IBM 177 Kroemer, H 4, 201
Jerne, N 256
ice ages Krogh, S A
jet engine 375
astronomical causes 254 Kronecker, L
jet stream, discovery of 308
first evidence for 3, 234 Kroto, H W 44
Jex-Blake, S
periodicity of 111 krypton 300
Jodrell Bank radio telescope 233
Iceland spar, double refraction of 26, 271 Kühne, W F
Ichthyosaurus Johanson, D C
8 Kuiper, G P
Joliot, F
IgG 103 kuru 133
Joliot-Curie, I
Ignarro, L 295 kwashiorkor 378
Joly, J
igneous rocks, differentiation in 48 kymograph 234
Jones, H S see Spencer Jones, H
iguanodon 241
la Beche, H T de see de la Beche
immunoglobulin 103 Jordan, E P
immunology 57, 104, 247 Jordan, M E C Lack, D L 385
163
index theorem 15 Josephson, B D La«nnec, R T H
indigo 23 Joule, J P Lagrange, J L
induction (electromagnetic) 166 joule (unit) 196 Lamarck, J B P A
420
Index

Lamb, H Liebig, J von Lyell, C
357
Lamb shift 102 life, origin of Lyme Regis 8
Lambert, J 47 Lifshitz, E M 211 lymphatic system 315
Lambert™s Law 47 ligands 373 lymphocytes 254, 256
Land, E H light Lyon, M P
Landau, L D electric 104 Lyot, B F
Landau levels 211 pressure of 219 Lysenko, T D 360
landforms, study of 90 scattering of by dust 356 lysosome 101
Landsteiner, K speed of 49, 125, 253, 305 lysozyme 125
Langevin, P wave theory of 131, 185, 387
Langley, S P lighthouse 131 MacArthur, R H
Langmuir, I lightning 129 McCance, R 375
384
languages, computer programming 180, 338 Lilienthal, O McClintock, B
Laplace, P S de limiting factors, in plant growth 42 MacDiarmid, A G
Lapworth, A 305 Lind, J MacDonald, G 265
Lapworth, C 322 Lindblad, B Macewen, W
Larmor, J Lindemann, F A Mach, E
Lartet, E A I H linear accelerator 5, 72 MACHOS 310
laser linear differential equation 195 Mackenzie, J
237, 334
construction of first 238 linkage (of genes) 27 McLaren, A
329
invention of 27, 318, 354 Linnaeus, C MacLean, I S
180
latent heat 41 Linnean Society Macleod, J J R 25
la Tour, C de see Cagniard de la Tour Liouville, J McMillan, E M
lattice, geodetic 368 Lipmann, F 206 macromolecules 333
95
Laue, M T F von Lippershay, H mad cow disease 133, 400
342
Laughlin, R B Lipscomb, W N Maddox, R L
121
Laurent, A liquefaction, of gases 59 Madhava
162, 308
Laveran, C L A liquid-drop model of nucleus 299 Magdeburg hemispheres 150
Lavoisier, A L liquid-fuel rockets 143 Magendie, F
Lavoisier, M A 216 liquid helium 94, 197 magic acid 275
law of combining volumes 139 liquid hydrogen 94 magic numbers (of nuclei) 144
law of constant proportions 296 liquid oxygen 94 magnetic dip 142
law of cooling 270 liquids, critical states 8 magnetic domain 26
law of elasticity 178 Lister, J magnetic field, dynamo theory for
law of octaves 268 Little Ice Age 244, 403 Earth 56, 111
law of partial pressures 87 Littlewood, J T 158 magnetic force, as function of electric
law of simple multiple proportions 87 Liveing, G D 94 current 6
law of specific nerve energies 264 Lobachevski, N I magnetic moment, of atoms 336, 359
Lawes, J B localization (electronics) 8, 263 magnetic reversals, remanent effects in oceanic
Lawrence, E O Lockyer, J N crust 244
lawrencium 217 lobotomy 104 magnetic storms, Chapman“Ferraro
lead“acid battery 291 locomotion, of animals theory 69
Leakey, L S B Lodge, O J magnetism
Leakey, M Loeffler, F A and aurorae 39
Leakey, R 217 Loewi, O 114 of Sun 21
61, 217
Leavitt, H logarithms 52, 267 pioneer work 142
Lebedev, P N logic 45, 143 produced by electricity 10, 274
Le Bel, J A 175 London, F theory of 8, 212
Lebesque, H L London equation 230 magneto-optical Kerr effect 200
Le Chatelier, H L London force 230 magnetosphere 359
Leclanch©, G London School of Medicine for Women 8, magnetostatics 292
191
Lederberg, J magnetron 46
262
Lederman, L 334 long-range communication magnets, methods of making 142, 166
Lee, D 303 Longuet-Higgins, H C 80 Maiman, T H
162
Lee, T D Lonsdale, K Maimonides, M
Leeuwenhoek, A van Lorentz, H A maize, genetics of 236
legumes 48 Lorenz, E N Maksutov telescope 319
Lehmann, I Lorenz, K Z malachite 296
Leibniz, G W Loschmidt, J J malaria 241, 308
Lema®tre, G E Lovelace, Ada King, Countess of 21 Malpighi, M
Lenard, P E A von Lovell, A C B Malthus, T R 88
218
Lenoir, J J E 280 Lovelock, J E man™s origins
231, 240
Lenz, H F E Lowell, P Mandelbrot, B
Leonids, meteor shower 319 Lower, R Manhattan Project 122, 276
Lepaute, N-R Lowry, T M 53 Manson, P
lepton 335 low-temperature physics 197 Mantell, G A
329
Leslie, M S low temperatures, methods of mantle, convection currents in 178
lesser circulation 73 achieving 141 Manton, I
Leucippus 92 Lubbock, J Manton, S
leucocyte 247 Lucretius 93 many-electron systems 127
194, 218 192
Levene, P A ˜Lucy™ Manzolini, A M
Leverrier, U J J Ludwig, K F W Marcet, J
Levi-Montalcini, R Lumière brothers 266 Marconi, G
levodopa 63 Lummer, O R Marey, E J
Lewis, G N lunar eclipses, cause 388 marine life, depth of 127
Lewis, K 2 lunar nomenclature 42 Markov, A A
180
Lewis, T 110 Lunar Society Markov process 205
Marks, P see Ayrton, H
Lewisite 289 lupus 123
Lewisohn, R 211 Luria, S E 169 Marriotte, E
Libby, W F Lwoff, A 258 Mars
Lie, M S Lyceum 11 canals 233, 319
421
Index

direction of axis of rotation 319 metric system 210 Montgolfier, J M
discovery of satellites 156 metrology 151 Moon
11, 13
geology 404 Meyer, V exploration
life on 404 Meyerhof, O F orbit and effect on tides 270
13
rotational period 65 Michaelis, L origin of
southern polar ice cap 319 Michell, J secular acceleration of 156
Marsden, E 312 Michelson, A A Moore, S
Marsh, O C Michelson“Morley experiment 125, 246, Mordell, L 117
Marshall, B 41 253 Morgagni, G B
Martin, A J P microanalysis 294 Morgan, T H
maser 318 microchip 201 Morley, E W
improvement of 238 microelectronics 201 Morse, S F B
261, 262
invention of 27, 353 microscope 1, 5, 178 Morse code
mass action, law of 151 achromatic 99 Moseley, H G J
mass“luminosity relationship 103 microscopy 178, 220, 328 Mossbauer, R L
mass spectrometer 12, 348 microtome 174, 298 Mott, N F
Massey, H 263 microwave 46 Mottelson, B R 299
mathematical logic 45, 143 microwave amplifier 354 Mount Palomar, 200-in telescope 156
mathematical rigour 371 microwave background radiation, 4, 287, 402 Moyle, J 256
121 7, 107
mathematics, history of mid-Atlantic ridge, discovery of 170, 347 mu-meson (muon)
matrices 67 midbrain 171 Mueller, E W
matrix mechanics 46 Midgley, T Muller, H J
Matthews, D H mid-ocean islands, hot spot hypothesis for Müller, J P
Matuyama, M formation of 380 Müller, K A 29
363
Mauchly, J mid-ocean ridges Müller, P H
Maud committee 348 discovery of central rift 114 Müller, W 139
Maunder, E W global extent of 114 Mulliken, R S
162
Mauriceau, F magnetic anomalies 361 Mullis, K B
Maury, A Miescher, F 181 multipotency 406
Maury, M F Milankovich, M multiwire detector 70
mauve 288 Milky Way 197 Munk, W H
6, 107
Maxwell, J C discovery of true nature 168 muon
295
Maxwell“Boltzmann distribution 246 Miller, J F A P Murad, F
255, 357
May, Sir R Miller, S L Murchison, R I
278 180
Maybach, W Millikan, R A Murdock, W
Mayow, J Mills, R L 386 Murphy, W 375
Mead, M Milne, E A muscle
measuring scale, precision 361 Milstein, C biochemistry of 253, 341
Mechnikov, I I Mimas, discovery 168 contraction 158, 184
Medawar, P B minerals 145 fibre 44, 184
medicine hardness 257 Mushet, R 38, 154
entry of women 192 Minkowski, R L musk 313
162
history of Minot, G 375 musk-ox 234
153
meiosis 337 Mira 115 mustard gas
Meissner effect 65 Miranda, discovery 209 mutagenesis 15
61
Meister, J 283 Mitchell, M mutation 15, 137, 264, 326
Meitner, L 132, 247 Mitchell, P D mutualism 91
384 265, 342
melanism 200 Mitchell, R Muybridge, E J
melanoma 123 mitochondria 281 myelin 302
memory 63, 149 mitosis 126 myosin 184, 207
Mendel, G J Mitscherlich, E myxomatosis 309
Mendelayev, D I Mizar 244
147 162
mendelevium 250 mnemonics Nabarro, D
Mercator, Gerardus Möbius, A F Naegeli, C W von
350
Mercury, orbit of 109, 222 Mockapetris, P nagana 55
208
mercury poisoning 337 Moho 257 nanotubes
mercury thermometer 115 Mohorovi c ic, A
˜´ Nansen, F
334
Merian, M Mohs, F Napier, J
35
Meselson, M S Mohs™s scale 257 Napoleon and science
mesoderm 23 Moissan, F F H Nathans, D 326
7, 108, 177, 274 Moivre, A de see de Moivre
meson Natta, G
National Academy of Sciences of the USA 180
messenger RNA 52 molar volume 18
384
Messerschmitt, W mole 18 natural philosophy 374
137, 368 Nature, founding of
metabolic disorders molecular beam 299 229
metabolism, of animals 310, 317 molecular biology 81, 370 nebulae
metal-insulator transition (Mott molecular orbital theory 8, 264 classification 182, 183
transition) 263 molecules 18 composition 183
metallocenes 377 electronic transitions 128 emission lines 48
metallography 328 size of 289 explanation 157
metals, crystalline structure 328, 345 vibration and rotation 128, 170 spectra 183
Metchnikof, E see Mechnikov, I I Molina, M 119 N©el, L E F
meteor detection, by radar 232 molluscs, classification 127 Ne™eman, Y
meteor streams 172, 319 Mond, L neodymium, discovery 373
meteorites 203 Monge, G neomycin 366
meteorology 77, 97, 231 Moniz, A (see Egas Moniz) neon 300
dynamical 39, 69 monoclonal antibody 255 isotopes of 12
meteors, orbits of 319 monocotyledons 10 Neoprene 64
16
methane Monod, J L nephritis 52
methane, primordial 144 Monro, A Neptune
methanol 34 Montagnier, L prediction of 1, 222
methionine 102 Montgolfier, J E rings and moons 401
422
Index

Neptunist theory Oberon, discovery 168 paddle-wheel experiment 196
162, 323, 327
abandonment of 93, 150 obstetrics paedomorphism 91
in geology 373 Occhialini, G 41, 274 Palade, G E
neptunium 239 ocean currents palaeoclimatic temperatures, oxygen
Nereid, discovery 209 effect of Coriolis force 77 isotope method 111
Nernst, H W variation with depth 110, 340 palaeontology, early 85
nerve ocean winds and currents, palladium 146, 382
cells 145, 298 first systematic survey of 245 Pallas, discovery of 275
electrical transmission in 44, 137, oceanic circulation, discovery of 347 Pangea 371
165, 174 oceanic crust Paneth, F A 171
278
fibres 2, 30, 174 formation of 170 Papin, D
growth factor 223 thickness of 114 Pappus
nerve“muscle preparation 340 oceanic sediment, thickness of 114 parabola 9
162, 281
nervous system 300 oceanography 81, 127, 347 Paracelsus, T P A B
networks, electrical 201 Ochoa, S 206 paraceratherium 8
Neumann, J Von see Von Neumann octet rule 223 parallax, for calculation of star™s distance 36
neuron 149 Oersted, H C parasitism 91
Neurospora 224
27 oestrone 58 Parathion
neurosurgery 85, 237 Ogilvie Gordon, M Paris Basin, geology of 53
neurotransmitter 63 Ohain, H J P von 375 parity, in particle physics 83, 220, 376,
neutral current 372 Ohm, G S 383, 386
241, 334
neutrino 284, 310, 334 Ohm™s Law 274 Parke, M W
107
neutron oil-drop experiment 255 parkinsonism 63
magnetic moment 5 oil shale 386 Parsons, C A
107
scattering and diffraction 53 Olah, G H particle physics, history of
neutron stars, rotating 31, 144, 172 Olbers, H Pascal, B
New World, discovery of 73 Olbers™s paradox 275 pascal (unit) 282
New Zealand, exploration 74 Oldham, R D Paschen, F 328
278 162, 282
Newcomen, J Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 217 Pasteur, L
Newlands, J A R oligonucleotide 265 pathology 38, 259, 362
Newton, I Oliphant, M 313 Paul, W
newton (SI unit) 270 Omaha Indians 126 Paul trap 283
Newtonian fluid 270 omega-meson 177 Pauli, W E
Nicholson, W oncogene 39 Pauling, L C
Paulze, M see Lavoisier, M
nickel 258 Oort, J H
Nicol, W Oort cloud 275 Pavlov, I P
Nicolle, C J H Oparin, A I Pawnee Indians 126
Ni©pce, J N operational research 41 Payne-Gaposchkin, C
162
Nightingale, F operator (biochemical) 258 Peano, G
251 operon 258
Nirenberg, M Peano axiom 92, 286
295 ophthalmoscope 165
nitric oxide (NO) Pearson, K
Oppenheimer, J R
nitrogen fixation 153 Peebles, P J E 380
optical activity 38, 175, 282
nitroglycerin 271 Peierls, R
100, 218
optical fibres 180
nitrous oxide (dinitrogen monoxide) 90 Peking Man
optics, medieval 4
Nobel, A B Pelletier, P J
orbital electron capture 5
nobelium 239 Peltier, J C A 322
Ordovician period 322
noble gas compounds 26 Peltier effect 322
organ transplants 64, 247
noble gases 300 pendulum
organic synthesis 33
Noddack, I E compound 185
organoboranes 54
Noether, E simple 134, 185
organomagnesium compounds 150
no-hair theorem 160 peneplain 90
357
origin of life on Earth
non-crystalline semiconductor 263 penicillin 68, 125, 161, 175
Origin of Species
non-Euclidean geometry 228 88 penicillinase 68
224, 277, 334
noradrenalin 114 Ormerod, E Penrose, R
Norrish, R G W ornithine cycle 206 Penzias, A A
61
north magnetic pole 306 Orr, M A peppered moth 200
Northrop, J H ortho- and para-hydrogen 159, 164 pepsin 273
Nossal, G 219, 256 orthopaedic surgery 69, 237 peptic ulcer 41
notochord 23 oscilloscope 51 percussion of chest 210
201, 363
Noyce, R Osheroff, D 303 Perey, M
nuclear fission 122, 132, 272 osmosis 101 perfect cosmological principle 45, 144
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 43, 297 osteoarthritis 69 periodic function 128
107
nuclear physics, history of Ostwald, F W periodic table 248, 249
277, 278
nuclear reaction, first artificial 72 Otto, N A Perkin, W H
nuclear structure 144, 177 ovum 22, 104 Perl, M L
nucleic acids 69, 181, 222 Owens College 129, 306 Permian period 265
nucleon 387 oxime 28, 252 Perrin, J B
nucleotides 353 oxygen Perseids, meteor shower 319
nucleus discovery of 295, 318 Pert, C 327
(atomic) 312 isotope method, for measuring Perutz, M F
(of cell) 54 past temperatures 111 Peters, R A
Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories 232 isotopes of 141 Petit, A T 101
number theory 91, 97, 373 oxytocin 102 Petri dish 205
numbers, irrational 298 ozone 8, 146 petrol (gasoline), synthetic 32
numerals, Hindu (˜Arabic™) 4, 123 formation in atmosphere 119 petroleum chemistry 187
119, 307
Nu±ez, P 361 ozone layer petrology, experimental 48, 112,
nutation 49, 68 330
π, evaluation of 162
nutrition 48, 179, 375 Pettenkofer, M von
11, 297, 388
nutritional deficiency disease 378 P waves 275 pH scale 331
Nuttall, J M 139 Pacific, exploration 74 phagocytosis 247
Nylon 64 packing fraction 15 phase transition 380
423
Index

251
phenotype polypropylene 267 quantum hypothesis, experimental
phenylhydrazine 124 Poncelet, J V proof 128
116
pheromone Pont, E I du 215 quantum mechanical tunnelling 112
Philip II of Macedon 11 Popov, A S quantum mechanics 98, 320
Phillips, P popular science writers, early 242, 328 quantum theory 105, 291
Phillips, W D population genetics 65, 158 quark 140, 142, 335
phlogiston 332 population inversion (in physics) 354 quarks, concept of 132
Phobos, discovery 156 populations, animal 236, 385 quasar 44, 317, 319
phonograph, invention 104 porphyrins 124 quaternion 15, 157
121
phonon 211 Porter, G 272, 293 Quetelet, A
334
photochemistry 57, 293, 306 Porter, Helen K quinine 287, 288
photoelectric effect 106, 221, 255 Porter, R R quintic equation 1, 166
photoelectrochemistry 29 position effect, in genetics 339
photograms 15 positive rays 12, 348 Rabi, I I
Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype positron 7, 97, 274 rabies 283
Impressions 15, 342 potassium, discovery 90 race and genetics 98
15, 342
photography potential theory 147 radar
photometry, foundations of 47 Poussin, C J 154 invention 370
photosynthesis 59, 187, 316 Powell, C F ionospheric 52, 355
46, 232, 276, 370
phototherapy 123 Poynting, J H wartime development
phylum 85, 227 Poynting™s vector 294 radar noise 172
pi-meson (pion) 7, 293, 387 praseodymium 373 radiation pressure 293
Piazzi, G Pratt, J H radio
Picard, C E precession 3, 68 early 11, 51, 123, 229, 242, 263
Piccard, A 81 Pregl, F long-distance transmission 9
Pickering, E C 244 Prelog, V 80 radio astronomical source,
Pick™s disease 123 Priestley, J optical counterpart 256
piezoelectric effect 84 Prigogine, I radio astronomy
Piggott, E 145 prime number, largest 402 first sky survey 314
218
Piltdown Man prime number theorem 112, 158 origins 172, 189, 301
Pincus, G G prime numbers, sieve of Eratosthenes 112 pioneer study 172, 232
162 Principia mathematica
Pinel, P 157, 269 pulsars 30
pion 7, 293, 387 French translation 70 radio sources, in Milky Way 301
Principles of Geology
pituitary gland 77, 85 178, 235 radio telegraphy 229, 242
95, 232
plague 202 principle of equivalence 106 radio telescopes
Planck, M Pringsheim, E radio waves
planetary orbits, perturbations 36 Pringsheim, N discovery of 169
planets prion 133, 297, 400 prediction of 246
laws of motion 200 probability, early work on 93, 120, 282 radioactinium (protactinium) 155, 248
novel systems 406 probability theory 205, 292 radioactive dating 178, 195, 223
radii of orbits 43 progesterone 290 radioactive displacement law 117, 327
rotational periods 325 program, computer 20 radioactive recoil 54
plant taxonomy 227, 301 programming languages 21, 180 radioactive tracers 171
Plant©, R L G projective geometry 292 radioactive transmutation 54, 313
28, 84, 107, 312
plants, ultrastructural study of 241 projectiles 344 radioactivity
plasma (in physics) 4 Prokhorov, A 27, 354 radiocarbon dating 223
plasmid 48 Prontosil Red 48, 99 calibration 100
plasmolysis 365 proper motion, of stars 26, 290 radio-elements, artificial 194, 195
plastid 296 propranolol 40 radioimmunoassay 386
plate tectonics 57, 244, 371, 380, 400 protactinium 155, 248 radiometer 83, 219
platinum 382 prostaglandins 33, 114 Radnitz, G 77
Pliny (the Elder) proteins 124, 259, 284, 317 radon 54, 300
Pliopithecus 213 proton fusion reaction 372 rain formation 32
224
plough protoplasm 72, 298 Rainwater, L J
plow (plough) 355 Proust, L J Raisin, C
Plücker, J 83 Prout, W Raman, C V
Pluto Prout™s hypothesis 296 Raman effect 299
density of 402 Prusiner, S B 400 Ramanujan, S 158
discovery of 353 pterins 375 Ramon, G 29
78, 297
prediction of 233 Ptolemaic system Ramón y Cajal, S
satellite of 400, 402 Ptolemy (of Alexandria) Ramsay, W
162, 327
Plutonic theory 184 public health Ramsey, N
plutonium 186, 217, 238, 322 puerperal fever 323 Randall, J T 46
pneumatic trough 156, 294 pulsar 30, 144, 172 Raoult, F M
pneumococcus 18 binary 345 Raoult™s Law 28, 301
Pogson, N R punctuated evolution 146 rare earths 373
Poincar©, J H Purcell, E M 183 rates, of chemical reactions 12, 114
Poisson, S D Purkinje, J E Ray, J
Poisson distribution 292 Pythagoras Rayleigh, J W Strutt, 3rd Baron
Poisson™s ratio 292 Rayleigh scattering 299
polarimetry 39 QCD 142 rayon 83
QED see quantum electrodynamics
polarization angle 52 reaction rates 12
polarized light 211, 271 quadratic equation 4 real analysis 36
polarography 172 quadratic form 166 reaper 224
Polaroid ® 211 quanta 106, 291, 376 rearrangement reaction, of ketoximes 28
poliomyelitis 69, 315 quantum chromodynamics 142 R©aumur, R F de
polonium 83 quantum electrodynamics 102, 123, 178, 299, Reber, G
polyacetylene 237 321, 353 recombinant DNA technology 32
polymerase chain reaction 265 quantum field theory 123, 386 red blood cell 340, 374
polymers 64, 267, 333 quantum fluids 214 redshift 100, 183, 319
163, 302
polymorphism 257 quantum Hall effect 203 Reed, W
424
Index

95 180
reflecting telescope Royal Society of London scrapie 133, 400
Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire 63 women™s role in 18, 230, 238, 335, 336 screws 11
95
refracting telescope Royds, T 312 scurvy 74, 226
refraction 120, 327 Rubbia, C Seaborg, G T
refractive index 327 rubidium seaborgium 239
Regnault, H V dating 155 sea-floor spreading hypothesis 170
Reichstein, T 309 discovery of 202 evidence from mid-ocean islands 380
Reid, H F Rubin, V C magnetic evidence for 244, 362
Reines, F 284, 288 Rubner, M seas, depth of life in 127
rejection (of transplants) 64, 174, 247 Rudolphine Tables 51, 200 second law of thermodynamics 71
276
relativity Rumford, B Thompson, Count Second World War, science in
and bending of light by gravity 103 Ruska, E A F secretin 333
and cosmology 132 Russell, A 244 Sedgwick, A
relativity theory 105, 263, 304 Russell, H N sediment slump 163
329
and nuclear particles 98 Rutherford E, 1st Baron Rutherford Seebeck, T J
Remak, R at McGill 53 Seebeck effect 322
replication (of DNA) 81, 250 rutherfordium 239 seed-drill 355
repressor (of gene action) 142, 258 Ruz ˜ka, L
˜ic Segrè, E G
reserpine 63 Rydberg, J R seismic refraction, in upper mantle 355
resistance, of metals 197, 221, 274 Ryle, M seismograph, invention of 388
resonance (of bonds) 284 seismology, theoretical 190, 275, 304
Selborne, Natural History of
respiration, animal 155, 206, 234 S waves 275 375
respirometer 370 Sabatier, P 150 selenium 36, 257
restriction enzymes 326 Sabin, A B Semenov, N N 173
16
Revelle, R Sabin, F semiconductor 51, 112, 324
reverse transcriptase 24 Sabine, W C semiconductor lasers 4
163, 323
Reynolds, O Sachs, J von Semmelweis, I P
Rhea, discovery 65 SAD 123 serotonin 149
rhenium 272 safety lamp 90 Serre, J-P
rhodium 382 Saha, M N sex (in bacteria) 219
rhodopsin 207 Sakharov, A D sex determination 26, 336
ribonuclease 8, 259 Salam, A sex hormones 58
ribose 222 Salk, J 315 sex-linkage 260
ribosomes 252, 281 Salvarsan 105 sextant, invention of 155
Ricardo, H 97 Samuelsson, B I 33 Seyfert, C K
Richards, D W 127 San Francisco, destruction of 304 Seyfert galaxies, discovery of 323
Richards, T W Sandage, A R Shannon, C E
Richardson, R C Sanger, F Shapley, H
Richet, C Sanger Centre 339 shell model of nucleus 144, 177, 299
Richter, B Santorio, S Sherrington, C S
Richter, C F sarcomere 184 Shirakawa, H 237
285, 334
Richter scale 304 Sargant, E Shockley, W B
rickettsia 271 satellites, communication 71 Shoemaker, C 167
Riemann, G F B Saturn sickle-cell anaemia 285
329
Riemannian geometry 304, 373 discovery of ring system 65, 134, 185 Sidgwick, E
Rift valley, mid-atlantic 245 rotational period 156 Sidgwick, N V
ring structure of molecules, Saturn rockets 13, 51 Siegbahn, K M B 318
278
discovery of 81, 198 Savery, T Siegbahn, K M G 318
rivers, erosive action of 184 scale, Vernier 361 Siemens, C W
81, 222, 352, 357
RNA scanning tunnelling microscope 311 Siemens“Martin open-hearth steel
Robbins, F C 111 scattering, of light by dust 356 furnace 324
335 Sceptical Chymist Silent Spring, The
Robertson, M 49 64
Robin, G de Q Scharlieb, M 193 Siemens, E W von
Robinson, R Schaudinn, F R silicon 201
279, 280
Rochas, A B de Schawlow, A L silicones 201
Roche, E A Scheele, C W Silurian period 265
163
Roche limit 305 Schiaparelli, G V Simon, J
Rochow, E G 201 Schickard, W 363 Simpson, J Y 327
13, 51, 143
rockets, liquid fuel schizophrenia 63, 104 Simpson, T
Rohrer, H Schleiden, M J siren 59
Römer, O C Schmidt, B V Sirius, redshift of 183
Röntgen, W K Schmidt, G C 312 Sirius B 2
96
ROSAT Schmidt, M prediction of 36
Roscoe, H E Schrieffer, J R site-specific mutagenesis 326
36, 387
Rosetta Stone Schrödinger, E Sitter, W de
Rosing, B 389 Schrödinger™s equation 320 Skou, J C 367
Ross, J C Schwabe, H S Skull, C G 53
163, 308
Ross, R Schwann, T sky, blue colouring 356
Rossby, C-G A Schwartz, L Skylab 14
109
Rossby waves 308 Schwartz, M 334 SLAC (electron linear accelerator)
95, 281
Rosse, Earl of Schwarzchild, K Slipher, V M
Rossi, B B Schwarzchild, M 321 Smalley, R E 207
rotating-mirror experiment 127 Schwarzchild radius 160, 321 smallpox 190
rotating-pendulum experiment 128 Schwinger, J S Smeaton, J
Science (journal) 162
Rothamsted Experimental Station 216 30 Smellie, W
Rothschild, M scientific illustration, first use of Smith, H O
roton 211 photography in 15, 100 Smith, M
Rous, F P scientific method 22, 270, 374 Smith, T
180
Roux, P P E scientific societies Smith, W
Rowland, S 119 scientist, origin of the word 374 Smithson, J 166
Royal Institution 90, 149, 311 Scorpio X-1 309 smoking, tobacco 99
425
Index

Smoot, G 151 spectral types 60, 169, 244 sulphonamides 48, 99
Snell, G D 89 structure and evolution of 68, 103 sulphur, extraction of 131
Snel(l), W van R variable 60, 217 sulphuric acid, making of 289
Snow, J static electricity, generator 359 Sulston, J E
Snyder, S H statics 11 Sumner, J B 273
Sobrero, A 271 statistical physics 45 Sun
sociobiology 379 statistics 124, 136, 286 chemical abundances in 131, 311
Soddy, F Staudinger, H helium in 229, 285
sodium cromoglycate, anti-asthma steady-state theory, of the origin of the hydrogen in 285, 311
drug 5 universe 45, 144, 182, 319 infrared spectrum 212
308 63, 278, 371
solar flares steam engine intrinsic motion through space 168
discovery of 64 steam turbine 281 magnetic field of 21
solar prominences 229 steamships 55 position in Galaxy 401
solar system stearin 71 spectrum 131, 229
147
names of planets steel variation of rotational period with
nebular hypothesis for its early production 37 latitude 64
formation 197, 213 structure of 331 X-ray cycle 132
stability 213 steel furnaces 324 sundial 7
Steensen, N see Steno, N
tidal theory of formation 190 sunspots
solstice 7 discovery of 134
Stefan, J
Solvay process 258 discovery of cycle in activity 320
Stefan“Boltzmann radiation law 296, 333
61, 328
Somerville, M long term changes in activity 244
Stein, W 259
magnetic fields of 21, 155
Sommerfeld, A J W Steinberger, J
suntan 123
sonar 212 stellar distances, early estimates 165, 185, 253
supercomputer 81
Sorby, H stellar evolution 68, 311
superconductivity
Sörensen, S P L stellar parallax, first detection 165
early work 197
sound, recorded 104 stellar population types 20
252 newer work 29, 195, 400
Southern, E stellar radio sources 172
theory of 25, 65, 76, 319
Soviet Special Astrophysics stellar spectra
supercontinent, former 339
Observatory 156 classification of 60, 244
13 supercooling 117
space flight metal ions in 316
14 superexchange (magnetic) 8
Space Shuttle stellar structure 103
14, 402 superfluidity 198, 211, 303
space telescope stellar variability, photographic study of 60
12, 13 superheavy chemical elements 239
spacecraft stem cells 407
superheterodyne (circuit) 11
Spallanzani, L Steno, N
superphosphate 216
spark photography 344 Steno™s Law 336
335, 336 superposition, in geology 326
special theory of relativity 105 Stephenson, M
superstring theory 149
species 88, 98, 146 Steptoe, P C 104
surfaces, curvature of 258
specific heat 41 stereochemistry 175, 252, 282
surgical shock 82
spectacles, bifocal 129 steric hindrance 253
251
Sutton, W
spectra, atomic 313, 328 Stern, O
spectroheliograph 156 Stern“Gerlach experiment 299, 336 Svedberg, T
spectroscopic photography 183 steroids 58, 199, 375, 380 Swallow, J C
spectroscopy carbon skeleton of 96 Swan, J W 291
electronic 169 stethoscope 210 Swammerdam, J
334, 336
pioneers of 60, 201, 244 Stevens, N Swieten, G van 162
spectrum, of Sun 131, 229 Stevin, S Swift, Jonathan 156
speed of light 125, 127, 253, 305 Stibitz, G Sydenham, T
279
Spencer Jones, H Stirling, R Sylvester, J J
sperm 206 stochastic process 276 symbiosis 91
Sperry, R W Stock, A synapse 63, 145, 324
spin Stokes, G G synchrocyclotron 238
(of atoms) 336 stomach 28 synchrotron radiation 322, 352
14
(of electrons) 98, 145, 357 stomach ulcer 40 Syncom
spin quantum number 284 stomata 101 Synge, R L M 243
spinthariscope 83 Stommel, H 340 synthetic polymers 64
spontaneous generation 283, 331 Stoney, G J syphilis 105, 318, 370
13, 233
Sputnik Stopes, M systole 159, 333
257
Stahl, F Störmer, H L 214 Szent-Györgi, A von N
Stahl, G E Strachey, C Szilard, L
stamen 59 strain theory 23
109, 404 261
Standard Model strangeness 140 T-lymphocytes
Stanley, W M Strasburger, E A tacticity 267
Star Wars 346 stratigraphy 53, 326, 336 Taieb, M 194
Stark, J stratosphere, discovery 346 Takamine, J
Stark effect 332 streptomycin 366 Talbot, W H F
Starling, E H string galvanometer 110 Tamm, I E 70
384
stars Stringfellow, J Tartaglia, N 61, 344
birth and death of, typical 312 strong nuclear force 376, 387 tartaric acid 282
75
composition of 285 strontium 203 Tasman, A J
27, 219, 251
distance of 36, 185, 219, 253 structure theory (organic chemistry) 80, 198 Tatum, E L
double 253 strychnine 287, 382 Taung skull 88
first catalogues 50, 173 Sturgeon, W 166, 338 Taussig, H
first telescopic catalogue 125 Sturm“Liouville theory 228 taxonomy 59, 227, 301
magnetic fields 21 Sturtevant, A H Taylor, G I
mechanism of energy production 38 SU4 symmetry 142 Taylor, J H
350
nuclear synthesis of heavy elements 182 subduction zone 171, 360 TCP/IP
nucleosynthesis in 372 submarine telegraph, first transatlantic 349 tea plants, introduction to India 24
proper motion of 26, 156 substitution group (in mathematics) 65 technetium 323
scale of magnitude of brightness 173, 291 Suess, E Teisserenc de Bort, L P
spectra of 183 Suess, H 16 telegraph 261, 349, 374
426
Index

262 Titanic, discovery
telegraphy 245 unitary symmetry 140
telegraphy, theory of 161 titanium 203 universe
telephone 30 Titius, J D 43 age of 182
telescope Tizard, H 227 expanding 151, 221, 325
achromatic 99 Tizard Mission 72 origin of 45, 144, 161, 287, 402
early 97, 134 tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 203, 332 size 182
Hooker 100in 156 tocopherol 352 upper atmosphere waves 309
96
Hubble Todd, A R 82, 352 Uraniborg, observatory 50
96 TOE (Theory of Everything) 149 uranium 28, 203, 239
Keck
Uranus 168, 400
Mount Palomar 200in 156 Tombaugh, C W
95, 150, 154, 270 naming of 43
reflecting tomography, computer-assisted
Soviet 236in 156 (CAT) 77, 182 urea, synthesis of 381
Tomonaga, S-I urea cycle (ornithine cycle) 206
Yerkes 40in 156
television 23, 389 tonsils 367 urease 273
Teller, E toothed-wheel experiment 125, 127 Urey, H C 255, 358
uric acid 23
Temin, H M 24 topology 15, 292, 304
350
Torricelli, E URL
temperature
absolute scale 351 totipotency 406 uv rays 123
centigrade scale 67 Townes, C H
224 51, 276
Fahrenheit scale 115 Townshend, C V-2 missile
Kelvin scale 351 toxoid 29 vaccination 190
lowest 403 trade winds, motion of 154 vaccine 163, 282
13 262
Tereshkova, V transatlantic cable valence
Tesla, N transatlantic telegraph 349 chemical 81, 129, 284
tesla (SI unit) 347 transcendental number 166 of carbon 81, 198
Tesla coil 346 transcription 82 valve (radio), thermionic 92, 125
terrestrial magnetism 56, 111, 142, 157 transduction 219, 388 Van Allen, J A
tetanus 29, 202 transfer RNA 32 Van Allen radiation belts 359
van Beneden, E see Beneden
Tethys, discovery 65 transform faults, in plate tectonics 380
tetra-ethyl lead 254 transformer 118 Van de Graaff, R J
Texas cattle fever 326 transistor 4, 25, 51, 201, 324 Van de Graaff generator 359
van de Hulst, H C see Hulst
thalassaemia 375 translation (of RNA) 82
Thales (of Miletos) transpiration 156 van der Meer, S 310
van der Waals, J D see Waals
thallium 83 transplant 64, 247
van Helmont, J B see Helmont
Thames tunnel 55 transuranic elements 238, 239, 322
van Leeuwenhoek, A see Leeuwenhoek
Tharp, Marie 245 Trevithick, R 279
Theiler, M triads, law of 98 van Swieten, G 162
van ™t Hoff, J H see Hoff
Thenard, L J 139 tricarboxylic acid cycle 206
Theophrastus trigonometry 113, 173, 361 Van Vleck, J H
theoretical chemistry 80, 284 triode valve 92 vanadium 306
theory of types (in organic chemistry) 101, 140 tritium 159 Vane, J R 33
theory of valence 81, 129 tropisms, in plants 316 vapour density 252
thermal diffusion of gases 68 troposphere 345, 346 variable stars
192
thermionic valve 92, 126 Trotula discovery 115
thermochemistry 33, 170, 215 Trumpler, R J explanation 145
thermocouple 322 truth quark 404 Varmus, H E 39
thermodynamics 63 trypanosomiasis 55 vascular surgery 64
first law of 196, 351 trypsin 273 vasopressin 102
second law of 71, 351 tsetse fly 55 Vauquelin, L N
13
statistical 45 Tsiolkovsky, K E Vavilov, N I
third law of 268 Tsui, D C 214 Velox paper 22
thermoelectricity 322 Tswett, M S Veltman, M J G 178
thermometer, mercury 115 tuberculosis 73, 205, 366 Vening Meinesz, F A
224, 354
Thermos flask 94 Tull, J Venter, C
thiamin (vitamin B1) 105, 289, 352 tungsten 75 Venus
thin section technique, in petrology 328 tunnelling, quantum mechanical 112 discovery of phases of 134
384
thiophene 253 Tupolev TU 144 rotational period of 65
Thomas, S G 38 turbidity currents 163 transit of 74, 181
Thompson, B see Rumford turbine, steam 281 Vernier, D
Thomson, C W turbulence 303, 325, 345 Vernier scale 361
162, 361
Thomson, G P Turing, A M Vesalius, A
Thomson, J J Turing machine 355 Vesta, discovery 275
Thomson, W, 1st Baron Kelvin Turlay, R 83 Viagra 404
Thomson effect 323 Tuve, M A Viète, F
thorium 54 Twort, F W Vigenère cipher 21
Vigneaud, V Du see Du Vigneaud
three-body problem 3, 39 Tyndall, J
224
threshing Tyndall effect 356 Vine, F J
thunderstorms, radio location of 370 type formulae, in organic chemistry 140 Virchow, R L C
thymus gland 254 typhus 271 Virtanen, A I
thyroid 199, 205 virtual particle 352
thyroxine 199, 205 Uhlenbeck, G E virus culture 111
tidal friction 197 UK Atomic Energy Authority 227 viruses 92, 203, 230, 315
tidal theory, of formation of solar system 190 Ulam, S 346 crystalline 332
time-lapse photography 243 ultracentrifuge 339 slow 133
148, 178, 195, 351
time scale, geological ultra-low temperatures 290 viscose 83
Tinbergen, N ultramicroscope 388 viscosity, of fluids 303, 337
Ting, S C C ultrastructural study of plants 241 visual cortex 182
Tiselius, A W K Ulysses spacecraft 403 visual purple 207
tissue 38 uncertainty principle 163 vital force 34, 381
Titan, discovery 185 underwater cinematography 81 vitamins 179
Titania, discovery 168 uniformitarianism, in geology 184, 235 vitamin A 198
427
Index

vitamin B1 105, 289, 352 Watt engine 371 circulation of 58
vitamin B12 175, 353, 375, 382 wave equation 320 first map of 157
vitamin C 226, 285, 341 wave function 46 stratospheric 308
vitamin D 381 wave mechanics 46, 320 trade 154
vitamin E 352 wave modulation 12 wireless telegraphy 242, 292
vitamin H 102 wave-particle duality 53, 320 Withering, W
vitamin K 87, 99 wave theory of light 125, 131, 387 witherite 381
Vleck, J H Van see Van Vleck weak interaction (in physics) 316 Wittig, G 54
volcanoes, on Triton and Io 401 weak nuclear force 220, 376, 383 Wöhler, F
Volta, A G weather prediction, numerical Wollaston, W H
61, 192, 329, 334
voltaic pile 362 techniques 69 women in science
von Baer, KE see Baer Weber, J 346 Woodall, J 226
von Baeyer, A see Baeyer 135, 342, 371
Wedgwood, T Woodward, R B
von Behring, E see Behring Wegener, A L words, scientific 374
von Braun, W M M see Braun Weierstrass, K W T work, in mechanics 77
von Euler, U S see Euler 153
Weinberg, S World War First, science in
von Fehling, H C see Fehling 276
Weismann, A F L World War Second, science in
von Fraunhofer, J see Fraunhofer Weiz¤cker, C F von, World Wide Web 350
von Frisch, K see Frisch Weizmann, C Wright, O 382
von Guericke, O see Guericke Weller, T H 111 Wright, S
von Haller, A see Haller Welsbach, Baron von Wright, W
von Helmholtz, H see Helmholtz Wenner, A M 132 Wu, C-S
von Hofmann, A W see Hofmann Werner, A Wulf, T 171
von Humboldt, F see Humboldt Werner, A G Wurtz, C-A
von Kármán, T see Kármán westerlies, influence on global weather 309 Wurtz synthesis 385
von Klitzing, K see Klitzing Westinghouse, G 346 Wynne-Edwards, V C
von Laue, M T F see Laue Weyl, H
von Liebig, J see Liebig Wheatstone, C 119, 374 X-ray astronomy
von Naegeli, C W see Naegeli Wheatstone bridge 374 stellar 132, 309
Von Neumann, J J Whewell, W solar 132
von Sachs, J see Sachs Whipple, F L X-ray crystallography 49, 175, 230
von Siemens, E W see Siemens Whipple, G H X-ray diffraction 50, 213
von Szent-Györgi, A see Szent-Györgi White, G X-ray spectra 50, 263
von Wassermann, A see Wassermann white dwarf stars 68 X-ray tomography 77, 181
von Weiz¤cker, C F see Weiz¤cker discovery of 2 X-rays 75, 305
384
von Zeppelin, Count Whitehead, A N 143 xenon 300
vortices, Kármán 198 Whittington, H 366 xenon hexafluoroplatinate 26
13
VOSTOK Whittle, F xerography 62
Voyage of the Beagle 88 Widdowson, Elsie
Vries, H de Wieland, H O Yalow, R
384
VTOL Wien, W Yang, C N
Vulcan, prediction of 223 Wien™s displacement laws 296, 376 Yang“Mills theory 386
Wiener, N Yanofsky, C
W-boson 220, 310 Wiesel, T 182 Yeager, C 354
Waage, P 151 Wigner, E P year, length of 174, 388
Waals, J D van der Wiles, A J yeast 56
Waksman, S A Wilkes, M V yellow fever 302, 347
Walcott, C D Wilkins, A F 370 Yerkes, C T 156
Wald, G 209 Wilkins, M F H 82, 130, 370 Yerkes refracting telescope 156
Waldeyer-Hartz, W Wilkinson, G Yersin, A 162, 309
224
Walker, J E Wilkinson, J ylides 54
194, 377
Wallace, A R Williams, C Young, J
Waller, A D 110 Williams, R R 105 Young, T
Wallis, B N Williamson, A W Yukawa, H
Wallis, J Williamson synthesis of ethers 378
Z0 boson
Walton, E T S 72, 313 Willis, T 310, 372
75
WAN 350 Wills, W J Zeeman, P
Wankel, F Willst¤tter, R Zeiss, C 1
279, 369 384
Wankel rotary engine Wilmut, I Zeppelin, Count
Warburg, O H Wilson, C T R Zhang Heng
225
warfarin Wilson cloud chamber 142, 379 Ziegler, K 267
Wassermann, A von Wilson, E O Zinder, N D
62 Zinjanthropus boisei 218
water Wilson, F
electrolysis of 270 Wilson, J T zirconium 203
synthesis of 66, 258 Wilson, K G Zsigmondy, R A
Waterston, J J 246 Wilson, R W Zu Chongzhi
363
waterwheel 325 Wimshurst machine 359 Zuse, K
81, 368, 370
Watson, J D Windaus, A Zweig, G 140
Watson-Watt, R A Windler, S 382 Zworykin, V K
278, 371
Watt, J winds zymase 56, 158
watt (SI unit) 371 Beaufort scale 28




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