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the repressor that represses the action of the gene the European Organization for Nuclear Research
that forms an enzyme that acts on lactose) and (CERN) in Geneva and in the USA, and in 1967
showed it to be a protein. returned to Harvard as professor of physics.
Later he worked on the problem of finding the Glashow produced one of the earliest models
sequence of bases in DNA and devised an elegant explaining the electromagnetic and weak nuclear
method, broadly similar to Sanger™s but suitable forces. The Weinberg“Salam theory then devel-
for either single- or double-stranded DNA; the two oped this further and was a coherent theory for par-
methods are complementary and each is best ticles called leptons (electrons and neutrinos).
suited to particular cases. Gilbert shared a Nobel Glashow extended their theory to other particles
Prize for chemistry in 1980. such as baryons and mesons by introducing a parti-
Gilbert, William (1544“1603) English physician and cle property called ˜charm™. He used Gell-Mann™s
physicist: pioneer of the study of magnetism and theory that particles were made up of smaller par-
the Earth™s magnetic field. ticles called quarks, and postulated that a fourth
Gilbert was a physician by profession, being royal ˜charmed™ quark was necessary, giving a group of
physician to both Elizabeth I and James I, but is particles described by SU4 (Unitary Symmetry of
remembered for his extensive work on magnetism. Dimension 4). The dramatic discovery of the J (or
He discovered how to make magnets by stroking psi) particle that confirmed this approach was
pieces of iron with naturally magnetic lodestones, made by Ting and Richter in 1974. They found
or by hammering iron while it is aligned in the other predicted particles during the next 2 years.
Earth™s magnetic field, and also found that the Since then the quark theory has been extended to
effect was lost on heating. From his investigations include a ˜coloured™ quark, and the theory (which is
of magnetic dip he concluded that the Earth acted known as quantum chromodynamics, QCD) is now
as a giant bar magnet, and he introduced the term discussed on the basis of Glashow™s approach. He
˜magnetic pole™. His book De magnete (Magnets, shared a Nobel Prize in 1979.
Glauber, Johann Rudolph [glowber] (1604“68)
1600) is a classic of experimental science and was
widely read throughout Europe. It is often consid- German chemist: understood formation of salts
ered to be the first great scientific work written in from bases and acids.
England. Glauber developed an interest in chemistry after
142
Gödel, Kurt

Goddard, Robert Hutchings (1882“1945) US
having apparently been cured of typhus through
drinking mineral waters. He was one of the first to physicist: pioneered the liquid-fuel rocket.
have clear ideas about the formation of salts from Goddard was born and educated in Worcester,
bases by the action of acids, and prepared a wide MA, attending the Polytechnic Institute and Clark
range of chemicals. He is credited with the discov- University. He held the position of professor of
ery that sulphuric acid and common salt react to physics at Clark University for most of his life.
form hydrochloric acid and sodium sulphate Goddard was interested in the practical aspects of
(Glauber™s salt). As Glauber was something of a space travel from an early age and in 1919 pub-
charlatan, the latter was soon on sale as a cure for a lished a classic paper outlining many of the basic
wide range of ailments (and was used as a laxative). ideas of modern rocketry. Unlike some other pio-
He wrote several useful treatises on industrial neers of the space age, he was not content merely to
chemistry and noticed the peculiar precipitates test his ideas on paper and in 1926 built and tested
known as ˜chemical gardens™. a rocket propelled by gasoline and liquid oxygen. In
Gleditsch, Ellen (1879“1968) Norway™s first woman 1929 he established a research station in New
professor of chemistry; she determined the half-life Mexico, backed by the Guggenheim Foundation,
of radium. and soon sent up instrumented rockets, the fore-
The career of Ellen Gleditsch shows the possibil- runners of those used for atmospheric research,
ity of achieving one™s goal through manageable and developed a gyroscopic guidance system. By
steps from an unpromising position. She grew up 1935 his rockets had broken the sound barrier and
in Tromsö, where she did well at her coeducational demonstrated that they could function in the near-
school, particularly in mathematics. However, the vacuum of space. His pioneering work was not, how-
university entrance examination was reserved for ever, publicly acknowledged by the US Government
boys. Determined to continue her interest in sci- until 15 years after his death, when it awarded his
ence, Gleditsch became an apprentice apothecary widow $1 million for its numerous infringements
in 1897, studied pharmacology, gained a non-acad- of his 214 patents, incurred during its space and
emic degree (1902) and moved to Oslo. Here she defence programmes.
Gödel, Kurt [goedl] (1906“78) Austrian“US mathe-
became an assistant at the chemical laboratory of
the University of Oslo (1903) and three years later matician: showed that mathematics could not be
passed the qualifying university entrance examina- totally complete and totally consistent.
tion. She then worked as a teaching assistant there Growing up, Gödel was frequently ill and had a
(1906“7), where she wrote her first (and only) paper life-long concern with his health. He studied math-
on organic chemistry, on derivatives of amylben- ematics at Vienna, saw much of the development of
zene. Wishing to study with Marie Curie, and with the positivist school of philosophy and was appar-
a recommendation from the head of her labora- ently unconvinced. In 1930 he received his PhD,
tory, her paper on organic chemistry, a little luck, proving in his thesis that first-order logic is com-
and an award from the Dowager Queen Josephine™s plete “ so that in first-order logic every statement is
legacy, she went to work at the Institut de Radium provable or disprovable within the system. He then
in Paris (1907“12). Marie Curie had at first refused investigated the larger logical system put forward
Gleditsch, but needed another chemist and all her by B Russell (1872“1970) and A N Whitehead (1861“
co-workers then were physicists. Gleditsch became 1947) in their Principia mathematica, and his result-
Curie™s personal assistant responsible for the ing paper of 1931 may well be the most significant
tedious work of extracting pure radium salts. In event in 20th-c mathematics.
1912 she graduated as Licenci©e des Sciences The paper was titled ˜On Formally Undecidable
(equivalent of a BSc) from the Sorbonne. Her work Propositions of Principia mathematica and Related
in Paris produced five publications on radioactive Systems™ and showed that arithmetic was incom-
minerals. Armed with a scholarship from the plete. In any consistent formal system able to
American“Scandinavian Foundation she applied to describe simple arithmetic there are propositions
work with Boltwood at Yale. Despite a cool that can be neither proved nor disproved on the
response from him Gleditsch went for a year basis of the system. Gödel also showed that the con-
(1913“14) and while there determined the half-life sistency of a mathematical system such as arith-
of radium (the time required for half the atoms to metic cannot necessarily be proved within that
disintegrate) to be 1,686 years, a figure widely system. Thus a larger system may have to be used to
accepted by the scientific community (now esti- prove consistency, and its consistency assumed; all
mated to be 1,620 years). Boltwood had previously pretty unsatisfactory. The programme for develop-
estimated the half-life to be 2000 years, and ing mathematical logic suggested by Hilbert, F L G
Rutherford and Geiger found it to be 1760“1690 Frege (1848“1925) and Russell was therefore unten-
years. Honours and recognition followed this work. able, and it is now clear that there is no set of logi-
She returned home as fellow in chemistry at Oslo cal statements from which all mathematics can be
University, became reader in 1916 and a full pro- derived.
fessor in 1929, a post which she held until her Between 1938 and 1940 Gödel showed that
retirement in 1946. During the Second World War restricted set theory cannot be used to disprove the
Norway was occupied by Germany and Gleditsch axioms of choice or the continuum hypothesis; this
worked with the Resistance. was extended in 1963 when P J Cohen showed that
143
Goeppert Mayer, Maria

they are independent of set theory. Gödel also con- 1948 the ˜perfect cosmological principle™ with
tributed to general relativity theory and cosmol- Bondi and Hoyle, according to which the universe
ogy, and was a close friend of Einstein at Princeton. looks the same from every direction and at all times
Gödel had married and emigrated to Princeton in in its history. It is considered to have no beginning
1938 when the Nazis took Austria, and was a pro- and no end, with matter being spontaneously cre-
fessor there from 1953“76. He was an unassuming ated from empty space as the universe expands, in
man with a variety of interests. order to maintain a uniform density. Although the
Goeppert Mayer, Maria, n©e Goeppert [goepert theory enjoyed support for a number of years, the
mayer] (1906“72) German“US mathematical physi- discovery of the cosmic microwave background in
cist; discovered and explained the ˜magic numbers™ 1964 by Penzias and R W Wilson gave conclusive
of nucleons in some atomic nuclei. support to the rival ˜Big Bang™ theory.
Maria Goeppert succeeded in making major con- Pulsars, discovered by Bell (Burnell) and Hewish
tributions to science despite many obstacles. She in 1968, were another area of interest to Gold, who
first studied mathematics at Göttingen, perhaps was quick to propose an explanation for their
because Hilbert was a family friend, but in 1927, strange radio signatures “ he suggested that they
attracted by Born™s lectures, she switched to were rapidly rotating neutron stars, sweeping out a
physics. She worked on electronic spectra and in beam of radio energy like a lighthouse. His hypothe-
1930 married an American chemist, Joseph Mayer sis was verified when the gradual slowing down of
(1904“ ). They went to Johns Hopkins where she their rate of spin, a phenomenon that he had pre-
had a lowly job with ˜one of the only two people dicted, was detected.
there who would work with a woman™ “ her hus- More recently, Gold was involved with a Swedish
band. Her work on molecular spectra by quantum project to drill deep into the Earth™s mantle to find
methods gained the respect of Urey and Fermi, who commercial amounts of methane. He believed that
invited the couple to Columbia, but they could find significant amounts of hydrogen and helium
a paid job only for ˜Joe™. However, Maria continued remained within the Earth™s interior from the time
to research, especially on the newly discovered ele- of the planet™s formation and rejected the conven-
ments heavier than uranium; so when the Second tional organic theories of hydrocarbon formation,
World War began and the atom bomb project devel- believing that oil fields are formed by the outward
oped, she was much in demand and soon led a team migration of this primordial gas.
of 15 people. It was she who calculated the proper- These views were supported by the drill findings
ties of UF6, the basis of a separation method for the in 1991, under the Siljan ring, a meteorite crater
˜fission isotope,™ uranium-235. north-west of Stockholm. Oil and gas were found
After the war both Mayers went to Chicago and it there at 2800 m depth, in a crystalline granite rock.
was there in 1948 that Maria found the pattern of This location and depth could never have held
˜magic numbers™: atomic nuclei with 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, organic remains whose decomposition would yield
82 or 126 neutrons or protons are particularly oil, and the find provides initial evidence in sup-
stable. (The seven include helium, oxygen, calcium port of Gold™s view that oil can have an abiogenic
and tin.) This had first been noted by Elsasser in origin.
Goldbach, Christian (1690“1764) Russian mathe-
1933. At first Mayer offered no theory to account for
this, although she saw the analogy with electron matician: originator of ˜Goldbach™s conjecture™.
shell structures. However, by 1950 and aided by a Goldbach studied mathematics and medicine
clue from her friend Fermi, Mayer worked out (in and then travelled widely in Europe from 1710,
ten minutes!) a complete shell model for atomic meeting the leading scientists of the time and so
nuclei, in which spin orbit coupling predicted pre- preparing a basis for his later career as secretary of
cisely the ˜magic number™ stable nuclei actually the Imperial Academy of Science at St Petersburg.
observed. In this model, the magic numbers He was erudite in mathematics, science, philology,
describe nuclei in which certain key nucleon shells archaeology and languages, but this wide range of
are complete. For this work she shared a Nobel interests, combined with his work as adviser on the
Prize in 1963 with J H D Jensen (1907“73) of education of the tsar™s children and his activity as a
Heidelberg, who had arrived independently at privy councillor and courtier, inhibited sustained
rather similar conclusions on nuclear shell struc- work in mathematics.
ture. He is best known for his conjecture of 1742,
Gold, Thomas (1920“ ) Austrian“US astronomer: noted in a letter to Euler, that every even number
proponent of steady-state theory; contributor to can be expressed as a sum of two primes (including
the theory of pulsars. 1 as a prime, if needed). Despite its apparent sim-
An Austrian ©migr©, Gold studied at Cambridge, plicity, this conjecture in number theory has so far
UK, subsequently working there and at the Royal defied all attempts to find a proof.
Greenwich Observatory before moving to the USA Goldbach also proposed that every odd number
in 1956, where he later became director of the can be expressed as a sum of three primes (exclud-
Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at ing 1 as a prime); this also is unproved.
Goldschmidt, Hans [goltshmit] (1861“1923) Ger-
Cornell University.
Gold, a leading proponent of the steady-state man chemist.
theory for the origin of the universe, published in Goldschmidt invented the alumino-thermic or
144
Goudsmit, Samuel Abraham

thermite process named after him, which consists Goldstein and Brown™s work led to a new
of the reduction of metallic oxides using finely approach to the interactions between blood and
divided aluminium powder fired by magnesium cells, and to their own further studies on the fate of
ribbon. A similar mixture was much used in mag- LDL in cells and on new methods for managing FH
nesium-cased incendiary bombs in the Second patients. Their work forms a striking example of
World War. the value of close collaboration between comple-
Goldschmidt, Victor Moritz [goltshmit] (1888“ mentary personalities and of techniques linking
1947) Swiss“Norwegian chemist: pioneer of geo- biochemistry, genetics and clinical medicine. In
chemistry and crystal chemistry. 1985 they shared the Nobel Prize for physiology or
Born in Zürich, Goldschmidt graduated from the medicine.
Golgi, Camillo [goljee] (1843“1926) Italian histolo-
University of Christiania (now Oslo) in 1911, becom-
ing director of the Mineralogical Institute there gist: classified nerve cells and discovered synapses.
when he was 26. He had already had great success Golgi followed his father in pursuing a medical
in applying physical chemistry to mineralogy. In career, and studied at Pavia; he was later a physi-
1929 he moved to Göttingen, but returned to cian in Pavia for 7 years and from 1875 taught
Norway in 1935 when the Nazis came to power. As there. He was interested in the use of organic dyes
a Jew he was fortunate that, although imprisoned for histological staining (much used by Koch,
when Germany occupied Norway in 1940, he was Ehrlich and others) and in 1873 he made, through
temporarily released; he escaped to Sweden in a a spillage accident, his own major discovery: the
haycart and moved to England in 1943. use of silver compounds for staining. Using this
Goldschmidt is regarded as the founder of method with nerve tissue he was able to see new
modern geochemistry. Using X-ray techniques he details under the microscope, allowing him to clas-
established the crystal structures of over 200 com- sify nerve cells and to follow individual nerve cells
pounds and 75 elements and made the first tables (which appeared black under the microscope when
of ionic radii. In 1929, on the basis of these results, treated with silver). His method showed that their
he postulated a fundamental law relating chemical fibres did not join but were separated by small gaps
composition to crystal structure: that the structure (synapses). In the 1880s he studied the asexual cycle
of a crystal is determined by the ratio of the num- of the malaria parasite (a protozoon) in the red
bers of ions, the ratio of their sizes and their polar- blood cells and related its stages to the observed
ization properties; this is often known as stages of the various forms of malaria. In 1898 he
Goldschmidt™s Law. It enabled Goldschmidt to pre- described a peculiar formation in the cytoplasm of
dict in which minerals various elements could or many types of cell (the Golgi body), which has been
could not be found. He also showed that the Earth™s much studied since, especially by electron micro-
crust is made up largely of oxy-anions (90% by scopy; it appears to be a secretory apparatus, pro-
volume) with silicon and the common metals fill- ducing glycoproteins and other essential cell
ing the remaining space. materials. Golgi shared a Nobel Prize in 1906.
Goldstein, Joseph Leonard [gohldstiyn] (1940“ ) Goodricke, John (1764“86) British astronomer:
US medical scientist: co-discoverer with M S Brown explained nature of variable stars.
of the origin of one type of heart disease. Goldricke worked with a fellow-amateur, his
Goldstein graduated MD at the University of friend and neighbour Edward Pigott (1753“1825),
Texas in Dallas in 1966 and worked thereafter at who generously caused Goodricke to publish as
the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and sole author. After careful observation of the vari-
then at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, able star Algol, they concluded that its rapidly vary-
MD. At Boston he had become a close friend of ing brightness was caused by a dark body orbiting a
Michael Stuart Brown (1941“ ), who also became brighter one and partially eclipsing it. This was the
an MD in 1966, and then worked in Boston and first plausible explanation to be made for the
Bethesda. From 1972 both worked in the university nature of variable stars. Goodricke received the
medical school at Dallas and they jointly planned a Copley Medal for his work, the Royal Society™s high-
study of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). est honour, and was made a Fellow. It was a century
Victims of this develop heart disease as children or before his idea was confirmed. Goodricke was a
below age 35, and Goldstein and Brown developed deaf mute. He died when he was only 21.
Goudsmit, Samuel Abraham [gowdsmit] (1902“
a full understanding of its nature within a year.
Cholesterol in the blood is always largely com- 78) Dutch“US physicist; first suggested that elec-
bined with a protein to form small droplets of low- trons possess spin.
density lipoprotein (LDL), which is normally After attending university at Amsterdam and
absorbed by receptors on the surface of cells and so Leiden, Goudsmit obtained his PhD in 1927 and
removed from the blood and employed in necessary emigrated to the USA, holding a post at Brookhaven
biochemical processes within them. However, in National Laboratory from 1948“70.
victims of FH a genetic defect has caused the cells to At the age of 23, with fellow-student Uhlenbeck,
lack these receptors and as a result the cholesterol he developed the idea that electrons possess intrin-
in the blood remains at too high a level, and it initi- sic quantized angular momentum (known as spin),
ates coronary artery disease; this path is responsible with an associated magnetic moment, and used
for about 5% of heart attacks in people under age 60. this to explain many features of atomic spectra.
145
Gould, Stephen Jay

Spin later emerged as a natural consequence of rel- structure of possible theories in quantum mechan-
ativistic quantum mechanics in Dirac™s theory of ics. Gowers showed that Banach spaces exist with
the electron (1928) and was found to be a property almost no symmetry, refuting previous conjec-
of most elementary particles, including the proton tures. He was then able to provide a new and sim-
and neutron. pler proof of the ˜homogenous space problem™ in
After first working on radar during the Second functional analysis, a major achievement in twen-
World War, Goudsmit was appointed head of the tieth-century mathematics.
Graham, Thomas (1805“69) British physical
Alsos mission in 1944. This was to accompany and
even to precede front-line Allied troops, seeking chemist; studied passage of gases, and dissolved
indications of the development of a German atomic substances in solution, through porous barriers.
bomb. He found that there was little danger of the Son of a Glasgow manufacturer, Graham studied
Germans possessing such a weapon before the war science in Glasgow and Edinburgh, despite his
ended. He was awarded the Medal of Freedom for forceful father™s desire that he should enter the
this work, and later published an account in his church. He held professorships in Glasgow and
book Alsos (1947). London, and became a founder of physical chem-
Gould, Stephen Jay (1941“2002) US palaeontologist: istry, and first president of the Chemical Society of
developer of novel theories of evolution; prolific and London (the first national chemical society). One
skilful popularizer of evolutionary biology. part of his work deals with the mixing of gases sep-
Educated at Antioch College, OH, and Columbia arated by a porous barrier (diffusion) or allowed to
University, Gould taught and researched at mix by passing through a small hole (effusion).
Harvard from 1967. His early research on land Graham™s Law (1833) states that the rate of diffu-
snails was a precursor to his work, from 1972, in sion (or effusion) of a gas is inversely proportional
developing his theory of punctuated equilibria. to the square root of its density.
This modifies Darwin™s theory of evolution by The density of a gas is directly proportional to its
proposing that new species are created by evolu- relative molecular mass, M. So if the rate of diffusion
tionary changes which occur in rapid bursts over of one gas is kA and its density dA, and that of a second
periods as short as a few thousand years, separated gas kB and dB, it follows that:
by periods of stability in which there is little fur- kA/kB = dB /dA = MB MA
ther change. This contrasts with Darwin™s classical Diffusion methods were used in 1868 to show
theory, in which species develop slowly over mil- that ozone must have the formula O3; and
lions of years at fairly constant rates. more recently were used to separate gaseous iso-
Gould™s many books and essays on palaeontology topes.
and biological evolution have been remarkably Graham studied phosphorus and its oxyacids
effective in presenting these subjects with great (which led to the recognition of polybasic acids, in
clarity, accuracy and attractiveness to non-special- which more than one hydrogen atom can be
ist audiences, as well as to biologists. (See panel replaced by a metal); and he examined the behav-
opposite.) iour of hydrogen gas with metals of the iron group.
Gowers, William T (1963“ ) British mathemati- He found that H2 will pass readily through hot pal-
cian. ladium metal and that large volumes of the gas can
˜Tim™ Gowers received the Fields Medal for math- be held by the cold metal.
ematics in 1998 for contributions to both func- His work on dialysis began the effective study of
tional analysis and combination theory. The Fields colloid chemistry. He found that easily crys-
Medal is awarded every four years to between two tallizable compounds when dissolved would read-
and four mathematicians under age 40 and having ily pass through membranes such as parchment,
outstanding distinction and promise in mathemat- whereas compounds of a kind which at that time
ics. The Canadian mathematician John Fields initi- had never been crystallized (in fact, of high relative
ated, and provided money for, this international molecular mass, such as proteins) would not dial-
medal for mathematical distinction. The first yse in this way. This gives a method (today using
medals were awarded in Oslo in 1936; and it is polymers such as Cellophane rather than parch-
recognised as the mathematical equivalent of a ment) for separating large, colloidal molecules
Nobel Prize. from similar compounds; this is useful in biochem-
Gower was born in Marlborough, Wiltshire; he istry, and in renal dialysis, where the blood of a
attended Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, patient with kidney failure is purified in this way.
Gram, Hans Christian Joachim (1853“1938)
before going on to work at University College,
London, from 1991“5. He was appointed Rouse Ball Danish physician and microbiologist.
professor of mathematics in Cambridge in 1998. He Gram™s life and work was based in Copenhagen;
became interested in Banach™s work in the 1930s on but during a visit to Berlin in 1884, he devised his
unconditional bases and Banach spaces. The latter famous microbiological staining method. He
are sets of functions or operators rather than showed that bacteria can be divided into two
simply numbers; however they can be manipulated classes; some (eg pneumococci) will retain ani-
in a very similar manner, and this is an important line“gentian violet after treatment with iodine
tool in quantum physics. An understanding of the solution by his method; others (the Gram-negative
symmetry of these spaces provides insight into the group) do not.
146
Green, George


MNEMONICS epochs (starting with the oldest), Previous Early
Oiling May Prove Positively Helpful.
These are devices for aiding memory, in cases where Stephen Jay Gould in his Wonderful Life (1989)
a string of words (or symbols) needs to be recallable tells how he set an annual competition for his stu-
in a certain sequence, but is otherwise difficult to dents to improve on this, the best attempt being the
remember. They are usually constructed so that the verse
components of the mnemonic are mutually sugges- Cheap Meat performs passably,
tive; they may be rhymed or alliterative, and the Quenching the celibate™s jejune thirst,
imagery is often bizarre. Some are easily recalled Portraiture, presented massably,
nonsense-words. Mnemonics are of interest to psy- Drowning sorrow, oneness cursed.
chologists in relation to the nature of memory, whose This yields the geological time scale, from the
mechanism is still largely mysterious. Some examples most recent to the oldest, listing all the eras first, and
follow. then the periods (with a few omissions). Cheap Meat
In astronomy, My Very Efficient Memory Just refers to a pornographic film of the time.
Sums Up Nine Planets clues the sequence of the Equally politically incorrect is a mnemonic in
planets of the solar system, from the Sun outwards astrophysics where a key sequence is that of the
(Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, spectral class (or colour index) of stars of progres-
Uranus, Neptune, Pluto). sively lower temperature, as in the horizontal scale of
In organic chemistry, the nonsense-word omsgap the familiar Hertzsprung“Russell (˜H“R™) diagram.
helps with the series of dicarboxylic acids of increas- The sequence is OBAFGKMRNS, and the mnemonic
ing chain length (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, Oh Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me Right Now
adipic and pimelic acids). Sweetheart. The last three classes (RNS) are now
Medical students are helped to recall the most seen as subdivisions of the M class.
common victims of gall bladder disease: female, fat, The H“R diagram effectively plots the brightness
forty, fertile and flatulent, and have similar jingles of stars (strictly, their absolute magnitude) as vertical
(some obscene!) for a range of other conditions. axis against their temperature. It is intimately
In geology, the student needs to be able to recall related, in a variety of ways, to the paths of stellar
the order of rocks, in terms of age. This geological evolution.
time scale is shown overleaf. The best-known In physics, the colours of the visible spectrum are
mnemonic for the sequence of geological periods recalled either by the nonsense-word VIBGYOR, or by
(starting with the Cambrian) is: Camels Often Sit Richard of York gains battles in vain (red, orange,
Down CARefully. PERhaps Their Joints CREak. yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet).
And within the two most recent periods, the order of IM


Gray, Stephen (c.1666“1736) English physicist: dis- Green, George (1793“1841) British mathematician:
tinguished between electrical conductors and insu- established potential theory in mathematical
lators. physics.
Gray was a dyer™s son who began to follow the Green left school early to work in the family corn
same trade but after meeting Flamsteed (the mill and bakery and studied mathematics on his
Astronomer Royal) was attracted to astronomy and own. When his father died the mill was sold and he
obtained a job as an observer at Cambridge for a became financially independent. At age 40 he
year. Back in London, he experimented with elec- began to study at Cambridge; he graduated in 1837
trical devices, and in 1729 (when he was over 60) he and received a fellowship, but became ill and died
made a major discovery. He had electrified a glass soon afterwards.
tube by friction and found by chance that the elec- In 1828 he published a paper in a local journal of
tricity was conducted along a stick or thread which only a few copies were issued. It was discov-
mounted in a cork inserted in one end of the tube. ered by W Thomson after Green™s death and shown
Led by this, he found that a string resting on silk to leading physicists including Maxwell; both real-
threads would conduct for over 100 m, but if the ized its great value. In it Green uses the term ˜poten-
string was supported by brass wires the transmis- tial™ and developed this mathematical approach to
sion failed. Based on this, he distinguished conduc- electromagnetism. He also included his famous
tors (such as the common metals) from insulators theorem, which gives a way of solving partial dif-
(such as silk and other dry organic materials). In the ferential equations by reducing a volume integral
18th-c, experiments with electricity were difficult; to a surface integral over the boundary (Green™s
primitive electrostatic machines, changes in theorem).
humidity and induction effects easily led to confu- Green™s theorem has found recent use in pure
sion. Gray also observed that two spheres of the mathematics, in particle physics, in various
same size, one solid and one hollow, had the same branches of engineering and in soil science.
capacity for storing electric charge. Appreciated at last, the 200th anniversary of his
147
Panel: Geological timescale

Million years
Eon Era Period Epoch before present Geological events Sea life Land life

Quaternary Holocene Glaciers recede. Sea level rises. Climate becomes As now. Forests flourish again. Humans acquire
more equable. agriculture and technology.
0.01
Pleistocene Widespread glaciers melt periodically, As now. Many plant forms perish. Small
causing seas to rise and fall. mammals abundant. Primitive
humans established.
2.0
Tertiary Continents and oceans adopting their present Giant sharks Some plants and mammals die out.
Pliocene form. Present climatic distribution established. extinct. Many Primates flourish.
Ice caps develop. fish varieties.

5.1
Seas recede further. European and Asian land Bony fish common. Grasses widespread. Grazing
Miocene masses join. Heavy rain causes massive erosion. Giant sharks. mammals become common.
Red Sea opens.
Cenozoic




24.6
Oligocene Seas recede. Extensive movements of Earth•s crust Crabs, mussels, Forests diminish. Grasses Pachyderms,
produce new mountains (eg AlpineÐHimalayan chain). and snails evolve. canines, and felines develop.

38.0
Mountain formation continues. Glaciers common in Whales adapt Large tropical jungles. Primitive forms
Eocene high mountain ranges. Greenland separates. to sea. of modern mammals established.
Australia separates.

54.9
Widespread subsidence of land. Seas advance again. Many reptiles Flowering plants widespread. First
Palaeocene Considerable volcanic activity. Europe emerges. become extinct. primates. Giant reptiles extinct.

65.0
Cretaceous Swamps widespread. Massive alluvial deposition. Turtles, rays, and Flowering plants established.
Late Continuing limestone formation. S America separates now-common fish Dinosaurs become extinct.
97.5
Early from Africa. India, Africa and Antarctica separate. appear.
144
Phanerozoic




Jurassic Malm Seas advance. Much river formation. High mountains Reptiles Early flowers. Dinosaurs dominant.
Mesozoic




163
Dogger eroded. Limestone formation. N America separates dominant. Mammals still primitive. First birds.
188
Lias from Africa. Central Atlantic begins to open.
213
Triassic Late Desert conditions widespread. Hot climate slowly Ichthyosaurs, Ferns and conifers thrive. First mammals,
231
Middle becomes warm and wet. Break up of Pangea into flying fish, and dinosaurs, and flies.
243
Early supercontients Gondwana (S) and Laurasia (N). crustaceans appear.
248
Permian Late Some sea areas cut off to form lakes. Earth movements Some shelled fish Deciduous plants. Reptiles dominant.
258
Early form mountains. Glaciation in southern hemisphere. become extinct. Many insect varieties.
286
Carbon- Pennsylvanian Sea-beds rise to form new land areas. Enormous Amphibians and Extensive evergreen forests. Reptiles breed
320
iferous Mississippian swamps. Partly-rotted vegetation forms coal. sharks abundant. on land. Some insects develop wings.
360
Devonian Late 374 Collision of continents causing mountain formation Fish abundant. Leafy plants. Some invertebrates
Middle 387 (Appalachians, Caledonides, and Urals). Sea deeper but Primitive sharks. adapt to land. First insects.
Palaeozoic




Early narrower. Climatic zones forming. Iapetus ocean closed. First amphibians.
408
Silurian Pridoli 414 New mountain ranges form. Sea level varies Large vertebrates. First leafless land plants.
Ludlow 421 periodically. Extensive shallow sea over the Sahara.
Wenlock 428
Llandovery
438
Ordovician Ashgill 448 Shore lines still quite variable. Increasing First vertebrates. None.
Caradoc 458 sedimentation. Europe and N America Coral reefs develop.
Llandeilo 468 moving together.
Llanvirn 478
Arenig 488
Tremadoc
505
Cambrian Merioneth 525 Much volcanic activity, and long periods Shelled None.
St David•s 540 of marine sedimentation. invertebrates.
Caerfai Trilobites.
590
Vendian Shallow seas advance and retreat over Seaweed. Algae and None.
land areas. Atmosphere uniformly warm. invertebrates.
650
Proterozoic




Riphean Late 900 Intense deformation and metamorphism. Earliest marine None.
Middle life and fossils.
Precambrian




1300
Early
1600
Early Proterozoic Shallow shelf seas. Formation of First appearance of None.
carbonate sediments and ”red beds•. stromatolites.
2500
Archaean Banded iron formations. Formation of None. None.
Arch-
aean




(Azoic) the Earth•s crust and oceans.
4600


148
Gregory, James

birth was celebrated, and included the unveiling of
a plaque in Westminster Abbey among the memo-
rials to the greatest of his fellow scientists.
Green, Michael Boris (1946“ ) British theoretical
physicist.
Educated in Cambridge and afterwards working
in Princeton, Cambridge, Oxford and London,
Green became professor of theoretical physics in
Cambridge in 1993. He is best known for his work
on the superstring theory, a novel approach to the
nature of nuclear particles and the forces of nature.
As background to Green™s work, it should be
noted that interactions within and between atoms
depend upon four field forces. The electromagnetic
force can be attractive or repulsive. The strong
nuclear force is even stronger at very short dis-
tances (10“15 m) within an atomic nucleus. The
weak nuclear force, only 10“4 as powerful, is also
very important. Gravitational force is very much
weaker (10“40) and is only attractive: it is of course of
great importance on the cosmic scale, as between
Susan Greenfield (credit: Mark York)
planets or stars where, although distances are
large, the bodies are uncharged and the masses are
large. radio and TV) made her the best-known neurosci-
From the 1970s grand unified theories (˜GUTs™) entist in the UK at the beginning of the 21st c. She
attempted to embrace the first three forces, with has a special interest in degenerative diseases of the
partial success: work by Glashow, Salem and brain such as Alzheimer™s and in the possible links
Weinberg has linked electromagnetic and weak between them and Parkinson™s disease.
nuclear forces in one theory. The strong and weak The basic anatomical unit of the brain is the
neuron: the brain contains about 1011 of these
nuclear forces have resisted unification.
The simplest and most elegant of the GUTs nerve cells. From the 1960s there was a trend to con-
requires the proton to decay with a lifetime of 1030 sider these as binary switches having only two
years, and experiments to detect this have failed to states (excited and inhibited) and, extending the
do so. Gravity, also, which is not quantized (unlike analogy, the brain as a type of computer with hard-
the others) has resisted incorporation, so a ˜theory ware and software. Greenfield rejects this view,
of everything™ (˜TOE™) has proved elusive. seeing the chemical neurotransmitters (such as
The nearest to success has been superstring serotonin) and hormones, together with the neu-
theory, devised in the 1980s with Green as the main ronal system, as forming a much more complex
proponent. This treats the interaction of subnu- system. She sees consciousness as associated with
clear particles not in terms of points, but of one- successive transient assemblies of millions of inter-
dimensional curves (superstrings) having mass, acting neurons, affected by sensory inputs from
and a length only 10“35 m (ie 10“20 the proton diam- vision, sound, smell and touch, together with emo-
eter), in 10-dimensional space-time (nine in space, tions and past experiences. Her views have found
plus time). The theory deals with all four field much support, but experimental evidence remains
forces (ie it includes gravity), involves sophisticated elusive on the nature of consciousness and of
mathematics (including symmetry properties) and memory, partly because existing methods are
has implications for cosmology as well as particle unable to capture rapid brain events.
Gregory, James (1638“75) Scottish mathematician:
physics. It is consistent with special relativity
and quantum theory. Despite its mathematical contributed to discovery of calculus.
attractions, wider acceptance by physicists must A graduate of Aberdeen, Gregory went on to study
depend on experimentally testable predictions at Padua, and became the first professor of math-
evolving from it. ematics at St Andrews when he was 30. After 6 years
Greenfield, Susan (Adele), Baroness (1950“ ) he moved to Edinburgh, but died a year later. While
British neuroscientist and pharmacologist. in Italy he published a book in which he discussed
Greenfield entered Oxford to read classics and convergent and divergent series (terms he used
emerged with a doctorate in pharmacology, and for the first time), the distinction between alge-
after working in neuroscience in Paris, New York, braic and transcendental functions and circular,
La Jolla and Belfast returned to Oxford, becoming elliptic and hyperbolic functions. He found series
professor of pharmacology in 1996. In 1998 she also expressions for the trigonometric functions and
became Director of the Royal Institution, and the gave a proof of the fundamental theorem of cal-
first woman to hold this post. Her interests focus on culus (in 1667), although he did not note its signi-
both the biochemistry and the physics of the mind ficance. In letters of 1670 he used the binomial
and brain, and her books and lectures (using also series and Newton™s interpolation formula (both
149
Grignard, Victor

independently of Newton) and the series named platinum strips, both half-immersed in dilute
after B Taylor (1685“1731). H2SO4; one strip was half in H2 gas, the other in O2
He also contributed to astronomy; when he was gas. When a wire connected the ends, a current
25 he suggested that transits of Venus (or Mercury) flowed. Other pairs of gases (eg H2 and Cl2) also gave
could be used to find the distance of the Sun from a current. Grove realized that the current came
the Earth, and the method was later used. He pro- from a chemical reaction: it was not until the 1950s
posed in the same book that telescopes could be that F T Bacon (1904“92; a descendant of Francis
made using mirrors in place of lenses, avoiding the Bacon) devised a practical, useful fuel cell.
colour aberration inevitably introduced by a lens. In 1845 Grove made the first electric filament
About 5 years later Newton made such a reflecting lamp and in 1846 showed that steam is dissociated
telescope, and large telescopes have usually been (to H2 and O2) on hot platinum. He also studied
reflectors ever since. lighting in mines, and discharge tubes, and offered
Grignard, (Fran§ois Auguste) Victor [green- early ideas on energy conservation.
yah(r)] (1871“1935) French organic chemist: discov- In 1891, at the jubilee of the Chemical Society, of
ered use of organomagnesium compounds in which he was a founder, he said, ˜¦for my part, I
synthesis. must say that science to me generally ceases to be
Grignard, a sailmaker™s son, studied at Lyon to interesting as it becomes useful™.
Guericke, Otto von [gayrikuh] (1602“86) German
become a teacher of mathematics. Later he moved
to chemistry and to research in organic chemistry engineer and physicist: inventor of the air pump;
under P A Barbier (1848“1922), who gave him a created and investigated properties of a ˜vacuum™.
research project ˜as one throws a bone to a dog™. He After a wide-ranging education, Guericke became
found that magnesium would combine with reac- one of the four Burgermeisters of Magdeburg in 1646,
tive organic halogen compounds in dry diethyl in acknowledgement of his service to the town as
ether solution to give an organomagnesium com- an engineer and diplomat during its siege in the
pound. Such compounds could be used (without Thirty Years War. His interest in the possibility of a
isolating them) in reactions with a variety of car- vacuum (which Aristotle had denied) led him to
bonyl and other compounds to give organic alco- modify and improve a water pump so that it would
hols, organometallics and other useful products. remove most of the air from a container. He showed
These Grignard reactions became the most useful that in the resulting ˜vacuum™ a bell was muffled
of organic synthetic methods, were greatly used in and a flame was extinguished. Most dramatically,
research, and led also to increased interest in other at Regensburg in 1654 he showed that when two
organometallic compounds. large metal hemispheres were placed together and
In the First World War Grignard (who had done the air within was pumped out, they could not be
military service in 1892 and become a corporal) separated by two teams of eight horses.
began by guarding a railway bridge but was soon He also built the first recorded electrostatic
transferred to chemical warfare; he worked on the machine, consisting of a globe of crude sulphur
detection of mustard gas and the making of phos- which could be rotated by a crank and which was
gene (COCl2). In 1919 he succeeded Barbier at Lyon, electrified by friction.
Guettard, Jean Etienne [getah(r)] (1715“86)
and remained there, largely working on extensions
of his major discovery. He shared the Nobel Prize in French geologist: proposed the igneous origin of
1912 with another French organic chemist, Paul basalts.
Sabatier (1854“1941), who found that some finely Guettard was the keeper of the natural history
divided metals (Ni, Pd or Pt) could be used to catal- collection of the duc d™Orl©ans. In 1751 he pro-
yse the addition of hydrogen to a range of organic posed, while travelling in the Auvergne region of
compounds. Ever since, catalytic hydrogenation France, that a number of the peaks in the area were
has been much used in organic syntheses, includ- former volcanoes, on the basis of the basalt
ing industrial processes such as hardening fats for deposits he found nearby. Although he later with-
margarine and improving petroleum products. drew this hypothesis, his suggestion led Desmarest
Grove, Sir William Robert (1811“96) British to investigate and map the area in detail. His find-
lawyer and physicist; devised first fuel cell. ings were, in turn, to lead to the abandonment of
It is rare for anyone to practise law and science the Neptunist theory of A G Werner, which had
together, as Grove did. He became a barrister, but stated that all volcanic activity was recent and all
poor health was thought to point to a less active life rocks were sedimentary in origin. His geological
and he turned to electrochemistry. He invented the map of France was constructed with the help of his
Grove Zn-Pt cell, which was popular and survived in young friend Lavoisier and probably began the
a form modified by Bunsen. Then, to improve his latter™s interest in science.
Guillaume, Charles Edouard (1861“1938) Swiss
income, Grove returned to legal work. He defended
Palmer, the ˜Rugeley poisoner™, in a famous murder physicist: introduced the use of iron“nickel alloys
trial in 1856 and became a judge in 1871, mean- for the improvement of instruments.
while continuing his scientific interests. He Guillaume studied science at Zurich, securing a
devised in 1842 what he called a ˜gas battery™; in doctorate in physics. After a short time as an
fact the first fuel cell, not to be confused with the artillery officer, his career from 1883 was in the
Grove cell described above. The fuel cell had two International Bureau of Weights and Measures,
150
Guth, Alan

and as its Director from 1915. His work inevitably join the California Institute of Technology, becom-
led him to study the thermal expansion of materi- ing director of its seismological laboratory in 1947.
als; and a chance observation caused him to focus By 1913 it was known that, on the opposite side of
on iron“nickel alloys: one with 36% Ni which he the Earth to an earthquake, there is a shadow zone
named ˜invar™ expands so little over a normal tem- in which compressional P (push“pull, primary)
perature range that it is widely used in clock pen- waves arrive later than expected and with reduced
dulums and surveyors™ instruments. Another, amplitude, and in which shear S (shake, secondary)
˜elinvar™, has a Young™s modulus which is constant waves are absent; Oldham had previously inter-
over a range (ie its ˜springiness™ is constant) and this preted the delayed arrival of P waves as evidence for
is used for the hairsprings of precision timepieces. the existence of a core. Gutenberg realized that the
Yet another, ˜platinite™ (40% Ni) expands at nearly absence of shear waves meant in addition that the
the same rate as glass and can be sealed into it. For core was liquid. He showed that the boundary
his services to metrology (precision measurement) between the solid mantle and the liquid core
Guillaume was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics occurs at a depth of 2900 km; this interface is
in 1920. known as the Gutenberg discontinuity. It is now
Guldberg, Cato Maximilian [gulberg] (1836“1902) known from the work of Lehmann that there is
Norwegian physical chemist: deduced law of mass an additional solid inner core, at a depth of about
action for chemical reactions. 5150 km (see diagram).
Guth, Alan (Harvey) [gooth] (1947“ ) US astro-
Guldberg spent his career in Oslo, where he was
professor of applied mathematics from 1869. He physicist; made a major contribution to our under-
and P Waage (1833“1900), his friend and brother-in- standing of the origin of the universe.
law, and professor of chemistry, were interested in A student at MIT, Guth worked at Princeton,
Berthelot™s work on the rates of chemical reac- Columbia, Cornell and Stanford before taking posts
tions, and this led them in 1864 to deduce the law in physics at MIT from 1980 and concurrently at the
of mass action. This states that, for a homogeneous Harvard“Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
system, the rate of a chemical reaction is propor- from 1984.
tional to the active masses of the reactants. The For some time the ˜Big Bang™ theory of the cre-
molecular concentration of a substance in solution ation of the universe, proposed by Alpher, Bethe
or in the gas phase is usually taken as a measure of and Gamow in 1948, has been generally accepted as
the active mass. The theory did not become known the best explanation. A key observation about the
until the 1870s, largely because it was published in universe, the existence of a background microwave
Norwegian, as also happened with his other work radiation, can be explained in no other way. There
in physical chemistry. were, however, questions that were not adequately
Gutenberg, Beno [gootnberg](1889“1960) German“ accounted for by the basic theory. The standard ˜Big
US geophysicist: demonstrated that the Earth™s Bang™ model required a very hot early universe;
outer core is liquid. why? Why also is the present universe so uniform
Gutenberg studied at Darmstadt and at Göttin- on a large scale when it might be expected to be
gen before being appointed professor of geophysics more irregular? Above all, it requires extraordinar-
at Freiberg in 1926. In 1930 he moved to America to ily precise values of some physical properties (to
within one part in 100 000 million million) to give
the rate of expansion that we see today without
either a much greater rate of expansion or a gravi-
crust lithosphere
tational collapse.
It was to try and resolve these problems that, in
asthenosphere
sea level
1980, Guth proposed a refinement to the ˜Big Bang™
theory. He proposed that the universe underwent
an exponential expansion (a 1030 increase in radius)
1000 km mesosphere
in the first microsecond of its existence “ the so-
2000
outer
3000 called ˜inflation hypothesis™ of cosmology “ as a
4000 core
result of a kind of ˜supercooling™, which in turn led
5000
to an antigravitational effect that enhanced the
inner
6370
˜Big Bang™ expansion. With subsequent refine-
core
ments by Hawking, and the Russian scientist
mantle
Andrei Linde and others, the inflation hypothesis
accounts very well indeed for the problems found
with the ˜basic™ ˜Big Bang™ model. Inflation is now
thought to have begun with a period of exponential
Gutenberg
discontinuity expansion lasting only 10“32 s, and a temperature
reaching 1028 K “ followed by the decelerating
expansion of the standard Big Band model.
Evidence for the inflation hypothesis was found
in 1992 by a team led by George F Smoot (1945“ )
The layers of the Earth, showing the Gutenberg disconti-
of the University of California at Berkeley. Using
nuity
151
Guth, Alan

the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite which later grow to form galaxies. This obser-
they observed very faint ripples in the background vation, which was subsequently confirmed by
microwave radiation, which forms the ˜afterglow™ balloon-borne observations, is considered evidence
of the ˜Big Bang™ when the universe originated for the ˜Big Bang™ theory with inflation, and was
about 15 billion years ago. The ripples are related to described by Hawking as ˜the discovery of the
the slight ˜clumpings™ of thinly dispersed matter, century, if not of all time™.




Title page of Galton™s book Finger Prints of 1892, showing his own prints.




152
H
process made about 108 tonnes of ammonia annu-
Haber, Fritz [hahber] (1868“1934) German physical
chemist: devised nitrogen ˜fixation™ process. ally by the 1980s. About 80% of this is used to make
Haber™s father was a dye manufacturer and so he fertilizers. In the First World War it also solved the
studied organic chemistry to prepare him for the problem of making explosives for Germany, since
family firm. However, physical chemistry inter- nitric acid (essential for their production) can be
ested him more, and he worked on flames and on made by oxidizing ammonia. Haber was also in sci-
electrochemistry. By 1911 he was well known and entific control of Germany™s chemical warfare and
was made director of the new Kaiser Wilhelm devised gas masks and other defence against the
Institute for Physical Chemistry at Berlin“Dahlem. Allies™ gas warfare. A Nobel Prize was awarded to
From about 1900 he worked on the problem of him in 1918 for the ammonia synthesis.
ammonia synthesis. Crookes had shown that, if the In 1933 he resigned his post and emigrated in
world continued to rely on Chilean nitrate deposits protest against anti-Semitism, but he did not re-
to provide nitrogenous fertilizer for agriculture, settle well and worked only briefly in Cambridge.
famine was inevitable. Haber solved the problem by He died while on his way to a post in Israel.
Hadamard, Jacques [adamah(r)] (1865“1963) French
1908, showing that nitrogen from air could be used
to make ammonia; the reaction N2 + 3H2 ” 2NH3 mathematician: developed theory of functionals.
could be used at c. 400°C under pressure with a Hadamard™s parents recognized his mathemati-
modified iron catalyst. With C Bosch (1874“1940) to cal ability and he attended the École Normale
develop the process to an industrial scale, produc- Sup©rieure in Paris. His doctoral thesis was on func-
tion was established by 1913; the Haber“Bosch tion theory; he taught at the Lyc©e Buffon and then


SCIENCE AND THE FIRST For the first time, war was dominated by trench
WORLD WAR (1914 “18) warfare, rendered near-static by the combination of
artillery, machine guns and barbed wire. Repeated
This conflict embraced more science than any previ- attempts to introduce mobility led to the tank, but it
ous war. All pre-atomic explosives are based on was air operations that proved decisive in the land
nitrates, which at that time were largely derived from battles of 1918.
natural deposits of caliche (NaNO3) from Chile, which The blockade of Britain by German submarines,
would have been denied to Germany and the other and shortage of agricultural manpower everywhere
powers at war with Britain. However, HABER and in Europe, led to poor levels of nutrition, which in
BOSCH designed a plant which began to produce syn- turn exposed the population to infection by tubercu-
thetic ammonia in Ludwigshafen in 1913, from air losis and notably to the world pandemic of influenza
and water. The ammonia could then be oxidized to in 1918“19.
nitric acid and hence nitrate supply was assured. Much work on nutrition before and during the
Chemical warfare began with the use of chlorine war focused on the calorific value of diet and its
(Cl2) by Germany in 1915; later in 1915 phosgene content in terms of fat, protein and carbohydrate.
(COCl2) was used as well and by 1917 mustard gas In 1920 a British ministry revealed that a large
S(CH2CH2Cl)2 was the shell-filling favoured by both proportion of young men called up in the war were
sides. Haber in Germany and W J Pope (1870“1939) unfit, but it was after 1930 before malnutrition was
in England were key figures. recognized as a major factor in this; one result
Advances in aircraft design and theory owe much was improved nutrition during the Second World War
to LINDEMANN and H Glauert (1892“1934). Improved (1939“45).
petrol engines made the tank effective from 1917. Another curious delay resulted from the ˜30-
Sound-ranging to locate gun positions was devel- year rule™ that kept the medical reports on
oped by W H BRAGG and sonar to detect submarines mustard gas victims secret from 1916 until 1946.
by RUTHERFORD and by LANGEVIN. Radio communica- It was then revealed that one effect of the gas
tions were used in war for the first time, as was blood was to reduce the white cell count of the blood,
transfusion against wound shock, immunization and this knowledge led to the use of ˜nitrogen
against typhoid, paratyphoid and enteric fever, and mustard™ as a valuable treatment for leukaemia,
tetanus antitoxin after wounding; MARIE CURIE led a malignant disease characterized by progressive
motorized X-ray units to set bones and locate frag- overproduction of a type of white cell.
ments in wounds. IM


153
Hadfield, Sir Robert

at Bordeaux. At 44 Hadamard became professor of (1811“91) had added Spiegeleisen (Fe-C-Mn), but this
mathematics at the Collège de France in Paris, and resulted in a metal which, although hard, was too
later at the École Polytechnique and École Centrale. brittle. Hadfield found that, by adding large
In 1941, aged 76, he left occupied France for the amounts of manganese (12“14%) and subsequent
USA and then joined the team in London using heating (to 1000°C) and quenching in water, he
operational research for the RAF. Returning to could produce a steel alloy both hard and strong
France after the war, he retired to his interests in and suitable for metal-working and railway points.
music, ferns and fungi. His firm took out the patent on this in 1883.
Hadamard produced new insights in most areas Continuing his work on steel alloys he produced sil-
of mathematics and influenced the development of icon steels and showed that they have valuable
the subject in many directions. He published over magnetic properties and were suitable for use in
300 papers containing novel and highly creative transformers. His firm also produced armour-pierc-
work. In the mid-1890s he studied analytic func- ing and heat-resisting steels. He was knighted in
tions, that is those arising from a power series that 1908 and created a baronet in 1917.
Hadley, George (1685“1768) English meteorolo-
converges. He proved the Cauchy test for conver-
gence of a power series. In 1896 he proved the gist: explained the nature of trade winds.
prime number theorem (first put forward by Gauss Initially trained as a barrister, Hadley became
and Riemann) that the number of prime numbers more interested in science, and took over res-
less than x tends to x/logex as x becomes large. This ponsibility for the Royal Society™s meteorological
is the most important result so far discovered in observations. Halley had proposed in 1686 that the
number theory; it was independently proved by C J trade winds were due to hot equatorial air rising,
Poussin in the same year. and pulling in colder air from the tropics, but was
Hadamard investigated geodesics (or shortest unable to account for their direction. In 1735
paths) on surfaces of negative curvature (1888) and Hadley suggested that the reason that these winds
stimulated work in probability theory and ergodic blew from the north-east in the northern hemi-
theory. He then considered functions f(c) that sphere, and from the south-east in the south, was
depend on the path c, and defined a ˜functional™ y as the Earth™s rotation from west to east. This form of
y = f(c). The definitions of continuity, derivative and circulation is now known as a Hadley cell.
Hadley, John (1682“1744) English optical in-
differential become generalizations of those for an
ordinary function y = f(x) where x is just a variable. A strument maker (brother of George, above).
new branch of mathematics, functional analysis, Nothing is known of Hadley™s early life, but by the
with relevance to physics and particularly quan- 1720s he was making fine reflecting telescopes,
tum field theory grew out of this. being the first to develop Newton™s design of 1668.
Hadamard also analysed functions of a complex After Hadley™s work such instruments dominated
variable and defined a singularity as a point at optical astronomy.
which the function is no longer regular. A set of sin- In 1731 he produced his reflecting quadrant
gular points may still allow the function to be con- (strictly, an octant), the precursor of the modern
tinuous “ and such regions are called ˜lacunary nautical sextant. With it, the altitude of a star (or
space™, the subject of much modern mathematics. the Sun) above the horizon could be found within
Finally he initiated the concept of a ˜well-posed 1™ of arc. The octant was based on a mirror design
problem™ as one in which a solution exists that is first proposed by Newton but not published until
unique for the given data but depends continu-
ously on those data. A typical example is the solu-
tion of a differential equation written as a polar
cell
convergent power series. This has proved to be a
powerful and fruitful concept and since then the Ferrel
cell
neighbourhood and continuity of function spaces
have been studied. Hadamard published books on pola
subsiding r fro
nt
the psychology of the mathematical mind (on air weste
rlies
Poincar© in particular) and was an inspiring lec- Hadley horse la
cell titudes
turer who influenced several generations of math- NE trades
Intertropical
ematicians. rising Convergence Zone
air
Hadfield, Sir Robert (Abbot) (1858“1940) British doldrums
SE trades
metallurgist: discovered several new steel alloys.
westerlies
After a local schooling and training as a chemist,
Hadfield started work in his father™s small steel
foundry in Sheffield. Due to his father™s ill-health he polar
easterlies
took over the firm when he was 24 and inherited it
6 years later. Hadfield continued the research he
had begun in the early 1880s into steel alloys, pub-
lishing 150 scientific papers.
The Bessemer process of steel-making relied on The three-cell general circulation model of the atmos-
the use of phosphorus-free iron ore; R F Mushet phere
154
Hale, George Ellery

1742 (by Halley). From the 1780s good chronome- Hahn and in the name (hahnium, Ha) officially
ters were available (due to Harrison) which, used given to the element of atomic number 108 by the
in conjunction with a sextant and astronomical International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
tables, allowed a ship™s position to be found satis- in 1994.
Haldane, John (Burdon Sanderson) (1892“1964)
factorily. Two centuries later, radio- and satellite-
based techniques again changed methods for ships British physiologist and geneticist: showed that
and aircraft to define their position. enzyme reactions obey laws of thermodynamics.
Hahn, Otto (1879“1968) German radiochemist. Haldane is one of the most eccentric figures in
Like Kekul© before him, Hahn originally was modern science. If his life has a theme, it is of bring-
intended for a career in architecture, but this was ing talents in one field of work to the solution of
overruled by his interest in chemistry, which he problems in quite a different area. He was self-con-
studied at Marburg. In 1904 he spent 6 months in fident, unpredictable and difficult to work with. His
London, which he much enjoyed and which intro- family was wealthy and talented, and his father was
duced him, under Ramsay™s guidance, to the then Britain™s leading physiologist.
novel field of radiochemistry. Its attractions led The latter (John Scott Haldane, 1860“1936) was
him to spend the next year with Rutherford at led to study death in coalmine disasters and from
Montreal; by this time he had real radiochemical this to discover how poisoning by carbon monoxide
expertise, and had characterized several new arose; and then to discover the part played by
radioisotopes. carbon dioxide in controlling breathing. His work
Soon after his appointment in Berlin in 1906 he on deep sea diving and mountain ascents added to
was joined by Lise Meitner. As a woman she was his work on respiration, and with his Oxford pupils
denied access to the all-male laboratories and there he laid the basis of modern respiratory physiology.
was no separate radiochemical laboratory. Both His son J B S Haldane went to Eton, where he
problems were solved by conversion of a basement began to conflict with authority; service in the First
woodworking shop, in which Meitner as a physicist World War made him an atheist. He went to Oxford
and Hahn as a chemist began a collaboration that to study mathematics and biology, but graduated
was to last for 30 years. In 1912 the new Kaiser in classics and philosophy. From 1910 his interest
Wilhelm Institute opened at Berlin“Dahlem, Hahn moved to genetics as a result of studying his sister™s
was appointed head of a radiochemical section and 300 guinea pigs. He began to teach physiology; he
Meitner joined him. Taking advantage of the knew a good deal about respiration through help-
absence of significant radioactive contamination ing his father and he had also worked on defence
in the new laboratory, Hahn began study of the very against poison gas in the war, but otherwise he had
weak beta-emitters potassium and rubidium. Later ˜about 6 weeks start on my future pupils™. He
he showed that this radioactive breakdown of researched on respiration and the effect on it of CO2
rubidium (to an isotope of strontium) gives a in the blood. For this he used himself as an experi-
method for dating some mineral deposits, as also mental animal, changing his blood acidity by con-
does the conversion of potassium to argon. During suming NaHCO3, and by drinking solutions of
the First World War both Hahn and Meitner were in NH4Cl to get hydrochloric acid into his blood. Later
war-related work (Hahn on gas warfare under he turned to biochemistry, applying his mathemat-
Haber; Meitner as a nurse), but some research ical ability to calculate the rates of enzyme reac-
could be continued during their leaves and they tions and giving the first proof that they obey the
discovered the new radioelement protactinium. laws of thermodynamics. Then he turned to genet-
From 1934 Hahn became interested in Fermi™s ics, and the mathematics of natural selection and
discovery that slow neutrons could be captured by of genetic disease and mutation in man. In 1938 he
some atomic nuclei to give new, heavier, elements. began work on deaths in submarine disasters and
Hahn, with Meitner and F Strassmann (1902“80), regularly risked his life in experiments on under-
tried this with uranium, then the element with the water escape.
heaviest known nucleus. However, by 1938 He wrote on popular science; including over 300
Meitner, being Jewish, was unsafe in Germany and articles in the Daily Worker (he was a Communist as
with Hahn™s help escaped, settling in Sweden. well as the nephew of a viscount). In 1957 he emi-
Hahn sent to her the results of the work with ura- grated to India, claiming that this was a protest
nium and it was she and her nephew Otto Frisch against the Suez affair but probably because of the
who published the novel idea that nuclear fission opportunity to work on genetics there; as usual, he
had occurred and showed that Hahn™s explanation quarrelled with his colleagues. Dying of cancer, he
for these experiments was inadequate. wrote comic poems about the disease, which
During the Second World War Hahn continued inspired praise and offence in their readers in
radiochemical work outside Germany™s nuclear about equal numbers.
Hale, George Ellery (1868“1938) US astronomer:
weapon programme; after the war he was active in
the cause of nuclear disarmament. Awarded the discovered that sunspots are associated with strong
Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1944, his name is com- magnetic fields.
memorated in the Hahn“Meitner Institute for Son of a wealthy engineer, Hale had an early
Nuclear Research in Berlin, in another institute at interest in astronomy and studied physics at
Mainz, in Germany™s first nuclear ship the Otto Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Whilst still
155
Hales, Stephen

an undergraduate he invented the spectrohelio- lating also the output from the heart and the flow-
graph, an instrument capable of photographing rate in arteries, veins and capillaries. He showed
the Sun at precise wavelengths and now a basic tool that capillaries are liable to constriction and dila-
of solar astronomy. In 1908 he discovered that some tion, which later was seen to be of great signifi-
lines in the spectra of sunspots are split, and cor- cance.
rectly interpreted this as being due to the presence His inventiveness was wide-ranging; he worked
of strong magnetic fields (the Zeeman effect). on the preservation of foods, water purification,
Together with W S Adams he discovered in 1919 the ventilation of buildings and ships, and the best
that the polarity of the magnetic fields of sunspots way to support pie crusts. His theme was usually
reverses on a 23-year cycle. the application of physics to problems in biology.
Hall, Asaph (1829“1907) US astronomer: discovered
Hale realized that larger telescopes were essential
in order for astronomy to advance and put much of the moons of Mars.
his energy and organizational ability into providing Hall discovered the two Martian satellites in
them. In 1892 he persuaded Charles Yerkes, a 1877, naming them Phobos and Deimos (after the
Chicago businessman, to fund a 40 in (1 m) refract- sons of Mars, meaning ˜fear™ and ˜terror™). By a curi-
ing telescope for the University of Chicago, still the ous coincidence Jonathan Swift in Gulliver™s Travels
largest refractor ever built. Hale followed this by 150 years earlier had suggested that Mars had two
arranging for the Carnegie Institute to fund a satellites, whose size and orbital period accurately
60 in (1.52 m) reflector for the Mount Wilson matched those of Phobos and Deimos. Hall was also
Observatory, and for a 100 in (2.54 m) reflector the first to measure accurately the period of rota-
financed by John D Hooker that was to remain the tion of Saturn.
Haller, Albrecht von (1708“77) Swiss anatomist
largest in the world for 30 years. His greatest
achievement, however, was to persuade the and physiologist: pioneer of neurology.
Rockefeller Foundation to provide the money for a A child prodigy, Haller is claimed to have written
telescope that would be the ultimate in size for a Greek dictionary at age 10. Haller™s working life
Earth-based observations “ the 200 in (5.08 m) was divided into a period spent founding the med-
Mount Palomar reflector. Construction began in ical school at Göttingen, and his last 24 years spent
1930 and was to take 20 years. It was for a time the back in his native Bern. A man of wide-ranging tal-
most famous telescope in the world, although ents, Haller was the first to offer views on the ner-
by 1975 it was second in size to the 236 in (6 m) vous system of a modern kind. He recognized the
telescope at the Soviet Special Astrophysical tendency of muscle-fibres (which had been discov-
Observatory in the Caucasus. Later giant telescopes ered by Leeuwenhoek) to contract when stimu-
have mirrors built of close-fitting segments or are lated, or when the attached nerve is stimulated,
formed by optical linking of an array of separate and he named this ˜irritability™. He showed that
mirrors. only the nerves can transmit sensation and that
Hales, Stephen (1677“1761) English chemist and they are gathered into the brain. His work in neu-
physiologist: developed gas-handling methods; rology was extended by C Bell and by Magendie. He
classic experimenter on plant physiology and on wrote the first textbook of physiology and worked
blood pressure. in the circulation, respiration and digestion;
Hales studied theology at Cambridge and in 1709 always with an emphasis on experiment. He was
became perpetual curate of Teddington. There he also a poet, a bibliographer, a botanist and a writer
stayed, refusing preferment, so that he could main- on politics.
Halley, Edmond [halee, hawlee] (1656“1742) Eng-
tain his work in chemistry and biology. He seems to
have been much influenced by Newton™s work, and lish astronomer and physicist: made numerous
his own is marked by careful measurement and the contributions to astronomy and geophysics.
early use of physics in biology. Son of a wealthy businessman, Halley was an
His book Vegetable Staticks (1727) describes 124 experienced observer as a schoolboy before he
experiments on gases, which he made in several entered Oxford in 1673. He became a remarkable
ways and collected using a pneumatic trough. This and prolific scientist, who made important discov-
device was a major advance in gas manipulation. eries in many fields. He was also highly likable and
Oddly, he assumed all the gases he made were air; even good-looking. He made his name as an
it was Priestley, using and improving Hales™s astronomer by travelling at the age of 20 to St
methods, who examined their different properties. Helena, where he remained for 2 years to produce
In the same book, Hales describes his experiments the first accurate catalogue of stars in the southern
showing that plants take in a part of the air (actu- sky (also the first telescopically determined star
ally CO2) and that this is used in their nutrition. He survey), which was published in 1679. His interest
measured growth rates and showed that light is in comets was kindled by the great comet of 1682,
needed, and that water loss (by transpiration) is which prompted him to compute the orbits of 24
through the leaves and causes an upward flow of known comets; noting that the orbits of comets
sap, whose pressure he measured. Later he exam- seen in 1456, 1531, 1607 and 1682 were very simi-
ined blood pressure, inserting and tying a vertical lar, he deduced that they were the same body and
tube 11 feet long into an artery of a horse to mea- predicted its return in 1758. (It is now known by his
sure the height to which the blood rose, and calcu- name.) It was the first correct prediction of its kind
156
Hamilton, Sir William Rowan

tides and coasts of the English Channel; in 1715 he
correctly proposed that the salt in the sea came
from river-borne land deposits. He realized that the
aurora borealis was magnetic in origin, con-
structed the first mortality tables, improved under-
standing of the optics of rainbows and estimated
the size of the atom. He devised, and personally
used, the first diving bell. If Halley was fortunate in
his talents, wealth and personality, he certainly
made good use of his assets.
Hamilton, William (Donald) (1936“2000) British
evolutionary biologist.
As a student at Cambridge, Hamilton first read
R A Fisher™s work on genetics and evolution: his
development of these concepts occupied his subse-
quent career, spent in London, Brazil, Michigan
and (from 1984) in Oxford. His early work from
1964 focused on insect societies. He was concerned
particularly with the way individuals can altruisti-
cally aid survival and breeding of relatives thereby
aiding survival of shared genes, even if the individ-
ual is sterile (as in honey bees). His ideas, expressed
in his concepts of ˜kin selection™ and ˜inclusive fit-
ness™, were controversial, but were later mainly
accepted with the growth of sociobiology. He also
worked on unusual sex ratios, found in both plants
Halley's map of his predicted path of the solar eclipse of
1715. His object in part was to curb superstitious fears: and animals. He went on to study the effect of par-
his predictions proved to be accurate. asites in sexual selection, showing that choice of a
mate can be affected by parasites. He was a sup-
and demonstrated conclusively that comets were porter of Lovelock™s Gaia concept.
celestial bodies and not a meteorological phenom- The last of his contests with conventional views led
enon, as had sometimes been believed. indirectly to his death. The debate on whether vacci-
He was a keen explorer and commanded small nation trials in Africa using chimpanzees had led to
naval ships (not very competently) in expeditions, the HIV virus interested him, but while in Africa
including one in the Southern Ocean in which he doing field work on this he contracted a virulent
failed to discover Antarctica and nearly lost his malaria which killed him after his return to the UK.
Hamilton, Sir William Rowan (1805“65) Irish
ship.
His other astronomical discoveries were numer- mathematician: invented quaternions and a new
ous: in 1695 he proposed the secular acceleration of theory of dynamics.
the Moon; in 1718 he observed the proper motion of Hamilton was born in Dublin. His father, a solici-
the stars after observing Sirius, Procyon and tor, sent him to Trim to be raised by his aunt and an
Arcturus; he was the first to suggest that nebulae eccentric clergyman-linguist uncle when he was 3.
were clouds of interstellar gas in which formation He showed an early and astonishing ability at lan-
processes were occurring. He succeeded Flamsteed guages (he had mastered 13 by age 13) and later also
as Astronomer Royal in 1720 at the age of 63 and wrote rather bad poetry and corresponded with
commenced a programme of observation of the 19- Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey. At 10 he devel-
year lunar cycle, a task that he completed success- oped an interest in the mathematical classics, includ-
fully and which confirmed the secular acceleration ing those by Newton and Laplace, and later went to
of the Moon. Halley™s celebrated friendship with Trinity College, Dublin. There he did original research
Newton enabled him to persuade Newton to pub- on caustics (patterns produced by reflected light).
lish his Principia through the Royal Society, of At Trinity College Hamilton was one of the very
which Halley was clerk and editor. When the few people to have obtained the highest grade
Society was unable to finance the book Halley paid (optime) in two subjects: Greek and mathematical
for its printing himself. physics. His work on caustics led to his discovery of
If his interests within astronomy were broad, so the law of least action: for a light path the action is
were his achievements in other branches of sci- a simple function of its length and the light travels
ence. In 1686 he published the first map of the along a line minimizing this. Such least action
winds on the Earth™s surface and formulated a rela- principles dependent on a function of the path
tionship between height and air pressure; between taken can powerfully express many laws of physics
1687 and 1694 he studied the evaporation and previously given in more clumsy differential equa-
salinity of lakes and drew conclusions about the tion form.
age of the Earth; between 1698 and 1702 he con- At age 22, and before he graduated, Hamilton was
ducted surveys of terrestrial magnetism and of the appointed professor of astronomy at Dublin (1827)
157
Hanson, Jean

and made Astronomer Royal of Ireland, so that he related to fermentation. These are both key matters
would be free to do research. He was not a good in the development of biochemistry. Harden
practical astronomer, despite engaging three of his shared a Nobel Prize in 1929.
Hardy, Godfrey Harold (1877“1947) British math-
many sisters to live at the Dunsink observatory to
help him. ematician: developed new work in analysis and
The field of complex numbers interested him, number theory.
and he invented quaternions. From 1833 he had Hardy was the son of an art teacher; he was a pre-
considered a + ib as an ordered pair (a,b) and con- cocious child, whose tricks included factorizing
sidered how rotations in a plane were described hymn-numbers during sermons. His early mathe-
by the algebra of such couples. The quaternion matical ability won him a scholarship to
refers to a triple and describes rotations in three Winchester School and then another to Trinity
dimensions. This was an algebra in which (for the College, Cambridge, where he was elected a Fellow.
first time) the commutative principle that ij = ji In 1919 he became Savilian Professor of Geometry
broke down. For a quaternion a + bi + cj + dk, at Oxford, but returned to Cambridge in 1931 as
i2 = j2 = k2 = ijk = “1 and ij = “ji. While important for professor of pure mathematics.
the way that the concepts of algebra were general- Hardy™s early research was on particularly diffi-
ized, the subject never had major uses in physics, cult integrals and he also produced a new proof of
which was better served by vector and tensor the prime number theorem: that the number of
analysis. primes not exceeding x approaches x/logex when x
In his later years Hamilton became a recluse, approaches infinity. He began to collaborate with
working and drinking excessively. His name his close friend J E Littlewood (1885“1977) on
remains familiar in the Hamiltonian operators of research into the partitioning of numbers, on the
quantum mechanics. Goldbach conjecture (that every even number is
Hanson, (Emmeline) Jean (1919“73) British bio- the sum of two prime numbers, still unproved) and
physicist: co-deviser of sliding-filament theory of later the Riemann zeta-function. Together they
muscle contraction. wrote nearly 100 papers during 35 years.
As a zoologist who became a biophysicist, Jean In 1908 Hardy and W Weinberg (1862“1937) dis-
Hanson first became interested in how muscle con- covered independently a law fundamental to popu-
tracts during the 1940s when she was a research lation genetics. It describes the genetic equilibrium
student in London, studying the blood vessels of of a large random-mating population and shows
annelids. Thereafter she spent her career with the that the ratio of dominant to recessive genes does
Medical Research Council Biophysics Unit there, not vary down the generations. This was strong sup-
except for a fruitful period at MIT in the 1950s. Her port for Darwin™s theory of evolution by natural
skill in classical microscopy led her to phase con- selection. It was Hardy™s only venture into applied
trast microscopy and then to electron microscopy mathematics.
in its early days, and she applied all three methods Hardy was an excellent teacher and introduced a
to the study of muscle. With H E Huxley her results modern rigorous approach to analysis. He encour-
led to the sliding-filament theory of muscle con- aged the young Indian genius Srinivasa Ramanujan
traction, first applied by them to striated muscle. (1887“1920), bringing him to Cambridge to do
This is made up of fibres, which are built up of research. Hardy was a staunch anti-Christian, a
myosin filaments and more slender actin fila- firm friend of Bertrand Russell and a passionate
ments, and the theory was essentially that contrac- and talented cricketer and ˜real tennis™ player.
Harrison, John (1693“1776) English navigator and
tion is due to an interdigitated sliding motion of
these which shortens the fibre. In the late 1950s horologist.
Jean Hanson went on to show that in the smooth A Yorkshireman, Harrison was a carpenter-
muscle of invertebrates a similar mechanism oper- turned-clockmaker who invented the marine chro-
ated. She was elected to fellowship of the Royal nometer and so revolutionized marine navigation
Society in 1967. and exploration.
Harden, Sir Arthur (1865“1940) British biochemist. With the colonial and naval ambitions of the
Educated at Manchester and Erlangen, Harden European nations in the late 17th and early 18th-c,
worked at the Lister Institute in London through- marine navigation was an issue of key importance.
out his career. He is best known for his work on the In 1707, 2000 lives were lost when an English fleet
alcoholic fermentation of sugars, which Buchner unexpectedly struck rocks off the Scilly Isles, over
had shown could be brought about by a cell-free 100 miles off course. Such was the need for reliable
extract of yeast, thought to contain an enzyme, marine navigation that in 1714 the British govern-
˜zymase™. Harden showed that zymase is actually a ment put up a prize of £20 000 for a practical way of
mixture of enzymes, each a protein that catalyses measuring longitude at sea to within 30 miles after
one step in the multi-step conversion of sugar to a voyage of 6 weeks, corresponding to keeping time
ethanol; and that non-protein co-enzymes are also to within 3 seconds a day.
present in zymase and are essential for the process. In those days position at sea was found by mea-
He found that sugar phosphates are essential inter- suring the angles of certain stars at an accurately
mediates in fermentation and that conversion of known time. Since the rotation of the Earth means
carbohydrate to lactic acid in muscle is intimately that an error of just 1 minute in time leads to an
158
Harvey, William

Harvey, William (1578“1637) English physician:
error of 15 nautical miles in longitude, accurate
and reliable measurement of time was the limiting founded modern physiology by discovering circula-
factor. tion of the blood.
Harrison set about winning the prize and, after Harvey was the eldest of seven sons in the close
making several remarkable wooden clocks that family of a yeoman farmer. After Cambridge he
were the most accurate timekeepers of their day, went to the greatest medical school of the time, at
devised in 1737 a ˜sea clock™ which used a pair of Padua, and studied there in 1600 under Fabrizio,
dumb-bells linked by springs in place of a swinging who discovered but did not understand the valves
pendulum. H1, as it is known, was tested by the in the veins. Back in London from 1602, Harvey was
Admiralty and proved a great success, correctly pre- soon successful and was physician to James I (and
dicting landfall when the ship™s master thought he later to Charles I), but his main interest was in
still had 60 miles to run. Something of a perfec- research. By 1615 he had a clear idea of the circula-
tionist, Harrison then proceeded to improve his tion, but he continued to experiment on this. He
design, making a number of innovations along the did not publish his results until 1628 in the poorly
way, including the bimetallic strip to compensate printed, slim book Exercitatio anatomica de motu
for temperature variations, and 24 years later pro- cordis et sanguinis in animalibus (On the Motions of
duced his masterpiece, H4. the Heart and Blood in Animals), usually known as
During sea trials lasting a year, H4 was found to De motu cordis. It is one of the great scientific clas-
be a mere 39 seconds out on its return to Britain, sics. By dissection and experiment Harvey had
well within the error limits required for the prize. shown that the valves in the heart, arteries and
Unfortunately for Harrison, now almost 70, the veins are one-way; that in systole the heart con-
government then proceeded to set him a series of tracts as a muscular pump, expelling blood; that
further tasks before it would agree to pay him the the right ventricle supplies the lungs and the left
prize money. After Harrison had spent another 10 ventricle the rest of the arterial system; that blood
years on these tasks, King George III heard of his flows through the veins towards the heart; these
plight and intervened, spending 10 weeks person- facts, and the quantity of blood pumped, led to his
ally testing H5 at his private observatory together conclusion that ˜therefore the blood must circu-
with Harrison and the Astronomer Royal. They late™. This idea refuted the earlier views of Galen
found H5 to be accurate to within a third of a and others, and Harvey was ridiculed, but his work
second a day and the following year, in 1773, was accepted within his lifetime. He was not able to
Harrison was eventually awarded his money, less show how blood passed from the arterial to the
expenses. Shortly before Harrison™s death in 1776, venous system, as there are no connections visible
Cook proved the real value of his work by taking his to the eye. He supposed correctly that the connec-
chronometer on his second voyage to the Pacific, tions must be too small to see; Malpighi observed
where he used it to accurately map Australia and
New Zealand.
Harteck, Paul (1902“85) Austrian“US physical
chemist: discoverer of ortho- and para- forms of
hydrogen; co-discoverer of tritium.
Harteck studied in Vienna and in Berlin where he
became Haber™s assistant. There in 1929 he first
separated and studied the two forms of molecular
hydrogen. Their existence had been predicted by
Heisenberg who deduced that all homonuclear
diatomic molecules having nuclei with non-zero
spin should exist in two forms: one having the two
nuclear spins parallel (eg ortho-hydrogen) and the
other anti-parallel (para-hydrogen). Their physical
properties show small differences.
In 1933 in Cambridge Harteck first made tritium,
the hydrogen isotope of mass number 3. Afterwards
he held professorships in Hamburg and from 1951
in New York.
Hartmann, Johannes Franz (1865“1936) German
astronomer: discovered interstellar gas.
In 1904 Hartmann discovered the first strong evi-
dence for interstellar matter. While observing the
spectrum of δ Orionis, a binary star, he noticed that
the calcium lines were not Doppler-shifted like the
other lines in its spectrum (as would be expected
for an orbiting pair of stars). This must mean that
the calcium lines come from other gaseous matter
between δ Orionis and Earth. William Harvey
159
Haüy, Ren© Just

them with a microscope soon after Harvey™s death. appears smooth (see diagram). Similar principles
Modern animal physiology begins with Harvey™s would lead to other crystal shapes built from appro-
work, which was as fundamental as Newton™s work priate structural units. In developed form, this is
on the solar system. still the modern view.
Harvey was an enthusiastic, cautious and skilful As a priest, Haüy was in some danger in the
experimenter. Another area of his work was embry- French Revolution, but friends protected him and
ology; his book On the Generation of Animals (1651) Napoleon (the first world leader with a scientific or
describes his work on this, which was soon super- engineering training) appointed him to a post and
seded by microscopic studies. His work on animal directed him to write a textbook of physics for
locomotion was not found until 1959. general use.
Hawking, Stephen (William) (1942“ ) British
In appearance, Harvey was short and round-faced
with dark hair. He wore a dagger and was said to be theoretical physicist: advanced understanding of
˜quick-tempered™. space-time and space-time singularities.
Haüy, Ren© Just [hahwee] (1743“1822) French min- Hawking graduated from Oxford in physics and,
eralogist: founder of crystallography. after a doctorate at Cambridge on relativity theory,
Although Haüy™s father was an impoverished remained there to become a Fellow of the Royal
clothworker, the boy™s interest in church music Society (1974) and Lucasian Professor of
secured an education for himself through the help Mathematics (1979). He developed a highly dis-
of the church. He became a priest, and professor of abling and progressive neuromotor disease while a
mineralogy in Paris, in 1802. Steno had shown in student, limiting movement and speech. His math-
1670 that the angle between corresponding faces in ematical work is carried out mentally and commu-
the crystals of one substance is constant (irrespec- nicated when in a developed form. His life and
tive of crystal size or habit), but he had not studied work is an extraordinary conquest of severe physi-
crystal cleavage. Hooke and also Huygens proposed cal disability.
that a crystal must be built of identical particles Hawking began research on general relativity,
piled regularly ˜like shot™ or, as Newton phrased it, recognizing that Einstein™s theory takes no
˜in rank and file™. Haüy developed these ideas; he account of the quantum mechanical nature of
accidentally broke a calcite crystal and noted that physics and is not adequately able to describe grav-
the pieces were all rhombodedral, which implied a itational singularities such as ˜black holes™ or the
common underlying structure. He showed in 1784 ˜Big Bang™. In The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time
that the faces of a calcite crystal might be formed (with G F R Ellis, 1973) he showed that a space-time
by stacking cleavage rhombs regularly, if the singularity must have occurred at the beginning of
rhombs are assumed to be so small that the face the universe and space-time itself, and this was the
˜Big Bang™ (a point of indefinitely high density and
space-time curvature). The universe has been
expanding from this point ever since.
s
Hawking greatly advanced our knowledge of
black holes “ these are singularities in space-time
s
caused by sufficient mass to curve space-time
h
enough to prevent the escape of light waves (pho-
tons). The boundary within which light cannot
d
escape is called the event horizon and is given by
f the Schwarzschild radius. Hawking established
that the event horizon can only increase or remain
constant with time, so that if two black holes merge
the new surface area is greater than the sum of that
of the components. He showed that black hole
mechanics has parallels with thermodynamic laws
(in which entropy must increase with time). He also
showed that black holes result not only from the
collapse of stars but also from the collapse of other
highly compressed regions of space.
E
During 1970“74 Hawking and his associates
proved J Wheeler™s (1911“ ) conjecture (known as
the ˜no-hair theorem™) that only mass, angular
momentum and electric charge is conserved once
matter enters a black hole.
In 1974 Hawking deduced the extraordinary
result that black holes can emit thermal radiation.
For example if a particle“antiparticle pair are cre-
ated close to an event horizon, and only one falls
inside, then the black hole has effectively emitted
thermal radiation. A finite temperature can there-
Haüy™s drawing of a crystal built up of rhomboidal units
160
Heaviside, Oliver

space itself expanding along with the matter in it.
The concept is broadly accepted by cosmologists, but
whether it will ultimately be followed by contrac-
tion and repetition (ie an oscillating universe) or by
limitless expansion, or by a violent final contraction
(the ˜Big Crunch™) remains an open question.
Heatley, Norman (George) (1911“ ) British bio-
chemist: made possible the bulk production of the
first antibiotic, penicillin.
Heatley was born in Suffolk, the son of a veteri-
nary surgeon. After graduation at Cambridge he
continued there, taking a doctorate in biochem-
istry. His first job, in 1936, was in the School of
Pathology at Oxford, where his subsequent career
was largely spent. He was working there with
Florey when, from 1939, the latter showed that the
antibiotic penicillin had important potential clini-
cal value. In the early work on it in Oxford it was
secured only in small quantity, barely sufficient for
even limited testing. However, Heatley devised the
cylinder-plate assay method and a solvent-transfer
extraction process, which made penicillin avail-
able on a substantial scale. Without this work it
would have remained a laboratory curiosity; in
fact, large-scale production in the UK and the USA
began from 1942, with dramatic results in the treat-
Stephen Hawking in the 1990s.
ment of infections. From that time, penicillin and
fore be associated with a black hole, and the anal- later antibiotics dominated such treatment.
Heaviside, Oliver (1850“1925) British physicist:
ogy between black hole mechanics and thermody-
namics is real. The indirect evidence for the actual developed theoretical basis of cable telegraphy.
existence of black holes at the centre of active Lacking a university education, Heaviside worked
galaxies is now compelling: and there is some evi- initially as a telegraph operator until deafness
dence for a black hole at the centre of our own forced him to stop. Unmarried, he lived with his
galaxy, the Milky Way. parents, never obtained an academic position
More recently Hawking has sought to produce a (although he received several honours) and eventu-
consistent quantum mechanical theory of gravity, ally died in poverty.
which would also link it with the other three basic Working alone, Heaviside developed much of the
types of force (weak nuclear, strong nuclear, and mathematics behind the theory of telegraphy and
electromagnetic interaction). His non-technical electric circuits, formulating the now familiar con-
book A Brief History of Time (1988) was an outstand- cepts of impedance, self-inductance and conduc-
ing publishing success. He was admitted as a tance and using complex numbers in the analysis
Companion of Honour by the Queen in 1989. of alternating current networks many years before
Hayashi, Chusiro (1920“ ) Japanese astrophysicist. others did so. He showed how audio signals could
Educated at Kyoto and Tokyo, Hayashi returned to be transmitted along cables without distortion and
Kyoto in 1954 and taught there throughout his proposed a method of using a single telephone line
career. In 1948 the ˜Big Bang™ theory offered an expla- to carry several conversations simultaneously
nation for the relative abundance of the chemical (multiplexing). Following Marconi™s success in
elements in the universe, using in part the idea due transmitting radio signals across the Atlantic, he
to Gamow in 1946 that thermonuclear reactions suggested, independently of A E Kennelly (1861“
would occur in the very hot and dense first stages of 1939), that there had to be a reflecting layer in the
the ˜Big Bang™. In these conditions they assumed that upper atmosphere, otherwise the curvature of the
neutrons could combine with protons. In 1950 Earth would prohibit the signals from being
Hayashi modified ˜Big Bang™ theory by calculating received. The existence of the Heaviside layer was
that within the first 2 s the temperature would be demonstrated experimentally over 20 years later by
above 1010 K, which is above the threshold for the for- Appleton. Also known as the E-region or middle
mation of electron“positron pairs from photons. layer of the ionosphere, it usually lies between
Working through the consequences of these ideas, 90 km and 150 km above the Earth.
he and others showed that they would lead to a fixed Although most of Heaviside™s earlier work was
hydrogen:helium ratio in stars, with only small ignored, leading him to become embittered and a
amounts of heavier elements. This was the first of recluse, his valuable contributions were later
the many variants on the ˜Big Bang™ idea, whose acknowledged and he was elected a Fellow of the
common feature is that the universe began as an Royal Society in 1891. The last, unpublished,
explosive event from some primordial state, with volume of his Electromagnetic Theory was torn up by
161
Panel: The history of medicine


THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE venereal disease in Galenic terms, and named it after
a character from Greek classical myth, Syphilis.
The learned Western medical tradition traces its Similarly, in writing his great illustrated book on the
origin to the works of a mysterious Greek physician, fabric of the human body (1542), VESELIUS was trying
HIPPOCRATES. Some 60 writings survive, most dating to put Galen™s anatomical project into practice, and
from the period 430“330 BC, which have since antiq- in doing so found many errors in Galen. Meanwhile,
uity been attributed to Hippocrates, but it is impossi- FABRICIUS sought to put ARISTOTLE™S anatomical
ble to say with certainty which, if any, he actually project back into practice, and in doing so discovered
wrote. The Oath, originally serving the interests of a the ˜valves™ in the veins. Fabricius™s pupil HARVEY took
Pythagorean medical sect, has been adopted by some this Aristotelian investigation further, and discovered
modern medical schools as embodying the ethical the circulation of blood in animals (1628), perhaps
ideals at which a physician should aim. The the most important physiological discovery ever
Aphorisms opens with the famous statement, ˜Life is made. DESCARTES, also trying to reinstate an ancient
short, the art is long, opportunity fleeting, experience understanding of the world, that of the Greek
deceptive, judgment difficult™. The Hippocratic texts atomists, adopted Harvey™s discovery into his
are very disparate and even contradictory, but they ˜mechanistic™ account of physiology (in his Discourse
all present a ˜naturalistic™ view of diseases as having on Method, 1637, and On Man, 1651), in which
natural causes and being amenable to natural treat- everything is explained in terms simply of matter in
ments, rather than being caused by gods or spirits motion, an approach of enormous influence.
and needing religious or magical treatments. These two traditions sparked off much investiga-
The elements of the ˜humoral™ theory can be found tive work in the second half of the 17th-c, including
in the Hippocratic writings. The four humours are that of Christopher Wren (1632“1723), and LOWER on
blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm. Their the blood and the heart, MALPIGHI on the microscopic
balance supposedly produced a state of health and structure of the lungs, and Giovanni Alfonzo Borelli
their imbalance a state of disease, and they could be (1608“79) on the mechanism of the muscles. In con-
adjusted by diet, bleeding and other interventions in trast, SYDENHAM investigated epidemics among
order to maintain health or restore it when lost. The Londoners, interpreting Hippocratic medicine as
Hippocratic doctrines, and particularly the humoral demanding the physician to watch the course of
theory, were interpreted and developed in an idiosyn- disease and cure in nature and not to be concerned
cratic fashion by GALEN, a Greek physician of the about the inner working of the body. The mechanis-
2nd-c AD who lived and worked in Rome, and it is his tic“vitalistic synthesis of all these traditions by
medical system that came to dominate Western med- Hermann Boerhaave (1668“1738) dominated
icine for well over 1000 years. No physician has been medical thinking throughout the 18th-c and was
more important historically. To the humoral theory of developed by Gerard van Swieten (1700“72) and by
Hippocrates, Galen added a stress on anatomizing HALLER. Medical practitioners extended their interests
and a rationalistic approach to healing and phar- to normal childbirth during the 17th-c. The investiga-
macy. Galenic medicine is aimed at the welfare of the tion into normal and abnormal birth by Fran§ois
individual, not of people en masse, and is of little use Mauriceau (1637“1709) and Hendrick van Deventer
in the treatment of epidemic disease. Galen™s writ- (1651“1724), and the invention of obstetric forceps
ings survive in great quantity, and became the basis by the Chamberlen family in London, were of great
of what was taught in the medical schools of importance. William Smellie (1697“1763) and
Alexandria and Byzantium. His works were later William Hunter (1718“83) took the work on

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