. 2
( 5)


ladies of pleasure with his whip™. (Quoted in H. P. Stokes,
Outside the Barnwell Gate, Cambridge Antiquarian Society
Publications, no. 47, 1915.)
The name ˜bridewell™ comes from the house of correction in
London near the St Bride ™s Well (originally St Bridget™s) o¬
Fleet Street. The Cambridge street is named after Royal
Bridewell Hospital, part of St Thomas™s Hospital, former
owner of the land, which was transferred to Savoy Hospital in
the 1550s.

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The beginning of the University
Simon LANGHAM (d. 1376) Archbishop of Canterbury,
Chancellor of England, and Cardinal, was also Bishop of Ely,
and thus, as Visitor (a kind of ombudsman) and Patron, had
close connection with Peterhouse, several of whose members
are commemorated in the same neighbourhood. One of these
was John HOLBROOK (d. 1437), Master 1418“31, Chancellor
1428 and 1429“31 and chaplain to Henry V and Henry VI “ was
he at the battle of Agincourt? This is the oldest college, founded
in 1284. CLARE College succeeded in 1326, and was named
after Elizabeth, Lady Clare, who refounded it as Clare House in
1338. (Presumably Clare Road was named after the college.) In
1347 came PEMBROKE College, originally the Hall of
Valence Marie, named after Mary, widow of Aymer de Valence,
Earl of Pembroke, who according to legend was killed at a
tournament on his wedding day. It was later richly endowed by
Henry VI. Edmund GONVILLE (d. 1351) founded Gonville
Hall in 1349, completed by William BATEMAN, Bishop of
NORWICH, and by Sir Walter Manny. William LYNDE-
WODE (c. 1375“1446) was educated there, later becoming a
Fellow of Pembroke. He wrote a great edition of the legislation
of the province of Canterbury, became Bishop of St David™s
and assisted in the foundation of Eton College and King™s. He
was heavily involved in the proceedings against the heretical
Lollards, who were burned at the stake (see WYCLIFFE): ˜even
a man of ¬ne learning™, writes a recent historian, ˜could not
shrink from frying his fellow-men™. (See Ecclesiastical Law
Journal, 2 (1990“92), pp. 268“72, and B. E. Ferme, Canon Law in
Medieval England, a Study of William Lyndwood™s ˜Provinciale™,
LAS Rome, 1996.)

The beginning of the University

In the early sixteenth century the hostility between di¬erent
parts of England was shown when students from the north
burned the gate of GONVILLE Hall and sacked the college,
which declined for many years until it was revived by John
Caius (1510“73), an eminent physician, whose name then
joined that of Gonville in the name of the college.
Meanwhile Trinity Hall was founded by the same William
BATEMAN, Bishop of NORWICH, in 1350, as a ˜perpetual
College of Scholars in the Civil and Canon Law™. It still remains
known for its lawyers and judges, though all subjects are now
taught. Bateman died suddenly and was buried before the altar
of the Cathedral of Avignon, where at that time one of the two
rival Popes resided.
The Guild of Corpus Christi and the Guild of St Mary jointly
founded Corpus Christi College in 1352. William BATEMAN
was again involved, in obtaining a new site for the college,
whose ¬rst Master was Thomas ELTISLEY. It was in Eltisley™s
time as Master (1352“76) and that of his successor that the
beautiful Old Court of Corpus Christi was built.
John WARKWORTH (d. 1500), Master of Peterhouse
1473“1500, is the reputed author of Warkworth™s Chronicle of the
reign of Edward IV. He left this to the college, which has a por-
trait of him.
These six colleges, all founded in a period of less than seventy
years, marked a ¬rst step. The Black Death of the mid-
fourteenth century, which killed between a quarter and a third of
the population of Europe, hindered further progress in what has
been called a ˜third-rate university™, in comparison with Oxford,
which had already nurtured several scholars of international
repute. However, the foundation of KING™S College in 1440“1
by Henry VI began to in¬‚uence the rivalry. The college was

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Trumpington Street

given unusual independence, so that the ¬rst Provost (Master),
William MILLINGTON (d. 1466?) felt obliged to resign,
because the exemption of King™s from the University™s jurisdic-
tion con¬‚icted with his oath of fealty to the Chancellor. His suc-
cessor, John CHEDWORTH (d. 1471), from MERTON
College Oxford, seems not to have been tainted by his associa-
tion with the ˜other place ™. In fact he may have helped the
college to survive, when the Yorkist Edward IV took a dislike to
the foundation of Lancastrian Henry VI, by his support of the

The Reformation

Yorkist cause. The vast size of King™s College Chapel must have
contrasted powerfully with the thatched cottages all round. (See
Elisabeth Leedham-Green, A Concise History of the University of
Cambridge, 1996, which has a large bibliography for both the
University and the colleges; also C. G. Gri¬nhoofe, Celebrated
Cambridge Men A.D. 1390“1908, Cambridge, 1910.)

The Reformation
Although Luther did not make his stand against the Papacy at
Wittenberg till 1517, there had been stirrings much earlier. John
WYCLIFFE (d. 1384) was accused of heresy and of holding
that the Pope could legitimately be accused by laymen. The
translation of the Bible bearing his name preceded Luther™s, and
he too, like Luther, condemned monasticism. His followers at
Oxford, many of them the so-called ˜Lollards™, displeased
Henry VI, and in¬‚uenced him in choosing orthodox Cambridge
for his new and great foundation, KING™S (1440“1). This led at
once to the foundation of QUEENS™ (1446“8) by Henry™s wife,
Margaret of Anjou (and later by the Queen of Edward IV,
Elizabeth Woodville), ˜to laud and honneure of sexe femenine™,
though women did not join the college for some 500 years. The
third Provost of King™s, Robert WOODLARK, then founded
St Catharine™s (1473), and Cambridge began to close in on
Oxford in the pursuit of fame. The ¬rst monastery to be dis-
solved (in 1496) was ST RADEGUND™S, whose great benefac-
tor, if not founder, had been King MALCOLM IV of Scotland
(not the one who succeeded Macbeth). (KING Street has been
thought to relate to him, but was called Walls Lane till c. 1798,
when the present HOBSON Street was called King Street.)

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JESUS College took over its decayed buildings, its founder
intending a continuance of the religious traditions of the
All these colleges remained true on the whole to medieval
traditions. CHRIST™S, founded 1505 by the mother of Henry
VII, LADY MARGARET Beaufort, was granted statutes giving
new importance to classical studies, and thus to the new spirit of
the Renaissance, moving slowly in from Italy. ST JOHN™S,
founded 1509 by the same lady (yet still without advantage to
her gender), took over the grounds of the Augustinian
Hospital of St John (c. 1135). A third college to take over a
monastic foundation, that of [BUCKINGHAM] College, was
MAGDALENE (1542). This was an o¬shoot of the great
Benedictine Abbey of CROWLAND near Peterborough of
which the Dukes of Buckingham were benefactors. Then came
Henry VIII™s royal foundation of unprecedented size
and magni¬cence, TRINITY (1546), using the wealth of the
dissolved monasteries throughout England to create a college
that should be the bulwark of the new order of things ushered
in by the Reformation. But for the insistence of Catherine Parr,
the wife who survived him, Henry might have dissolved the
Cambridge colleges along with the purely religious communi-
ties. The University had progressed to great prominence in the
course of a hundred years.
The grounds of the Dominican monastery remained empty
after its dissolution until 1584, when EMMANUEL took them
over. The college was intended by its founder, Sir Walter
Mildmay, for the training of Protestant clergy, as was SIDNEY
SUSSEX, founded in 1594 by the Lady Frances Sidney,
Countess of Sussex, occupying the Franciscans™ site. The for-
merly Catholic colleges and new foundations were now wholly

The Reformation

reformed. For over 200 years there were no new foundations,
until the founding of DOWNING (1800).
Yet the struggle between Catholic and Protestant had contin-
ued throughout the sixteenth century, with disastrous conse-
quences for some. One who maintained his freedom throughout
his life was [ERASMUS] of Rotterdam (c. 1466“1536) who
taught at Cambridge in 1511, staying for about three years, o¬
and on. He was probably Lady Margaret Professor of
Theology, but also taught Greek, the ˜new™ key to the Scriptures,
which he used in translating the New Testament into Latin. The
most famous scholar in Europe in his day, he had just published
his In Praise of Folly, attacking monasticism and the corruptions
of the Church, and in this way paved the way for the
Reformation. However, while he did not side with Luther,
always preferring peace to violence, his writings were forbidden
by the Pope in 1559 and again in 1590. He was at Queens™
College, and complained of the Cambridge dons, as well as
the beer and the wine, yet preferred to risk the plague in
Cambridge rather than drink the beer brewed by his friends at
Landbeach. Indeed he spoke later of Cambridge having
changed, detesting now ˜those chill subtleties which make more
for disputation than piety™. He even claimed that by 1518
Cambridge was better at Greek than Oxford. (See H. C. Porter,
Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge, 1958.) (Erasmus
Close, being o¬ [DARWIN] Drive, and at the other end from
FRANCIS DARWIN Court, may refer to Charles Darwin™s
grandfather Erasmus Darwin (1731“1802) who anticipated
some ideas on evolution.)
Others at Cambridge were soon involved in the controversies
of Protestant ideas against Catholic ones, in¬‚amed by Henry
VIII™s divorce from Catherine of ARAGON (1485“1536), his

©¤§ -®

¬rst wife, who had failed to bear him a male heir. Hugh
LATIMER (c. 1485“1555), a Fellow of Clare, approved of the
divorce but su¬ered for this as well as for his religious beliefs
when Catherine™s daughter Mary came to the throne. He was
strongly opposed to miraculous images, and popular for his
down-to-earth sermons, the most famous being based on the
theme of playing cards. Thomas CRANMER (1489“1556), a
Fellow of Jesus, su¬ered similarly at the stake, boldly thrusting
his hand into the ¬‚ames since it had o¬ended by signing both
recantations and the recantations of recantations. He had not
only consented to the burning of heretics, but had interceded (in
vain) for Fisher and Thomas More, Anne Boleyn and Thomas
Cromwell. ˜He was at once a divine and a courtier™, says
Macaulay, ˜and the combination proved impossible.™ Nicholas
RIDLEY (c. 1500“55), Fellow and Master of PEMBROKE
Hall, was a friend of CRANMER and helped to draw up his
great literary achievement, The Book of Common Prayer. He too
was burned at the stake with LATIMER on 16 October 1555.
However, Nicholas METCALFE (1475?“1539), Master of St
John™s, opposed Henry VIII™s divorce and survived, but had to
resign the Mastership despite excellent quali¬cations. He had
greatly contributed to the advancement of scholarship and
learning in the college, and attracted many benefactions, but
Henry™s will counted for more.
Cardinal Thomas WOLSEY (c. 1475“1530) had become
almost as powerful as the King until he failed to give clear
approval to the divorce and was accused of high treason by the
faction of Anne Boleyn. He died on the way to London for his
trial. He had founded Christ Church, Oxford, well before
Henry founded Trinity, and hinted by its sheer size, as well as by
placing his own arms above those of the King on the college

The Reformation

gatehouse, at the great ambition of clerical advancement he
nursed, yet regretted at last having served God less well than he
had served the King.
In those fanatical times it was not easy to survive. Ralph
[AINSWORTH], who was Master of Peterhouse in 1544, took
part in the sale of the Papist processional cross of the University
in 1547, and was expelled, on the accession of the Catholic Mary
Tudor, as a married man. His successor, Andrew PERNE
(c. 1519“89) can hardly be blamed by today™s standards for his
adaptability in surviving the reigns both of Mary and of
Elizabeth the Protestant. He did, however, preach when the
bodies of the Protestants Fagius and Bucer were exhumed and
burned, and then assent when their names were restored to
honour by the Senate. Yet he left money to build the library at
Peterhouse and to provide most of its contents. Thomas
THIRLEBY (c. 1506“70) of Trinity Hall, Bishop of Norwich
and of Ely, had strong Catholic sympathies, but was favoured
by CRANMER. He opposed the First Prayer Book of Edward VI
and the Act of Uniformity which imposed its use, though he
accepted it when passed. As a Catholic he was favoured by Mary,
but refused the Oath of Supremacy under Elizabeth and was
imprisoned. He was ˜not a very severe persecutor of heretics™,
although a vicar of Babraham, John Hullier, who refused to
recant, was tried for heresy in Great St Mary™s and burned to
death on Jesus Green. Only two other Protestants in Ely diocese
su¬ered the same fate, at Ely.
Matthew PARKER (1504“75) has been associated with
Parker Street (Emmanuel Back Lane in the eighteenth century).
He too lived in some peril. A moderate, he was in favour under
Henry VIII, but was deprived by Mary and lived in obscurity till
Elizabeth chose him to be Archbishop of Canterbury. Master of

©¤§ -®

Corpus Christi, he was very much the scholar, and is remem-
bered there for the magni¬cent collection of manuscripts col-
lected by him at the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Robert [BEAUMONT] (d. 1567) ¬‚ed in the reign of Mary
with other Protestants to Zurich, but returned on Mary™s death
and was admitted Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity in 1559.
Having been a Fellow of Peterhouse, he was Master of Trinity
in 1561 and later Vice-Chancellor. He was prominent in the
movement of Calvinists at Cambridge against conforming to
the ordinances of Elizabeth and PARKER, and supported the
anti-ritualistic party of the Church. (See, however, Joseph
Beaumont, below, p. 47.)
[WEST] Road may be just the counterpart of EAST Road.
(It was ˜New Road™ in the time of the nineteenth-century diarist
Josiah Chater.) However, it runs alongside King™s Fellows™
Garden, and so may call to mind Nicholas West (1461“1533), a
Fellow of King™s who became Bishop of Ely (after a madcap
youth, according to Fuller). Promoted by the favour of
WOLSEY, he was chaplain to Catherine of ARAGON, and
opposed divorce proceedings against her. He built the splendid
Renaissance chapel roof at Ely, with the words in Latin over the
entrance, ˜By the grace of God I am what I am™. He did not live
long enough to experience the con¬‚icts of conscience in the
middle of the sixteenth century.
Roger ASCHAM (1515“68) of St John™s, however, was tutor
to Elizabeth while she was still a princess, and then Latin secre-
tary to Mary, being specially permitted to continue in his
Protestantism. In 1558, after Elizabeth came to the throne, he
was appointed her private tutor. His Toxophilus promotes the
cause of archery as a sport and a preparation for war. His most
famous work, The Scholemaster (1570), deals with the education

The Reformation

of boys, advocating gentleness rather than corporal punish-
ment, and is in a clear English prose style. The school named
after him began in 1916 as the Cambridge Open Air School
for children su¬ering from tuberculosis, the plague of that time.
It moved to Ascham Road in 1928 and closed in 1987. Stephen
PERSE (1548“1615) of Caius founded the school named
after him which stood in FREE SCHOOL Lane but later
moved to Hills Road. (See J. M. Gray, A History of the Perse
School, 1921, and S. J. D. Mitchell, Perse. A History of the Perse
School 1615“1976, 1976, and M. A. Scott, The Perse School for
Girls, Cambridge. The First Hundred Years 1881“1981, 1981.)
The almshouses he also founded were transferred to Newnham
in 1855“6. (See John A. Gray, ed., Newnham, Hanwell
Publications, Cambridge, 1977.)
A survivor like Ascham was the ¬nancier Sir Thomas
GRESHAM (1519“79) of Caius, founder of the Royal
Exchange, who was credited, wrongly, with the formulation of
˜Gresham™s Law™, that, in e¬ect, ˜bad money drives out good™.
Though a Puritan, he lived through the reign of Mary and into
that of Elizabeth.
Another Archbishop of Canterbury, Richard BANCROFT
(1544“1640), entered Christ™s, but was required to leave the
college because of its Puritan principles, and went over to Jesus,
but was not a Fellow. As Bishop of London he used his pikemen
to repel the Earl of Essex™s insurrection. In 1608 he was
Chancellor of Oxford University. He co-operated in the ˜King
James™ translation of the Bible. Being, it is said, ˜arbitrary™ and
˜irritable™ by disposition, though also capable of tact and
conciliation, by his strong opposition to Puritans he led many to
emigrate to America. Richard [MONTAGUE] (1577“1641),
Fellow of King™s, Bishop of Chichester and of Norwich,

©¤§ -®

favoured by Charles I with his High Church leanings, was bit-
terly opposed by the House of Commons, which proposed the
burning of a book by him for his alleged leaning towards
Catholicism. His leading idea, however, was the catholicity of
the English church. He was said to have ˜a tartness of writing,
very sharp the nib of his pen, and much gall mingled in his ink
against such as opposed him™.
From this period date the ¬rst maps in the collection by J.
Willis Clark and Arthur Gray, Old Plans of Cambridge
1574“1798, Part I, Text, and Part II, Maps, 1921.

The Renaissance and science
The trials of the clergy became less severe as Protestantism
established itself as the state religion, though Catholics and
Puritans still su¬ered. Cambridge street-names still remember
men of the latter part of the sixteenth century who were
connected with the revival of classical learning, already pro-
moted by ASCHAM. Thomas SACKVILLE (1536“1608) is
remembered as the collaborating author of the ¬rst English
tragedy in blank verse, Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrex, inspired
by the Roman tragedies of Seneca. Fulke GREVILLE
(1554“1628) of Jesus, a favourite of Elizabeth, was a poet and
dramatist, in¬‚uenced by Plato. He was a friend and the biogra-
pher of Sir Philip SIDNEY, whose cousin founded Sidney
SUSSEX. Another friend of Sidney was Arthur GOLDING
(1536?“1605?), translator of Ovid™s Metamorphoses, which
Shakespeare certainly knew well. (Golding is said to have been
educated at Queens™, but there is no evidence of this. The street
is in a ˜Jesus™ cluster.) Christopher MARLOWE (1564“93),

The Renaissance and science

whose plays are still performed, wrote Dr Faustus and Edward
II, as well as strikingly beautiful poems. He made no secret of his
atheism, which would have cost him his life a century earlier, but
was killed in a tavern brawl. Cambridge University Marlowe
Dramatic Society honours his connection with Corpus Christi
and the University. (See Graham Chainey, A Literary History of
Cambridge, 1985, for Marlowe™s time at Cambridge.)
The new sense of nationhood under Elizabeth was given
expression by William CAMDEN (1551“1623). His Britannia of
1586 is the ¬rst comprehensive topographical survey of
England. He also wrote a life of Elizabeth. Camden Court and
Camden House date from the late 1830s, when the Cambridge
Camden Society was founded for the republication of historical
[NEVILLE] Road may recall the name of Thomas Nevile
(c. 1548“1615), Master of Trinity from 1592, who created out of
a warren of older buildings of earlier foundations the splendid
Great Court, full of Renaissance spaciousness. No Magdalene
connection has been discovered and there is no strong reason for
supposing the road is named after him, but he is remembered in
Nevile™s Court at Trinity. It was he who exchanged with the
mayor in 1612“13 land on both sides of the river near Trinity,
now part of the Backs, for various pieces of land, the most
important of which became known as Parker™s Piece, because
the estate had been leased to Edward Parker, cook. Ena Mitchell
has shown in Notes on the History of Parker™s Piece, Cambridge
(no date), how successive generations have enclosed ˜waste
land™ in this area for private use.
Nicholas FERRAR (1592“1637) of Clare College established
at Little Gidding in 1625 a community that has become world-
famous through the title of one of T. S. Eliot™s Four Quartets.

©¤§ -®

The Church of the Good Shepherd was originally named after
him. The community was broken up by Parliament in 1647, but
revived in recent times.
With the seventeenth century a new spirit of inquiry emerged,
well represented in the work of Francis Bacon (1561“1626), a
Trinity man, whose titles were Baron VERULAM and Viscount
ST ALBANS. His rejection of the authority of Aristotle and
demand for knowledge based on argued evidence laid a theoret-
ical basis for modern science, which had already begun in the
work of William GILBERT (1540“1603), author of the ¬rst
great scienti¬c book published in England, De Magnete (1600),
˜one of the chief landmarks in the history of science™. (See R. T.
Gunther, Early Science in Cambridge, 1937.) In this work Gilbert,
a Johnian, assembled everything then known about magnets, and
conceived the idea that the earth itself was a giant magnet. He
invented two instruments by which seamen could determine lat-
itude without seeing sun, moon or stars. Just as important was the
work of William HARVEY (1578“1657) of Caius, who is cred-
ited with establishing the circulation of the blood. Another Caius
man, Francis GLISSON (1597“1677) lectured on anatomy at
Cambridge and produced almost the ¬rst English medical mono-
graph, on rickets. ˜Glisson™s capsule™ is the name given to the
sheath of the liver.
Isaac BARROW (1630“77), ¬rst Lucasian Professor of
Mathematics, resigned in favour of Newton, his pupil, in 1669,
in order to devote himself to theology. In 1672, as Master of
Trinity, he founded the library. Charles II who appointed him
said he had chosen the best scholar in England for the post, but
thought less well of his sermons, which sometimes lasted for
over three hours. The Dean of Westminster was so wearied of
these, so the story goes, that he had the organ played to drown

The Renaissance and science

them, but their language has been highly praised. Barrow™s
statue is in Trinity Chapel.
Isaac NEWTON (1642“1727), while absent from Cambridge
during the plague (1665“6), invented the binomial theorem and
di¬erential calculus, computed the area of the hyperbola, and
conceived the idea of universal gravitation; he later founded the
emission theory of light. ([DIAMOND] Close is in the area
where Trinity names predominate, including Newton™s. Might
this be an allusion to the dog of this name, which knocked over
a lighted candle, and so destroyed many of Newton™s papers?
Humphrey Newton, who was Newton™s sizar, or servant, in the
1680s, states categorically that his master kept no dog, but the
story may still have been the inspiration of the street-name.)
One of many delightful stories about Newton™s absent-minded-
ness relates how he ignored a guest he had invited for dinner,
how the guest ate the one dinner Newton had sent for, and how
Newton at last became aware of the empty plate. ˜But for the
evidence of my own senses™, Newton exclaimed, ˜I could have
sworn I had not dined tonight.™ His modesty is remembered in
his saying he had been like a boy picking up a pebble or a pret-
tier shell than ordinary, ˜whilst the great ocean of truth lay all
undiscovered before me™. Yet his ambition was to penetrate the
secret of the alchemical Philosophers™ Stone, and to interpret
the Old Testament in a mystical sense: ˜he regarded the uni-
verse ™, said Geo¬rey Keynes, ˜as a cryptogram set by the
Almighty™, which he would solve. An apple tree outside Trinity
Great Gate in front of Newton™s study, and another in the
Botanic Garden are of the same kind, ˜Flower of Kent™, as the
one at Woolsthorpe near Grantham, where, Newton said, he hit
on his theory of gravity after watching an apple fall.
Well known to Newton was Samuel PEPYS (1633“1703),

©¤§ -®

who came to MAGDALENE in 1651 and often returned, partly
because of litigation over family property in Impington “ a John
Pepys built Impington Hall “ partly to renew college acquain-
tance: ˜and there drank my bellyfull of their beer, which pleased
me as the best I ever drank™. He was tempted to accept an invita-
tion to be presented as Provost to King™s “ that would have been
a startling role for him “ but decided against. Magdalene
pro¬ted by his bequest of exactly 3,000 books, and the manu-
script of his famous diary. (See Chainey, A Literary History of
Cambridge, p. 37, above, for Pepys and Cambridge.) [BRAMP-
TON] in Cambridgeshire was Pepys™s family estate, though this
may well not be why the street is so named.
John FLAMSTEED (1646“1719) met Newton in 1674, and
gave him great help in writing his ˜Principia™, for which Newton
was ungrateful. The ¬rst astronomer-royal of England, he laid
the basis for modern astronomy, and undertook a complete cat-
alogue of all the stars, which was a great bene¬t to navigators,
and part of which Newton plagiarised.
A practical man was Thomas HOBSON (1544?“1631), the
carrier, who was part of a consortium that provided clean water
in ˜Hobson™s Conduit™. The course of one part of this is marked
on the pavement opposite the main Post O¬ce. Hobson would
not allow his horses to be hired out of turn, hence ˜Hobson™s
Choice ™ “ the one he decided on. (See W. D. Bushell, Hobson™s
Conduit, 1938.) He owned much land in Chesterton, where the
Hall was probably built by him or his family, but is buried in St
Bene™t™s Church.
IZAAK WALTON™s (1593“1683) The Compleat Angler was
¬rst published in 1653. ANGLER™S Way speaks for itself. Both
are near the river, as is GRAYLING Close, named by the
builder Peter Ginn after the ¬sh. WATER Lane and Street,

The Renaissance and science

recorded with this name by 1580, are named after the landowner
Alexander Attewater, recorded in 1279.
Sir Francis PEMBERTON (1625“97) is perhaps the best
known of the Pemberton family of Trumpington. He was Lord
Chief Justice of the King™s Bench, which did not save him
from imprisonment. (Pepys also su¬ered this fate as did many
of the High Stewards of the Borough.) Christopher Pemberton,
whose o¬ce was in Grove Lodge, Trumpington Street, from
1798 till his death in 1850, aged eighty-¬ve, preceded the
solicitor™s business of Clement [FRANCIS] (1818“80),
which became the practice most closely involved with the
University and colleges. (See Christopher Jackson, A Cambridge
Bicentenary. The History of a Legal Practice 1789“1989, Morrow
and Co., Bungay, 1990.) [FRANCIS] Passage is near Norwich
and Bateman Streets, both associated with Trinity Hall, of
which Clement Francis was a member. (Though small, this
passage may still have been meant to honour him. Nelson fared
no better.) The Trumpington Estate is entailed to carry the
name of Pemberton. Sir Francis Pemberton, the present owner,
is the son of William Warburton WINGATE, a Cambridge
doctor; he married Viola Pemberton and perpetuated the name
of Wingate in naming the street.
The GUNNING family is also closely associated with
Cambridge. Peter Gunning (1614“84), Bishop of Ely, a
member of several colleges, is said to have written the prayer
˜for all sorts and conditions of men™. His tomb is in Ely
Cathedral. Other Gunnings were Fellows of St John™s, as was
Henry Gunning (1768“1854), author of the Reminiscences of
the University, Town and County of Cambridge from the year
1780. Francis John Gunning was a partner with Clement
Francis (see above) from 1838.

©¤§ -®

When a judge like Pemberton could be imprisoned, it is not
surprising that Thomas TENISON risked the same fate when
he supported the seven bishops who in 1688 rejected James II™s
attempt at removing disabilities of Catholics. A Fellow of
Corpus Christi, and vicar of Great St Andrew™s, he became
Archbishop of Canterbury, and took part in founding the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. He preached a
funeral sermon for Nell Gwynne, whom he had found peni-
tent, reproved William III to his face for his adultery, and was
praised for his ministrations during the plague. His friend
Evelyn praised him as a preacher. Swift, like James II, thought
him a dull man, ˜who had a horror of anything like levity in
his clergy, especially of whist™ “ but Swift had been denied
preferment by him. Equally stern was Jeremy COLLIER
(1650“1726) of Caius, author of a Short View of the
Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage, in which he
denounced Dryden and Congreve. His independence showed
itself when he sided with the bishops who refused to swear
allegiance to William III and Mary II. He even absolved on the
sca¬old two of those who plotted to assassinate William in
Alderman Edward STOREY (d. 1693), a bookseller, was the
founder of Storey™s Charity: his house was no. 15 Magdalene
Street. Almshouses bearing his name were built before 1688, in
1729, and 1844 on the south side of NORTHAMPTON Street,
behind the street, and at the north-west end of the site bounded
˜Michel™s™ restaurant in Northampton Street occupies one of
these houses. (See Joan Fitch, ˜The foundation of Edward
Storey™, Cambridgeshire Local History Council Bulletin, 35 (1980),
pp. 6“10, and H. M. Larke and S. Shield, The Foundation of
Edward Storey. A Short History 1693“1980, 1980.)

The Renaissance and science

Orchard Street

GREEN Street is said to have been so named because it was
shut o¬ during a plague, after which grass had grown to an
extraordinary height. In fact it was part of the estate of Oliver
Green MD (1563“1623), of Caius, a native of Trumpington.
(See Arthur B. Gray, Cambridge Revisited, 1921, ˜Green Street:
Today and Yesterday™, pp. 95“106.)

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The Civil War
The century saw not only the questioning of Aristotle™s author-
ity but of that of the King. Oliver CROMWELL (1599“1658)
matriculated at SIDNEY SUSSEX (where his head is still pre-
served) and sat for Cambridge in the Parliaments of 1640. In that
year he was made a Freeman of Cambridge. In 1642 he seized
the magazine in Cambridge Castle, and hindered the carrying of
the University plate to the King. In 1644 about two hundred
Fellows, half the total, had been ejected. Cromwell forti¬ed the
town, making it his headquarters; the remains of the bastions he
had made still overlook MAGRATH Avenue, and in the Second
World War it was even planned to place ¬eld guns there. His
house at Ely is preserved as a museum, as is the school he
attended in Huntingdon. (See Clive Holmes, The Eastern
Association in the English Civil War, 1974.)
Thomas FAIRFAX (1612“71) matriculated at St John™s and
became the brilliant commander-in-chief of the Parliamentary
army. He behaved with reckless courage at the battle of Naseby,
where he captured a royalist standard with his own hands.
MILTON looked to him, in the sonnet beginning ˜Fairfax,
whose name in arms through Europe rings . . .™, to restore peace.
Despite his allegiance to Parliament he was against the seizure
of Charles I, and tried to prevent his execution. In 1660 he
headed the commission sent to negotiate with Charles II for his
return to England.
In 1644 Fairfax took prisoner the Duke of ALBEMARLE,
George Monck (1608“70), commander of the royalist Scots in
Ireland, who later conquered Scotland for Parliament, and yet
helped to restore Charles II and rose to high favour, defeating
the Dutch at sea. He was Chancellor of the University in 1682.

The Civil War

As in the sixteenth century, it was possible, though risky, to
change sides without incurring retribution.
SHIRLEY Grove and School are named after James
Shirley (1596“1666), author of some forty plays, a graduate of
St Catharine™s (who were allocated land in this area in the
Chesterton Inclosures of 1840). The college dramatic society
bears his name. He followed the Earl of Newcastle in the Civil
Wars. His death was a result of terror and exposure on the occa-
sion of the Great Fire of London.
John MILTON (1608“74) was an undergraduate at Christ™s,
where a mulberry traditionally said to have been planted by him
still gives plenty of fruit. (Milton Road leads to the village of
Milton; only Milton™s Walk, alongside Christ™s, is named after
the poet.) His ¬rst great poem, ˜On the Morning of Christ™s
Nativity™, was written in 1629. In the same year, or in 1631, the
year in which he became BA, he wrote of King™s College
Chapel, so it has been thought, in his ˜Il Penseroso™:

But let my due feet never fail,
To walk the studious cloister™s pale,
And love the high embowed roof,
With antique pillars™ massy proof,
And storied windows richly dight,
Casting a dim religious light.
There let the pealing organ blow,
To the full-voiced choir below,
In service high, and anthems clear,
As may with sweetness, through mine ear,
Dissolve me into ecstasies,
And bring all heaven before mine eyes.

Also while at Christ™s he wrote ˜L™Allegro™, the poem on
Shakespeare, and two epitaphs on HOBSON. His friend

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Edward King, the subject of his Lycidas, was at Christ™s with
him. (See Chainey, A Literary History of Cambridge, p. 37 above,
for Milton™s time at Cambridge.) In the Civil War he was
appointed Latin secretary to the Council of State, dealing with
diplomacy and defending the execution of Charles I in a work
addressed to the rest of Europe. At the Restoration he was
arrested and ¬ned, but released. He then set about completing
Paradise Lost, the work for which he is best known, seeking to
˜justify the ways of God to man™.
The Marquis of MONTROSE (1612“50) invaded England in
1640 with the Scottish Covenanters. After a defeat he escaped
abroad, but invaded Scotland in 1650, was again defeated and
hanged in Edinburgh the same year.
[FRANK™s] Lane is probably named, not after Mark Frank
(1613“64), Master of Pembroke, but some unknown man whose
¬rst name was Frank. The name existed before any buildings
were there.
Sir Richard FANSHAWE (1608“66), a zealous royalist and a
fellow-commoner at Jesus, was in attendance on Prince Charles
during the Civil War. He was MP for Cambridge University and
wrote poems, as well as translating Horace, Guarini and
Camoe In his many su¬erings in the royal cause he was often
sustained by his wife™s courage.
Another unwavering royalist was Tobias RUSTAT
(1606?“94). He was servant to Charles II as Prince of Wales,
and a benefactor, though not a member of Jesus College.
(Rustat happens to be an anagram of Stuart). In 1667 he left
£1,000 to the University Library for the purchase of books.
There had been no such fund till then. A Rustat scholarship was
awarded to S. T. COLERIDGE.
Joseph [BEAUMONT] (1616“69), Master of Peterhouse was

The eighteenth century

a royalist, ejected like many others in 1644. His poem Psyche,
some 30,000 lines long, is about the journey of the soul through
life to eternal felicity. After the Restoration he was appointed
Master of Jesus, later returning to his old college Peterhouse as
Master. (See, however, Robert Beaumont, above, p. 34.)
The controversy over religion continued in 1686, when Judge
Je¬reys (of the ˜Bloody Assizes™) was given authority to revise
college statutes, presumably in order to remove bars against
Catholics, who were favoured by James II. This led to Joshua
[BASSET], who had quickly declared himself a Catholic,
becoming Master of Sidney Sussex, and to the temporary revi-
sion of the college™s statutes to allow Catholics to be admitted.
(There may well have been someone else who was intended in
the street-name.)

The eighteenth century
In this century science and classical learning were both popular
with scholars. FLAMSTEED™S astronomical work was contin-
ued by Sir William HERSCHEL (1738“1822) who as a boy
played in a German band before coming to England. Here, in an
astonishing climb to fame, he observed the stars and in 1781 dis-
covered the planet Uranus. In 1789 he discovered a sixth satel-
lite of Saturn, and later more than 2,000 nebulae. His son Sir
John (1792“1871) went to Cape Town to study the southern
skies, and among many other great achievements made a cata-
logue of double stars. Sir John was one of the most famous sci-
entists of his day, and is buried in Westminster Abbey near the
grave of Newton, where Sir William his father and Sir William
his son (d. 1917), author of the ¬ngerprint system, are also

©¤§ -®

commemorated. In the road next to Herschel Road John
ADAMS (1819“92), another astronomer, is remembered. (All
three astronomers are on land belonging to St John™s.) Adams,
having noticed as an undergraduate ˜irregularities™ in the motion
of Uranus, discovered they were caused by yet another
new planet, Neptune, only to ¬nd the planet had been discov-
ered the same year by Leverrier. He was celebrated internation-
ally, and researched later into the theory of the moon™s motion.
Henry CAVENDISH (1731“1810) of Trinity, after whom
the Cavendish Laboratory is named, in 1798 weighed the earth,
but he cared more for investigation than for publication, and few
knew what he had done. He anticipated Faraday and Ohm in
electrical studies, and constructed a model torpedo ¬sh which
could deliver shocks even in salt water. His great discovery,
completed by RAYLEIGH, also of Trinity, was of the inert gas
argon, and he was the ¬rst to understand hydrogen. His many
other discoveries also remained unknown for many years. He
was so shy he ˜held no communication with his female domes-
tics™, and would utter a shrill cry at parties, as he shu¬„ed quickly
from room to room, seeming to be annoyed if looked at. A con-
temporary said he probably uttered fewer words in the course of
his life than any man who had ever lived to be eighty.
The so-called Augustan Age of the early eighteenth century,
named after the Emperor Augustus, was proud to imitate the
Roman Empire. The SENATE HOUSE, designed by James
Gibbs in 1722 on so-called Senate House Hill, is a sign of this,
suggesting by its name a Roman senate. It is, so to speak, the
parliament of the University. Degrees are also conferred here.
Latin and Greek were prized not only for themselves, but as
hints for gentlemen on how to relive the ideals of Roman land-
owners, and Richard BENTLEY (1662“1742) was one who

The eighteenth century

bene¬ted by this. He was regarded as the foremost classical
scholar in England, but as Master of Trinity indulged his self-
assertiveness to the uttermost. He dominated the Fellows, but
escaped miraculously the law-suits they brought against him for
spending the college™s money recklessly, especially on expensive
improvements to his own Lodge. He was a rude, witty, avari-
cious, autocratic tyrant, who did, however, build an observatory
for Newton™s followers over the Great Gate, as well as a chem-
ical laboratory. He was praised by his grandson for his good-
natured willingness to show the boy his books “ though these all
turned out to have pictures of cadavers with anatomical illustra-
tions. He was satirised by Alexander Pope in The Dunciad. (See
the chapter on him in G. M. Trevelyan™s Trinity College, an
Historical Sketch, 1946.)
A rebel of this time was Christopher ANSTEY, Fellow of
King™s in 1748“54, who was refused his MA by the University
for having ridiculed the authorities in the declaration he was
required, and probably as a member of King™s declined, to make
(see MILLINGTON, p. 28). He was the author of the highly
fashionable The New Bath Guide (1766), a social satire in verse,
still popular in Bath, describing the adventures of the
Blunderhead family, and written at Anstey Hall, Trumpington.
A keen huntsman, he chased into Emmanuel College a fox which
ran round the pond and escaped over a wall.
A humbler man was Richard PORSON (1759“1808), Regius
Professor of Greek, though he spent most of his time in
London. He lost his Fellowship at Trinity for refusing to take
holy orders, but devoted himself to scholarship. ˜I am quite
satis¬ed™, he said, with a degree of modesty, ˜if, three hundred
years hence, it shall be said that “one Porson lived towards the
end of the eighteenth century, who did a great deal for the text

©¤§ -®

of Euripides”.™ He is credited with the witticism that the
prospect of a Fellow of Trinity was ˜a long vista with a church
[at Coton] at the end of it™. (Fellows who wished to marry were
in his day obliged to resign and take up a parish living.) It was
said of him late in life that he would rather drink ink than not
drink at all; he confessed himself to having drunk a bottle of
embrocation. ˜I never can recollect him™, said Byron, ˜except as
drunk or brutal, and generally both.™
A gentleman brought up on classical learning was the states-
man and diplomatist Lord CHESTERFIELD (1694“1773) of
Trinity Hall, remembered now for his Letters to his natural son,
advising him how to live. There is an essay on these by Virginia
Woolf, who admired him, though Dr Johnson said the letters
˜teach the morals of a whore, and the manners of a dancing-
William WARREN (1683“1745), whose name appears in the
same Trinity Hall cluster, was a Fellow of that college in 1712,
and Minister of St Edward™s Church in 1716. ˜Warren™s Book™ is
a collection of manuscripts and documents relating to the
history of Trinity Hall.
Horace WALPOLE (1717“97), himself a great and delightful
writer of letters, devoured Chester¬eld™s on their publication in
1774. His ˜Gothick™ house at Strawberry Hill can still be visited,
and his The Castle of Otranto is still read. He was a son of Sir
Robert WALPOLE (1676“1745), Prime Minister, as much praised
as vili¬ed, like many another politician, who laid the foundations
of free trade and British Colonial policy, but is more often remem-
bered for his opposition to the government™s encouragement of
investment in the ˜South Sea Bubble™, while making money from
it himself. Both father and son were Kingsmen. However, the
name of the road was suggested, in 1939, by Trinity Hall.

The eighteenth century

Two poets of this time are remembered. Thomas GRAY
(1716“71) accompanied Horace WALPOLE on a ˜grand tour™
of the Continent, and like him wrote excellent letters. His best-
known poem is his ˜Elegy in a Country Churchyard™, full of
quotations used today. His ˜Ode to Music™ (1769), written for
the installation as Chancellor of the Duke of GRAFTON,
who had secured for him the Professorship of History,
speaks of ˜willowy Camus™ lingering with delight at the beauty
of the Cambridge scene. He was at Peterhouse, but left it for
Pembroke, after a trick played on him by undergraduates.
William COWPER (1731“1800) who visited Cambridge but
never lived or studied here, is remembered for several hymns,
including ˜Hark my Soul! It is the Lord™, and ˜God moves in a
mysterious way™, as well as for ˜John Gilpin™. He su¬ered from
depressions, after being bullied at school, and tried to take his
own life, imagining that God wanted him to re-enact the
sacri¬ce of Isaac by Abraham, with himself as victim. His gentle
letters are memorable.
Laurence STERNE™S (1713“68) Tristram Shandy was
denounced by Horace WALPOLE and many others. It could
hardly have been further from classical reason and restraint, and
takes many chapters before even coming to the night when
Tristram was conceived, after which comes the preface.
Tristram disappears from his autobiography altogether after a
while. Yet the novel is still enjoyed among other things for its
portrayal of ˜Uncle Toby™, whose hobby is ¬ghting old battles
with model forts. It has been in¬‚uential, especially in Germany.
Sterne ™s Sentimental Journey is perhaps the most popular of his
works. He graduated from Jesus College.
Sterne is in some ways a precursor of Romanticism, in which
William WORDSWORTH (1770“1850) is a very di¬erent

©¤§ -®

¬gure. His love of Nature and his declaration that there cannot
be ˜any essential di¬erence between the language of prose and
metrical composition™ and that poetry is ˜as far as is possible, a
selection of the language really spoken by men™ broke away
from earlier ideas of poetic diction. His Lyrical Ballads adhere
to these ideas. His The Prelude describes his arrival at St John™s
and his time there. From his room he could look down into
Trinity College, and see

The antechapel where the statue stood
Of Newton with his prism and silent face,
The marble index of a mind for ever
Voyaging through strange seas of Thought, alone.

The statue is still there. Wordsworth also wrote three sonnets on
King™s College Chapel. His poem beginning ˜Aid, glorious
Martyrs™ is about LATIMER and his fellow Reformers at
A close friend of Wordsworth™s was Samuel Taylor
COLERIDGE (1772“1834), author of two of the best poems
in English, his ˜The Ancient Mariner™ and ˜Kubla Khan™. An
undergraduate at Jesus, he broke o¬ for a while to become a
dragoon, under the name Silas Tomkyn Comberbacke. Like
Wordsworth he was enthusiastic for the French Revolution, but
also retracted later after the Reign of Terror. His Biographia
Literaria did much to introduce German philosophy to English
readers. He was also a valuable literary critic. (There are chap-
ters in Chainey, A Literary History of Cambridge, p. 37 above, on
both Wordsworth and Coleridge and their time at the
Christopher WORDSWORTH (1774“1846), brother of the
poet, was Master of Trinity, 1820“41.

The eighteenth century

The middle of the eighteenth century saw a theological
dispute between Benjamin HOADLY (1676“1761) and Thomas
SHERLOCK (1678“1761) (whose names appear in parallel
streets). Hoadly maintained views almost like those of a modern
theologian, having little regard for orthodoxy, and holding that
Christians were only required to obey rulers who governed for
the good of their people; he also ridiculed church authority,
arguing that sincerity was all. He later held that no special
bene¬ts were attached to the celebration of the Last Supper,
which was a mere commemorative rite. His portrait, in ¬‚owing
episcopal robes with wide lawn sleeves, by Hogarth, who shared
his liberal and humanitarian ideals, is in the Tate Gallery. He was
opposed by Sherlock, also a Bishop and also of St Catharine™s
(and friend at Eton of WALPOLE, the Prime Minister) in the
so-called Bangor Controversy. These two may be thought of as
symbolically joined, if not reconciled, by the street named after
John EACHARD, Master of St Catharine™s, 1675“97, which
connects them. The founder of St Catharine™s was Robert
WOODLARK (Wodelarke) (d. 1497), Provost of King™s,
1452“79, in the same cluster.
Matthias MAWSON (1683“1770), Bishop of Ely, and Master
of Corpus Christi (1724“44) and one of its most generous bene-
factors, founded twelve scholarships and exhibitions there. His
monument is in Ely Cathedral.
Richard GOUGH (1735“1809), fellow-commoner of
Corpus Christi, was Director of the Society of Antiquaries, and
edited and augmented CAMDEN™s Britannia, for which he
made excursions all over England for twenty years. He trans-
lated The Arabian Nights but has been called a ˜rigid presbyter-
ian™. William STUKELEY (1687“1765), also of Corpus Christi,
shared in the founding of that Society, and wrote a study of

©¤§ -®

Stonehenge and Druidism, which was for him ˜the aboriginal
patriarchal religion™. His friends called him ˜the arch-druid of
his age™. He cured his gout partly by using an ˜oleum
arthriticum™, partly by going for long rides in search of antiqui-
ties. He was a particular friend of Isaac NEWTON.
Baron GWYDIR came into the possession of the BARN-
WELL Abbey estate in 1809, after which the remains of the
monastery were rapidly destroyed for the sake of the stone. His
family estates in County Caernarvon included Gwydir Forest,
near Ruthin. His wife was a descendant of the PANTON family.
Thomas Panton was Equerry to George II and master of the
king™s ˜running-horses™. In about 1769 he bought all the land
round Fen Ditton. This was later bought by Dr HAVILAND
(1785“1851), Professor of Anatomy. It has been thought that
[PETER™S FIELD] was named after Lord Gwydir, whose name
was Peter Burrell.
Benjamin [FLOWER] has as much right as Bernard Flower,
glazier (d. 1525) who glazed four windows in King™s College
Chapel, to be remembered in Flower Street, which was not yet
built in 1830, and may have been meant for neither. Benjamin
was editor of the Cambridge Intelligencer (1793“1803). He com-
mented unfavourably when a cadaver used for anatomy by Dr
Richard Watson, Bishop of Llanda¬ (after whom Llanda¬
Chambers in Regent Street are named), was tipped into the
Cam. For this he was summoned before the House of Lords for
alleged libel on the Bishop, sentenced to six months™ imprison-
ment in Newgate, and ¬ned £100. The Intelligencer was opposed
to the war with France at the time of the French Revolution, to
the slave trade and to the corrupt representative of the county in
Parliament (see RUTLAND, p. 101). It advocated liberty of
speech and of the press. Flower also printed The Fall of

War against Napoleon

Robespierre, of which COLERIDGE wrote the ¬rst act. Because
of this Coleridge was accused of Jacobinism. BLOSSOM
Street, nearby, may have been named by association. (The slum,
as it was, is described in C. Russell, ˜Gas Lane and Blossom
Street™, BPhil thesis, ˜Exeter™, 1976.)
A less well-known man of this period was Richard
WHEELER of PETTY CURY, who in the late eighteenth and
early nineteenth centuries was a basket-maker: there were plenty
of willows for this purpose. He owned land in the parish of St
Clement™s. Yet another, who served the University well, was
John [NICHOLSON] (1730“96), the bookseller, and proprietor
of a circulating library, known as ˜Maps™, who lugged his
volumes to one college after another. His full-length portrait,
looking benign, hangs in the University Library. However,
there is no apparent connection with the street bearing his name,
nor is there one connecting it with the bookseller Sygar
Nicholson, whose stock of heretical books was burned in 1529
or 1530. At all events, no one else in the DNB has a better claim
to be remembered.

War against Napoleon
While MORTLOCK was swindling the public, James
BURLEIGH, a prominent landowner and carrier, who pro¬ted
by Mortlock™s sale of council land, made available sixty horses
and eight wagons to help resist invasion. There is a portrait of
him wearing a round hat with a bearskin, a black cockade and
black feather, with the uniform of the Patriotic Association of
Cambridge Volunteers. JAMES Street is named after him, and
[NORFOLK] Street, almost a continuation of Burleigh Street

©¤§ -®

(but not built in 1830, when the nearest to it was a lane leading
to a workhouse), was presumably named after his father-in-law,
William Norfolk, who was butler to the Master of Jesus,
1720“65, Mayor in 1769, Paymaster and Treasurer of the
Cambridgeshire Militia. The father-in-law™s family lived in
Little Trinity, Jesus Lane, 1708“95.
The third Duke of GRAFTON (1735“1811), Chancellor of
the University, descendant of Charles II, and owner from 1810
of the land round Burleigh Street, had been First Minister after
Pitt. His family name, FITZROY, was inherited by Robert
Fitzroy (1805“65), who invited DARWIN to accompany him
on his voyage in The Beagle, which had such revolutionary
results in science. Fitzroy instituted the ¬rst weather forecasts.
(The connection with Grafton and the ownership of the land
indicates that it was the Duke who was celebrated here, rather
than John Grafton who lit Cambridge by in¬‚ammable air or gas
obtained from coal, between 1823 and 1830. (See Payne, Down
Your Street, vol. II, p. 120.) FITZROY Street was earlier named
after Blücher, the Prussian general, old ˜Forwards!™ as he was
nicknamed from his favourite word of command, whose arrival
at Waterloo sealed the victory over Napoleon of the Duke of
WELLINGTON (1769“1852). When the Duke arrived in
Cambridge in 1835, he was received with rapturous enthusiasm.
˜He was escorted into town by about a thousand horsemen™, and
the crowd unharnessed the horses from his carriage to drag him
to the Senate House themselves. Earlier, Blücher had been
treated by the crowd in the same way. Sir Charles James
NAPIER (1782“1853) fought against Napoleon™s generals in
Spain. (Napier Street was so named in 1912; it had till then been
ALBERT Street). Admiral Sir Charles Napier (1786“1860)
fought against Napoleon at sea. The victory over Napoleon™s

Queen Victoria™s reign

¬‚eet by Lord NELSON (1758“1805) at TRAFALGAR in 1805
is remembered in two very small streets, Nelson himself in an
even smaller one.

George IV and his wife
As Prince REGENT, GEORGE IV (1762“1830) visited
BARNWELL, though not Cambridge itself. He married CAR-
OLINE of BRUNSWICK in 1795, but quickly left her for Mrs
Fitzherbert, whom he had secretly married in 1785. He accused
the Princess of adultery, though he was not guiltless himself,
and on succeeding to the throne in 1820 tried to prevent her
return, excluding her at his [CORONATION] from
Westminster Abbey, where she beat on the door to be admitted.
The King™s relative unpopularity is evidenced by the number of
streets in Cambridge named after her. In 1830 George Street
was, however, the name of NEWMARKET Road from East
Road onwards out of town.

Queen Victoria™s reign
A cluster of names o¬ Parker™s Piece seems to bring together
several men who were active in the early years of VICTORIA™S
reign. (Victoria Street is among the cluster. Others named after
the Queen came later, as did QUEEN™S Road, named after she
visited Cambridge in 1842 and 1847. QUEENS™ Lane, however,
is named after the College, as is Queens™ Green.) Lord [MEL-
BOURNE] (1779“1848) had been at Trinity before becoming
Prime Minister in 1835, and was adviser to the young Queen

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when she came to the throne in 1837. ˜I have no doubt [he] is pas-
sionately fond of [the Queen] as he might be of his daughter if
he had one™, wrote Charles Greville, ˜and the more because he is
a man with a capacity for loving without anything to love. It
became his province to educate, instruct and form the most
interesting mind and character in the world.™ The relationship
fascinated the prurient mob: ˜Mrs Melbourne™, they shouted at
the Queen. CLARENDON Street, which comes between
Melbourne Place and Victoria Street, relates to the fourth Earl
of that name (1800“70), also at Trinity, who later became Lord
Privy Seal in 1839, in Melbourne™s government. His coat-of-
arms with the motto ˜Fidei coticula crux™ “ the Cross is the
touchstone of Faith “ is on the signboard of the public house in
Clarendon Street, and EARL Street clearly relates to him.
[PORTLAND] Place, in the same area, has the name of the
BENTINCK family, who have a street named after them o¬
CORONATION Street. Lord George Bentinck (1802“48)
might have been intended in Portland Place. The other
Bentinck, whose name is that of the street parallel to George IV
Street, could well be the third Duke of Portland (1738“1809),
William Henry Cavendish, Prime Minister in 1783 and in
1807“9, who very much assisted the passing of the Act of
[UNION] with Ireland in 1801. (Could Union Road be part of
a cluster including him, George IV and the Coronation and thus
be named in memory of that important event? There does not
appear to have been any Union Workhouse in this area. See
Union Lane.)
Prince ALBERT, Victoria™s husband, has a small street
named after him, o¬ VICTORIA Road. When the Prince came
with the Queen from Windsor in 1843, they were met by the Earl
of [HARDWICKE], Lord Lieutenant of Cambridgeshire, and

Queen Victoria™s reign

a large body of Yeomanry on horseback. Near Grove Lodge in

a lofty triumphal arch decorated with ¬‚owers, evergreens and
¬‚ags had been erected, and within the arch the Mayor and
Council in their formalities waited the Queen™s approach.
Her Majesty escorted by the Whittlesey Yeomanry Cavalry,
arrived here at ten minutes to two when the Mayor presented
the Mace, which Her Majesty graciously returned and the
Council preceded Her Majesty to Trinity College, the Mayor
walking by the right of Her Majesty™s carriage. Countless
crowds were assembled to greet their Sovereign and her
Prince, who were received with the most rapturous

The Prince did a great deal to reform the University, especially
in improving the almost non-existent teaching of science.
[LANSDOWNE] is the name of several marquises. The road
o¬ Madingley Road where the name appears is far from the
cluster of Melbourne, Clarendon, etc., but could relate to the
third Marquis (1780“1863), a ˜very moderate Whig™, who held
o¬ce under Melbourne. He too was a Trinity man (the street is
on what was once Trinity land) and was active in the abolition
of the slave trade. Another possible candidate is the Marquis of
Lansdowne, who replaced Pitt, on his death in 1806, as one of
the MPs for the University, and was later Chancellor of the
There were two Earls of [DERBY] who were politicians in
the nineteenth century. The fourteenth Earl (1799“1869) was
Prime Minister three times, but graduated in Oxford, whereas
his son, the ¬fteenth Earl (1826“93) of Trinity, Cambridge,
was Indian secretary in his father™s ministry, a member of the
Cambridge University Commission, Foreign Secretary under

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his father and Disraeli, and closely connected with three other
universities. If either was intended “ and in their day both
were household names “ the ¬fteenth Earl is the more likely.
The Earl of Derby pub near the railway station must refer also
to one of them. [STANLEY] is the family name of the
Derbys, but Stanley Road could conceivably refer to Henry
Morton Stanley, the explorer (1841“1904), who lectured on
˜The Dark Continent™ at the Guildhall in 1878, and achieved
great fame. Prime Minister in 1852, 1858“9 and 1866“8 with
Derby, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of BEACONSFIELD
(1804“81) (cf. Beacons¬eld Terrace in Sturton Town), was
Prime Minister alone in 1874“80. His new Conservatism
aimed at social reform and the conciliation of the working
classes. In foreign policy he led a dramatic assertion of British
national interests. His great opponent Gladstone said, when
the Liberals won in 1880, ˜the downfall of Beacons¬eldism is
like the vanishing of some vast magni¬cent castle in an Italian
romance ™. He said of Gladstone, ˜He has not a single redeem-
ing defect.™
There were also two Earls of Rosebery, whose family name
was [PRIMROSE], and again the one who was Prime Minister
(and Foreign Secretary) was educated at Oxford, whereas the
other was at Pembroke, Cambridge. The former, Archibald
Philip, ¬fth Earl (1847“1929) was a Gladstonian liberal who
opposed the idea of the Empire as a means of aggrandisement.
The second, grandfather of the ¬rst, Archibald John, fourth
Earl (1783“1868), educated at Pembroke, was an honorary
Doctor of Civil Law at Cambridge, a Privy Councillor and a
supporter of the Reform Bill of 1832. His Cambridge connec-
tions make him the more likely to have been intended. Primrose
Street had been begun by 1872, just after his death.

Queen Victoria™s reign

William Ewart GLADSTONE (1809“98) was four times
Prime Minister, and likely to have been commemorated for that
reason alone. His only memorable connection with Cambridge
is through his daughter Helen, who was at Newnham College
when in 1881 the question of admitting women to Tripos
examinations as of right was being voted upon. She persuaded
him to have a special train put on, so that MPs could come to
Cambridge and record their vote. The ˜Grace ™, or ˜motion™, was
passed by 398 to 32. Gladstone also planted a tree, in the college
grounds, which was dug up by Tory undergraduates, though a
tree said to have been planted or provided by him exists near the
same spot.
The railway arrived in Cambridge in 1845. In that year the
fare from London by the quick train, taking 1 hour 50 minutes,
was 10s.6d. ¬rst class, 7s.6d. second class. Only one train a day
was available for third class; it took four hours and cost 4s.10d.
By 1923, when the GREAT EASTERN and Great Northern
lines merged, forming the London and North-Eastern Railway,
the time taken was 1 hour 5 minutes (See Reginald B. Fellows,
London to Cambridge by Train 1845“1938, The Oleander Press,
1976.) The last stage coach left Cambridge for London in 1849.
The Great Eastern Railway grew out of the Eastern Counties
Railway, which had built Cambridge STATION, designed by
Francis Thompson or by him and Sancton Wood in time for the
opening of the line, although the station of today was not laid
out till 1863. The present length of the platform “ 1,650 feet “
was not reached till just before 1939. (See Alan Warren and
Ralph Phillips, Cambridge Station. A Tribute, 1987).
With the railway came an extraordinary increase in popula-
tion, which was 252 in the area of MILL Road in 1801, 6,651 in
1831, 11,848 in 1861 and 25,091 in 1891. Gonville and Caius and

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Corpus Christi developed the east and west side of MILL
MAWSON, TENISON, etc.). Most of the area between
Parker™s Piece and the railway was built on between 1850 and
The union referred to in UNION Lane (not Road), called
Mill Lane from 1325 to the 1840s, is the workhouse, and thus a
reminder of the way the poor were treated in Victorian times.
Although the railway brought employment, and the area o¬
East Road saw a housing boom, there was still not enough work
for all, and several workhouses existed. One reason was that
the poor were driven o¬ the land by eighteenth- and early
nineteenth-century Inclosures. After Napoleon, continuing
hardships and the introduction of farm machinery led to the
burning of haystacks and barns in East Anglia by ˜Captain
From 1834, the date of the Poor Law, a ˜union™ was formed of
parishes to administer the law, hence the name for a workhouse.
Here the poor, not only the able-bodied, but the aged, orphaned
and insane, were housed, and required to work if at all capable,
like Oliver Twist. ˜By the late eighteenth century™, writes
Michael J. Murphy in Poverty in Cambridgeshire, 1978, p. 2,
˜HOBSON™S workhouse had become a BRIDEWELL (or
prison) possessing cells with iron gratings on the doors and
windows . . . In the parishes of St Edward and St Giles it was
necessary to add special barred rooms to house the violent and
insane.™ The construction of the UNION Lane building
(1836“87) re¬‚ects this. It had originally four wings radiating
from a centre, as in a ˜panopticon™, where a watch could be kept
simultaneously in several directions. The gaol on Castle Hill
had the same plan.

Queen Victoria™s reign

The workhouse at DITCHBURN Place, o¬ MILL Road,
opened in 1838, was later a military hospital, then a maternity
hospital, and is now a model ˜sheltered housing™ scheme, named
after Douglas and Doris Ditchburn, Master and Matron,
1934“56. The memories of childhood by a man who stayed there
in 1907“10, when it was still a workhouse, include playing in the
backyard with two old tramps and ˜other down-and-outs™ before
being rescued by the Matron, who dressed him in clean under-
clothes and ˜a navy sailor suit with a lovely blue and white
collar™. He was sad to leave, to join foster parents, ˜despite the
shame of the workhouse ™. ˜Every Christmas™, said another, ˜the
police used to come round and give you a voucher. That voucher
was for my sister and I to get a pair of shoes from the Co-op in
BURLEIGH Street. When you got there you could only have
these sort of boots.™ Another remembers the boots and that
˜everyone knew where you™d got them.™ (See H. P. Stokes,
Cambridge Parish Workhouses, 1911, and Bridget Barclay-Munro
and Helen Cook, From Workhouse to Housework, Cambridge
City Council Arts Team, 1991.)
Philip [MAGRATH] is the name of a member of the Chartists,
a working-class movement born out of the high unemployment
and the Poor Law Amendments of 1834, whose e¬ects have just
been described above. The Chartists demanded universal
manhood su¬rage, equal electoral districts, vote by ballot,
payment of Parliament members and abolition of the property
quali¬cations for membership, all of which have since been voted
into law, and annual Parliaments, which has not. The movement
was not popular in Cambridge, where M™Grath (so spelt by the
diarist Josiah Chater) was expected to come from London to
address a meeting on 5 April 1848, but failed to appear. The
Cambridge Chronicle reported that a man had been stationed on

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Market Hill with a petition for the Charter (which gained nation-
ally ¬ve and a half million signatures, some duplicated), but failed
to interest much more than a few schoolboys, who scribbled their
names repeatedly. This, the paper satirically remarked, was no
doubt the reason for Magrath™s absence. Some other Magrath may
have been intended in the naming of this avenue.

The British Empire
Queen Victoria was designated Empress of India in 1876 and
loyal Cambridge named streets for parts of the Empire just
around that time: MADRAS for India, HOBART for Australia,
NATAL for South Africa, MONTREAL for Canada. In the
same cluster are remembered the SUEZ Canal (not part of the
Empire, but vital to its existence) opened in 1869, Britain buying
shares in 1875, CYPRUS, occupied by the British in 1878, and
MALTA, occupied by Indian troops in 1878 (moved there by
Britain to forestall Russian aggression).
[MARMORA] Road in the same cluster has no connection
with the Empire, and could be a mis-spelling of the Sea of
Marmara, though this too is not connected.
Whether [AUCKLAND] Road was meant to refer to the city
in New Zealand is not clear. WELLINGTON and NAPIER,
both in New Zealand, are also names of generals, and
CHRISTCHURCH is named after the church, designed by
Ambrose Poynter, dedicated in 1839, before the New Zealand
name was likely to have been known. Bishop Auckland is a town
in England. New Town (beyond the Catholic Church) was
known as New Zealand prior to 1822, perhaps being at that time
a remote place.

Coal, corn and iron

Coprolite mining
Mining for coprolite, often a name for fossilised dinosaur dung,
but here mostly ammonites, was partly due to a member of the
DE FREVILLE family, who bought land in Harston for the pur-
poses of extracting the nodules.
Coprolite, used for the world™s ¬rst chemical fertiliser, and
involving the ¬rst large-scale open-cast mining in the British
Isles, was mined from Abington north-eastwards as far as
Wicken and Soham, in the period 1850“1919. There was a rush
to mine it in the 1870s, but a decline later in the decade due to US
and South American exports of phosphates followed by a brief
revival in 1914“18, for making munitions. In 1881 coprolite
was mined on the site of the present New Hall, near the West
end of LATHAM Road and on Coldham™s Common. In the
county it caused ˜one of the greatest upheavals of the landscape
of Cambridgeshire of modern times™, observable clearly from
the air. Many Irish navvies, who had worked on the railways,
found employment in this activity. (See Richard Grove, The
Cambridgeshire Coprolite Mining Rush, 1976, and B. O™Connor,
The Dinosaurs on Coldham™s Common. The Story of Cambridge™s
Coprolite Industry, 1998.)

Coal, corn and iron
The tranquil scene outside Darwin College™s river-front was
once crowded with barges. The house later owned by the
Darwins was erected in 1793 by Patrick BEALES who in 1785
bought the site and the area round it, in the corrupt days of
MORTLOCK, for a very small payment. (Beales Way in

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Chesterton is probably named in memory of a member of the
family who was allocated land in the Chesterton Inclosure of
1840.) He developed the barge tra¬c on the Cam, owning all but
one of the wharves on the branch of the river from Queens™ to
Newnham Mill. Old pictures of the Backs show barges being
towed by horses walking on a raised path in the middle of the
river, since there was no towpath through college grounds. (See
John K. Wilson and Alan H. Faulkner, Fenland Barge Tra¬c,
Robert Wilson, 1972.) Edward Fitzgerald of Trinity College,
who lived at 20 King™s Parade (see the plaque on the wall) wrote
in Euphranor (1815) of the ˜sluggish current™ of the Cam, ˜which
seem™d indeed ¬tter for the slow merchandise of coal, than to
wash the walls and ¬‚ow through the groves of Academe™. Selling
seed-corn and coal to farmers, Patrick BEALES junior pros-
pered until 1845 when the railway arrived in Cambridge, and
river tra¬c declined. Coal continued to be brought by barge until
1920, and the ¬rm of Austin Beales delivered it until the 1950s.
Samuel BEALES, brother of Patrick, was Quartermaster of
the Cambridgeshire Yeomanry Cavalry in 1801, formed to resist
Napoleon, but there was no great enthusiasm for it, and it
suspended operations when numbers fell to twenty-two. (See
BURLEIGH, pp. 55“6.) Edmund BEALES, son of Samuel, was
a liberal reformer who championed Polish refugees and
manhood su¬rage, organising Garibaldi™s visit to England.
The brother-in-law of Patrick Beales junior was SWANN
HURRELL (1816“97), who saved him from bankruptcy but not
from family disgrace, for in 1869 his son Patrick absconded. He
had overdrawn his account by £6,000 or £7,000 at Mortlock™s


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