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Bank, having made illicit use of the Corporation Seal while he was
Borough Treasurer. Both Patrick junior and Swann Hurrell were
Mayors. Jane Swann Hurrell is commemorated in Great St Mary™s.

66
Coal, corn and iron

In the mid-nineteenth century King™s College Chapel stood
between horse-drawn barges and a tall factory chimney belong-
ing to the iron foundry, destroyed by ¬re in 1846, occupying the
site of today™s Marks and Spencer™s by the market. Here at least
some part of the old SILVER STREET bridge was cast in 1841.
Swann Hurrell owned only one of four foundries. He was the
nephew and successor of Charles FINCH, the last of a family
of ironmongers whose foundry since 1688 had been on the site
of the present St John™s College Chapel and Master™s Lodge.
William Finch, who died in 1762, is commemorated in a ¬ne
tablet with broken pediment in Great St Mary™s, praising him
for his ˜Great Probity in Business, and Benevolence to the
Poor™. Finch™s Walk lay alongside Hobson™s Conduit beyond
Brooklands Avenue. The Finches were one of the important
Cambridge families, as was Hurrell, whose gentlemanly house
at 30 THOMPSON™S Lane (next door to Edward Beales at no.
29) is a mark of his wealth. A later foundry was that of David
Simons, who established it around 1872 in Bermuda Lane o¬
Histon Road. This was later renamed Foundry Road and ¬nally
in 1900 BERMUDA Road.
Iron bridges made by Finch include the one at MAGDA-
LENE Street (the main section cast in Derby), and one on the
Backs belonging to St John™s College. Three by HURRELL “
bearing his name “ at BROOKSIDE and the Botanic Garden are
a pleasing feature of TRUMPINGTON Road. Iron posts and
bollards still remain elsewhere. (See Ken Alger et al., Cambridge
Iron Founders, Cambridge Industrial Archaeology Society, 1996,
and R. Lister, Hammer and Hand “ An Essay on the Iron Works in
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Christmas book, 1969,
also Margaret Keynes, A House by the River, 1984.)
Another corn merchant like the Beales was John Horner

67
©¤§ -®

Brand MARIS, born 1839 at Hinxton. He was for twelve years a
County Alderman, and had agricultural interests. He was very
likely present when the CORN EXCHANGE was opened in
1874. Maris House in Maris Lane dates from c. 1800. There are
nineteenth-century tombs to the Maris family in Trumpington
Church. ˜Maris Piper™ potatoes may have been named in connec-
tion with one of them.


Brewers
The coming of the railway to Cambridge in 1845 must have
caused the extraordinarily large number of breweries here, of
which there were forty around 1880, though this was partly due
to the ¬ne barley and suitable water available. These breweries
often supplied a pub on adjoining premises, as the new ˜Ancient
Druids™ near the Grafton Centre still does. The large number of
such breweries in the rapidly expanding Mill Road area supplied
the railway workers and manual labourers in that district. But
there were breweries in the centre too, supplying beer to town
and gown in MAGDALENE Street, THOMPSON™S Lane,
HOBSON Street and TRINITY Streets. ˜We have ourselves
qua¬ed no small quantity of this inspiring beverage™, wrote the
university compilers of the eighteenth-century Gradus ad
Cantabrigiam.
The brewers were often also prominent in town politics.
The BEALES family were not only corn merchants, using
their barges to bring barley for their malthouses in MALTING
Lane (earlier Ffroshlake Weye, from a small stream where
frogs abounded). Patrick Beales was on the Beer Committee
for the Coronation Feast of 1838, supplying nine barrels of

68
Brewers

beer, as did many other brewers. Barnet William BEALES,
born in 1828, owner of PANTON Brewery, was Lieutenant-
Colonel of the Volunteer Corps, Trustee of All Saints
Parochial Committee, Guardian of the Poor, Overseer of the
Improvement Commission, Town Councillor, Alderman,
County Councillor and Income Tax Commissioner. His son
Albert Edward took over the brewery in the early 1890s,
shortly before his father su¬ered serious head injuries from
being knocked over by a large dog. Alderman William Henry
APTHORPE (1808“84) was awarded land in the Barnwell
Inclosure and owned the Victoria Brewery in what is now
NAPIER Street; his son of the same name (b. 1834) owned
also the Albion Brewery in CORONATION Street. The
EKIN Brewery in MAGDALENE Street is reputed to have
been founded in 1780, and was apparently owned by William
Ekin, Mayor in 1855“6, from 1834. His son Augustus
Goodman Ekin seems to have taken over the running from
1864 to 1888.
Among many other brewers were the NUTTER family, with
premises in Trumpington Street and the Beehive Brewery in
King Street, who owned many pubs as well as the King™s Mill
and Bishop™s Mill in MILL Lane, but went bankrupt in 1842.
Frederick BAILEY lived and had o¬ces in Newmarket Road,
and the Star Brewery in the same road, where brewing ceased in
1972. His large group of stables was approached through the
brewer™s yard in AUCKLAND Road. His tomb is in Christ
Church opposite. His son Harold Barber Bailey was Alderman,
Mayor in 1923“4, County Councillor and owner of PANTON
Brewery and GRANTA Brewery. John William PAMPLIN
owned the GWYDIR Brewery in 1883“8. The SWANN family
is represented here by the brewer Frederick Swann, who owned

69
©¤§ -®

the Rodney Brewery at 95 EAST Road; Swann Brothers
remained there for many years as lime burners, sand and gravel
dealers and general builders™ merchants.
In MALTING Lane there is still a building where malt was
prepared. The work there was dangerous to health. ˜The humid
atmosphere, the dust coming up from the dry barley before it
was laid on the kiln ¬‚oor™ caused lung trouble. (F. T. Unwin,
Pimbo and Jenny in Old Cambridge, 1978.) Work continued
twenty-four hours a day in order to keep up the ˜turning™
routine. Men stuck it out for fear of unemployment. (MALT-
STERS Way refers to the name of a former pub, later called
˜The Bleeding Heart™, which belonged to the Rowell family.)
LION Yard is named after the old Lion Hotel, which stood in
Petty Cury until the shopping centre was developed. The appar-
ently emaciated lion came from a hotel in Woburn, where it
stood ¬‚at against a wall. The ROSE (and Crown) was also a
coaching hotel, knocked down in 1919/20, but well known to
Samuel Pepys.
JOHN CLARKE™s name is given to the houses behind the
Milton Arms, meant for retired publicans. He was managing
director of the brewers, Greene King. The houses were built
by the East Anglia Licensed Victuallers National Homes
Edinburgh Estate in 1979 and opened on 3 June 1980 by the
President C. E. Guinness, Esq., and the Chairman A. J. Sorrell,
Esq.
KING Street was celebrated for the ˜King Street Run™, a trial
of drinking ability in which undergraduates (mostly) ran from
one pub to another, downing a pint each time, attempting to
achieve the fastest run. It was formerly the name of what is now
HOBSON Street, while what is now King Street was called
Wall™s Lane.

70
Trams and buses

HARVEST Way is named after Harvest Ale, brewed by
Greene King, whose store was nearby.
WHYMAN was the name of the owners of the Three Tuns
at the top of Castle Hill, where Dick Turpin was said to hide.
ROSEMARY Lane appears to have been named after the
Rosemary Branch public house. (The pub is named but not the
lane on the OS map of 1904.)
The names of the beers are a pleasure in themselves:
˜Oatmeal Stout™, ˜Nourishing Stout™, ˜Champion Beers™, ˜Indian
Bitter Ales™ (of a type provided for the troops in India) must
have brought town and gown together, if not always amicably.
For a name, nothing could beat the brew at the Coronation
Feast: ˜Sam Moore ™s regular, right-sort, Head-strong, Out-and-
out, Strong-bodied, Ram-jam, Come-it-strong, Lift-me-up,
Knock-me-down, How d™ye like it, Ge-nu-ine Midsummer-
Green Stingo™, of which a gallon was o¬ered with a new hat to
all competitors in a Grinning Match, a pair of velveteen trousers
and a ˜New Wipe™ being awarded to the winner with ˜the ugliest
phiz™. (See R. J. Flood, Cambridge Breweries, 1987.)


Trams and buses
Tramways for horse-drawn trams were opened on 28 October
1880, on a route from the railway station via STATION Road,
HILLS Road, REGENT Street, ST ANDREW™S Street, stop-
ping at Christ™s College. There were six trams, one every ¬fteen
minutes. In November 1880 a branch from HYDE PARK
Corner (apparently named after the one in London) via LENS-
FIELD Road and TRUMPINGTON Street as far as the Market
was added, and another from the Corner to EAST Road. The

71
©¤§ -®

competition with motor-buses ended in 1914 with the winding-
up of the Cambridge Street Tramways Co. for non-payment of
rates. This was said, no doubt unfairly, to have been greeted
with thanks by motor-cyclists. Certainly some passengers were
concerned that the tram might overturn at the sharp bend by
Great St Mary™s. The wheels were expected to leave the track
there. (See S. L. Swingle, The Cambridge Street Tramways, The
Oakwood Press, 1972.) Horse-buses began in 1896 but ended in
1902. Motor-buses began in 1905, but many went to France as
troop-carriers in 1914. They ran again in 1918, when the speed-
limit was still twelve miles per hour. (See Mark Seal, Cambridge
Buses, 1978, and Enid Porter, Victorian Cambridge, 1975, pp.
194“211.)


Nineteenth-century historians, antiquaries
and lawyers
The major historians of this period begin with Thomas
[CARLYLE] (1795“1881), essayist and author of histories of
Frederick the Great and the French Revolution. He had
no connection with Cambridge, but may have been meant when
the street was named. (In 1851 he wrote, it is true, a biography
of James Sterling of Trinity Hall. An alternative is Joseph
Carlyle (1759“1804), a graduate of Trinity and Fellow of
Queens™, Professor of Arabic.) His powerful moral sense links
curiously with his creed, derived from German philosophy, that
everything is good that accords with the laws of the universe.
His style has been called ˜clottish™, his teaching ˜cloudy™. ˜He
had™, said Herbert Spencer, ˜a daily secretion of curses which he
had to vent on somebody or something.™ Yet W. H. Hudson

72
Nineteenth-century historians, antiquaries and lawyers

praised him for making us ˜feel with him the supreme claims of
the moral life™.
Lord ACTON (1834“1902) would have achieved greater
fame had he published more. His sobriety and modesty contrasts
with that of Carlyle and Macaulay. A Roman Catholic, he had
been unable to study or at any rate proceed to a degree at
Cambridge (see SYLVESTER, p. 78), but, after the Test Act,
became a Fellow of Trinity and Regius Professor of History,
recognised abroad by such historians as Ranke. His most mis-
quoted saying is ˜Power tends to corrupt and absolute power
corrupts absolutely.™ In his eyes the law of human rights was a
necessity to any moral form of government. He wrote little,
read a book a day, it is said, and collected a huge library, now in
the University Library™s Acton Room. To Cardinal Manning he
was ˜all vanity™. To Lytton Strachey, in Eminent Victorians, he
was ˜that life-long enthusiast for liberty, that almost hyster-
ical reviler of priestcraft and persecution™, who ˜wore his Rome
with a di¬erence™. In a letter Acton wrote ˜I think our [histori-
cal] studies ought to be all but purposeless. They want to be
pursued with chastity like mathematics.™ The Cambridge Modern
History in many volumes was due to his leadership. Yet his biog-
rapher in the DNB says that ˜except in the actual investigation
of the bare facts no historian is less impartial and more personal
in his judgements than Acton appears in the volume on “The
French Revolution”™. In this he wrote, criticising historians,
˜The strong man with the dagger is followed by the weaker man
with the sponge. First the criminal who slays, then the sophist
who defends the slayer.™
Samuel Ro¬ey [MAITLAND] (1792“1866), educated at St
John™s and Trinity, wrote about the Albigensian heretics, the
Dark Ages and the Reformation. His better known grandson,

73
©¤§ -®

Frederic William Maitland (1850“1906), was a graduate and
honorary Fellow of Trinity, and Downing Professor of the
Laws of England. His principal work was the study of the
history of English law, especially medieval, but he was keenly
interested in Cambridge local history. He was an ardent alpinist.
Robert WILLIS (1800“75) of Caius, Jacksonian Professor of
Experimental Philosophy, is specially remembered for his
classic, The Architectural History of the University of Cambridge,
1886, added to by John Willis Clark.
Edwin GUEST (1800“80), Master of Caius, was practically
the founder of the Philological Society, and of the study of
Roman British history. An ˜unvacillating™ conservative and an
evangelical churchman, he did everything to promote the inter-
ests of his college.
Sir Adolphus William WARD (1837“1924) was Master of
Peterhouse, Vice-Chancellor and editor-in-chief of the
Cambridge Modern History. He also wrote extensively on history,
especially in relation to literature.


Nineteenth-century scientists
Nineteenth-century Cambridge was not distinguished for
science until Prince ALBERT as Chancellor began in the middle
of the century reforms inspired by his awareness of how far the
University lagged behind German universities. NEWTON™s
legacy had been consumed without regard for Continental dis-
coveries, but two leaders in non-mathematical ¬elds are com-
memorated in street-names. Sir Humphry DAVY (1778“1829),
inventor of the safety-lamp for miners, resided at Jesus in 1804,
was assistant to the great Faraday and was a friend of

74
Nineteenth-century scientists

COLERIDGE, but his main work was on gases and chemical
elements and was done elsewhere. He nearly died in an attempt
to inhale carburetted hydrogen gas. Adam SEDGWICK
(1785“1873) was a geologist who preceded but helped to create
the Victorian period of great enthusiasm for his subject. He had
no knowledge of geology when appointed, but undertook to
˜get it up™, later inspiring many younger men to devote them-
selves to the subject, including one of the greatest scientists the
world has known. His ¬eld-classes involved excursions on
horseback, as many as seventy participating. (No friend of
women™s university education, unlike Henry SIDGWICK, he
spoke of women students as ˜nasty, forward minxes™, yet he was
a liberal, in many other ways broad-minded and humane.)
Charles DARWIN (1809“82) attended few lectures while an
undergraduate at Christ™s, although he was always grateful for
those by the Director of the Botanic Garden, John Stevens
Henslow (after whom a Walk in the Garden is named). ˜His lec-
tures [in 1828] were universally popular™, Darwin wrote, ˜and as
clear as daylight™, adding that Henslow kept open house once a
week, where ˜I have listened to the great men of those days, con-
versing on all sorts of subjects, with the most varied and brilliant
powers.™ This was clearly more useful than the o¬cial curricu-
lum, yet still a University education. It was Henslow who sug-
gested to Darwin he should read geology, which he did, in a
postgraduate term, and introduced him to SEDGWICK, with
whom Henslow had made a ¬eld-trip to the Isle of Wight. It was
also Henslow who recommended Darwin for the post as natu-
ralist on the famous voyage of the Beagle, from which so much
of the material for his ideas on evolution was gathered. The
claim that Cambridge did nothing for Darwin, still sometimes
heard, thus needs alteration. (In the late 1840s Henslow also

75
©¤§ -®

urged the mining of coprolite, with great e¬ect on Cambridge
industry and population.)
Sir FRANCIS DARWIN (1848“1925), the son of Charles
Darwin, was at Trinity as an undergraduate and at Christ™s as a
Fellow. He worked on vegetable physiology and published his
father™s letters. Sir Horace DARWIN (1851“1928), youngest
son of Charles, made an impact on Cambridge life by his
Cambridge Scienti¬c Instrument Company founded in 1881,
which developed a seismograph, instruments for temperature
control, paper chart recorders, a galvanometer and an electro-
cardiograph, and produced and marketed in 1913 the cloud
chambers of C. T. R. Wilson, leading to RUTHERFORD™S
˜splitting™ of the atom. This ¬rm provided employment for
highly skilled Cambridge men such as Frank DOGGETT who
had no university quali¬cations. Sir Horace was Mayor, 1896“7,
having set himself the task of bringing University and Town
together. ˜Ida™ DARWIN, his wife, founded with others the
Cambridgeshire Voluntary Association for Mental Welfare in
1908. The hospital at Fulbourn is named after her. (See David
H. Clark, The Story of a Mental Hospital. Fulbourn 1858“1953).
Sir Horace himself with others installed a school for mentally
backward boys in the Old Rectory, Girton. (See M. J. G.
Cattermole and A. F. Wolfe, Horace Darwin™s Shop. A History of
the Cambridge Scienti¬c Instrument Company 1878“1968, Adam
Hilger, Bristol and Boston, 1987.)
Thomas Vernon Wollaston (1822“78) was a friend of Darwin
who wrote a book On the Variation of Species published in 1856,
three years before Darwin™s Origin of Species was published.
However, the street bearing this name is in a cluster of Caius
street-names, and William Hyde WOLLASTON (1766“1828),
of Caius and Trinity, physiologist, chemist and physicist,

76
Nineteenth-century scientists

was surely intended. He invented a method for producing
pure platinum and welding it into vessels, as well as the Camera
Lucida, which led to the invention of photography. He also
proved that electricity, whether produced by galvanic action or
by friction, is of the same nature. Yet another of this name,
A. F. R. (˜Sandy™) Wollaston should surely be remembered, if
not originally meant to be. He was ˜explorer, naturalist and
medical o¬cer in Lapland, Central Africa, New Guinea,
Colombia, and on the Everest Expedition of 1921, ending as
Fellow and Tutor, only to be murdered in 1930 by a demented
freshman™, as the historian of King™s Christopher Morris relates.
The Revd Henry (˜Ben™) LATHAM (1821“1902) published
on geometry, and devotional works, but gave himself above
all else to the interests of Trinity Hall, where a building is
named after him. He was Senior Tutor 1856“85 and Master
1888“1902. Sir Henry Dickens said of him, ˜If ever a tutor
made a College, Ben Latham made Trinity Hall . . . He was
somewhat odd in appearance, tall, slightly stooping, rather
gaunt and with a curious halting kind of walk.™ He built the
house called SOUTHACRE in 1880 and gave his name to the
adjacent road, where the Vice-Chancellor now resides. He was
devoted to undergraduates, though in the end he became forget-
ful, and once famously said ˜I believe “ in Pontius Pilate (pause)
“ no, I don™t.™ (Was this a slip while reciting the Creed?) He
was celebrated for his knowledge of Cambridge butter¬‚ies and
byways and his shrewd Stock Exchange tips, but found it
di¬cult to distinguish ladies “ ˜they are all so much alike™. He
died in the evening after being driven to see the college row in
the May Races.
Latham preferred Chaucer to all other poets, which may be
the reason for the naming of CHAUCER Road. It was quickly

77
©¤§ -®

occupied by married dons taking advantage of the legislation of
1882 allowing them to marry. Soon after came businessmen,
Mayors and Aldermen, in 1888 the great cricketer Ranjitsinhji,
at no. 1, and the exiled daughter of Stalin, Svetlana Peters, at no.
12. EDWINSTOWE Close or Drive is named after a house on
this road (and there is a village of this name near Mans¬eld).
(See Jane M. Renfrew et al., Rus in Urbe, Chaucer Road and
Latham Road. The History of Two Rural Roads in Cambridge,
Solachra, Cambridge, 1996.)
By the end of the nineteenth century Cambridge was already
what it remains today, a foremost university in the world for
mathematics. James Joseph SYLVESTER (1814“97) of St
John™s had a distinguished career in America and as Savilian
Professor in Oxford. His contributions to algebra and number
theory were important. He is also remembered for not being
allowed to proceed to his degree for about forty years after he
had taken the Tripos. As a Jew, he was allowed, as were a few
others who were not members of the Church of England, to
attend courses but not to proceed to degrees until after the Test
Act of 1872 abolished the discrimination. Women su¬ered
under the same discrimination even longer, until 1948.
William Thomson, Baron KELVIN (1824“1907), of Peter-
house, was looked upon as one of the greatest living authorities
on all scienti¬c matters. He evolved the theory that forms the
basis of wireless telegraphy, and superintended the laying of
the cable across the Atlantic, showed the possibility of util-
ising the power of Niagara in generating electricity, worked at
the mathematical theory of magnetism, reformed the mariner™s
compass and invented a machine for predicting tides. He helped
to found the University Music Society. Sir Ambrose Fleming
says of him that he could sit at a meal, with a faraway look in his

78
Nineteenth-century scientists

eyes and yet still attend apparently to what was going on around
him. At lunch one day when plans for an afternoon excursion
were being discussed, he suddenly looked up and said ˜At what
time does the dissipation of energy begin?™
James CLERK MAXWELL (1831“79) of Peterhouse and
later a Fellow of Trinity led the simplest of lives. ˜I have regu-
larly set up shop now above the wash-house at the gate, in a
garret™, he wrote in 1848, ˜I have an old door set on two barrels,
and two chairs, of which one is safe, and a skylight above, which
will slide up and down.™ This convinced him later that many of
the greatest problems in physics can be solved with compar-
atively simple apparatus. One of his great contributions as the
¬rst Professor of Experimental Physics was a brilliant essay on
the rings of the planet Saturn; he also published on the kinetic
theory of gases and on colour-blindness, but above all on
electricity and magnetism: Marconi acknowledged his debt to
him. Einstein said of him that his conception of Reality as repre-
sented by continuous ¬elds, not capable of any mechanical inter-
pretation, was ˜the most profound and the most fruitful that
physics has experienced since the time of Newton™. He was an
ardent Christian, but strongly against university education for
women.
Yet another scientist of great distinction was John William
Strutt, third Baron RAYLEIGH (1842“1919), Fellow of Trinity
and Professor of Experimental Physics after Clerk Maxwell “
also brother-in-law of the Prime Minister, Lord Balfour. He too
was concerned among many other things with electricity, but his
greatest single contribution was the discovery of the element
argon, in 1894, developing the largely forgotten work of Henry
CAVENDISH more than a century earlier. (Argon is used in
gas-¬lled electric light bulbs, in radio tubes and Geiger counters,

79
©¤§ -®

and for arc-welding certain metals.) For his role in this discov-
ery he received in 1904 the Nobel Prize for Physics. However,
his researches covered almost the whole ¬eld of exact science,
resulting in 446 papers, at the rate of about nine a year. His lucid
explanations made even the most abstruse subjects appear
simple.
In 1908 Rayleigh became Chancellor of the University. He
had a life-long interest in psychical research, as did many schol-
ars of his generation. He was an enthusiast for ˜real™ tennis.


Nineteenth-century bishops and clergy
More nineteenth-century Bishops were honoured by having
streets named after them than in any other century and they
conform to no stereotype. William Lort MANSEL (1753“1820),
Bishop of Bristol, Master of Trinity, was a wit and writer of epi-
grams, as became a cleric of the eighteenth century, although the
epigrams quoted by W. W. Rouse Ball lack punch. It was
perhaps he who wrote the verses about a garden made by a
master of Trinity Hall, though they are also ascribed to
PORSON:
If you would know the mind of little Jowett
This little garden does a little show it.

He respected the college rule prohibiting dogs by carrying his “
called Isaac “ whenever he crossed Great Court with it. (R. A.
Butler™s dog, during his Mastership, was deemed a cat.) He was
a man of the world, who during the French Revolution wanted
to live on good terms even with ˜Jacobin™ Fellows, but found it
hard to put up with BYRON™S verses suggesting his pomposity:

80
Nineteenth-century bishops and clergy

High in the midst surrounded by his peers
Magnus his ample front sublime uprears;
Placed on his throne of state he seems a god,
Whilst sophs and freshmen tremble at his word.
HARVEY GOODWIN (1818“91) of Caius, Bishop of
Carlisle, by contrast, founded a school in Victoria Road. The
Waifs and Strays Society between 1896 and 1920 used the former
Industrial School buildings for the school for boys, named after
him. A proli¬c publisher of theology and sermons, he also wrote
on elementary dynamics. He published his autobiography pri-
vately. He was the ¬rst principal of the Cambridge Working
Men™s College, at which dons acted as tutors.
George Elwes CORRIE (1793“1885), Master of Jesus, was
a staunch conservative and Evangelical, strongly opposed to
reform that would allow others than Church of England
men “ or women “ entry to the University, and equally opposed
to dissent of any kind, whether Papist or Protestant. ˜The last
ditch™, it has been said of him, ˜was his spiritual home™, and
he inveighed against tourists coming by train on the
Sabbath. He was President of the Architectural Society, yet
although William Morris and Co. decorated the chapel during
his Mastership, in his biography by M. Holroyd (1890) there is
no mention of this notable event.
Harvey Goodwin wrote a memoir of Charles Frederick
MACKENZIE (1825“62), Bishop of Central Africa, of Caius
(which he joined after resigning from St John™s, where, as a
Scotsman, he was debarred from a Fellowship). Mackenzie
joined Livingstone in freeing slaves from African owners, and
promoted equality between blacks and whites in Christian
congregations. In his enthusiasm he helped one tribe against
another, which resulted in the burning down of a village. He
81
©¤§ -®

died of fever at Malo. Livingstone erected a cross over his grave.
(See Owen Chadwick, Mackenzie™s Grave, 1959.)
George Augustus SELWYN (1809“78) was also an explorer.
He visited the whole of New Zealand in 1847, the Paci¬c Islands
in 1847“8 and became primate of New Zealand in 1841. He was
a keen critic of the unjust and reckless procedures of the English
land companies, but was misunderstood by the Maoris them-
selves. In the war of 1855 he worked hard to provide Christian
ministrations to the troops on both sides. Selwyn College was
erected by public subscription in his memory.
William EMERY, another Caian, named in the street next to
MACKENZIE, was Archdeacon of Ely (1864“1907). He took a
leading part in providing Ely with pure water and initiated the
Volunteer movement by starting the Cambridge Ri¬‚e Club in
1859. This Club was formed during a wave of patriotic fervour
which had just swept the country. After the Indian Mutiny of 1857
it was realised that a volunteer, part-time force for home defence
was needed to relieve the regular army, and this eventually became
the Territorial Army. When the Club™s ri¬‚e range was opened at
Grange Road, ROSS, champion of England, ¬red the initial shots.
The street named after Ross once led to the old butts on Coldham™s
Common, which stretched from east to west over 800 yards.
GELDART Street is named after James William Geldart
(1785“1876), Fellow and Vice-Master of Trinity Hall and rector
of Kirk Deighton, Yorkshire, who owned the land in that area.
Two brothers, both of Corpus Christi, are remembered in
PEROWNE Street. Edward Henry (1826“1906) was Master of
the College, which in his time was largely a training-ground
for Evangelicals hoping to be ordained, and often to become
missionaries. John James Stewart Perowne (1823“1904),
Fellow, became Bishop of Worcester, and was later a Fellow of
Trinity.

82
Architects

Henry Richards LUARD (1825“91) was the kind of man
often thought of as a typical Victorian don: a Tory, High
Churchman, opponent of the right of dons to marry (though
among the ¬rst to do so), his great ambition was to be a Fellow
of Trinity, which he achieved. He bitterly regretted innovations
in the University, and vehemently opposed them. He was
Registrary and Vicar of Great St Mary™s. Thanks to him the
gallery over the chancel where heads of houses sat, known for
that reason as Golgotha, ˜the place of skulls™ was pulled down.
He had a ˜stately courtesy™ as well as a ˜vivacious impulsiveness™,
and despite his dislike of Garibaldi was always willing to allow
others their point of view. (See J. Willis Clark, Old Friends at
Cambridge and Elsewhere, 1900.)
William BATESON (1812“81) was Master of St John™s, head
of the liberal party in academic matters, and a promoter of the
higher education of women. He had acute judgement, and a
remarkably sweet and tender character.
The ¬rst vicar of ST LUKE™S Church, in 1881, was George
HALE of Sidney Sussex. He served largely at his own expense,
usually assisted by two curates, and died exhausted in 1889. The
street was previously called Queen Street. In the same
neighbourhood, the Rev. Dr C. E. SEARLE, Master of
Pembroke 1880“1902, who had close associations with St
Luke™s, is also remembered. (See also STRETTON, p. 2.)


Architects
James [ESSEX] (1722“84), the architect (who has more
Cambridge connections than the many Earls of Essex have “
although the Elizabethan Earl, Robert Devereux, was
Chancellor of the University) designed the west front of

83
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Emmanuel. He was by far the most popular architect with the
colleges in the eighteenth century. He also restored and altered
Ely Cathedral and put up the four spires on the central tower of
Lincoln Cathedral. (See The Ingenious Mr Essex, Architect,
1722“1784, Exhibition Catalogue, Fitzwilliam Museum,
Cambridge, 1984.) He is buried in St Botolph™s Church.
Charles Robert COCKERELL (1788“1863) designed the
Taylorian Building in Oxford, and the Ashmolean Museum
adjoining. In Cambridge he made a design for a new University
Library, involving the destruction of the Old Schools, but only
the Squire Law Library, now Caius College Library, was built.
He took over the interior decoration of the Fitzwilliam
Museum, begun by Basevi and completed by E. M. Barry. Less
well known was Basil CHAMPNEYS (1842“1935), who
designed much of Newnham College “ surely his masterpiece “
and Selwyn Divinity School.
[HUMPHREYS] Road can scarcely be intended to remember
Charles Humfrey, Mayor in 1837“38, and architect, or Sir
George Humphry. (See ˜Hospitals™, p. 97.)
[WILKIN] is conceivably a mis-spelling of the name of
William Wilkins (1778“1839) who lived in LENSFIELD Road
and designed the screen, library, Provost™s Lodge, bridge and
dining hall of King™s, the main layout of Downing, New Court
at Trinity, and the fa§ade, New Court and Chapel of Corpus
Christi, as well as the National Gallery and many other build-
ings throughout England. He is buried in the chapel of Corpus
Christi, to which he donated ¬ne Renaissance stained glass. (See
R. W. Liscombe, William Wilkins 1778“1839, 1980.) Wilkin
Street is between the streets named after Corpus Christi men,
Mawson and Tenison. However, the name Wilkin is that of
some parishioners of St Barnabas Church in the same area.

84
Architects




Northampton Street




85
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[BRANDON] Place was ¬rst built c. 1830. Alterations to St
Bene ™t™s Church were made in 1853 from designs by J. R.
Brandon, and R. Brandon directed work on St Edwards™s church
1858“60. One of these “ if they are not the same man “ could
have built the street also. This is also the name of a town in
Norfolk.


The ˜Kite™ area
The area between EAST Road, PARKSIDE, EMMANUEL
Road and MAIDS™ CAUSEWAY was known because of its
shape as the Kite, during the long agitation of the 1970s against
the project for the GRAFTON Centre. In this area, Charles
Humfrey™s garden is marked by ORCHARD Street, and
perhaps [ELM] Street. Also in the neighbourhood was a market-
garden known as the Garden of EDEN, which gave rise to the
names ADAM AND EVE Street and PARADISE Street. It may
be argued that [PROSPECT] Row, being close to these, should
bring to mind the lines from the once well-known hymn ˜From
Greenland™s Icy Mountains™, contrasting the paradise of Nature
with human wickedness: ˜every prospect pleases, and only man
is vile ™. The author, Bishop Heber, died in 1826, before the street
was built, probably unaware that the prospect in this part of
Cambridge was far from paradisal. (COVENT GARDEN, just
outside the ˜Kite ™, also commemorates a market-garden, named
after the London street.) Common land had been enclosed
everywhere and sold o¬, with disruptive social e¬ects. (See
Christopher Taylor, The Cambridgeshire Landscape, 1973, p.
182.) The Barnwell Inclosure Act of 1807 had led to speculative
building in the whole area, which by the middle of the century

86
Sport

had become a slum, rife with disease caused by inadequate or
non-existent drainage, ventilation and water supply. (See
Michael Murphy, Cambridge Newspapers and Opinion 1780“1850,
1977.) The Revd William Leeke, who had been the youngest
ensign at Waterloo (but the street named after him has been
demolished) made e¬orts to improve conditions by starting a
Sunday school, which led eventually to the foundation of an ele-
mentary school in [MELBOURNE] Place, now Parkside
Community College. This was against strong opposition to
educating working-class children, even as late as 1913, partly
from the Mayor, Councillor Francis. Today, however, the whole
area is gentri¬ed, being close to the centre, and professors live
where their servants once lived. The working-class people have
moved out to ARBURY. (See Rosemary Gardiner, An Epoch
Making School, Parkside Community College, Cambridge,
1988.)


Sport
Football in Cambridge owed a lot to undergraduates at Trinity
who in 1848 formulated a complete set of laws. These came
into con¬‚ict with laws closer to those of rugby, including one
that ˜no player was to be held, and hacked at the same time ™,
which Cambridge men opposed. ABBEY United, now a profes-
sional club known as Cambridge United, is believed to have
begun in a match under a street-lamp in STANLEY Road in
1912. This was only a few hundred yards from Abbey Road, in
the Abbey Ward, which presumably gave rise to the name. The
Revd W. Carr, curate of the Abbey Church, was the club™s ¬rst
president, elected soon after the end of the First World War.

87
©¤§ -®

(See Paul M. Daw, United in Endeavour. A History of Abbey
United/Cambridge United F.C. 1912“1988, 1988.)
The LENTS and the MAYS are the names of the University
rowing races, the so-called ˜Bumps™ on the Cam. Owing to the
narrowness of the river boats start at an interval from one
another, each trying to bump the boat in front. Successful crews
change places with the bumped crews on the following day, for
four days, beginning in the new positions each year. Steve
FAIRBAIRN (1862“1938) is remembered in the Fairbairn races,
and for the great help he gave to Cambridge rowing, especially
to Jesus College. The memorial marking the distance of one
mile from the start of the University Boat Race on the Thames
commemorates him as founder of the Head of the River race.
Jack Hobbs (Sir John Berry Hobbs, 1882“1963), the cricketer
and great batsman, lived as a boy in RIVAR Place. He ¬rst
played in county cricket for Cambridgeshire in 1904, and scored
197 centuries in ¬rst-class cricket. The Hobbs Pavilion on
Parker™s Piece is named after him. ˜Rivar™ comes from River
House in SLEAFORD Street, owned by a man known as ˜Miser™
KINGSTON, a recluse with a long beard who frightened chil-
dren. (See ˜Landowners™, p. 133.)
TENNIS COURT Road records the court for ˜real™ (i.e.
˜royal™) tennis, existing in 1564, now demolished. Similar courts,
though more recent, are still in use at Grange Road. (Lawn
tennis dates from the 1870s.)


Builders and developers
Builders and developers have a better chance of in¬‚uencing the
naming of streets than many others. Rattee and Kett have

88
Builders and developers

provided stone for colleges and such places as Westminster
Abbey since 1843, as well as repairing and building generally.
PURBECK marble is obtained by them from a quarry near
CORFE in Dorset. The names are given to streets near their
premises. (See Anna de Salvo, Kett of Cambridge, an Eminent
Victorian and his Family, National Extension College Trust
Ltd, 1993.) [ANCASTER] is another well-known quarry,
whose stone was used for St John™s Chapel. (The Duchess
of Ancaster was Thomas PANTON™s daughter.) Also founded
in Victorian times was Kidman and Sons Ltd, in 1876.
CHARLES Street was named after the elder son of
Charles Kidman, who built much of the site, and other streets
were also named after members of the family, probably
[DAVID], parallel to Charles Street, but not CATHARINE,
named after the wife of HERBERT (THODAY), the builder.
[GEORGE] Street, parallel to Herbert Street, may well also
refer to a member of the Thoday family. KELSEY and KER-
RIDGE are parts of the name of a well-known builder, com-
memorated not only in street-names but in the name of the
Sports Hall by Parker™s Piece, opened in 1975. Alderman
Kelsey Charles Kerridge of Cambridge City Council was
Chairman of Kerridge (Cambridge) Ltd, and was sixty-one in
1969. He was a great enthusiast for all sports and became MBE
in the same year.
Charles BLINCO was surveyor to the ROCK Freehold Land
Society, which developed an area between Hills Road and
Cherry Hinton Road, but according to another account he was
a banker who bought land from the Society. [HARTINGTON]
and [MARSHALL], parallel to Blinco Grove, may also have
been connected with this development, but Hartington is a name
connected, like CAVENDISH, with the Dukes of Devonshire,

89
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and Cavendish College preceded HOMERTON College on the
site across the road; this is more likely to have been intended.
[BURRELL™S] Walk may be named after a farmer from
Coton, from whom the land was bought. A portrait of him is
extant, wearing late eighteenth-century costume. The same man
(1730“1805) may be meant by the ˜linen draper of Market Hill™
who used to walk to Coton this way. A tailor and robe-maker™s
shop in Rose Crescent was run by James Burrell in 1891. The
second Baron GWYDIR was named Peter Burrell, but this is the
least likely connection.
Thomas Lovell Naylor, builder, named GARRY Drive after
his son, and LOVELL Road. KENDAL Way was so named
because the builders, R. A. Baines and Sons, came from Kendal.
NEWELL Walk was named by a developer. H. C. MOSS,
builder, of Cottenham, built houses near the railway embank-
ment in Chesterton which gives rise to ˜Bank™ in the street-name.
COLWYN is the name of the home-town of the builders of the
street.
A builder named BRADWELL was a partner of William
Grumbold in work on the West Range of Clare College in 1669.
A tombstone against the wall of St Andrew™s Church in St
Andrew™s Street opposite Bradwell™s Court bears the name of
David Bradwell, who died, aged seventy-eight, on 24 December
1813. George Bradwell designed Victoria Homes almshouses in
VICTORIA Road in 1837; of which the original block was
demolished in the 1970s. Alderman Thomas Bradwell died in
1877. Before the present Court was built, Bradwell™s builders
yard, owned by a later David Bradwell, occupied the plot. It was
demolished in 1958.
PAKENHAM Close was named by the builder, Mr Lambert,
from a selection of names o¬ered for his choice by the City

90
Localities in Cambridge

Council. There is a Pakenham near Bury St Edmund™s. The ¬rst
houses in HEMINGFORD Road were built by G. Smith of
Hemingford Grey.
EAST Road (the Old Mill Way in the ¬fteenth century) was
Gravel Pit Road in 1811 “ the lower levels o¬ NORFOLK Street
are due to such pits.


Localities in Cambridge
Some street-names indicate places nearby, as AIRPORT,
BAKERY (no longer existing), and BIGGIN near Horningsea,
included in He¬ers/OS map of 1995 (leading to Biggin Abbey;
˜biggin™ means ˜building™). There is no evidence of an abbey
here: the house was a summer residence of the Bishops of Ely,
and has a stone range of the fourteenth century. (See N.
Pevsner, Cambridgeshire, 1954, 2nd edn, 1970.) BROOK Lane
refers to the Bin Brook, which derives its name from ˜binnan™,
˜within™ “ the brook formed in part a boundary between the
town and the country, the land ˜within™ being part of the town;
BROOKLANDS is the name of a house (Brookland in 1830)
by the ˜Vicar™s Brook™ behind Newton Road; Brookland Farm
occupied the land to the east; BROOKSIDE is beside Hobson™s
Brook, and is the most beautiful street in Cambridge. BROOK-
FIELD is near the Bin Brook; BURNSIDE and BROOK-
FIELDS are near Cherry Hinton Brook. [BROOKS], in a
Peterhouse cluster, is probably named after W.M™I. Brooks,
architect of a Peterhouse building built by the benefaction of
Francis GISBORNE. CAM CAUSEWAY was intended to
cross the Cam to link up with the ring road but was never com-
pleted. CAUSEWAY Passage (Causeway Court before 1904)

91
©¤§ -®

relates to Maids™ Causeway. THE FEN CAUSEWAY was built
c. 1930, vigorously opposed by country-lovers. (See Quentin
Nelson™s poem, separately published, ˜The Coe Fen Road™.)
CHAPEL Street was named for a former Baptist Chapel, now
a meeting-hall. The CORN EXCHANGE was used by farmers
until the Second World War. A FAIR is still held on
Midsummer Common, as it has been for nearly 800 years,
though only a vestige of the commercial fair remains.
CUTTER FERRY (˜cutter™, meaning a rowing or sailing boat,
but the Cam ferries were operated eventually by chain) and
FERRY Lane and Ferry Path (leading to the Fort St George in
England, so named to distinguish it from one in Madras) are
where ferries were the only way of crossing the river down-
stream from Magdalene bridge, before the Victoria bridge was
built. A ferry was leased by the town to John Bruys in 1385.
LOGAN is the name of a ferryman in 1854. (See M. Heron,
Ferry Path, 1974.) The FREE SCHOOL was founded by
Stephen PERSE in 1615. Before 1842 the Fitzwilliam Museum
was housed in it; now the Whipple History of Science Museum
occupies the Hall, or Big School. A GRANGE was an isolated
farm such as existed at the present University Sports ground,
near Grange Road. (Grange Drive leads to Girton Grange.)
GUILDHALL Street was once Butchers™ Row, the present
name dating from around 1874. HALL FARM was also an iso-
lated farm, practising arable farming. SIDNEY FARM Road is
where Sidney Hall Farm still was in 1904. The land was allo-
catedtoSidneySussexCollegeintheBarnwellInclosureof 1811.
WHITEHOUSE Lane was so named because it leads to a white
house.
A LIMEKILN used the outcrop of chalk near Cherry
Hinton. There were MANOR gardens, of which Manor Street

92
Localities in Cambridge

o¬ Jesus Lane was the eastern boundary. The MARKET has
existed on its present site for centuries. MILL END was Le
Mylhende as far back as 1511. The POST OFFICE moved in
1850 from 44 SIDNEY Street, to the site of the Brazen George
Inn, once a hostel of Christ™s College, to which it stood oppo-
site, and ¬nally to the corner of PETTY CURY and ST
ANDREW™S Street in 1855. The RAILWAY runs close by the
street named after it. The word REGATTA is used for the Town
Headway Regatta. CAPSTAN and MARINER™S relate to the
ferry and to the cruising boats formerly hired at BANHAM™S
Yard. MISSLETON is the name of a hill o¬ Wort™s Causeway.
ARCHWAY Court has its own archway.
The BROADWAY (not the one in Grantchester) stands on
the site of Mill Villa, later called The Lodge, which was demol-
ished, and the present shops built, in the 1930s, numbered separ-
ately to avoid renumbering the whole road.
FULBROOKE is named after what is called on the OS map
of 1865 the Full Brook, but the original derivation, like that of
Fulbourne, is more likely to be from the equivalent of ˜fowl
brook™.
PARSONAGE Street is beside an original parsonage of
CHRISTCHURCH.
PRIMARY Court is named after the primary school which
formerly stood here.
[DAWS] may refer to the presence of jackdaws: Coe Fen is
perhaps named for such a presence, co(o) being Middle English
for a jackdaw, but ˜Cow Fen™ might have been its name. Daws
Lane was allocated to John Headley in the Cherry Hinton
Inclosure of 1806.
There were once FOUR LAMPS at the road-junction so
named.

93
©¤§ -®




Peas Hill




94
Hospitals

Hospitals
The area near New Addenbrooke ™s Hospital has several
names apparently connected with it, which are rather to be
explained because the area “ of the manor that had once
belonged to Thomas MOWBRAY “ belonged from 1553
onward to St Thomas™s Hospital, London, or in some cases
from the Cherry Hinton Inclosure of 1806. (See ˜The Survey
of St Thomas™ Hospital Land in Cherry Hinton, Made by
John Tracey in 1733™, in H. C. Coppock, Over the Hills to
Cherry Hinton, 1984, and London Metropolitan Archives
H.I./ST/E115/9 and 10.) ALMONERS Avenue refers to
the medieval name of a hospital o¬cial who gave alms. Until
recently the title was used for one who dealt with payments by
patients, and their welfare. Florence NIGHTINGALE
(1820“1910) is famous as ˜The Lady with the Lamp™, who
carried out reforms in the Army medical service in the Crimea,
against much opposition, and powerfully advocated similar
reforms in India. Lytton Strachey™s essay on her in Eminent
Victorians does justice to her astonishing thrustfulness and
courage. ˜What a comfort it was™, said a patient in the Crimean
War, ˜to see her pass. She would speak to me, and nod and
smile to as many more; but she could not do it to all, you know.
We lay there by the hundreds; but we could kiss her shadow as
it fell and lay our heads on the pillow again content.™
Associated with Florence Nightingale was Lady Mary Jane
KINNAIRD (1816“88), who sent nursing and other aid to the
wounded in the Crimea, and was one of the founders of the
Young Women™s Christian Association.
TOPCLIFFE is the name of a manor in Meldreth,
Cambridgeshire, that belonged to St Thomas™s.

95
©¤§ -®

FENDON is the name of an open ¬eld also at one time owned
by St Thomas™s Hospital. ˜Beyond Fendon™ is shown on a terrier
of Hinton lands in 1733, addressed to the Governors of the
Hospital. MALLETT(S) Furlong is shown on a survey of land
in Teversham belonging to the hospital in 1688.
RED CROSS, however, refers not to the charitable organisa-
tion but to a cross, such as was often placed at the entrance to a
town, that stood at the fork of Hills Road and Worts™ Causeway.
The name comes immediately from Red Cross Farm, which
may have been named after such a cross; the name is recorded in
the early sixteenth century, and a cross is shown at the fork on
an Inclosure map of Cherry Hinton.
STRANGEWAYS refers to the laboratory named after
T. S. P. Strangeways, near the same fork, founded in 1912, orig-
inally a hospital, which researches on nutrition, endocrinology,
cyto-chemistry, radiobiology and microbiology. It began in
HARTINGTON Grove, where a converted coal-shed proved
inadequate for research. Mrs E. Dorothy Strangeways, a gover-
nor of the Perse School for Girls, may also have been intended.
Whether [ST THOMAS™S] Square is named after the hospi-
tal is not certain. It is in an area just north of the land owned by
the hospital (named after St Thomas a Becket the martyr
(1118“70), later after the Apostle St Thomas Didymus), but
just south of the Roman Catholic school, St Bede ™s, which
might suggest St Thomas Aquinas (1225“74) whose Summa
Theologiae was for centuries the standard authority of the
Roman Catholic Church. The next four entries are mentioned
in A. Rook et al., The History of Addenbrooke™s Hospital, 1991.
Sir George Edward [PAGET] (1809“92) was physician there
and is the subject of a whole chapter (but see ˜High Stewards™,

96
A poet

p. 110). Sir George [HUMPHRY] (1820“96) was surgeon to the
hospital; there is a chapter about him also (but see ˜Architects™,
p. 83). William Henry DROSIER (1811“89) was his deputy,
and Senior Tutor of Caius, to which he was a great benefactor.
Dr Malcolm [HERON] (1918“74) set up a unit at
Addenbrooke ™s Hospital for controlling the spread of hard
drugs. As a psychiatrist he was committed to group and social
therapy.
ROBINSON Way was named after David Robinson, who
put up half the cost of the Rosie Maternity Hospital, three
million out of six million pounds, in memory of his mother.


A poet
Lord BYRON (1788“1824) was at Trinity in 1805“8, where he
read much history and ¬ction, boxed and swam “ Byron™s Pool
is not far from Byron Square, though now desecrated. It is not
certain he swam there. More likely is the place near Paradise
Island, popular with undergraduates, where his friend C. S.
Matthews was drowned in 1811, entangled by weeds. However,
the Pool was known to village children as Dead Man™s Hole. In
1868 it was used for washing sheep. (See F. Reeve, Cambridge
from the River, 1977.) While at Cambridge Byron published his
˜Hours of Idleness™, severely criticised in the ˜Edinburgh
Review™, and replied in 1809 with ˜English Bards and Scotch
Reviewers™. He challenged Hewson Clark of Emmanuel to a
duel, for another adverse review of ˜Hours of Idleness™, but
failed to ¬nd him in. (See Chainey, A Literary History of
Cambridge, p. 26 above, for Byron™s time at Cambridge.)

97
©¤§ -®




Brookside




98
Mayors

Mayors
The ¬rst municipal o¬cer of Cambridge to be called ˜Mayor™
was Hervey ¬tz Eustace Dunning, in the mid-thirteenth century.
He lived in what is now called The School of Pythagoras. John
[GOLDING] was Mayor in 1304, but was not intended when the
street-name was given. No other relevant names occur in the list
of Mayors published by J. M. Gray until 1524, when Thomas
BRACKYN appears. He was also Mayor in 1539 and 1543, and
represented Cambridge in Parliament between 1548 and 1552.
He promoted a Bill for the paving of Cambridge, and tried to get
relief from providing the full quota of twenty archers imposed
upon the Town. A ¬shmonger, he managed to get himself
appointed as purveyor of pikes to Henry VIII, which led to
pro¬table dealings, buying ¬sh for the king but selling much of
it on the market at high prices. He disputed in 1534 the control
of Stourbridge Fair, but lost to the Vice-Chancellor. His son
Richard was Mayor in 1549 and also represented the Town in
Parliament. Richard was a tenant of BARNWELL Priory, and
enclosed some of its land after the Dissolution for his own use.
Richard™s son Thomas sold some of this land to Francis Ventris.
Edward [THOMPSON] (Mayor 1534) may have been resident
in Thompson™s Lane. Thomas Ventris (1559) (who was also
representative of Cambridge in Parliament in 1575) is to be
remembered, as well as later people with the same name, in
VENTRESS Close and Ventress Farm Court. The Ventris
family continued to live in Cherry Hinton in the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries. C. F. [FLETCHER] was Mayor in 1565 and
1573 but this association is unlikely to have been intended.
Oliver GREENE (1594), whose name occurs in Green Street,
leased the hermitage at Small Bridges (Silver Street) no doubt

99
©¤§ -®

for the tolls to be collected there. The ¬rst SPALDING to be
commemorated is Samuel (c. 1590“1669), Mayor in 1630, but
several others of this name followed. His name was appended to
an appeal to fortify Cambridge Castle for Parliament. He was a
member of the committee for ejecting royalist clergy. His
accounts as a tax collector were above suspicion “ not a usual
thing in his day. He was one of the ˜adventurers™ who undertook
the drainage of the Bedford Level. W. [BISHOP] was Mayor in
1844“5, W. P. Spalding in 1908“10, A. A. Spalding in 1933“4 and
1938“39. One [NICHOLSON] was Mayor in 1659; his wife was
a Quaker. Francis [FINCH] was Mayor in 1664.
Henry Pyke (1692) died a prisoner in Cambridge Castle on 9
September 1697. ([PIKE™S] Walk may be connected.) His son
Joseph (1710) was in a quarrel recorded in his Diary by
Alderman Newton: ˜Saturday night about 10 or 11 at the Rose
Taverne in Cambridge upon a quarrell betweene Alderman
Thomas Fox jnr. & Joseph Pyke concerning the Towne Clarks
place, the said Mr Fox with his penknife did stabb the said Joseph
Pyke in his side near his belly; but he recovered of the wound.™ The
son was guilty of bribery and intimidation, doing great harm to
the prestige of the Corporation. He was given Anglesey Abbey
by the MP Samuel Shepherd, whose secretary he had once been.
(However, a John Pyke was allocated land in Chesterton in
1840.) Thomas NUTTING was Mayor in 1723 and 1743. He
was buried in St Clement™s Church. James GIFFORD, Mayor
in 1757, owned a house in Gi¬ord Place. When feeling was
running high over the American question he was pelted and
badly hurt at election time, dying as a result a few years later in
1774, aged sixty. His son James, Mayor in 1766, was serving in
North America with the 14th Foot when he was elected, but the
election was made, since he could not return, only to secure the

100
Mayors

continuance in o¬ce of his predecessor. He never took up o¬ce,
but served in Dominica in a punitive expedition against the
Caribs. He died in 1813.
William [NORFOLK] (1769) is mentioned elsewhere, as is
his son-in-law (JAMES) BURLEIGH (1770).
John MORTLOCK is the most remarkable of all Cambridge
Mayors. He gained popularity by his goodwill, for example
by issuing letters of credit to travellers who feared to be robbed
of their cash by highwaymen if they approached the town
at dusk, also by petitioning for peace with the American
colonies, and for advocating a more democratic system of
Parliamentary representation. But he also got all the principal
posts in the Corporation into his own hands or of those he
appointed, and blackmailed opponents to secure his position. He
was a close ally of the Duke of RUTLAND, whose ˜pocket
borough™ Cambridge became (see ˜High Stewards™, p. 115).
Mortlock founded the ¬rst bank in Cambridge, alongside where
Barclays Bank now stands (1780); he was Mayor in 1785, and
twelve times more by 1809, while his son John Cheetham
Mortlock was Mayor in 1802 and eight times more by 1820, and
his son Frederick Cheetham Mortlock was Mayor in 1810 and
three times more by 1816. The middle name is for once curiously
appropriate. Between 1785 and 1820 the Mortlocks were Mayors
almost every year. In 1784 the eldest Mortlock was MP for
Cambridge but was censured by the House of Commons for
underhanded dealings.
COLERIDGE records meeting John MORTLOCK on 25
September 1794 and listening to his ˜damned chatter™. He was
˜guilty of so many Rascalities in his public Character, that he
is obliged to drink three bottles of Claret a day in order to
acquire a stationary rubor and prevent him from the trouble of

101
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running backwards and forward for a blush once every ¬ve
minutes. In the tropical Latitudes of this fellow™s Nose I was
obliged to fry.™
The Mortlock family were rewarded by public honours, the
eldest son being knighted, the second son High Sheri¬ of
Cambridge. John Mortlock™s son Edmund was a fellow of
Christ™s and his son Frederick eloped with Sarah [FINCH],
daughter of the iron merchant. Frederick™s son John Frederick,
born in 1809, was transported to Australia after threatening his
uncle Edmund in his rooms in Christ™s with a dagger and a
pistol. His Experiences of a Convict has been edited by G. A.
Wilkes and A. G. Mitchell, 1965. One of John Mortlock™s former
clerks, Samuel [FRANCIS], was Mayor in 1788, 1790, 1792 and
1794, but su¬ered later from Mortlock™s opponents, being
almost reduced to bankruptcy. He was alive in 1833.
[FISHER] Street may refer to George Fisher, Mayor in 1840,
as well as to John Thomas and William Fisher, all bankers in the
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. George Fisher
owned the brickworks, now Alexandra Gardens, close to the
street of this name. Fisher™s Lane may have a di¬erent origin.
Another banking family were the FOSTERs: E. Foster was
Mayor in 1836“7, Richard Foster (who bought BROOKLAND
House in 1825) in 1839“40, C. F. Foster in 1847“8, again in
1854“5 and in 1860“2, and H. S. Foster in 1849“50, but no such
obloquy attaches to them as did to the Mortlocks. The words
˜Foster™s Bank™ are still visible on Lloyds Bank, facing Petty
Cury. Later Mayors, included elsewhere in this book, include
C. [HUMFREY], the architect (1837“8), C. FINCH, the iron-
founder (1848“9), W. EKIN, the brewer (1855“6), P. BEALES,
the coal and corn merchant (1856“7, 1866“7), S. HURRELL
(1857“8, 1864“6), who took over Beales™s business. W. B.

102
Mayors

REDFERN (1883“7) founded an amateur dramatic club called
the Bijou, about 1875. In 1896 he rebuilt St Andrew™s Hall in St
Andrew™s Street as the New Theatre. In this he was strongly
supported by John [WILLIS] Clark. The ¬rst production was
of Hamlet by the Haymarket Theatre Company. The theatre
continued till after the Second World War, when it was used as
a music-hall and cinema, but was demolished and replaced by
Janus House. Redfern made many sketches of Cambridge and
the surrounding countryside. (See W. B. Redfern, Old
Cambridge. A Series of Original Sketches with Descriptive
Letterpress, 1876, reprinted 1974.) Horace DARWIN was
Mayor in 1896“7 (see above, p. 76), and Joseph Ashworth
STURTON followed in 1913“14. His father Joseph Sturton in
1879 bought the estate of Barnwell Abbey. Sturton Town Hall,
Mill Road, built in 1881, was the Working Men™s Liberal Club
and Reading Room for many years. The Hall has also been a
Salvation Army hall and a variety hall, and lastly the Kinema
(now demolished), opened in 1917, which closed in the early
1970s. ˜Sturton Town™ is the area between East Road and the
Mill Road railway bridge. J. A. Sturton himself owned a
retail chemist™s in Fitzwilliam Street and Thurston™s bakery
in St Andrew™s Street. Sturton™s Quinine and Iron Tonic
˜enriches and puri¬es the Blood, strengthens the system, and
imparts tone and energy to the Digestive Organs™, said an
advertisement of 1897. Sturton generously supported the
Baptist Chapel in TENISON Road, and is said to have come
from [SLEAFORD]. Sturton Brewery was founded in 1874 by
William Warboys.
Another member of the Beales farmily was B. W. BEALES
(1916“17). The brewer H. B. BAILEY was Mayor 1923“4.
Other Mayors were H. H. [HARRIS] (1852“3, 1863“4), A. G.

103
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BRIMLEY (1853“4), A. I. TILLYARD (1899“1900), whose son
E. M. W. Tillyard was Master of Jesus College and a writer on
English literature of international reputation, and William
[WARREN] (1850“1), a grocer whose shop was at 51 Bridge
Street. (P. J. Warren was Mayor in 1964“5.) However, Warren
Road is in a Trinity Hall cluster, and was named after a Fellow
(1683“1745) of that college who was a minister of St Edward™s
Church.
James Henry Chesshyre DALTON (1903“4) graduated from
Trinity. He was twelfth Wrangler in 1894, and MD in 1893. He
published on smallpox vaccination and reform of the Poor Law,
and was particularly concerned with Cambridge health, but did
not practise as a doctor.
A. S. CAMPKIN (1904“5 and 1911“12) was a pharmacist at
11 Rose Crescent. An authority on canine species, he had many
interests including botany and swimming. He was prominent in
local photographic circles. Three Cambridge shops still have his
name in their titles.
Sir Walter DURNFORD (1847“1926), Mayor in 1909, was
Provost of King™s, combining this with being Principal of the
Cambridge University day training school for elementary
teachers. In 1906 he produced Aeschylus™ Eumenides, and
thereby launched the poet Rupert Brooke on his Cambridge
stage career. ˜He was a man of great sweetness of character™,
wrote his successor as Provost, M. R. James, ˜which he masked
under a humorous incisiveness of manner.™
Edmund Courtenay PEARCE (1870“1935) after whom
Pearce Close (not Pearce™s Yard) is named, was ¬rst a school-
master, then Vicar of St Bene ™t™s, Master of Corpus Christi, and
lastly Bishop of Derby. Mayor in 1917“18, and Chairman of
Cambridgeshire County Council in 1927, ˜few men™, it was said

104
Mayors

of him, ˜have given themselves with such unswerving loyalty to
the service of society in School, College, University, Town,
Country and Diocese™.
G. H. LAVENDER (1922“3) was a milliner and draper with
premises at 9 Bene ™t Street, and on Peas Hill.
George Plume HAWKINS was Mayor in 1919“20 and
1921“2, and is remembered for his restaurant, the Dorothy Caf©
(˜the Dot™) where young people met for th©s dansants, as well as
for another caf© in Cambridge. His catering business had been
begun by his grandfather in 1838. During the First World War
he catered for the Cambridgeshire Regiment. In 1903 he was a
member of a committee dealing with an outbreak of smallpox,
which brought him in daily contact with the disease until it was
stamped out. No mean antiquary, he could speak about old
Cambridge customs. He was a prominent Freemason. Three
hundred employees attended his funeral in 1931.
E. JACKSON (1930“1) has as predecessor a namesake,
Henry Jackson (1603).
Mrs Florence A. KEYNES (1932“3), the author of By-ways
of Cambridge History, was one of the early students of
Newnham College. She worked with the Cambridge Central
Aid Society, and was for many years chairman of a committee
in London of the National Council of Women. Her membership
of the Borough Council began in 1914, when an Act of
Parliament made it possible for married women to become can-
didates for seats on County and Borough Councils (only unmar-
ried women had been allowed to do so). She was the mother of
J. M. Keynes, the economist.
Sir Montagu [BUTLER] (1941“3) died in 1952 aged seventy-
nine. He had been President of the Council of State, India, and
Governor of the Isle of Man before being elected Master of

105
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Pembroke (1937“48). A distinguished man of letters, he was the
father of R. A. (˜Rab™) Butler, the Conservative politician, who
was Master of Trinity from 1965. Henry Montagu Butler was
master of Trinity 1886“1918.
George WILDING (1873“1956) was Mayor in 1944“5. He
took a great interest in the Perse School for Boys, helped to
found the Winston House Boys™ Home and was chairman of the
Cambridge branch of the United Nations Association. In 1945
he conferred the Honorary Freedom of the Borough on the 8th
US Army Air Force.
Howard MALLETT (1954“5), ˜a busy and jovial fellow™,
took a BA in theology from Fitzwilliam House and worked
almost all his working life as an assistant in the University
Library. He was also a Councillor for twenty years. His great
interest in helping young people is shown by his appointment
as Assistant County Commissioner for Cambridgeshire Boy
Scouts, and his being awarded the Silver Acorn, the highest
award of the Scouts. He was chairman of the local group for
the Duke of Edinburgh Award and a governor of the Perse
School. A Youth Club in STURTON Street was named after
him.
Frank DOGGETT retired in 1967, aged seventy-nine, after
forty years of unbroken membership of the City Council. He
worked for the Cambridge Scienti¬c Instrument Company as
chief draughtsman of scienti¬c instrument design, for ¬fty years
(see Horace DARWIN), and was Mayor 1946“7. In retirement
he still walked his dachshund three times a day.
Benjamin C. JOLLEY (1920“1) is remembered in Jolley
Way, which is in a cluster of streets named after Mayors and
other local people. B. A. Jolley, a prominent Wesleyan
Methodist, lived in Meadowcroft, Chesterton, where a

106
Churches and saints

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel was built in the garden in 1904. The
chapel later became a Pye conference centre.
Later Mayors after whom streets have or may have been
named are G. DEAN (1969“70), ROBERT MAY (1975“6), and
R. E. [WRIGHT] (1976“7).


Churches and saints
The growth of population brought many new churches. ST
BENE™T™S had existed since c. 1020, LITTLE ST MARY™S,
Holy Sepulchre (the ROUND CHURCH) and ST
BOTOLPH™S since the twelfth century, Great ST MARY™S
since the twelfth century if not earlier, ST EDWARD™S and ST
PETER™S since c. 1200, ALL SAINTS since the late thirteenth
to the early fourteenth centuries (rebuilt in Jesus Lane 1864), and
there were other medieval foundations not mentioned in street-
names (viz., St Clement™s, thirteenth century (there are gardens
named after this), St Giles (fragments from the twelfth century),
St Mary Magdalene (the ˜Leper Chapel™, twelfth century),
St Michael (early fourteenth century), Holy Trinity (partly
thirteenth century). No more were founded till the nine-
teenth century; then came CHRISTCHURCH (1837“9), ST
PAUL™S (1841), ST ANDREW the Great (1842“3; on the site
of a medieval church), the PRIORY or ABBEY Church
(Little St Andrew™s, early thirteenth century, restored c. 1854),
ST MATTHEW™S (1866), ST BARNABAS (1870“88), ST
LUKE™S (1874), ST MARK™S (1902“3, but an earlier church
1871), St John Evangelist (1896) and ST PHILIP™S (late nine-
teenth century) and others. These new foundations received
large donations from colleges, and did much to create

107
©¤§ -®

communities in their areas. ST MARK™S received a large dona-
tion from a member of the University, Mr A. Vansittart, of
PINEHURST (at that time a single house, later being devel-
oped for blocks of ¬‚ats).
Other saints™ names, mentioned elsewhere, are ST
ANTHONY, ST BEDE, ST ELIGIUS, ST THOMAS. ST
CHRISTOPHER the legendary giant who carried the Christ-
child unawares, and ST STEPHEN, the ¬rst Christian martyr,
are named in contiguous streets. ST MARGARET™S is said to
be named after the wife of a builder. ST KILDA and ST
NEOTS are place-names. (St Kilda™s Avenue has at the corner
with Campkin Road the ˜Jenny Wren™ pub. The island of St
Kilda™s is known for its distinctive type of wren, troglodytes,
troglodytes hirtensis.) Sir St Vincent Cotton, a landowner, is
remembered in Cotton™s Field and ST VINCENT™S Close. To
pay his debts, he sold by auction all his 725 acres in Girton
parish, north of Huntingdon Road. (St Vincent was the scene of
one of Nelson™s victories.) ST TIBB is short for St Tibba, a rela-
tion of two daughters of Penda, King of Mercia, and patron
saint of falconers. The road used to lead to Falcon Yard, now
demolished. She was buried at Peterborough, says the Anglo-
Saxon Chronicle for 963 AD (See H. Thurston and D. Attwater,
eds., Butler™s Lives of the Saints (4 vols., 1956).


The High Stewards: unprotected protectors
There were High Stewards of the University from 1418 or
earlier. The High Steward of the Borough was ¬rst elected in
1529. Each had the o¬ce of protecting the Borough or
University, preserving their privileges, trying certain o¬enders

108
The High Stewards: unprotected protectors

against members of the University, safeguarding the rights of
the Borough for its courts, even safeguarding each from the
other. At the same time, and for a long period, they ran the risk
of losing their lives. (See Keynes, By-ways of Cambridge
History, p. 20 above.) In the nineteenth century the o¬ces
became honorary, and safe.
Two clusters, one near Arbury Road, the other o¬
Newmarket Road, were named after many of these o¬cers.
Thomas HOWARD, Earl of Surrey and Duke of Norfolk
(1473“1554) was elected for the Borough in 1529, when he was
also High Steward for the University. He led the vanguard at the

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