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battle of Flodden, when the Scots were defeated, and later dev-
astated the Scottish border. He incensed Henry VIII against
WOLSEY, yet acquiesced in the execution of his own niece,
Anne Boleyn. He was ousted from favour in 1547 by the Duke
of SOMERSET, but survived in the Tower till the accession of
Mary (1553), when he was restored to favour.
Edward [SEYMOUR], Earl of [HERTFORD], Duke of
SOMERSET (1506?“52) (the ¬rst two names probably not
intended), elected for the Borough in 1547, was Protector of his
nephew, the boy Edward VI, and Chancellor of the University,
where (and at Oxford) he seems to have been educated. He
built the original Somerset House, by the Thames, ˜too princely
for a subject™. (However, Charles Seymour the sixth Duke of
Somerset, Chancellor of the University 1689“1748, whose
statue by Rysbrack stands in the Senate House, may also or
alternatively have been intended.) The ¬rst duke™s sister Jane
was Henry VIII™s third wife. His religious innovations, per-
mitting free discussions, at length caused him to be unpopular,
and he too was sent to the Tower, but though released he was
condemned for a plot to rouse the country against ˜the great™ and

109
©¤§ -®

to murder John DUDLEY, Duke of Warwick, for which he was
beheaded on Tower Hill.
The same John Dudley, later Duke of NORTHUMBER-
LAND (1502?“53) was elected for the Borough in 1552, and was
Chancellor of the University. He married his son to [LADY
JANE] Grey, whom he proclaimed Queen at the Cross in
Cambridge Market, and thereby was in disfavour with Mary
Tudor. Mary, before she was crowned, was even pursued to
Sawston Hall but escaped. When she succeeded to the throne
after the execution of Lady Jane, Dudley desperately rode to
Cambridge, a turncoat to the last, and read the proclamation of
Mary™s succession, ¬‚inging his cap in the air at the market place
to show his devotion to her and the Catholic cause, but in vain.
He too went to the block, in 1553.
The grandson of Thomas HOWARD, also named Thomas,
Duke of Norfolk (1536“72), elected for the Borough in 1554,
fared no better. He contributed largely towards the completion
of MAGDALENE College, but planned to marry Queen
Elizabeth™s rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, and was executed for
high treason.
William, Baron [PAGET] (1505“63) was High Steward of
the University, having been at Trinity Hall. (Paget Road
and Close are not in either of the High Steward clusters.) He
was one of Henry VIII™s chief advisers, but, remaining faithful
to Somerset, was arrested on a charge of conspiring against
Warwick and degraded from the Order of the Garter. He sanc-
tioned the proclamation of Queen Mary, and had her favour, but
gave up his o¬ces when Elizabeth succeeded. But Sir George
Paget (1809“92), Regius Professor of Physic (Caius), or his
brother Sir James may be remembered.
[NORTH] Street, parallel with Histon Road, is also not in
either of the clusters, but could refer to the next High Steward

110
The High Stewards: unprotected protectors

of the Borough, the second Baron North, elected in 1572.
([NORTH] Terrace is probably named geographically.) He was
MP for Cambridgeshire, Alderman of the Borough and Lord
Lieutenant of the County, and was a great patron of actors and
the theatre, which was lively in the University in the later years
of Elizabeth™s reign. He intervened with only partial success on
behalf of two men accused of unlawful bear-baiting at
Chesterton in 1581, who were jailed in Westminster. (See Alan
H. Nelson, Early Cambridge Theatres, 1994.) It was his job to
prepare Cambridgeshire for the coming of the Spanish
Armada. With the harshness of his times, he condemned a
student to stand in the pillory nailed to it by his ear. Also possi-
ble is Dr John North, Master of Trinity 1677“83, during whose
Mastership much of the Wren Library was built.
Baron ELLESMERE (1540“1617) was also Viscount
BRACKLEY. He was also named Thomas EGERTON. Elected
High Steward of the Borough in 1600, he helped to determine
the Act of Union between England and Scotland, and took part
in the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. He also petitioned the king
to grant a charter to the Borough, giving it all the liberties of a
free borough, for ever “ but without prejudice to the
University™s interests, which nulli¬ed it.
A more famous name is that of Francis Bacon (1561“1626)
(befriended by Ellesmere), remembered in VERULAM Way
and ST ALBANS Road, since he was Viscount St Albans and
signed himself with a name derived from the Roman name of
that town, Verulamium. Elected as High Steward of the
Borough in 1617, he had been MP for the University since 1614,
but this did not save him from a brief imprisonment in the
Tower. He entered Trinity College in 1573 and in 1605 published
The Advancement of Learning, a review of the state of knowl-
edge in his own time, and in 1620 his Novum Organum, in which

111
©¤§ -®

he stressed the importance of experiment in interpreting Nature,
insisting that contrary views of any thesis proposed must
be considered. According to Aubrey™s Brief Lives, not
always dependable, he died after stu¬ng a hen with snow to pre-
serve it. In his opposition to earlier ideas of authority, he
became the practical creator of scienti¬c induction. ˜He
made possible™, wrote Christopher Hill, ˜new attitudes towards
history “ progress without chiliasm, change without apoca-
lypse, reformation without tarrying for the second coming.™ His
Essays are the most widely read of his works. There is a statue
of him in Trinity College Chapel.
John [FINCH] (1584“1660), Baron Finch of FORDWICH,
can also be remembered both for his family name and for his title,
although ˜Finch™ appears separately from the cluster of High
Steward names, and is also the name of a well-known family of
ironmongers dating from 1688. (See above, p. 67.) Fordwich,
being part of his title, and within the High Steward cluster, is best
taken as referring to the baron. John Finch was elected High
Steward in 1640, was Speaker of the House of Commons, but
was impeached and ¬‚ed to Holland. On his return to England at
the Restoration he took part as Solicitor-General in the trial of
the regicides, and as High Steward of the Borough presided at
the trial of Sta¬ord, the Catholic nobleman beheaded on the evi-
dence of Titus Oates™s perjuries.
While Baron Finch was abroad in 1652 Oliver CROMWELL
took over the o¬ce of High Steward of the Borough.
[CLARENDON] Road, rather than the street of the same
name, may well have been named after the High Steward of the
Borough, Edward Hyde (1609“74), who was elected in 1660 and
became Earl of Clarendon, but the road is not in either of the
two High Steward clusters and is of earlier date than them.
Hyde™s connections are with Oxford, but he visited Cambridge

112
The High Stewards: unprotected protectors

as a young man, only to catch smallpox here. He was virtually
head of the Government, while High Steward of Cambridge,
and thus of great value on account of his in¬‚uence, but like
several of his predecessors in that o¬ce, fell victim to a court
cabal, and in 1667 was impeached for high treason. He left for
France, where he was nearly murdered by English seamen. His
History of the Rebellion in England, published in 1704“7, remains
now his great claim to fame. Perhaps, however, the younger
brother of the Clarendon who served in [MELBOURNE™s]
government, Charles Pelham (1802“98) was intended. Like
other Villiers Clarendons he was a Johnian. An MP for upwards
of sixty years, he was a prominent opponent of the Corn Laws.
In 1688 Henry JERMYN (1636“1708) was elected for the
Borough. Jermyn Street in London is also named after this
courtier of Charles II, who followed James II in exile to France.
He fought against William III at the Battle of the Boyne in
Ireland, but was able to persuade the king to accept his apology,
and retired to Cheveley. His title was Lord [DOVER], which is
conceivably the origin of the name of the street o¬ East Road,
although it is not included in either of the two clusters of High
Stewards™ names. However, Joseph [YORKE] (1724“92) was
also Baron Dover, and has Cambridgeshire connections,
through the ownership of Wimpole Hall. A York House existed
in living memory on Newmarket Road, at the other end of East
Road from Dover Street.
William, Earl of CRAVEN (1606“97) was High Steward of
the University 1667“97. His portrait wearing armour, by Gerrit
Honthorst, is in the Fitzwilliam Musuem.
There are many Russells who have achieved fame. Edward
[RUSSELL], Earl of Orford, was elected High Steward in 1698,
although Russell Court and Street, o¬ Hills Road, are not in
either of the two clusters, and the origin of their names is

113
©¤§ -®

uncertain. Later to be Duke of Bedford, Russell commanded the
ship that brought William of Orange to England in 1688. He
commanded the English and Dutch ¬‚eets that defeated the
French at La Hogue, o¬ Normandy, and so frustrated Louis
XIV™s intention of placing James II on the throne again. MP for
Cambridgeshire and Lord Lieutenant of the County, he did not
escape impeachment, but unlike many of his predecessors was
acquitted.
The best known of the Russell family are Bertrand
(1872“1970), the philosopher and anti-nuclear campaigner (but
the street was named long before his time) and John, ¬rst Earl
Russell (1792“1878), a leading ¬gure in English politics. He pro-
posed the Reform Bill of 1832 in the House of Commons and
was Home Secretary in [MELBOURNE™s] government in 1835.
Prime Minister in 1846“52 and 1865, he held other great o¬ces
of state, was held to have mismanaged his Crimean policy, but
did much for Italian unity. His brother Francis was High
Steward in 1860.
Henry Bromley, ¬rst Baron MONTFORT, elected 1741, and
his son Thomas, elected 1755, did nothing in politics comparable
to what many of their predecessors had done. Henry inherited a
large fortune, which he lost through lavish expenditure and
gambling. He took his own life in 1755. Thomas also gambled
heavily, and was obliged to sell his estate. He died in 1799.
Unlike other High Stewards, the Montforts did not su¬er on
account of any national cause. (Simon de Montfort is not likely
to have been intended.)
This was a time of great corruption in Cambridge. Among
those who pro¬ted by the policy of selling 999 years™ leases of
land to Councillors were Samuel FRANCIS, James
BURLEIGH, Peete MUSGRAVE, Thomas FRANCIS, and
the heirs of Sir George DOWNING. Philip [YORKE], Earl of

114
The High Stewards: unprotected protectors

[HARDWICKE] (1720“90), High Steward for the University,
MP for Cambridgeshire, Lord Lieutenant of the County, dom-
inated Cambridge politics in the 1770s and 1780s, becoming ˜a
lesser providence to whom all [Cambridge] matters must be
reported. Any action taken without reference to him was a sort
of treason™, says the Victoria County History. He was,
however, wise enough to see that the food riots caused by the
war with France in 1756, by unemployment, heavy rain and
speculative buying needed attention and ordered a weekly
allowance of sixpence per head in several villages near his
home in Wimpole. This did not prevent a riot in Cambridge on
15 June 1757, when ˜a mob, chie¬‚y of women™ broke open a
storehouse to take ¬fteen quarters of wheat. In 1795 there were
riots again, quelled by the action of Mayor MORTLOCK,
who sold publicly meat that the attackers supposed had been
unlawfully kept back. But in comparison with the rest of East
Anglia, Cambridge was quiet during this period. (See Paul
Muskett, ˜Riotous Assemblies™. Popular Disturbances in East
Anglia 1740“1822, EARO, The Resource Centre, Back Hill,
Ely, 1984.)
The borough was no better o¬ in the time of John Henry
[MANNERS], Duke of RUTLAND, elected in 1800 as High
Steward. He worked hand-in-glove with John MORTLOCK,
making the Cambridge constituency a pocket borough in which
voters were openly bribed. He was attacked by Hat¬eld, editor
of the Cambridge Independent Press, and by George Pryme, a
former Fellow of Trinity, as well as by satires like ˜The Ratland
Feast™, attacking the freemen who
. . . for a glass of wine
Cringed at the Eagle once a month to dine.

Other opponents protested at ˜the secret and unconstitutional

115
©¤§ -®

in¬‚uence of a noble family™, but could not prevail at a time when
non-resident voters could be brought in to vote ˜just as gentle-
men take a pack of hounds to cover™. Cambridge remained in the
Rutland pocket till the Reform Bill of 1832. The Duke was
removed from o¬ce in 1836. The family name is not remem-
bered in a street-name unless MANERS Way, near Queen
Edith™s Way, is a mis-spelling “ Manners does appear on one
popular map of recent times.
[WENTWORTH] Road is not in one of the clusters, but
might be supposed to be named after Charles William
Wentworth, Earl FITZWILLIAM (1786“1857), elected High
Steward for the Borough in 1850, who supported Parliamentary
reform and free trade. (However, Mary Wentworth was allo-
cated land in the Chesterton Inclosure, and is more likely to have
been intended.) FITZWILLIAM Road could also recall the
Earl, but the Street, opposite the Fitzwilliam Museum, is clearly
named after the founder of the museum, Richard seventh
Viscount Fitzwilliam of Meryon (1745“1816) (who has no
connection with the Earl).
From this time onwards the title is honori¬c. Lord Macaulay,
the historian and poet, was elected High Steward of the
Borough in 1857, but neither he nor the High Steward Francis
Osborne, Lord Godolphin, elected 1836, has a street named
after him, although a Macaulay Avenue is shown on a post-1945
Barnett map, between Mortlock Avenue and Maitland Avenue.
William [CAVENDISH] (1808“91), seventh Duke of
Devonshire, who was High Steward of the Borough,
Chancellor of the University, and founder at great personal
expense of the Cavendish Laboratory, where some of the most
signi¬cant discoveries in science have been made, may be
remembered in [DEVONSHIRE] Road. However, the eighth

116
The High Stewards: unprotected protectors

Duke, Spencer Compton Cavendish (1833“1908), his eldest son,
was also at Trinity, was awarded an honorary doctorate of law,
was a Liberal MP, Chancellor of the University and very promi-
nent in politics, declining the premiership three times. He
formed the Liberal Unionist party, and held high o¬ces under
Gladstone, whom he opposed over Home Rule for Ireland. He
was not a High Steward.
Colonel Thomas [HARDING]™s surname appears not in a
cluster of High Stewards, but in a cluster of military names.
Elected High Steward in 1907, and born at Madingley Hall (now
the property of the University), he was an engineer, who had
been Lord Mayor of Leeds and was High Sheri¬ of the counties
of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in 1900. He owned
1,700 acres of land in the county.
Alternatively, Sir John Harding, ¬rst Baron Petherton, born
in 1896, British ¬eld-marshal, may have been commemorated.
HARDING Way is close to TEDDER Way, DOWDING Way
and HARRIS Road, all named after high-ranking RAF o¬cers
of the Second World War. Sir John was chief of sta¬ of the
Allied Army in Italy in 1944, later governor-general of Cyprus
at the time when Archbishop Makarios opposed the British, and
organised the combat against terrorism there. He was created
baron in 1958.
Victor Christian Cavendish, ninth Duke of Devonshire,
was elected High Steward of the Borough in 1929, and was High
Steward also of the University. He is not likely to have
been named personally in the relevant streets, which were
named before his time, nor is George Douglas Newton, Baron
ELTISLEY of Croxton, also High Steward for the Borough and
MP, for the same reason.
John Maynard KEYNES (1883“1946), Baron Keynes of

117
©¤§ -®

Tilton, elected for the Borough in 1943, is named in the
cluster o¬ Newmarket Road. He was the pioneer of the theory
of full employment, especially in A Treatise of Money (1930) and
the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936),
arguing that unemployment, prevalent in his time, was not
incurable. He in¬‚uenced Roosevelt™s ˜New Deal™ administra-
tion, and is still cited today in economic arguments. An under-
graduate and Fellow of King™s College, for which, as Bursar, he
made a fortune, and a member of the ˜Bloomsbury™ group
including Leonard and Virginia Woolf and E. M. Forster, he
married Lydia Lopokova, a ballerina, and ¬nanced the building
of the Arts Theatre in Cambridge. It was said of him that ˜he
understood better than most the supreme importance of
Aristotle™s dictum that the proper aim of business is the provi-
sion of leisure™. He accepted the Order of Merit just before
his death. (See Florence Keynes, Gathering Up the Threads,
1950.)


Inclosures
Under the General Inclosures Acts of 1801, 1836 and 1845 the
many, uneconomically divided, strips of land dating often
from medieval times were allocated to local people. This
improved the technical e¬ciency of farming in the Agricultural
Revolution, which had begun in the eighteenth century and
earlier. (See ORWELL FURLONG, p. 15.) Allocations are
recorded in the Barnwell area (1811) to Thomas PANTON, the
Reverend John C. BULLEN (who owned large areas near to
the present Bullen Close), James BURLEIGH, Charles
[HUMFREY], John LENS, Peete MUSGRAVE, John [PYKE]

118
Inclosures

and F. C. J. PEMBERTON; in Cherry Hinton (1806) to Mary
VENTRIS, John [PYKE], Robert RICKARD and Samuel
SALMONS (near Salmon Lane); in Chesterton (extending to
Huntingdon Road) to William Henry APTHORPE, John
ATKINS, Thomas ATKINS, Ann BEALES, Mary BENSON
(in the area of Benson street), Richard FOSTER, Rt Hon.
Charles Philip, Earl of HARDWICKE, John HAVILAND and
to several of the GREEN family (cf. Green™s Road), while Clare
Hall (now Clare College) received Great FRANK™S Lane.
Other recipients of land in Chesterton were Jeremiah KENT,
John LARKIN and widow LARKIN, William LIVERMORE,
Thomas MARKHAM, Charles THRIFT, Charles
WAGSTAFF (including FRANK™S Lane), Mary WENT-
WORTH, Elizabeth WILES, John Thomas WOODHOUSE,
Mary Wragg and William Wragg (cf. Mrs Wragg GURNEY,
under ˜Benefactors™, p. 134). Almost all of these names occur in
streets in the area of their allocation (except PANTON, MUS-
GRAVE, [PYKE], PEMBERTON, [HARDWICKE], whose
names are remembered in other parts of Cambridge).
In Cherry Hinton LEETE Close is allocated to the Vicar;
MALLETS and NUTTINGS occur as ¬eld-names there.
Thomas MARKHAM is also shown as holding land in St
Clement™s parish, as is Richard WHEELER. DAWS Lane is
allocated to John Headley.
In Trumpington (1819) a receipt is signed by John MARIS,
churchwarden, and allocations are recorded to the Reverend
Christopher ANSTEY and Francis Charles James PEMBER-
TON.
DRAYTON Close and KEATES Close are recorded as
names from an old Inclosure in Cherry Hinton. SHEPHERD™S
Close (Cherry Hinton) was the subject of an award dated 18

119
©¤§ -®




Free School Lane




120
The twentieth century: the later colleges

December 1810, made to Gonville and Caius College. [PEN], in
a street parallel to Shepherd™s Close, may refer to a sheep-pen.


The twentieth century
 ¬  ¬¬§
Like her ancestor Victoria, Queen ELIZABETH II is celebrated
in a road and a bridge opened in 1971. Her grandson PRINCE
WILLIAM is also remembered. (Victoria bridge was opened in
1895.) In late Victorian times the University began to expand
more than it had ever done. The ¬rst colleges, still surviving,
that were founded then were for women, although Cavendish
College was founded, almost opposite CAVENDISH Avenue,
in 1876, to provide facilities for taking University courses
and obtaining degrees at moderate cost. (SELWYN was
founded for the same purpose.) It also provided training for
intending schoolmasters, but closed in 1891. HOMERTON
College, London, which was founded in 1659 to aid
Congregational churches, then took over the site from 1894 as a
teachers™ training college, but was adopted by the University in
1977. FITZWILLIAM House was initiated in 1869, in a house
bearing the date 1727 opposite the Fitzwilliam Museum, and had
facilities like those of Cavendish College, but became a recog-
nised college of the University in 1966. Hughes Hall, founded
in 1896 (as the Cambridge Training College for Women from
1885), was named after Elizabeth Philips Hughes. St Edmunds™
House took a broadly similar course to that of Fitzwilliam
House, but the last two have no street named after them, nor
have Lucy Cavendish (1965) and Wolfson (1973, as University
College from 1965) Colleges.
121
©¤§ -®

NEWNHAM College, still today exclusively for women, had
a house at 74 Regent Street in 1871, and built its ¬rst building in
1875. GIRTON College started at Hitchin in 1869, and moved
to its present site in 1873. It was exclusively for women until
1979, when men were also admitted. Professor Henry SIDG-
WICK (1838“1900), a Trinity philosopher and agnostic, was
prominent in advocating the admission of the women to the
University. Clare Hall, a graduate college, was founded in 1966;
DARWIN, also for graduates, was created in 1964. Churchill
College (1958) and New Hall (1954) have no streets named after
them.
ROBINSON College (1977) was named after its founder, Sir
David Robinson (1904“87), who made a fortune in the radio and
television rental business, and later in horse-racing. ˜A self-
e¬acing philanthropist, he gave all his money away™, to the
college and many other bene¬ciaries.


©®© 
Of the many Nobel prizewinners for science three have streets
named after them. Lord ADRIAN (1889“1977) was a laureate
in 1932 for work on the function of neurons “ the street leads,
suitably, to Addenbrooke™s Hospital (but is shown without a
name on the He¬ers map of 1995). Lord Adrian was Master of
Trinity, Professor of Physiology at Cambridge and President of
the Royal Society. Lady Adrian was prominent in caring for
mental welfare. The Lady Adrian School opened on COURT-
NEY Way in 1956. Both husband and wife may be remembered
here.
Ernest RUTHERFORD, Baron Rutherford of Nelson and
Cambridge (1871“1937), was born in Nelson, New Zealand,

122
The twentieth century: scientists

where he graduated. He then went to work under Sir J. J.
Thomson, as a member of Trinity. His ¬rst independent work
was done at Montreal and Manchester. His in¬‚uence on scienti¬c
thought has been compared with that of Faraday and Newton:
he developed the nuclear theory of atomic structure, and was
awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908. In 1919, when
he became Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics at
Cambridge, he published the ¬rst evidence for the transmuta-
tion of matter, explaining the phenomenon as a subatomic
chemical change in which one element spontaneously trans-
mutes into another. He inspired many spectacular discoveries
after 1933, leading to the creation of atomic energy and the atom
bomb. (See Egon Larsen, The Cavendish Laboratory, 1962.)
ALEX WOOD (b. 1879), Fellow of Emmanuel, assisted
Rutherford, and published on The Physical Basis of Music,
as well as a Life of Thomas Young, discoverer of the wave-
theory of light and the almost successful decipherer of the
Rosetta Stone. Wood was prominent in the Peace Pledge Union,
and Labour Candidate for Parliament. The Cambridge Labour
Party HQ in NORFOLK Street is named after him.
Sir John Douglas COCKCROFT (1897“1967), sizar of St
John™s, developed with E. T. S. Walton the high-voltage parti-
cle-accelerator machine that bears their name. He persuaded
RUTHERFORD that the Cavendish Laboratory should have a
cyclotron. He took over the Mond Laboratory from Kapitza, the
Russian scientist, who celebrated Rutherford with a crocodile on
the wall of that building. Major advances in radar, but for which
the Battle of Britain might have been lost, were due to
Cockcroft. He began atomic energy research at Harwell, having
a vision of cheap nuclear power. First Master of Churchill
College, he was nominated by Churchill himself. He received

123
©¤§ -®

the OM in 1957, the Nobel Prize for physics (with E. T. S.
Walton) in 1951 and the Atoms for Peace award in 1961. Deeply
interested in architecture and music, ˜he was a man of few
words, and his writing was minute ™.
Sir German Sims [WOODHEAD] was a Fellow of Trinity
Hall and Professor of Pathology 1899“1921. He helped to found
the settlement for tubercular patients at Papworth. However,
Mayor Woodhead is at least as likely to have been intended.
Sir Frederick Gowland HOPKINS (1861“1947), ˜the father
of British biochemistry™, was appointed Professor of that
subject in 1914, and when the Sir William Dunn Institute, near
the street named after him, was founded in 1921 he was given the
new chair founded with it. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in
1929, for his work on vitamins. A pupil of his at Emmanuel,
from where he went on to Trinity, wrote ˜He had faith that the
chemical processes underlying life itself were ultimately explic-
able and accessible to research. His humility was remarkable for
its absolute sincerity.™ MOORE is the name of his deputy at the
Dunn Institute.


µ©¬  °
STERNDALE Close is named after Sterndale Burrows,
Coroner in the 1970s and 1980s, who owned the land. An ances-
tor was Sir William Sterndale Bennett (1816“75), who, brought
up an orphan, was a King™s chorister, and became Professor of
Music in Cambridge in 1856, principal of the Royal Academy of
Music in 1866. He was highly regarded by Mendelssohn and
Schumann for his many symphonies, concertos, songs and
piano pieces. Two musical composers of this century have given
their names to streets. Benjamin BRITTEN (Baron Britten)

124
The twentieth century: the armed services

(1913“76) conducted his arrangement of Gay™s The Beggar™s
Opera in Cambridge in 1948 and thereafter often visited
Cambridge. Among his best-known works are the operas, Peter
Grimes, Albert Herring, Let™s Make an Opera, Billy Budd, also
War Requiem, Serenade for tenor, horn and strings and the
Third String Quartet. Sir Arthur BLISS (1891“1975) studied at
Pembroke, and made music with Cambridge University Music
Society. He became Music Director of the BBC and Master of
the Queen™s Music. His best-remembered works are the music
for ballets, Checkmate and Miracle in the Gorbals, and his ¬lm
music for The Shape of Things to Come. Both composers
received Honorary Degrees from the University in 1964. (See
Frida Knight, Cambridge Music, 1980.)


 ¤ ©
Military men are remembered in two clusters in north Cam-
bridge. Best known is Bernard Law MONTGOMERY
(1887“1976), ¬rst Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, where he
launched the battle in 1942 which turned the tide against the
Germans in North Africa. He was commander of the ground
forces for the invasion of Normandy in 1944, and accepted the
German surrender on Lüneburg Heath. Churchill said of him
he was ˜in defeat unbeatable; in victory unbearable™. He became
Field Marshal in 1944. Parallel with Montgomery Road,
WAVELL Way is named after Archibald Percival Wavell
(1883“1950), ¬rst Earl Wavell, Field Marshal, who was in 1939
given the Middle East Command. He defeated an Italian army
in North Africa, capturing 150,000 prisoners, and conquered
Abyssinia from the Italians. After that his military fortune
declined, though Rommel admired him. He was Viceroy of

125
©¤§ -®

India 1943“7, and published, unusually for a military man, an
anthology of verses, Other Men™s Flowers. Between WAVELL
and MONTGOMERY comes Andrew Browne CUNNING-
HAM, Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope (1883“1963),
admiral of the ¬‚eet. In the First World War he took part in the
raid on Zeebrugge; in the Second he gained a major victory over
the Italian ¬‚eet o¬ Cape Matapan. In 1942 he was appointed
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force under
Eisenhower, covering the invasion of Sicily and the Salerno
landings. He received honorary degrees from many universities,
including Cambridge, and is commemorated close to the Nelson
monument in Trafalgar Square. He would truckle to nobody,
not even Churchill, when required to take action he considered
unsound. In another cluster, nearby, Marshal of the RAF,
Arthur William TEDDER, later First Baron Tedder of
Glenguin (1890“1967), who assisted Montgomery in North
Africa by his attacks on Italy, and later, as Eisenhower™s deputy,
by preventing German forces from reaching the Normandy
beachhead, is also commemorated. He was Chancellor of the
University in 1950, after the candidature of Jawaharlal Nehru
was withdrawn. Also nearby is the street named after Hugh
Caswall Tremenheere DOWDING, First Baron Dowding
(1882“1970), who was Air Chief Marshal, and as Commander-
in-Chief of Fighter Command was in charge during the Battle
of Britain when the Luftwa¬e was shattered. Deeply moved by
the deaths of so many ¬ghter pilots, he wrote books on spiritual-
ism and theosophy. Also in the same cluster is the name of Sir
Arthur Travers HARRIS (b. 1892), known as ˜Bomber™ Harris
for his policy, as Commander-in-Chief of Bomber Command,
of mass bombing-raids on German cities. (H. H. Harris was
Mayor in 1852“3 and 1863“74 but is less likely to have been

126
The twentieth century: politicians

intended, in view of the closeness of other RAF names, but that
is no reason for not remembering him too.)
In a Peterhouse cluster occurs the name of William Riddell
BIRDWOOD (1865“1951), Field Marshal. He was in command
of the Anzac Corps in the Gallipoli landing of 1915 and in
France till 1918. In 1925 he was Commander-in-Chief of the
Indian army. From 1930 to 1938 he was Master of Peterhouse.


°¬©©©®
The second Marquess of ZETLAND (1876“1961), Lawrence
John Lumley Dundas, graduate of Trinity, was Conservative
MP for Hornsey 1907“16, and played a great part in the
administration of India, of which he was Secretary of State,
until 1940, when disagreement with Churchill made it impossi-
ble for him to continue. He was deeply impressed by Indian phi-
losophy, one of his many works on India being translated into
Sanskrit. In 1935 appeared his Steps to Indian Home Rule. He
received an honorary LL D from Cambridge and from Glasgow,
as well as an honorary LittD from Leicester University.
The name [TENBY] could refer to Viscount Tenby, Gwilym
Lloyd George (1894“1967), second son of David Lloyd George,
and Liberal MP, who was a graduate of Jesus and successively
in wartime Minister of Fuel and Power, Minister of Food and
Home Secretary.
William Wedgwood Benn, First Viscount [STANSGATE]
(1877“1960) was a Liberal MP 1906“27, when he joined the
Labour Party. He was Secretary for India and Secretary for Air.
His son Tony Wedgwood Benn (b. 1925) renounced his title and
was thus able to continue as a member of the House of
Commons. The son held several ministerial posts in Labour

127
©¤§ -®

Governments, always standing for left-wing Labour views. The
name Stansgate is unusual, which lends some likelihood to the
attribution here. [WEDGEWOOD] Drive in Cherry Hinton
may also be related, if mis-spelt.
RACKHAM Close can only refer to Clara Dorothea Tabor,
MA, JP, Borough Councillor, Fellow and Associate of
Newnham College, who in 1901 married H. Rackham, Senior
Tutor of Christ™s. She was a su¬ragette and a tireless promoter
of good causes. She died in 1966, aged ninety.


¬®¤·®, ¦ ®¤ µ©®®
Landowners can be as in¬‚uential as builders, when street-names
are decided. William (Bill) FISON owned a thirty-seven-acre
¬eld which he sold in 1972 to a developer who sold it to the
Council. (The forenames in neighbouring streets are not those
of his children.) Dr John Lens (1756“1825), Sergeant-at-Law,
later King™s Serjeant (formerly the highest rank of barrister),
who took his BA at St John™s and became a law Fellow of
Downing, owned the land on which LENSFIELD Road was
built. His independence became proverbial, giving rise to the
toast, ˜Serjeant Lens and the independence of the bar™.
An ancestor of the family of Francis, of Quy Hall, who
owned land in Fen Ditton, was Thomas MUSGRAVE
FRANCIS (1850“1931), son of Clement Francis. A photograph
of him appears in C. Jackson, A Cambridge Bicentenary, 1990,
where he is called Lord of the Manor and owner of Quy Hall.
He did public service as a magistrate, visitor to prisons and in
many other ways. An old Etonian, he was thought of as ˜a very
great gentleman™: ˜there was an air about him of courtlier days
but he could be stern when occasion arose™. His father Clement

128
The twentieth century: landowners, farmers and businessmen

Francis was involved in legal work connected with the reconcil-
iation of the University and the Borough in the mid-nineteenth
century, as well as the coprolite boom (see DE FREVILLE,
p. 65), railway development and the case of John Frederick
MORTLOCK.
A GLEBE is a plot of land owned by a church, usually pro-
viding part of the incumbent™s stipend. Glebe Road was such a
plot, as is ST ANDREW™S GLEBE. BISHOP™S Road and
Court were originally on glebe land.
Similarly farmers are remembered in the places where their
farms were, like William DOWNHAM, who occupied Manor
Farm, hence Manor Community College. The road was named
in 1982. The reminiscences of a member of the Downham
family are recorded by Sallie Purkis (see p. 1 above.)
(However, MANOR Street, far from the college, marks the
boundary of the old Manor Gardens in Jesus Lane. The Manor
House that stood on the site of All Saints vicarage was demol-
ished in 1831.) Henry WETENHALL owned hop¬elds and
lived in Maids™ Causeway in the middle of the nineteenth
century. His o¬ces were in St Andrew™s Hill. Edward
WRIGHT, a farmer, was chairman of Fen Ditton parish
council for forty years. His son Charles died in 1996. The
family has farmed in Fen Ditton since 1880, and the son
Edward Wright still does so in 1999.
VENTRESS Close and Ventress Farm Court bear the names
of the owners of a farm who appear in the Cambridge Chronicle
between 1801 and 1832. W. Ventriss advertised there on 6
December 1816 that he would prosecute undergraduates for
riding over the lands and breaking down the fences in the parish
of Cherry Hinton. Thomas Ventris was Mayor in 1559. Tony
Ventres (d. 1978) was well known on Cambridge Market.

129
©¤§ -®

HALL FARM was in the area round Hall Farm Road.
WHITEHILL Road records where White Hill Farm was “ the
original name in c. 1824 was White Hall; as usual in Cambridge,
hills appear where others might see only ¬‚at land. NEWNHAM
CROFT (croft = farm) gave its name to the present street.
[OWLSTONE] Croft is the name of a house that gave its
name to the street, of which the surname Oulston or the village
of the same name in Yorkshire is probably the origin. SCOT-
LAND Farm stood in the area where there are now many other
names referring to Scotland: EDINBURGH, INVERNESS,
KINROSS, STIRLING, DUNDEE. (ENNISKILLEN in the
same area is in Ireland.) Not in this area but also Scottish are
BURNSIDE, MONTROSE, ROXBURGH, PENTLANDS,
ST KILDA.
COWLEY Road, being across the railway tracks from
NUFFIELD Road, must have been named after Lord Nu¬eld™s
motor-car works at Cowley, Oxford. There is no obvious
Cambridge connection.
A mill, still standing, by the Mill House in French™s Road, and
built about 1848, was owned by William FRENCH. It was
known as New Chesterton Mill. The sails were removed in 1912,
and it was not used at all after 1956, when Edwin French died.
(The name of the road till c. 1892 was OCCUPATION Road,
but it was known locally by the name of the mill-owners. An
˜occupation road™ is a private road for the use of occupiers of the
land. The road o¬ Newmarket Road that still goes by this name
has retained it after it was no longer appropriate.)
The name Nutters in NUTTERS Close occurs in the name
of an island near Sheep™s Green, but is also in memory of the
Nutter family who owned the mill at Grantchester, and the
King™s Mill at the end of Mill Lane, and the mill in Long Road.

130
The twentieth century: landowners, farmers and businessmen

Shop owners are remembered in HEATH House, named
after George Heath, Director of Eaden LILLEY™S department
store, who died in 1956. A prominent member of Emmanuel
Congregational Church, he was a founder-member of the Cam
Sailing Club, and had rowed for YMCA Boat Club. Kenneth
Eaden Lilley was chairman of the management committee of
the Hundred Houses Society, which built FALLOWFIELD.
The street named after him is in the same area.
NURSERY Walk appears to be in the area of the Cumbrian
Nurseries, which were in business in the 1920s.
GREEN™S Road is named after Arthur William Green, a car-
penter and builder, with premises (Barker and Green) there in
1887.
Thomas P. N. [CHALK] died in 1960, aged seventy-six. He
had been senior partner in a ¬rm of auctioneers, surveyors and
valuers, and lived at Rectory Farm, Cherry Hinton, not far from
Chalk Grove (which is, however, near chalk pits). He was one
of the original members of the Cambridge Amateur Boxing
Club.
The origin of [MARSHALL] Road is obscure. It is too old
to have been named after the economist Alfred Marshall
(1842“1924) “ ˜it™s all in Marshall™, as many generations of
undergraduates were taught “ and there are several possible can-
didates. (See BLINCO, p. 89.) The founder of Marshall™s
AIRPORT, however, is remembered in that name and in THE
MARSHALL WAY. Sir Arthur Marshall was knighted in 1974
for services to the RAF. The airport named after him had grown
from 1927 into a works that designed and built the droop nose
for Concorde and a rocket for positioning satellites. In 1929 a
¬‚ying school opened. 20,000 airmen were trained here in the
Second World War, after which a runway long enough to allow

131
©¤§ -®

the largest aircraft to land for repairs was built. The Marshall
Group now conducts business also in machine manufacture, air-
craft design, bus construction, military engineering, car sales
and services, and takes particular interest in the community,
especially the local Air Training Corps Squadron. Sir Arthur, a
graduate and honorary Fellow of Jesus, was a keen pilot, and an
athlete of Olympic standard.
BANHAM™S Close relates to Banham™s marina, further
downstream from the street so named, shown as ˜Dock™ on the
1955 OS map. It closed c. 1970. It was from such a dock, where
H. C. Banham began boat-building in 1906, that the hired boats
set out on boat racing days in summer, rowed by undergradu-
ates taking parents and girlfriends to moor by the banks, and
cheer on the crews, between eating fruitcake and cucumber
sandwiches. Earlier the Dant family operated from here a steam
tug and the CUTTER FERRY, superseded by a footbridge in
1927. (See R. Cory, Fenland Lighters and Horse Knockers, EARO,
The Resource Centre, Back Hill, Ely, 1977.)
Robert [FELTON] had an oil, lamp, colour and paper-
hanging warehouse at 28 Mill Road. The street is said locally to
be named after him, although a Master of Pembroke, Nicholas
Felton (1556“1626), had the same surname. (There are no
˜Pembroke™ names in this area.)
SWANN™S Road was opened on 21 November 1987 to serve
the MERCERS™ Row Industrial Estate. This must be in memory
of Swann™s brickyard, ˜near Stourbridge Common™, mentioned
in Council Minutes of 1903, which was in the same area. Swann™s
Terrace may also be connected, but it is o¬ Mill Road, nowhere
near the Industrial Estate. It is referred to in Council Minutes of
1904. (Cf. Swann HURRELL, pp. 66“7.) ˜Mercers™ must refer to
booths at STOURBRIDGE Fair.

132
The twentieth century: landowners, farmers and businessmen

DESMOND Avenue is named after Desmond January, estate
agent and son of the estate agent D. L. January, whose initials
appear in the names of the three o¬ce-blocks on the south side
of STATION Road: Demeter, Leda, Jupiter. Daedalus came
later.
The OS map of 1885, revised 1925, shows a steam-plough
works near PAMPLIN Court. (The ¬rst steam-plough was
worked in the Netherlands in 1862.) This works was owned by
a member of the Pamplin family, well known in Cherry Hinton.
Thomas KINGSTON, who owned houses in SLEAFORD
Street, died in 1902 at the age of ninety-six. He had studied med-
icine brie¬‚y at King™s College London, but made a fortune out
of a clever investment, and hoarded his money. Known locally
as ˜Miser Kingston™, even as a boy, according to his obituary, he
watered farm workers™ ale to make it go further. His clothing
was shabby. He preferred slippers to boots, and when he wore
boots never, for some unfathomable reason, wore two of a pair.
Saving every farthing, he gave money to some poor widows,
and bequeathed £100,000 “ some millions in 1990s currency “ to
the Evangelical Party in the Church of England, or so the same
obituary states. He also had built in 1877, and furnished entirely
at his own expense, a wooden church called ST PHILIP™S, the
predecessor of the present church, connected with St Barnabas
Church. He directed that his co¬n be made not of oak but of
ash, and it was.
A Baron [GREYSTOKE] is said to have owned land in
Cherrry Hinton.
The Cambridge banker Ebenezer FOSTER (d. 1851) bought
the estate of ANSTEY Hall in 1838. It remained in the Foster
family till it was sold to a tenant, who in 1950 resold it to the
Ministry of Agriculture for the Plant Breeding Institute.

133
©¤§ -®

ROSEFORD Road, as a Mr Taylor remembers, was the name
given by him, referring to Rose Fordham, the builder™s niece.
(See Purkis, Arbury Is Where We Live.) It was begun in 1936, but
the outbreak of war stopped building.
[BRITANNIC] Way, in an industrial plot, suggests perhaps a
name given by a patriotic exporter.


¬§
The rector of Fen Ditton, who retired in 1956, is commemo-
rated in STANBURY Close. He served the parish throughout
the Second World War, when he was ARP Warden.
LEETE Road is named after a Vicar of St Andrew™s, Cherry
Hinton.
A home for retired clergy was opened by Lord Fairhaven in
[ALLEN] Court.


®¦
COURTNEY Way is named after Lord Courtney
(1832“1918), a benefactor of St John™s. A Liberal MP, he was
an enthusiast for proportional representation, and strongly
opposed the Boer War and the First World War, always
arguing for conciliation.
Mr M. F. A. FRASER was a benefactor of Trinity Hall in
about 1930 (CHESTERFIELD and WARREN of the same
college are in the same cluster), who was at one time a British
Consul in China.
Mrs Wragg GURNEY, who died in 1921, left 403 acres to St
John™s, of which college her husband had been a Fellow. The
college sold much of the land for building in 1930, the rest after

134
The twentieth century: others

1945. ˜As rich as the Gurneys™ is a saying used in Gilbert and
Sullivan™s Trial by Jury, referring to a Norwich family.
Mrs Mary [RAMSDEN] (d. 1745) had considerable wealth,
out of which she paid for a great increase in the Fellowship of St
Catharine ™s, and for the Ramsden Building in that college.
Ramsden Square is near to land allocated to the college under the
Inclosure Acts, but mention may be made of Dr Ramsden, Vicar
of St Andrew™s Chesterton in 1814 and Professor of Divinity,
who chaired a meeting in February 1808 to discuss the possibil-
ity of a non-sectarian school in Cambridge.
WORTS™ CAUSEWAY was made from a benefaction by
William Worts (d. 1709) of £1,500, for a causeway to run from
Emmanuel College to the Gogs.



[ALPHA] Terrace, it has been suggested (by Shirley Brown,
Trumpington in Old Picture Postcards, Zaltbommel, Netherlands,
1986, no. 49), may have been so called because it was the ¬rst
road that set out to be a residential road. It was at one time called
Scott™s Row, Scott being the builder of many of the houses.
[ALPHA] Road, built at about the same time in Chesterton, may
have been named for the same reason.
[ALWYNE] is a family name of the Marquess of
Northampton.
[BACHELORS™] Walk by the river in the grounds of St
John™s is mentioned in 1780. It could have been reserved for
Bachelors.
BALDOCK Way is named after Edward Baldock, for many
years verger of the nearby church of St John the Evangelist.
One of the carved heads in the clerestory windows is of him. His

135
©¤§ -®

ancestors presumably came from Baldock, originally so named
after Baghdad, called Baldak by Mandeville. The name was
given by Knights Templar who held the manor.
BENIANS Court is named after the historian and Master of
St John™s, 1933“52, Ernest Alfred Benians, who was born in 1880
and died in 1952, after a lifetime of service to the college.
There is an article on BROAD Street in the Cambridge
Evening News for 7 March 1963, with a photograph said to con-
trast with the impression given by the name.
John BUCHAN, Baron Tweedsmuir (1875“1940), a
Scotsman, the author of The Thirty Nine Steps, Montrose, Prester
John and other famous novels, is remembered in a cluster of
Scottish names: CALEDON, JEDBURGH, MONTCREIFF,
possibly also [CAMERON], near the cluster. He was a
Governor-General of Canada. There is a BANFF and a
CALLANDER in Canada as well as in Scotland.
CAVESSON (a nose-band for troublesome horses), MAR-
TINGALE (a strap passing between a horse™s forelegs), and
PELHAM (a bit, combining a sna¬„e and a curb in one) are all
in one cluster of names in north Cambridge. There was for-
merly a paddock here.
CHURCH RATE Walk: a ˜church-rate™ is ˜an assessment for
the sustentation of the fabric, etc., of the parish church.™ It is
near LAMMAS Field, and ˜Lammas rate™ was a name also used
for ˜parish rate™.
BURNT CLOSE is shown as a ¬eld-name on a map of
Grantchester in 1666.
CROME DITCH and STULP FIELD are also ancient ¬eld-
names, as are probably Tabrum (Latin for ˜pestilence™) and
Sladwell (not on the He¬ers/OS map of 1995) in Grantchester.
Widnall Close, also in Grantchester (not on the He¬ers/OS

136
The twentieth century: others

map either), is named after Samuel Page Widnall, who lived in
the Old Vicarage. His father Samuel Widnall was a famous
dahlia grower with a nursery in the same village. (See E. N.
Willmer, Old Grantchester, 1976.)
The Trumpington village cross was put up by John Stokton
(d. c. 1475) at CROSS Hill. The base is preserved in the church.
There is now a War Memorial cross carved by Eric Gill, erected
in 1921.
DENNIS WILSON was President of the Cambridgeshire
Branch of the British Legion. It was for services to the Legion
that the street, opened by the Duchess of Kent, was named after
him in 1981.
EASTFIELD, the name of an area of Chesterton as well as
of a street, was built by the Hundred Houses Association in the
1930s, adding c. 1955“6 the SCOTLAND Road Estate. FAL-
LOWFIELD was also developed in the 1930s.
EDENDALE Close is in the grounds of Edendale House.
GAZELEY Lane is named after the village near Newmarket;
the Rector was the father of Mrs Wright, the ¬rst occupant of
Gazeley House. The name ˜Goldeslie™ on a brick pillar presents
a poser.
GEORGE PATEMAN was Assistant Secretary to the Board
of Extramural Studies at Mill Lane.
GREEN PARK was suggested by Mr C. N. Naylor and
accepted by the City Council on 3 February 1935. It leads out of
Green End Road.
[THE HOMING], close to the aerodrome, suggests a
navigational method, ˜homing in™. [THE WESTERING] (˜that
which moves in a westerly direction™) has a similar hint of nav-
igating aircraft.
HURST House is shown on Bacon™s map of c. 1908 in the area

137
©¤§ -®

of the present Hurst Park Avenue. The ¬‚ats named Dalegarth
now occupy its site.
KATHLEEN ELLIOTT was Secretary of Cambridge
Housing Society for nineteen years.
LAUNDRESS Lane leads to Laundress Green, beyond the
old mill race, a drying-ground for University laundresses and
local washerwomen. The Green was ˜gay with washing
¬‚uttering and dancing in the breeze™, Margaret Keynes, in A
House by the River, remembered. Carpets and mats were brought
out for beating too, until vacuum-cleaners were introduced.
[LONG] Road was once Mill Road, because of the mill at the
Trumpington end, where the Old Mill House still stands. The
newer name must refer to its unusual length.
[MOUNT PLEASANT], as in many cities, could well be
named after the London street. DOWNING Street was named
after the founder of the college, who gave his name also to
Downing Street in London. HYDE PARK CORNER and
COVENT GARDEN (where there was once an orchard) also
have London names.
PEARCE™S Yard (not Close) is named after the Pearce family
who lived in Grantchester 1890“1939. D. F. Pearce was a gradu-
ate of Trinity. There is a plaque in Grantchester Church in
memory of the Pearces.
NORTHAMPTON was in 1796 (when the street was still
named Bell Lane, after the ˜Bell™ inn) the end of a day™s journey
by Smith and Co.™s post coach, where passengers could stay over-
night before going on to Birmingham (£1.11s.6d all the way).
William Phene NEALE was resident in Cherry Hinton Hall
in 1904, and was at that time Lord Mayor of London.
RIVERSIDE is the Haling (i.e. towing) Way on Bacon™s map
of c. 1908.

138
The twentieth century: others

Professor Sir ROBERT JENNINGS was knighted in 1981.
He was elected President of the International Court of Justice
in 1991, and awarded an honorary degree by the University in
1993.
RONALD ROLPH was Secretary of the Cambridge and
District Trades Council. He worked for pensioners, civil liber-
ties and world peace.
Dr SEDLEY TAYLOR (1834“1920) was Junior Bursar of
Trinity 1866“9, Librarian 1870“1. Sedley Taylor Infant School,
o¬ Coleridge Road, is named after him, and he was a great pro-
moter of music. The road is in a ˜Trinity™ area.
An Orphans™ Cottage Home existed on Fitzwilliam Road, not
far from [SHAFTESBURY] Road, which may commemorate
the founder of charities, Anthony Ashley Cooper (1801“85),
seventh Earl.
Sir William (Will) SPENS (1882“1962) was a scholar of
King™s, later Fellow and Master of Corpus Christi. He is remem-
bered particularly for the ˜Spens Report™ on secondary educa-
tion (1939) but was in 1939“45 regional commissioner for civil
defence in East Anglia. In 1945 he was prominent in organising
part of the new National Health Service. A formidable person-
ality, ˜Napoleonic™ and ˜Machiavellian™ were adjectives applied
to him by those with whom he worked, says the DNB. He was
one of the most in¬‚uential laymen in the Church of England,
also ˜surprisingly susceptible to female presence™.
SPRINGFIELD relates to a spring, as does the nearby Old
Spring public house, and perhaps Overstream House by the
river.
ST KILDA™S Avenue has at the corner with Campkin Road
the pub, ˜The Jenny Wren™. The island of St Kilda™s is known for
a distinctive type of wren, troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis.

139
©¤§ -®

STOCKWELL Street, HOPE Street and ARGYLE Street,
turnings o¬ Mill Road, have the same names as streets in the
centre of Glasgow, where Stockwell Street and Hope Street are
turnings o¬ the main thoroughfare, Argyle Street. [COCK-
BURN] Street, between Hope and Stockwell Street, is not the
name of any street in Glasgow, but Henry Cockburn was elected
Lord Rector of Glasgow University in 1831, and thus may have
been meant here.
WILLIAM SMITH (see below, p. 141) Close, very near the
above, but named much later, also relates to Glasgow.
STOTT is the name of the chief architect of the develop-
ment of an estate, who had recently retired when the street was
named.
SUN Street, parallel to Newmarket Road, borders the wood
market of Stourbridge Fair once held here, and records the name
of a pub now vanished.
SYMONDS Lane was named after Richard Symonds, or Jane
his daughter, or both. He was a carrier and cattle-dealer, who
lived in one of the cottages in 1864; she inherited the site from
him. The present houses were built in 1938 by Miles Burkitt to
help provide decent housing for village people.
THE CENACLE is named after the room in which the Last
Supper was held. (Leonardo™s painting of this event is Il
Cenacolo; ˜cena™ means ˜meal™. Answering objections, the
developer said that the site was formerly the property of nearby
St Mark™s Church, and its shape, size and enclosed nature were
appropriate.
According to a reliable account, when Councillors were not
able to agree on a name, one of them produced his stapler,
VELOS brand, said ˜call it that™, and they agreed.
The WELLBROOK Laundry, established on the Cambridge

140
The twentieth century: others

Road, Girton, c. 1895 to serve Girton College, was still open in
the 1980s.
WILDERSPIN is the name of a family who lived in the area
of the street so-named until recent times.
In 1883 Sir WILLIAM SMITH founded the Boys™ Brigade in
Glasgow, in an attempt to improve the lot of local boys who
were turning into criminals. Until recently the Brigade, attached
to ST BARNABAS Church, used to parade through the streets
with pipes and drums and wearing their ˜pillbox™ hats. The street
was named after the founder in the centenary year at the request
of the Brigade.




141
Plan of street locations
Streets in the Index are shown with a grid reference to the
He¬ers/Ordnance Survey map of 1995. The same grid is used on
this map, so that anyone using a di¬erent map can locate the area in
which a street is situated and thence pinpoint it exactly.
Index of streets


The map references refer to the Ordnance Survey map of Cambridge
published in 1995 in association with He¬ers. No streets later than this
are included, but a few which existed before and are not on that map
are mentioned. Streets marked with a dagger (†) have names which
can be found in gazetteers, but do not appear to have any notable
Cambridge connection, except that some are the names of villages to
which they lead. Others so marked are the names of houses, as well as
of places, and most have probably some connection with the family or
interests of a builder, developer, estate agent, given for a personal
reason. Some personal names which do have Cambridge connections
are of course also place-names.

Names that seem to need no explanation are marked with an asterisk
(*). Streets in clusters of names of animals (see Antelope), wild
¬‚owers (see Clover) or apples (see Bramley) are marked with a double
asterisk (**); those with names of stately homes, which are not in any
clusters (see Arundel), are marked with a double dagger (‡).


Abbey Road G5“G6 20, 87, 107 Airport Way K5 91, 131
Abbey Street G5 20, 87, 107 Akeman Street E6“E7 xix, 2
Abbey Walk G5 20, 87, 107 Albemarle Way F8 44
Abbots Close F8 x Albert Street F6 56, 58, 74
Acton Way E7 xiv, 73 Albion Row E6 2, 8, 42
Adam and Eve Street F5 86 Albion Yard E6 2, 8, 42
Adams Road D5 xiv, 48 Alex Wood Road F7 xiii, 123
Adrian Way xiv, 122 Allen Court E1 134
Ainsdale† J3 All Saints™ Passage E5 10, 107
Ainsworth Court G5 xiv, 33 Almoners™ Avenue H2 95
Ainsworth Place G5 xiv, 33 Alpha Road E6 135
Ainsworth Street G5 xiv, 33 Alpha Terrace E2 135


145
Index of streets

Alwyne Road H1 135 Barnwell Road H5“H6 xvii, 13,
Amwell Road† F8 21, 22, 24, 54, 57, 99
Ancaster Way H4 89 Barrow Close F3 38
Anglers Way H7 40 Barrow Road F2“F3 38
Angus Close G4 xvi Barton Close† D4 13
Anstey Way E1 xiii, 49, 119, 133 Barton Road† C4“E4 13
Antelope Way** K4 x Basset Close F8 47
Apollo Way F8 3 Bateman Street F4 xiii, xiv, 26, 27
Apthorpe Way G8 69, 119 Bateson Road E6 xiv, 83
Aragon Close F8 31, 34 Baycli¬e Close† H3
Arbury Road E8“F7 1, 87 Bayford Place† F8
Archway Court D4 93 Beacons¬eld Terrace 60
Arden Road† F8 Beales Way G8 65, 66, 68, 69,
Argyle Street G4 140 102, 103, 119
Arran Close† J3 Beaumont Crescent H2 xiv, 34, 46
Arundel Close‡ E7 ix Beaumont Road H2 xiv, 34, 46
Ascham Road F6 xiv, 34, 36 Beche Road G5“G6 10, 21
Ashbury Close† G3 Belgrave Road† H4 10
Ashvale† E8“F8 Belmont Place† F5
Atherton Close† F6 Belvoir Road‡ F6
Atkins Close G8 119 Bene™t Street E5 xvii, 107
Auckland Road F5 64, 69 Benians Court D6 xiv, 136
Augers Road J3 xix Benson Place E6 119
Augustus Close F8 3 Benson Street E6 119
Aylestone Road F6 xv Bentinck Street F4 xv, 58
Bentley Road F3 xiv, 48
Babraham Road† J1“H2 Bergholt Close J6 xv
Bachelors™ Walk E5 135 Bermuda Road E6 ix, 67
Badminton Close‡ E7 Bermuda Terrace E6 ix, 67
Bailey Mews F5 69, 103 Beverley Way† E2
Bakery Close J7 91 Biggin Lane J8“K8 91
Baldock Way G3 135 Birdwood Road H3“H4 xiv, 127
Bancroft Close G3 xiii, 35 Bishop™s Court E1 100, 129
Bandon Road† C7 Bishop™s Road E1 100, 129
Ban¬ Close F8 x, 136 Blackhall Road† E8
Banhams Close F6 93, 132 Blackthorne Close† F7
Barnes Close H5“J5 23 Blanford Walk† E7
Barnwell Drive J5 xvii, 13, 21, Blenheim Close‡ J3 xi
22, 24, 57 Blinco Grove G3 89, 131


146
Index of streets

Bliss Way K3 125 Bu¬alo Way** K4 x
Blossom Street G5 55 Bullen Close H3 118
Borrowdale† E7 Bulstrode Gardens D5“D6 xv
Botolph Lane E5 ix, 13, 107 Burleigh Place F5 xv, 55, 63, 66,
Bourne Road H7 22 101, 114, 118
Bowers Croft H2 18 Burleigh Street F5 xv, 55, 63, 66,
Brackley Close E7“F7 111 101, 114, 118
Brackyn Road G4 99 Burnham Close† K3
Bradbrushe Fields C6 16 Burnside H4 91, 130
Bradmore Lane F5 xvii, 15 Burnt Close D2 136
Bradmore Street F5 xvii, 15 Burrell™s Walk E5 90
Bradwells Court F5 90 Butler Way E7 105
Bramley Court** G7 Byron Square E1 xiv, 80, 97
Brampton Road G5“H5 40
Brandon Place F5 86 Caledon Way F8 136
Brentwood Close J6 xv Callander Close F8 x, 136
Bridewell Road K3 24, 62 Cambridge northern
Bridge Street E5 3, 9 bypass A7“F8 4, 14
Brierley Walk† E8 Cambridge Place F4 4, 14
Brimley Road E7“F7 104 Cambridge Road (Cherry
Britannic Way J4 134 Hinton) K3 4, 14
Britten Place H4 124 Cambridge Road (Coton)
Broad Street* F5“G5 136 A6“B5 4, 14
Broadway D2“D3 93 Cambridge Road (Girton) C8 4, 14
Brook¬eld Road A5 91 Cambridge Road E8 4, 14
Brook¬elds H4 91 Cambridge western bypass
Brooklands Avenue F3“F4 91, 102 A8“B4 4, 14
Brook Lane B5 91 Cam Causeway G7“H7 91
Brookside F4 67, 91 Camden Court F5 37, 53
Brookside Lane F4 67, 91 Cameron Road F8 136
Brooks Road H4“H5 xiv, 91 Campkin Road F7“G8 xv, 104
Brownlow Road† E7 Camside G6 4, 91
Broxbourne Close† K4 Canterbury Close E6 ix
Brunswick Gardens F5 xv, 57 Canterbury Street E6 ix
Brunswick Terrace F5 xv, 57 Capstan Close G6 93
Brunswick Walk F5 xv, 57 Capuchin Court**
Buchan Street F8 136 Caribou Way** K4
Buckingham Road E6 xiv, 30 Carisbrooke Road ‡E7
Budleigh Close† H4 Carlton Way E7“F7 3


147
Index of streets

Carlyle Road E6 72 Church Lane (Girton)* C8
Caroline Place F5 xv, 57 Church Lane (Trumpington)*
Castle Row E6 xvii, 1, 3, 8, 20 E1“E2
Castle Street E6 xvii, 1, 3, 8, 20 Church Rate Walk E4 136
Catharine Street G4“G5 89 Church Road* K5
Causeway Passage F5 91 Church Street* G6
Cavendish Avenue G3“H3 xiv, 48, Church Street (Fen Ditton)* J7
79, 89, 116, 121 Claremont‡ F4
Cavendish Road G4“G5 xiv, 48, Clarendon Road F3“F4 112
79, 89, 116, 121 Clarendon Street F5 xiv, xv, 58
Cavesson Court E7 136 Clare Road E4 26
Chalfont Close† J3 Clare Street E6 2
Chalk Grove H2 131 Clarkson Close D5 xiv
Chalmers Road H3 xiv Clarkson Road D5“E5 xiv
Champneys Walk E4 84 Clerk Maxwell Road D5 xiv, 79
Chapel Street G6 92 Clifton Road† G3
Charles Street G4 89 Cliveden Close‡ E7 ix
Chatsworth Avenue‡ E7 Clover Court** K3 x
Chaucer Close F3 13, 77 Cobble Yard* F5
Chaucer Road E4“F3 13, 77 Cockburn Street G4 140
Cheddars Lane G6 17 Cockcroft Place D5 xiii, xiv, 123
Chedworth Street E4 xiii, 28 Cockerell Road E7 84
Chelwood Road† J3 Coggeshall Close J6 xv
Cherry Hinton Road† Coldham™s Grove H5 19
(Cambridge) G3“J3 Coldham™s Lane G5“J4 19
Cherry Hinton Road (Church Coldham™s Road G5“G6 19
End)† K4 Coleridge Road G3“G4 xiii, 42,
Cherry Hinton Road† H1“J1 46, 52, 55, 75, 101
Chester¬eld Road G7 xiv, 50, 134 Collier Road F5“G5 xiii, 42, 62
Chesterton Hall Crescent F6 2 Coltsfoot Close** K3 x
Chesterton Lane E6 2 Colwyn Close E7 90
Chesterton Road E6“G6 2 Comfrey Court** K3
Chestnut Grove* F6 Conduit Head Road C6 16
Chigwell Court J6 xv Coniston Road† G3
Christchurch Street F5 64, 93, 107 Conway Close‡ J3
Christ™s Lane F5 30 Corfe Close G3 89
Church End* J4“K4 Corn Exchange Street E5“F5 11,
Church End (Coton)* A5 68, 92


148
Index of streets

Coronation Mews F4 xv, 57, 58, 69 Devonshire Road G4 116
Coronation Street F4 xv, 57, 58, 69 Diamond Close F3 xiv, 39
Corrie Road G4 xiii, 81 Ditchburn Place G4 63
Coton Road† D2 Ditton Fields H6 7
Courtney Way F6“F7 xiv, 122, 134 Ditton Lane J6“J7 7
Covent Garden F4“F5 13, 86, 138 Ditton Walk H6 7
Cowley Park G8 130 Doggett Road J3 76, 106
Cowley Road G8“H8 130 Dover Street F5 113
Cranleigh Close† E1 Dowding Way E7 117, 126
Cranmer Road D5 xiii, 32, 33 Downham™s Lane G7 129
Crathern Way (Crathorne?†) Downing Place F5 12, 31, 114, 138
F8 Downing Street F5 12, 31, 114, 138
Craven Close E1 113 Drayton Close K3 119
Crome Ditch Close D2 136 Drayton Road J3“K3 119
Cromwell Road G5 x, xiv, 44, 112 Drosier Road F4 xiii, 97
Cross Hill E2 137 Drummer Street F5 ii
Crowland Way F8 30 Duck End* B8“C8
Cunningham Close F7 126 Dudley Road H6“J6 110
Cutter Ferry Close G6 92, 132 Dundee Close G7 xv, 130
Cutter Ferry Lane F6 92, 132 Dunsmore Close† J6
Cutter Ferry Path F6“G6 92, 132 Durnford Way F7 xiv, 104
Cyprus Road H4 64
Eachard Road D7 xiv, 53
Dalton Square G7 xiv, 104 Earl Street F5 xv, 58
Danesbury Court† H5 East¬eld G7 137
Darwin Drive E7 xiii, 31, 56, 75, East Road F5“G5 34, 70, 71, 86, 91
76, 103, 106, 122 Eaton Close† G7
David Street G4 89 Edendale Close H3 137
Davy Road G4 xiii, 74 Eden Place F5 86
Daws Close J3 93, 119 Eden Street F5 86
Daws Lane J3 93, 119 Eden Street Backway F5 86
De Freville Avenue F6 14, 65, 129 Edinburgh Road G7 xv, 130
Dean Drive G2 107 Edwinstowe Close F4 78
Denis Wilson Court F2 137 Egerton Close H6“J6 111
Derby Road G3 59 Egerton Road J6 111
Derby Street E4 59 Ekin Road H6“J6 69, 102
Derwent Close† H3 Eland Way** K4
Desmond Avenue J3 133 El¬‚eda Road H6 xvii, 7


149
Index of streets

Elizabeth Way F7“G5 121 Fitzwilliam Street E4“F4 116, 121
Ellesmere Road E7“F7 111 Flamsteed Road G3 xiii, 40, 47
Elm Street F5 86 Fletcher™s Terrace G4 99
Elsworth Place† G3 Flower Street G5 54
Eltisley Avenue E4 xiv, 27, 117 Fordwich Close E7 112
Emery Road G5 xiii, 82 Forest Road† J3
Emery Street G4“G5 xiii, 82 Fortescue Road F7 4
Emmanuel Road F5 30, 86 Foster Road E1“F2 102, 119, 133
Emmanuel Street F5 30, 86 Four Lamps F5 93
Ennisdale Close F8 130 Francis Darwin Court xiii, 31, 76
Enniskillen Road G7 130 Francis Passage F4 41, 102,
Erasmus Close E7 xiv, 31 114, 128
Essex Close F7 10, 83 Frank™s Lane G7“H7 46, 119
Evergreens* G7 Fraser Road G7 xiv, 134
Exeter Close† E1 Free School Lane E5 11, 35, 92
French™s Road E6 xvii, 130
Fairbairn Road H7 xiii, 88 Fulbourn Old Drift† K3“K4
Fair Court F5 92 Fulbourn Road† J3“K3
Fairfax Road G5“H5 x, xiv, xvi, 44 Fulbrooke Road D4 93
Fair Street F5 8, 17, 92
Fallow¬eld G7“H7 131, 137 Gainsborough Close† G7“G8
Fanshawe Road G3 xiii, 46 Galfrid Road H5 21
Felton Street G4 132 Garlic Row G6 17
Fendon Close G2 96 Garret Hostel Lane E5 12
Fendon Road G2“H2 96 Garry Drive G8 90
Fen Road* H7“J7 Gayton Close† E2
Ferrars Way E7 xiii, 37 Gazeley Road† E2 137
Ferry Lane G6 92 Gazelle Way** K4
Ferry Path F6 92 Geldart Street G5 xiv, 82
Field Lane* J7“J8 George Pateman Court F4 137
Field Way* H2 George Street F6 89
Finch Road E7 xiii, 67, 100, George IV Street F4 xv, 57
102, 112 Gerard Road H5“H6 21
Fisher Street E6 102 Gi¬ord Place E5 100
Fison Road J6 128 Gilbert Close E7 xiv, 38
Fitzroy Lane F5 56 Gilbert Road E7“F6 xiv, 38
Fitzroy Street F5“G5 56 Girton Road C7“C8 122
Fitzwilliam Road F3 116 Gisborne Road G3“H4 xiv, 91


150
Index of streets

Gladstone Way J3 61 Guest Road F5 xiii, 62, 74
Glebe Road G2“H3 129 Guildhall Place E5 12, 92
Glisson Road F4 xiii, 38 Guildhall Street E5 12, 92
Gloucester Street† E6 Gunhild Close H3 6
Godesdone Road G5“G6 xviii, Gunhild Court H3 6
5, 20 Gunhild Way H3 6
Godwin Close H2“H3 6 Gunning Way E7 41
Godwin Way H2“H3 6 Gurney Way F6 xiv, 119, 134
Golding Road G3“H4 36, 99 Gwydir Street G4“G5 54, 69, 90
Gonville Place F4“F5 xiii, 18,
26, 27 Hale Avenue E6 2, 83
Gough Way D4“D5 xiii, 53 Hale Street E6 2, 83
Grafton Street F5 56, 86 Halifax Road D6“E6 ix
Grange Drive C8 92 Hall Farm Road E7 xvii, 92, 130
Grange Road D4“E6 xiii, xvii, 92 Harcombe Road† J3
Granham™s Road G1“H1 14 Harding Way E7 117
Granta Place E4“E5 69 Hardwick Street E4 58, 115, 119
Grantchester Meadows† E4 Harebell Close** K3
Grantchester Road† D3“D4 Harris Road E7 103, 117, 126
Grantchester Road (Coton)† Hartington Grove G3 89, 96
B4“B5 Harvest Way G5 71
Grantchester Road Harvey Goodwin Avenue E6 2, 81
(Trumpington)† D2“E1 Harvey Road F4 xiii, 38
Grantchester Street† E4 Hatherdene Close† J4
Grassmere Gardens† E6 Hauxton Road† E1
Grayling Close G6 xvi, 40 Haviland Way F7 xiv, 54, 119
Gray Road H3 xiv Hawkins Road F8“G8 105
Great Eastern Street G4 61 Hawthorn Way* F6
Green End J7“J8 19 Haymarket Road E6 8
Green Park G7“G8 19, 137 Hazelwood Close* E7“E8
Green End Road G7 19 Headford Close† H6
Green™s Road F6 19, 119, 131 Headington Drive† J3
Green Street E5 19, 43, 99 Heath House G7 131
Gresham Road F4 xiii, 35 Hedgerley Close D6 xv
Greville Road G4 xiii, 36 Hemingford Road G4“H4 91

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