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by Bush Administration, 63 diffusion of, 260
problems created by, 369 domestic, 4
United Nation™s, 118 human rights, 3
National Consultative Council (NCC), humanitarian intervention, 38
104 international, 4, 27
National Council of East Timorese self-determination, 1
Resistance (CNRT), 104, 380 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
National Endowment for Democracy (NED), (NATO), 2, 28
63 air campaign of, 321
National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), arrests made by, 321
99, 157 Article 5 response by, 41
National Penitentiary (Haiti), 224 Germany and, 35
National Recovery Strategy (East Timor), ISAF expansion by, 162
383 Kosovar Albanians and, 325
National Security Council, 164 Kosovo and, 19, 27, 33, 50, 170, 195, 312
National Security Presidential Directive peacekeeping operations, 63
(NSPD) spoilers confronted by, 159
Directive 3, 366, 386, 388 suspects detained by, 321
National Security Strategy, 43, 44, 45 Yugoslavia and, 31
406 INDEX

North Korea, rule of law lacking in, 56 local involvement in, 379“384
NPFL. See National Patriotic Front of Liberia logic of, 382
NSPD. See National Security Presidential primary goal of, 154
Directive Security Council endorsement of, 351
termination of, 377
Oakley, Robert, 145 Peacebuilding Commission (U.N.), 351, 363,
O™Connor, Vivienne, 194 376, 386
Of¬ce of High Representative (Bosnia), 110, Peacebuilding Fund (U.N.), 364
111, 226“227 peacekeepers
Of¬ce of Reconstruction and Humanitarian neutrality of, 154
Assistance (ORHA), 365 of Pakistan, 157
Of¬ce of the Coordinator for Reconstruction women as, 344
and Stabilization, 366, 367 Penal Management Division (PMD), 5
Of¬ce of the U.N. High Commissioner for People™s Republic of China, 19, 23
Human Rights, 25, 197 Perito, Robert, 217
Of¬ce on Drugs and Crime (U.N.), 197, 221, perpetrators
225 accountability/justice for, 255
O™Neill, William, 203 de-legitimizing, 259
Open Society Institute , 334 Persian Gulf War (1991), 30, 38, 39, 46, 47
Operation Enduring Freedom, 43, 118 pledges
opium/heroin trade, 122, 161 following through on, 371
opportunity U.S. unful¬lled Iraq, 371“372
post-intervention window of, 145“147 PMD. See Penal Management Division
societal elements of, 139 police. See also civilian police; Haitian
order National Police; Scorpion police incident
government provision of, 137 abusive interrogation by, 203
military restoration of, 144 Afghanistan™s, 211, 213
winning war v. maintaining, 136 citizens and, 204
Organization for Security and Cooperation community-based system of, 179
in Europe (O.S.C.E.), 63, 348, 356, 360 corruption of, 203
Organization of African Unity, 25 discipline/oversight of, 213
Organization of American States (OAS), 25 of East Timor, 203, 211, 212
ORHA. See Of¬ce of Reconstruction and gender balance of, 210
Humanitarian Assistance of Haiti, 203, 211, 214
O.S.C.E. See Organization for Security and international, 214
Cooperation in Europe interveners and, 204
Ovcara trial (Serbia), 270 of Kosovo, 203
legitimacy challenges of, 207
Pakistan, 157 professionalism, 211“213
paralegals, role of, 339“340 promotion of, 213
Patrick, Stewart, 372 recruitment of, 213
PDD. See Presidential Decision Directive reforming/strengthening of, 204
peace societies™ relationship with, 204“205
adequate resources for, 367 of Somalia, 203
creating conditions for, 370 state reliance on, 147
political embrace of, 155 state™s relation with, 214“216
problems implementing, 374 supporting efforts of, 135
programs implementing, 348, 377 training, 211“213
sabotaging, 156 transformation of, 213
peace agreements, study of, 2 U.N. vetting of, 208
Peace Implementation Council, 110 UNMIK™s establishment of, 320
Peace of Westphalia, 21 police reform
peace operations, 145, 154 goals of, 205“207
ad hoc organization of, 353 post-con¬‚ict society, 203“214
evolution of, 154 policing
funding of, 374 community, 205“207
King™s College review of, 351 democratic, 205
407
INDEX

political bargains, 87 Ramboulllet Agreement, 112. See also
political blueprints, 85, 350 Interim Agreement for Peace and
political elites, 117, 139, 315 Self-Government in Kosovo
political parties, assistance/training to, Ramos-Horta, Jose, 281
201 rape, 168, 211
politics Raz, Joseph, 70
demilitarization of, 165 reconstruction
electoral, 87 blueprint for political, 85
identity, 106 of Liberia, 381
Iraq™s, 117 owning process of, 376
justice systems and predatory, 179 post-con¬‚ict, 3
Kosovo™s system of, 113 security as sine qua non of, 134
Liberia™s mercenary, 100 Reconstruction Trust Fund (Afghanistan),
poll 375
Afghanistan, 52, 325 reform
Time-ABC, 324 adaptive, 183
Ponte, Carla del, 270 Bosnia™s problems with, 227“228
Posner, Richard, 70 Brahimi Report™s call for, 357
post-con¬‚ict blueprints, 97, 141, justice system™s unbalanced, 217“218
348 law, 193“195
post-intervention societies NGOs and judicial, 226
“best practices,” 9 prison, 218“226
characteristics of, 9 rule of law, 16, 114, 253
chicken-egg problem in, 312 reform, adaptive, 183
creating rule of law in, 10 refugee(s)
reestablishing security in, 9 crisis, 36
Powell, Colin, 18, 45 rights of, 110
power sharing, 106“117 regimes, toppling totalitarian, 61
preemptive action doctrine, 43“46 Regulation 2000/64 (UNMIK), 276
Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) Regulation 24 (UNMIK), 317
PDD-56, 364 Regulation 26 (UNMIK), 322
priorities Regulation One (UNMIK), 317, 318, 319
international v. national, 15 Report on The Rule of Law and Transitional
prison reform, 218“226 Justice in Con¬‚ict and Post-con¬‚ict
rules/training/accountability, 221“222 Societies (2004), 193
prison(s) The Reports of the Death of Article 2(4) Are
Afghanistan™s neglected, 225 Greatly Exaggerated (Henkin), 23
of East Timor, 221, 223, 224 Republika Sprska, 108“110, 228, 266
of Haiti, 224“225 Resident Coordinator (U.N.), 359
justice system and, 222“223 Revolutionary United Front (RUF), 158
of Kosovo, 223 amnesty given to, 158, 251
neglect of, 218 coup staged by, 158
oversight of, 222 disarmament refusal, 169
reform of, 218“226 Guinea v., 159
resources needed by, 222 Sierra Leone and, 169
UNMIK™s establishment of, 320 trials involving, 289
proportionality, winner-take-all v., 108 Rice, Condoleezza, 45
Provisional Reconstruction Teams (PRTs), rights
121 minority, 75, 106“117
PRTs. See Provisional Reconstruction Teams women™s, 75
public order, maintenance of, 150 Rio Pact, 41
ripple effects
The Question of Intervention: Statements by accountability, 260
the Secretary General (Annan), 37 Sierra Leone, 297
Rome Agreement, 266
racism, 75 Rome Statute of International Criminal
Radio Rwanda, 272 Court, 305
408 INDEX

Roosevelt, Eleanor, 25 post-con¬‚ict efforts for rebuilding, 9, 10
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 22 post-con¬‚ict societies and, 78
RUF. See Revolutionary United Front practitioners of, 314
rule of law, 4“5 programs, 189
absence of, 59“60 protection as goal of, 193
accountability and, 186, 258“261 reforms, 16, 114, 186, 253
adaptive reform and, 183 requirements for, 72
Aristotelian precept regarding, 70 resources for, 190
belief in, 311 rhetorical commitments to, 60
blueprints, 11, 14 self, community, and, 312
building blocks for, 11, 12, 14, 16, 75, 178 shared cultural commitment to, 76
building house metaphor, 10“11 society™s recognition of, 310
capitalism and, 58 strengthening of, 187, 189
complexity of, 57, 78 substantive/maximist concept of, 70“72
conceptual elusiveness of, 386, 388 sustainability and, 186
countries lacking in, 56 synergistic approach to, 13, 58, 80“84,
cultural commitment to, 15, 78, 325 181“184
decisions regarding, 71 systemic issues, 14
de¬ned, 69, 72“73, 77“80, 324, 328 terrorism and, 59
economic growth and, 60 vagueness of, 56
education™s in¬‚uence on, 342 values underlying, 15
establishing complexity of, 347 violence and, 78
Fiss on, 59 virtues of, 314
¬ve separate ends of, 73 young people and, 344
formal accounts of, 72 rule of law assistance, 61, 75, 179
formal/minimalist concept of, 70, 75 cultural sensitivity issues and, 378
Great Britain and, 70 evaluating effectiveness of, 347
historicity, 72 legal education and, 185
human rights and, 59, 79, 186, 321 rule of law culture, 310
“I know it when I see it” de¬nition of, 73, building/sustaining, 341
80 creation of, 314
ICTY™s impact on, 265“268 fostering of, 327“340
impact of, 331, 334, 336, 343 intervener™s creation of, 311, 328
importance of, 57, 61 NGOs™ fostering of, 331
index, 354 nurturance of, 314, 330“332
institutional de¬nition, 325, 328 programs critical to, 329
international tribunals and, 263“274 as uncharted territory, 314
intervener™s promotion of, 312, 326“327 Rule of Law Focal Point Network (U.N.),
key elements of, 185 358
Kleinfeld on, 73, 181, 182 rule of law programs, 14, 61, 178
Kosovo and, 62, 322 ¬nding funds for, 370“376
Latin America™s restoration of, 62 lawyers and, 314
legal scholar™s de¬nition of, 72“73 rhetorical/¬nancial commitments to, 65
legitimacy and, 185 rule of law promotion, 14, 16, 58, 62
as long-term project, 79 aid providers interested in, 69
military interventions and, 7 expense of, 62
minorities and, 344 international enthusiasm for, 62
NGO™s in¬‚uence on, 342 lack of success, 353
nuances of, 389 in Latin America, 65
obstacles/threats to, 191 norm creation/cultural change and, 75
one size ¬ts all approach, 9, 188 private foundations and, 62
overlapping conceptions of, 71 stumbling efforts at, 327
paradoxes created by, 315 Rums¬eld, Donald, 57
people protected by, 13 Russell, Ruth, 23
planning/coordination efforts for, 350“356, Russia, 19, 23. See also Soviet Union
367 Chechnya military campaign of, 66
policymakers™ promotion of, 69, 325 corruption in, 66
409
INDEX

organized crime in, 65 interveners seeking resolutions from, 51
privatization in, 65 interventions authorized by, 30
rule of law success stories in, 65 nation-building by, 30
slow progress of, 347 Peacebuilding Commission, 351, 363, 376,
Rwanda. See also International Criminal 386
Tribunal for Rwanda peacekeepers deployed by, 101
genocide in, 32, 157, 271 Peacekeeping Commission of, 363
international tribunal and, 254, 263 peacekeeping mission of, 28
judiciary of, 273 peacekeeping transitions endorsed by, 351
political power vesting in, 87 permanent members of, 23
Radio, 272 Resolution 678, 49
reconciliation in, 273 Resolution 687, 46, 47
resource competition, 262 Resolution 836, 31, 63
rule of law promotion in, 62 Resolution 1244, 37, 113, 143“144, 155,
tribunals, 254, 263, 272 317, 359
Resolution 1272, 96, 103
Sankoh, Foday, 158, 292, 294 Resolution 1368, 40
Scalia, Antonin, 70 Resolution 1373, 41
Schmidl, Erwin, 153 Resolution 1441, 48, 108“110
Scorpion police incident (Serbia), 270 Resolution 1483, 64, 111
Scowcroft, Brent, 366 Resolution 1511, 113, 128
Secretary General (U.N.), 104 Response to September 11, 2001 by, 41
Peacebuilding Commission, 351, 363, 376, Secretariat™s relationship with, 369
386 Taliban regime™s de¬ance of, 42
Report on The Rule of Law and threats to peace de¬ned by, 23, 32
Transitional Justice in Con¬‚ict and self-defense, U.N. Charter Article 51 on, 22,
Post-con¬‚ict Societies (2004), 193 44
Security Council relationship with, 369 self-determination norms, 1
Special Representative of, 359, 360 September 11, 2, 5
security international community reaction to, 40
blueprints, 136 interventions after, 6
conditions for providing, 135“137 rule of law promotion and, 59
context of, 140“143 Security Council™s response to, 41
de¬ned, 141 U.S. response to, 40, 63, 118
economics of, 137 Serbia
enhancing military™s, 149“151 Albanians oppressed by, 317
forces, 135 capacity-building within, 269
gap, 147“153 ethnic cleansing campaign, 66, 316
government/participation pillars of, ICTY and, 266, 268“271
141“142 Kosovo withdrawal by, 112
international/national, 2, 59, 60, 134 Ovcara trial, 270
Iraq goals of, 163 returnees to, 114
justice/reconciliation pillars of, 141 Scorpion police unit incident, 270
local ownership of, 136 Special Court for Organized Crimes and
normalcy and, 142 War Crimes, 270
post-intervention demand for, 136 U.N. control in, 316
promoting, 136 Serbs
protections offered by, 141 Bosnian, 92, 109
short-term, 143“153 Kosovar, 112
as sine qua non, 134 Serious Crimes Unit (East Timor), 279, 280,
social/economic well-being pillars of, 142 283, 286, 288
understanding, 137“143 Sesay, Issa Hassan, 289
Security Council, 19, 22 settlement blueprints, 86
atrocities response to, 38 Shiites, 96, 125
authority to take action, 23“24 Sierra Leone, 2, 158“159
divisions within, 46, 47 Accountability Now Clubs, 297
Haiti and, 31 AFRC of, 289
410 INDEX

Sierra Leone (cont.) repressive/con¬‚ict-ridden, 3
amnesty given by, 251 rule of law recognized by, 310
Amputee Association, 294 transformation of, 189
army/police deployment, 169 troubled/transitional, 61
atrocities, 293 war-torn, 347
capacity-building in, 297“299 soldiers
CDF of, 289, 293 children as, 249
CGG of, 294 training of, 150
child soldiers of, 249 women as, 299
civil war in, 90, 289 Somalia, 135
courts established in, 354 collapse of state-authority in, 138
DDR and, 168, 169 non-effective government of, 139
democracy™s progress in, 98 peace operations termination, 377
dispute-resolution mechanisms in, 335 police of, 203
Doherty as judge in, 237 unexpected casualties/mounting costs in,
ECOWAS and, 33, 34, 102 368
Generic Guidelines for Strategic U.S. leaves, 139, 364
Frameworks applied in, 359 warlord challenge of, 156“157
Great Britain military in, 159 South Africa
hereditary chieftaincies restored in, 385 apartheid of, 334
human rights clinics, 334 constitution of, 96, 343
hybrid tribunals of, 274, 289“295, 301 interim Government of National Unity, 93
Soviet Union, 23
impunity cascade of, 261
abuse of power in, 61
international interventions in, 5, 16
collapse of, 61
judicial appointments in, 231
intervention by invitation, 28
NGOs of, 298
restoring rule of law in, 62
Open Society Institute, 334
U.S. confrontation with, 28
outreach in, 295“297
Spanish Guardia Civil, 150
Parliament, 292
Special Court for Sierra Leone, 254, 290,
patriarchal structures, 336
291, 292, 294, 298
peace agreement, 165
Special Court for Organized Crimes and War
peace operations termination, 377
Crimes (Serbia), 270
peacekeeping mission in, 67
Special Forces (U.S.), 151
progress in, 159, 170
Special Independent Commission for the
ripple effects within, 297
Convening of Emergency Loya Jirga,
RUF and, 169
120
rule of law promotion in, 62
Special Panels for Serious Crimes (East
Special Court, 254, 290, 291, 292, 294
Timor), 279, 282, 283, 288
Special Court Interactive Forum, 298
Special Representative of Secretary General
StopGaps program, 169
(SRSG), 104, 112, 360
Truth and Reconciliation Commission,
Special Tribunal for Crimes Against
189“190, 256, 299“301
Humanity (Iraq), 302“304
U.N. Integrated Of¬ce for, 170
Special War Crimes Chamber (Bosnia), 228
UNAMSIL and, 169
spoilers
war crime prosecutions, 256
Sistani, Ali, 129 assistance derailed by, 351
Six plus Two group, 118 Bosnia™s entrenched, 159“160
slavery, 75 confronting, 155
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 111 empowerment of, 390
society(ies). See also post-intervention interveners v., 155, 164
societies Iraq pursuit of, 162“165
building, 4 NATO confronts, 159
deeply divided, 106 types of, 164
opportunistic elements in, 139 warlords as, 154“172
police relationship with, 204“205 Sprska. See Republika Sprska
post-con¬‚ict/post-intervention, 76, 78, SRSG. See Special Representative of
203“214 Secretary General
411
INDEX

Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Afghanistan, 258
of Prisoners (U.N.), 221, 222 for atrocities, 250
Stanley Foundation Report, 358 in Iraq, 254
State Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 228 in Sierra Leone, 289
state(s) truth commissions and, 256
building of, 138 war crimes, 239, 266
European, 138 tribunals, international. See also hybrid
ineffective governing of, 138 tribunals
institutions, 83, 216“217 ¬nancing of, 265, 266
military reliance by, 147 rule of law and, 263“274
police reliance by, 147 Rwanda and, 254, 263, 272
war economy of, 139 shortcomings of, 264
Stewart, Potter, 56 Yugoslavia and, 263
truth commissions, 250
Summers, Robert, 72
of Bosnia, 254
Sunni Triangle, 163
of East Timor, 256
Sunnis, 52, 97, 125, 130, 220
legacy of, 263
Supreme Court (U.S.), 56, 70
of Sierra Leone, 256
synergism
trials v., 256
biological de¬nition of, 80
Tudjman, Franjo, 269
theological de¬nition of, 81

Uganda, Tanzania™s intervention in,
Taft, William H., 46
28
TAL. See Transitional Administrative Law
Ukraine, slow progress of, 347
Taliban regime, 5
U.N. See United Nations
of Afghanistan, 118
UNAMA. See United Nations Assistance
groups opposed to, 161
Mission in Afghanistan
Security Council de¬ed by, 42
UNAMSIL. See United Nations Mission for
U.S. pursuit of, 121
Sierra Leone
Tanham, George, 134
UNDP. See United Nations Development
Tanzania, 28
Programme
Taylor, Charles, 99, 157, 159, 292, 293
UNHCR. See United Nations High
insurgencies supported by, 158
Commissioner for Refugees
prosecution of, 292“294, 295
Uni¬ed Task Force (UNITAF I), 156, 157,
reign™s end for, 101
167
ruling style of, 100
UNITAF I. See Uni¬ed Task Force
terrorism/terrorists, 2, 40, 45
United Nations Assistance Mission in
al-Qaeda 42
Afghanistan (UNAMA), 225, 304
causes of, 3
United Nations Charter, 13, 19
rule of law and, 59
architects of, 22
Time-ABC poll, 324
Article 1(3), 24
Timor Leste. See East Timor
Article 2(4), 22
TNA. See Transitional National Assembly
Article 2(7), 24
Tolbert, David, 265, 269
Article 51, 22, 44
Transitional Administrative Law (TAL), 129
Article 53, 33
transitional justice, 141, 253. See also
Article 55, 24
accountability, 141
Chapter VII, 22, 30, 36, 40, 51
evolution of, 255
Chapter VIII, 22
trends, 256
con¬‚ict resolution and, 33
Transitional National Assembly (TNA), 130
¬‚exibility of, 23
TRC. See Truth and Reconciliation
fundamental principles of, 22
Commission
international legal framework of, 21
treaties. See also Abuja agreement
1945 adoption of, 44
ANZUS treaty, 41
non-intervention principle, 23
human rights, 25, 29
use of force and, 21“27
international, 79
United Nations Development Programme
multilateral, 25
(UNDP), 298
trials. See also criminal trials
412 INDEX

United Nations High Commissioner for Criminal Law and Judicial Advisory Unit,
Refugees (UNHCR), 360 358
United Nations Mission for Sierra Leone Democracy Fund, 63
(UNAMSIL), 158, 159, 169, 170 Democratic Republic of Congo and, 369
United Nations Mission in Kosovo Department of Peacekeeping, 357, 361
(UNMIK), 37, 197 Department of Political Affairs, 361
Chapter VII mandate, 171 Development Programme, 91, 92
damaged credibility of, 319 East Timor interventions by, 32, 63, 103
disarming combatants by, 171 Fund for Peacebuilding, 376
effective reintegration packages, 171 High Commissioner for Human Rights,
human rights protection by, 195“196 221
ICTY relationship with, 265 High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges,
institution-building by, 102 and Change, 362
international judges employed by, 384 Human Rights Commission, 278
judge deployment by, 238 human rights commitment of, 321
judicial dismissal regulations of, 235 hybrid tribunals supported by, 290
Kosovar Albanians/Kosovar Serbs Integrated Of¬ce for Sierra Leone, 170
reconciliation, 113 INTERFET authorized by, 192
Kosovar opinion of, 319 KCS of, 223
KPS supervision by, 208 Kosovo and, 63
police, prison, judicial systems established lead planning/coordination by, 357, 358
by, 320 nation-building and, 118
Regulation 24, 317 NATO and, 63
Regulation 26, 322 Of¬ce on Drugs and Crime, 197, 221, 225
Regulation 2000/64, 276 O.S.C.E. and, 63
Regulation One, 316, 319 Peacebuilding Commission, 351, 363, 376,
reversal by, 318 386
“standards before status,” 115 Peacebuilding Fund, 364
undermining of, 114 peacekeeping operations, 63
UNTAET™s advantage over, 105 PMD of, 223
United Nations Mission of Support in East police vetting by, 208
Timor (UNMISET), 279, 280 poor coordination efforts, 358
United Nations Operation in Somalia Report of the Subcommittee of, 24
(UNISOM I), 156 Resident Coordinator, 359
United Nations Operation in Somalia Rule of Law Focal Point Network, 358
(UNISOM II), 31, 157 salaries paid by, 283
United Nations Protection Force Secretary General, 104, 193, 359
(UNPROFOR), 31 Security Council, 85
United Nations Transitional Administration Serious Crimes Unit, 279
in East Timor (UNTAET), 32, 103, 197, Special Representatives of, 321
224, 339 Standard Minimum Rules for the
capacity-building of, 383 Treatment of Prisoners, 221, 222
criticism of, 103 Stanley Foundation Report on, 358
hybrid accountability system established suspects detained by, 321
by, 279 Transitional Administration, 371
judge/prosecutor appointments by, 238 Transitional Administration in East Timor,
organized elections, 104 379
strategic problems of, 361 United States Agency for International
Timorization process of, 104 Development (USAID), 62
UNMIK and, 105 United States Institute of Peace (USIP), 17,
World Bank and, 362 91, 92, 109, 197
United Nations (U.N.), 3. See also General United States (U.S.)
Assembly; Security Council 3 Afghanistan military intervention by, 2, 5,
arrests made by, 321 19, 42
Brahimi Report and, 152, 193 Afghanistan™s light footprint and, 118
Commission on Human Rights, 37 Al-Qaeda pursued by, 64, 118, 121
413
INDEX

Aristide™s restoration by, 140 victor™s justice, 293
Bosnia and, 89 Vietnam, 134
Coalition led by, 322, 323 Vincent, Robin, 291
courts/constitution of, 77 violence
CPA led by, 302 accountability and, 250
Defense Department, 151 Bosnia™s intergroup, 106
Department of State, 92 cultural understandings of, 77
Euro-Atlantic integration pursued by, 111 Kosovo police and, 211
General Accounting Of¬ce, 347, 351 rule of law and, 78
Geneva Conventions disregarded by, 323 women and, 168
Germany transformed by, 98
Iraq lessons of, 145“146 war crime(s). See also accountability
Iraq military intervention by, 2, 5, 6, 12 prosecutions, 256
Iraq War poor planning by, 364 trials, 239, 266
Iraq™s transitional government and, 126 War Crimes Chamber, 228, 239, 267“268
ISAF expansion by, 162 warlords
JAG of¬cers of, 323 Afghanistan™s, 8, 90, 121
Japan transformed by, 98 collaboration with, 12
military™s slow adjustments, 144 confronting recalcitrant, 156
Operation Enduring Freedom, 43, 118 ¬‚ourishing of, 139
policy debates, 5 non-strengthening of, 380
post-September 11 military interventions, as political partners, 159
63 Somalia™s challenge by, 156“157
pro-democratic interventions of, 28 as spoilers, 154“172
rule of law promotion expense, 62 war(s). See also civil war
self-defense legal right invoked by, 42 maintaining order v. winning, 136
September 11, 2001 response by, 40, 118 as state policy, 21
slavery/racism in, 75 on terror, 60
soldier deaths of, 389 weapons of mass destruction (WMD), 44, 50
Web site(s)
Somalia left by, 139, 364
Brookings Iraq Index, 52
Soviet Union confrontation with, 28
Carnegie Corporation Endowment for
Special Forces, 151
International Peace, 74
superpower status of, 7
CPA, 302
Taliban pursued by, 121
CTF, 284
Uphold Democracy launched by, 214
HRW, 67
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 79,
ICJ, 36
320
ICTR, 272
UNMIK. See United Nations Mission in
Institute of Peace (U.S.), 109
Kosovo
JSMP, 243“244
UNMISET. See United Nations Mission of
Lome Accord, 251
Support in East Timor
National Security Council, 164
UNOSOM I/II. See United Nations
National Security Strategy, 43
Operation in Somalia
Of¬ce of the U.N. High Commissioner for
UNPROFOR. See United Nations Protection
Human Rights, 25
Force
Operation Enduring Freedom, 43
UNTAET. See United Nations Transitional
West, Ronald, 212
Administration in East Timor
West Africa, 292
Uphold Democracy, 214
winner-take-all, proportionality v., 108
U.S. See United States
Wiranto, 280
USAID. See United States Agency for
WMD. See weapons of mass destruction
International Development
women. See also gender issues
Afghanistan denies rights of, 195
veto, mutual, 107
AI and, 245
victims
as commodity, 167
accountability and, 249
DDR and, 168
CAVR and, 288
414 INDEX

women (cont.) World War II, 140
NGOs™ aid to, 331 Written Answer for House of Commons
peacebuilding by, 344 (Blair), 36
as police, 210
protecting/empowering, 210“211, 344 Yale Law School, 59
rights of, 75 Yugoslavia. See also International Criminal
as soldiers, 299 Tribunal for Yugoslavia
violence to, 168 Bosnia as mini-, 106
World Bank, 58 greater openness in, 318
Con¬‚ict Prevention and Reconstruction international tribunal for, 254,
Unit, 373 263
economic mandate of, 373 NATO and, 31
rule of law index, 354 political change within, 160
Watching Briefs, 353 Socialist Federal Republic of, 111

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