<< стр. 3(всего 5)СОДЕРЖАНИЕ >>
в€‚f в€‚g в€‚f в€‚g
{f, g} = в€’ .
в€‚xi в€‚yi в€‚yi в€‚xi
i=1

в™¦

4.4 Integrable Systems
Deп¬Ѓnition 4.7 A hamiltonian system is a triple (M, П‰, H), where (M, П‰) is
a symplectic manifold and H в€€ C в€ћ (M ; R) is a function, called the hamiltonian
function.

Theorem 4.8 We have {f, H} = 0 if and only if f is constant along integral
curves of XH .

Proof. Let ПЃt be the п¬‚ow of XH . Then
d
= ПЃв€— LXH f = ПЃв€— Д±XH df = ПЃв€— Д±XH Д±Xf П‰
в—¦ ПЃt )
dt (f t t t
в€— в€—
= ПЃt П‰(Xf , XH ) = ПЃt {f, H} = 0 .

A function f as in Theorem 4.8 is called an integral of motion (or a п¬Ѓrst
integral or a constant of motion). In general, hamiltonian systems do not admit
integrals of motion which are independent of the hamiltonian function. Functions
f1 , . . . , fn on M are said to be independent if their diп¬Ђerentials (df1 )p , . . . , (dfn )p
are linearly independent at all points p in some open dense subset of M . Loosely
speaking, a hamiltonian system is (completely) integrable if it has as many commut-
ing integrals of motion as possible. Commutativity is with respect to the Poisson
bracket. Notice that, if f1 , . . . , fn are commuting integrals of motion for a hamil-
tonian system (M, П‰, H), then, at each p в€€ M , their hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds
generate an isotropic subspace of Tp M :

П‰(Xfi , Xfj ) = {fi , fj } = 0 .

If f1 , . . . , fn are independent at p, then, by symplectic linear algebra, n can be at
most half the dimension of M .
54 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

Deп¬Ѓnition 4.9 A hamiltonian system (M, П‰, H) is (completely) integrable
if it possesses n = 1 dim M independent integrals of motion, f1 = H, f2 , . . . , fn ,
2
which are pairwise in involution with respect to the Poisson bracket, i.e., {f i , fj } =
0, for all i, j.

Examples.

1. The simple pendulum (discussed in the next section) and the harmonic oscil-
lator are trivially integrable systems вЂ“ any 2-dimensional hamiltonian system
(where the set of non-п¬Ѓxed points is dense) is integrable.

2. A hamiltonian system (M, П‰, H) where M is 4-dimensional is integrable if
there is an integral of motion independent of H (the commutativity condi-
tion is automatically satisп¬Ѓed). The next section shows that the spherical
pendulum is integrable.

в™¦
For sophisticated examples of integrable systems, see [9, 28].
Let (M, П‰, H) be an integrable system of dimension 2n with integrals of
motion f1 = H, f2 , . . . , fn . Let c в€€ Rn be a regular value of f := (f1 , . . . , fn ).
The corresponding level set, f в€’1 (c), is a lagrangian submanifold, because it is
n-dimensional and its tangent bundle is isotropic.

Proposition 4.10 If the hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds Xf1 , . . . , Xfn are complete on
the level f в€’1 (c), then the connected components of f в€’1 (c) are homogeneous spaces
for Rn , i.e., are of the form Rnв€’k Г— Tk for some k, 0 в‰¤ k в‰¤ n, where Tk is a
k-dimensional torus.

Proof. Exercise (just follow the п¬‚ows).
Any compact component of f в€’1 (c) must hence be a torus. These components,
when they exist, are called Liouville tori. (The easiest way to ensure that compact
components exist is to have one of the fi вЂ™s proper.)

Theorem 4.11 (Arnold-Liouville ) Let (M, П‰, H) be an integrable system
of dimension 2n with integrals of motion f1 = H, f2 , . . . , fn . Let c в€€ Rn be a
regular value of f := (f1 , . . . , fn ). The corresponding level f в€’1 (c) is a lagrangian
submanifold of M .

(a) If the п¬‚ows of Xf1 , . . . , Xfn starting at a point p в€€ f в€’1 (c) are complete, then
the connected component of f в€’1 (c) containing p is a homogeneous space for
Rn . With respect to this aп¬ѓne structure, that component has coordinates
П•1 , . . . , П•n , known as angle coordinates, in which the п¬‚ows of the vector
п¬Ѓelds Xf1 , . . . , Xfn are linear.
55
4.5. PENDULUMS

(b) There are coordinates П€1 , . . . , П€n , known as action coordinates, comple-
mentary to the angle coordinates such that the П€i вЂ™s are integrals of motion
and П•1 , . . . , П•n , П€1 , . . . , П€n form a Darboux chart.
Therefore, the dynamics of an integrable system is extremely simple and the
system has an explicit solution in action-angle coordinates. The proof of part (a)
вЂ“ the easy part вЂ“ of the Arnold-Liouville theorem is sketched above. For the proof
of part (b), see [3, 17].
Geometrically, part (a) of the Arnold-Liouville theorem says that, in a neigh-
borhood of the value c, the map f : M в†’ Rn collecting the given integrals of
motion is a lagrangian п¬Ѓbration, i.e., it is locally trivial and its п¬Ѓbers are la-
grangian submanifolds. The coordinates along the п¬Ѓbers are the angle coordinates. 2
Part (b) of the theorem guarantees the existence of coordinates on Rn , the action
coordinates, which satisfy {П•i , П€j } = Оґij with respect to the angle coordinates. No-
tice that, in general, the action coordinates are not the given integrals of motion
because П•1 , . . . , П•n , f1 , . . . , fn do not form a Darboux chart.

4.5 Pendulums
The simple pendulum is a mechanical system consisting of a massless rigid rod
of length , п¬Ѓxed at one end, whereas the other end has a plumb bob of mass m,
which may oscillate in the vertical plane. We assume that the force of gravity is
constant pointing vertically downwards, and that this is the only external force
acting on this one-particle system.
Let Оё be the oriented angle between the rod (regarded as a point mass) and
the vertical direction. Let Оѕ be the coordinate along the п¬Ѓbers of T в€— S 1 induced by
the standard angle coordinate on S 1 . Then the function H : T в€— S 1 в†’ R given by
Оѕ2
+ m (1 в€’ cos Оё) ,
H(Оё, Оѕ) =
2m 2
V
K

is an appropriate hamiltonian function to describe the spherical pendulum. More
precisely, gravity corresponds to the potential energy V (Оё) = m (1 в€’ cos Оё) (we
1
omit universal constants), and the kinetic energy is given by K(Оё, Оѕ) = 2m 2 Оѕ 2 .
For simplicity, we assume that m = = 1.

Exercise 20
Show that there exists a number c such that for 0 < h < c the level curve
H = h in the (Оё, Оѕ) plane is a disjoint union of closed curves. Show that the
projection of each of these curves onto the Оё-axis is an interval of length less
than ПЂ.
Show that neither of these assertions is true if h > c.
What types of motion are described by these two types of curves?
What about the case H = c?
2 The name вЂњangle coordinatesвЂќ is used even if the п¬Ѓbers are not tori.
56 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

Modulo 2ПЂ in Оё, the function H has exactly two critical points: a critical
point s where H vanishes, and a critical point u where H equals c. These points
are called the stable and unstable points of H, respectively. This terminology is
justiп¬Ѓed by the fact that a trajectory of the hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓeld of H whose
initial point is close to s stays close to s forever, whereas this is not the case for
u. (What is happening physically?)
The spherical pendulum is a mechanical system consisting of a massless
rigid rod of length , п¬Ѓxed at one end, whereas the other end has a plumb bob
of mass m, which may oscillate freely in all directions. We assume that the force
of gravity is constant pointing vertically downwards, and that this is the only
external force acting on this one-particle system.
Let П•, Оё (0 < П• < ПЂ, 0 < Оё < 2ПЂ) be spherical coordinates for the bob. For
simplicity we take m = = 1.
Let О·, Оѕ be the coordinates along the п¬Ѓbers of T в€— S 2 induced by the spheri-
cal coordinates П•, Оё on S 2 . An appropriate hamiltonian function to describe the
spherical pendulum is H : T в€— S 2 в†’ R given by

Оѕ2
1 2
H(П•, Оё, О·, Оѕ) = О·+ + cos П• .
(sin П•)2
2

On S 2 , the function H has exactly two critical points: s (where H has a
minimum) and u. These points are called the stable and unstable points of H,
respectively. A trajectory whose initial point is close to s stays close to s forever,
whereas this is not the case for u.
The group of rotations about the vertical axis is a group of symmetries of the
spherical pendulum. In the coordinates above, the integral of motion associated
with these symmetries is the function

J(П•, Оё, О·, Оѕ) = Оѕ .

Exercise 21
Give a more coordinate-independent description of J, one that makes sense
also on the cotangent п¬Ѓbers above the North and South poles.

We will locate all points p в€€ T в€— S 2 where dHp and dJp are linearly dependent:
вЂў Clearly, the two critical points s and u belong to this set. These are the only
two points where dHp = dJp = 0.
вЂў If x в€€ S 2 is in the southern hemisphere (x3 < 0), then there exist exactly
two points, p+ = (x, О·, Оѕ) and pв€’ = (x, в€’О·, в€’Оѕ), in the cotangent п¬Ѓber above
x where dHp and dJp are linearly dependent.
вЂў Since dHp and dJp are linearly dependent along the trajectory of the hamil-
tonian vector п¬Ѓeld of H through p+ , this trajectory is also a trajectory of the
57
4.6. SYMPLECTIC AND HAMILTONIAN ACTIONS

hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓeld of J, and, hence, that its projection onto S 2 is a lat-
itudinal circle (of the form x3 = constant). The projection of the trajectory
through pв€’ is the same latitudinal circle traced in the opposite direction.

One can check that any nonzero value j is a regular value of J, and that S 1
acts freely on the level set J = j.

Exercise 22
What happens on the cotangent п¬Ѓbers above the North and South poles?

The integral curves of the original system on the level set J = j can be
obtained from those of the reduced system by вЂњquadratureвЂќ, in other words, by a
simple integration.
The reduced system for j = 0 has exactly one equilibrium point. The corre-
sponding relative equilibrium for the original system is one of the horizontal curves
from above.
The energy-momentum map is the map (H, J) : T в€— S 2 в†’ R2 . If j = 0, the
level set (H, J) = (h, j) of the energy-momentum map is either a circle (in which
case it is one of the horizontal curves above), or a two-torus. The projection onto
the conп¬Ѓguration space of the two-torus is an annular region on S 2 .

4.6 Symplectic and Hamiltonian Actions

Let (M, П‰) be a symplectic manifold, and G a Lie group. Let П€ : G в€’в†’ Diп¬Ђ(M )
be a (smooth) action.

Deп¬Ѓnition 4.12 The action П€ is a symplectic action if

П€ : G в€’в†’ Sympl(M, П‰) вЉ‚ Diп¬Ђ(M ) ,

i.e., G acts by symplectomorphisms.

In particular, symplectic actions of R on (M, П‰) are in one-to-one correspon-
dence with complete symplectic vector п¬Ѓelds on M .
Examples.

1. On R2n with П‰ = в€‚
dxi в€§ dyi , let X = в€’ в€‚y1 . The orbits of the action
generated by X are lines parallel to the y1 -axis,

{(x1 , y1 в€’ t, x2 , y2 , . . . , xn , yn ) | t в€€ R} .

Since X = Xx1 is hamiltonian (with hamiltonian function H = x1 ), this is
actually an example of a hamiltonian action of R.
58 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

2. On the symplectic 2-torus (T2 , dОё1 в€§ dОё2 ), the one-parameter groups of dif-
feomorphisms given by rotation around each circle, П€1,t (Оё1 , Оё2 ) = (Оё1 + t, Оё2 )
(t в€€ R) and П€2,t similarly deп¬Ѓned, are symplectic actions of S 1 .
3. On the symplectic 2-sphere (S 2 , dОё в€§ dh) in cylindrical coordinates, the one-
parameter group of diп¬Ђeomorphisms given by rotation around the verti-
cal axis, П€t (Оё, h) = (Оё + t, h) (t в€€ R) is a symplectic action of the group
S1 R/ 2ПЂ , as it preserves the area form dОё в€§ dh. Since the vector п¬Ѓeld
corresponding to П€ is hamiltonian (with hamiltonian function H = h), this
is an example of a hamiltonian action of S 1 .
в™¦

Deп¬Ѓnition 4.13 A symplectic action П€ of S 1 or R on (M, П‰) is hamiltonian if
the vector п¬Ѓeld generated by П€ is hamiltonian. Equivalently, an action П€ of S 1 or
R on (M, П‰) is hamiltonian if there is H : M в†’ R with dH = Д±X П‰, where X is
the vector п¬Ѓeld generated by П€.

What is a вЂњhamiltonian actionвЂќ of an arbitrary Lie group?
For the case where G = Tn = S 1 Г— . . . Г— S 1 is an n-torus, an action П€ : G в†’
Sympl(M, П‰) should be called hamiltonian when each restriction

: S 1 в€’в†’ Sympl(M, П‰)
П€ i := П€|ith S 1 factor

is hamiltonian in the previous sense with hamiltonian function preserved by the
action of the rest of G.
When G is not a product of S 1 вЂ™s or RвЂ™s, the solution is to use an upgraded
hamiltonian function, known as a moment map. Up to an additive constant, a
moment map Вµ is determined by coordinate functions Вµi satisfying dВµi = Д±Xi П‰ for
a basis Xi of the Lie algebra of G. There are various ways to п¬Ѓx that constant,
and we can always choose Вµ equivariant, i.e., intertwining the action of G on M
with the coadjoint action of G on the dual of the Lie algebra (see Appendix B),
as deп¬Ѓned in the next section.

4.7 Moment Maps
Let
(M, П‰) be a symplectic manifold,
G a Lie group, and
П€ : G в†’ Sympl(M, П‰) a symplectic action, i.e., a group homomorphism such
that the evaluation map evП€ (g, p) := П€g (p) is smooth.
59
4.7. MOMENT MAPS

Case G = R:
We have the following bijective correspondence:

{symplectic actions of R on M } в†ђв†’ {complete symplectic vector п¬Ѓelds on M }

dП€t (p)
в€’в†’
П€ Xp = dt

в†ђв€’
П€ = exp tX X

вЂњп¬‚ow of XвЂќ вЂњvector п¬Ѓeld generated by П€вЂќ

The action П€ is hamiltonian if there exists a function H : M в†’ R such that
dH = Д±X П‰ where X is the vector п¬Ѓeld on M generated by П€.
Case G = S 1 :
An action of S 1 is an action of R which is 2ПЂ-periodic: П€2ПЂ = П€0 . The S 1 -
action is called hamiltonian if the underlying R-action is hamiltonian.
General case:
Let

(M, П‰) be a symplectic manifold,
G a Lie group,
the Lie algebra of G,
g
gв€— the dual vector space of g, and

П€ : G в€’в†’ Sympl(M, П‰) a symplectic action.

Deп¬Ѓnition 4.14 The action П€ is a hamiltonian action if there exists a map

Вµ : M в€’в†’ gв€—

satisfying:

1. For each X в€€ g, let

вЂў ВµX : M в†’ R, ВµX (p) := Вµ(p), X , be the component of Вµ along X,
вЂў X # be the vector п¬Ѓeld on M generated by the one-parameter subgroup
{exp tX | t в€€ R} вЉ† G.

Then
dВµX = Д±X # П‰
i.e., ВµX is a hamiltonian function for the vector п¬Ѓeld X # .
60 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

2. Вµ is equivariant with respect to the given action П€ of G on M and the coad-
joint action Adв€— of G on gв€— :

Вµ в—¦ П€g = Adв€— в—¦ Вµ , for all g в€€ G .
g

The vector (M, П‰, G, Вµ) is then called a hamiltonian G-space and Вµ is a mo-
ment map.

This deп¬Ѓnition matches the previous ones for the cases G = R, S1 , torus,
where equivariance becomes invariance since the coadjoint action is trivial.
Case G = S 1 (or R):
R, gв€— R. A moment map Вµ : M в€’в†’ R satisп¬Ѓes:
Here g

1. For the generator X = 1 of g, we have ВµX (p) = Вµ(p) В· 1, i.e., ВµX = Вµ, and
X # is the standard vector п¬Ѓeld on M generated by S 1 . Then dВµ = Д±X # П‰.

2. Вµ is invariant: LX # Вµ = Д±X # dВµ = 0.

Case G = Tn = n-torus:
Rn , gв€— Rn . A moment map Вµ : M в€’в†’ Rn satisп¬Ѓes:
Here g

1. For each basis vector Xi of Rn , ВµXi is a hamiltonian function for Xi# .

2. Вµ is invariant.

Atiyah, Guillemin and Sternberg [6, 26] showed that the image of the moment
map for a hamiltonian torus action on a compact connected symplectic manifold
is always a polytope3

Theorem 4.15 (Atiyah , Guillemin-Sternberg ) Let (M, П‰) be a
compact connected symplectic manifold, and let T m be an m-torus. Suppose that
П€ : Tm в†’ Sympl(M, П‰) is a hamiltonian action with moment map Вµ : M в†’ Rm .
Then:

(a) the levels of Вµ are connected;

(b) the image of Вµ is convex;

(c) the image of Вµ is the convex hull of the images of the п¬Ѓxed points of the
action.
3A
polytope in Rn is the convex hull of a п¬Ѓnite number of points in R n . A convex polyhe-
dron is a subset of Rn which is the intersection of a п¬Ѓnite number of aп¬ѓne half-spaces. Hence,
polytopes coincide with bounded convex polyhedra.
61
4.7. MOMENT MAPS

The image Вµ(M ) of the moment map is called the moment polytope. A
proof of Theorem 4.15 can be found in .
An action of a group G on a manifold M is called eп¬Ђective if each group
element g = e moves at least one p в€€ M , that is, в€©pв€€M Gp = {e}, where Gp =
{g в€€ G | g В· p = p} is the stabilizer of p.

Exercise 23
Suppose that T m acts linearly on (Cn , П‰0 ). Let О»(1) , . . . , О»(n) в€€ Z m be the
weights appearing in the corresponding weight space decomposition, that is,
n
n
VО»(k) ,
C
k=1

(k) (k)
where, for О»(k) = (О»1 , . . . , О»m ), T m acts on the complex line VО»(k) by
(k)
i j О»j tj v
(eit1 , . . . , eitm ) В· v = e , в€Ђv в€€ VО»(k) , в€Ђk = 1, . . . , n .
(a) Show that, if the action is eп¬Ђective, then m в‰¤ n and the weights
О»(1) , . . . , О»(n) are part of a Z-basis of Z m.
(b) Show that, if the action is symplectic (hence, hamiltonian), then the
weight spaces VО»(k) are symplectic subspaces.
(c) Show that, if the action is hamiltonian, then a moment map is given by
n
1
О»(k) ||vО»(k) ||2 ( + constant ) ,
Вµ(v) = в€’ 2
k=1

where || В· || is the standard norma and v = vО»(1) + . . . + vО»(n) is the
weight space decomposition. Cf. Example 1.
(d) Conclude that, if T n acts on Cn in a linear, eп¬Ђective and hamiltonian
way, then any moment map Вµ is a submersion, i.e., each diп¬Ђerential
dВµv : Cn в†’ Rn (v в€€ Cn ) is surjective.
a Noticethat the standard inner product satisп¬Ѓes (v, w) = П‰0 (v, Jv) where
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
J = i в€‚z and J в€‚ z = в€’i в€‚ z . In particular, the standard norm is invariant for
ВЇ ВЇ
в€‚z
a symplectic complex-linear action.

The following two results use the crucial fact that any eп¬Ђective action T m в†’
Diп¬Ђ(M ) has orbits of dimension m; a proof may be found in .

Corollary 4.16 Under the conditions of the convexity theorem, if the T m -action
is eп¬Ђective, then there must be at least m + 1 п¬Ѓxed points.

Proof. At a point p of an m-dimensional orbit the moment map is a submersion,
i.e., (dВµ1 )p , . . . , (dВµm )p are linearly independent. Hence, Вµ(p) is an interior point
of Вµ(M ), and Вµ(M ) is a nondegenerate polytope. Any nondegenerate polytope in
Rm must have at least m + 1 vertices. The vertices of Вµ(M ) are images of п¬Ѓxed
points.
62 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

Proposition 4.17 Let (M, П‰, Tm , Вµ) be a hamiltonian Tm -space. If the Tm -action
is eп¬Ђective, then dim M в‰Ґ 2m.

Proof. Since the moment map is constant on an orbit O, for p в€€ O the exterior
derivative
dВµp : Tp M в€’в†’ gв€—
maps Tp O to 0. Thus
Tp O вЉ† ker dВµp = (Tp O)П‰ ,
where (Tp O)П‰ is the symplectic orthogonal of Tp O. This shows that orbits O of
a hamiltonian torus action are always isotropic submanifolds of M . In particular,
by symplectic linear algebra we have that dim O в‰¤ 1 dim M . Now consider an
2
m-dimensional orbit.

Examples.

1. Let Tn = {(t1 , . . . , tn ) в€€ Cn : |tj | = 1, for all j } be a torus acting on Cn by

(t1 , . . . , tn ) В· (z1 , . . . , zn ) = (tk1 z1 , . . . , tkn zn ) ,
1 n

where k1 , . . . , kn в€€ Z are п¬Ѓxed. This action is hamiltonian with moment map
Вµ : Cn в†’ (tn )в€— Rn given by

Вµ(z1 , . . . , zn ) = в€’ 1 (k1 |z1 |2 , . . . , kn |zn |2 ) ( + constant ) .
2

2. Suppose that a Lie group G acts in a hamiltonian way on two symplectic
manifolds (Mj , П‰j ), j = 1, 2, with moment maps Вµ : Mj в†’ gв€— . Then the
diagonal action of G on M1 Г— M2 is hamiltonian with moment map Вµ :
M1 Г— M2 в†’ gв€— given by

Вµ(p1 , p2 ) = Вµ1 (p1 ) + Вµ2 (p2 ) , for pj в€€ Mj .

3. The vector п¬Ѓeld X # generated by X в€€ g for the coadjoint representation of
a Lie group G on gв€— satisп¬Ѓes XОѕ , Y = Оѕ, [Y, X] , for any Y в€€ g. Equip
#

the coadjoint orbits with the canonical symplectic forms (Section 4.3). Then,
for each Оѕ в€€ gв€— , the coadjoint action on the orbit G В· Оѕ is hamiltonian with
moment map the inclusion map:

Вµ : G В· Оѕ в†’ gв€— .

в™¦
63
4.8. LANGUAGE FOR MECHANICS

Exercises 24

(a) Consider the natural action of U(n) on (Cn , П‰0 ). Show that this action
is hamiltonian with moment map Вµ : Cn в†’ u(n) given by
i
zz в€—
Вµ(z) = ,
2

where we identify the Lie algebra u(n) with its dual via the inner product
(A, B) = trace(Aв€— B).

Hint: Denote the elements of U(n) in terms of real and imaginary
parts g = h + i k. Then g acts on R2n by the linear symplectomorphism
h в€’k
. The Lie algebra u(n) is the set of skew-hermitian matrices
k h
X = V + i W where V = в€’V t в€€ RnГ—n and W = W t в€€ RnГ—n .
Show that the inп¬Ѓnitesimal action is generated by the hamiltonian
functions
ВµX (z) = в€’ 2 (x, W x) + (y, V x) в€’ 1 (y, W y)
1
2
where z = x + i y, x, y в€€ Rn and (В·, В·) is the standard inner product.
Show that
ВµX (z) = 1 i z в€— Xz = 2 i trace(zz в€— X) .
1
2
Check that Вµ is equivariant.
(b) Consider the natural action of U(k) on the space (CkГ—n , П‰0 ) of complex
(k Г— n)-matrices. Identify the Lie algebra u(k) with its dual via the inner
product (A, B) = trace(Aв€— B). Prove that a moment map for this action
is given by
Вµ(A) = 2 AAв€— + Id , for A в€€ CkГ—n .
i
2i
Id
(The constant is just a choice.)
2i

Hint: Example 2 and Exercise (a).
2
(c) Consider the U(n)-action by conjugation on the space (Cn , П‰0 ) of com-
plex (n Г— n)-matrices. Show that a moment map for this action is given
by
i
Вµ(A) = 2 [A, Aв€— ] .

Hint: Previous exercise and its вЂњtransposeвЂќ version.

4.8 Language for Mechanics

Example.
Let G = SO(3) = {A в€€ GL(3; R) | A t A = Id and detA = 1}. Then g =
{A в€€ gl(3; R) | A + At = 0} is the space of 3 Г— 3 skew-symmetric matrices and
can be identiп¬Ѓed with R3 . The Lie bracket on g can be identiп¬Ѓed with the exterior
64 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

product via
пЈ® пЈ№
в€’a3
0 a2
в†’ = (a1 , a2 , a3 )
в€’
пЈ° a3 в€’a1 пЈ» в€’в†’
A= 0 a
в€’a2 a1 0

в†’ Г— в†’.
в€’в€’
[A, B] = AB в€’ BA в€’в†’ a b

Exercise 25
Under the identiп¬Ѓcations g, gв€— R3 , the adjoint and coadjoint actions are the
usual SO(3)-action on R3 by rotations.

Therefore, the coadjoint orbits are the spheres in R3 centered at the origin.
в™¦
Section 4.3 shows how general coadjoint orbits are symplectic.
The name вЂњmoment mapвЂќ comes from being the generalization of linear and
angular momenta in classical mechanics.
Translation: Consider R6 with coordinates x1 , x2 , x3 , y1 , y2 , y3 and symplectic
form П‰ = dxi в€§ dyi . Let R3 act on R6 by translations:
в€’ в€€ R3 в€’в†’ П€в€’ в€€ Sympl(R6 , П‰)
в†’ в†’
a a

П€в€’ (в†’, в†’) = (в†’ + в†’, в†’) .
в†’в€’ в€’ в€’ в€’в€’
axy x ay
+ a3 в€‚x3 for X = в†’, and
в€’
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
Then X # = a1 в€‚x1 + a2 в€‚x2 a
Вµ(в†’, в†’) = в†’
в€’в€’ в€’
Вµ : R6 в€’в†’ R3 , xy y
is a moment map, with
в†’в€’ в€’
в€’
Вµ a (в†’, в†’) = Вµ(в†’, в†’), в†’ = в†’ В· в†’ .
в€’в€’ в€’ в€’в€’
xy xy a ya
Classically, в†’ is called the momentum vector corresponding to the position
в€’
y
в†’, and the map Вµ is called the linear momentum.
в€’
vector x
Rotation: The SO(3)-action on R3 by rotations lifts to a symplectic action П€ on
the cotangent bundle R6 . The inп¬Ѓnitesimal version of this action is
в†’ в€€ R3 в€’в†’ dП€(в†’) в€€ П‡sympl (R6 )
в€’ в€’
a a

dП€(в†’)(в†’, в†’) = (в†’ Г— в†’, в†’ Г— в†’) .
в€’ в€’в€’ в€’ в€’в€’ в€’
a xy a xa y
Then
Вµ(в†’, в†’) = в†’ Г— в†’
в€’в€’ в€’в€’
Вµ : R6 в€’в†’ R3 , xy x y
is a moment map, with
в†’в€’ в€’
в€’
Вµ a (в†’, в†’) = Вµ(в†’, в†’), в†’ = (в†’ Г— в†’) В· в†’.
в€’в€’ в€’ в€’в€’в€’
xy xy a x y a
The map Вµ is called the angular momentum.
Let (M, П‰, G, Вµ) be a hamiltonian G-space.
65
4.9. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF MOMENT MAPS

Theorem 4.18 (Noether) If f : M в†’ R is a G-invariant function, then Вµ is
constant on the trajectories of the hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓeld of f .

Proof. Let vf be the hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓeld of f . Let X в€€ g and ВµX = Вµ, X :
M в†’ R. We have
Lvf ВµX = Д±vf dВµX = Д±vf Д±X # П‰
= в€’Д±X # Д±vf П‰ = в€’Д±X # df
= в€’LX # f = 0
because f is G-invariant.

Deп¬Ѓnition 4.19 A G-invariant function f : M в†’ R is called an integral of
motion of (M, П‰, G, Вµ). If Вµ is constant on the trajectories of a hamiltonian vector
п¬Ѓeld vf , then the corresponding one-parameter group of diп¬Ђeomorphisms {exp tv f |
t в€€ R} is called a symmetry of (M, П‰, G, Вµ).

The Noether principle asserts that there is a one-to-one correspondence
between symmetries and integrals of motion.

4.9 Existence and Uniqueness of Moment Maps
Let g be a Lie algebra, and

:= О›k gв€— = k-cochains on g
Ck
= alternating k-linear maps g Г— . . . Г— g в€’в†’ R .
k

Deп¬Ѓne a linear operator Оґ : C k в†’ C k+1 by

(в€’1)i+j c([Xi , Xj ], X0 , . . . , Xi , . . . , Xj , . . . , Xk ) .
Оґc(X0 , . . . , Xk ) =
i<j

Exercise 26
Check that Оґ 2 = 0.

The Lie algebra cohomology groups (or Chevalley cohomology groups)
Оґ Оґ Оґ
of g are the cohomology groups of the complex 0 в†’ C 0 в†’ C 1 в†’ . . .:

ker Оґ : C k в€’в†’ C k+1
H k (g; R) := .
im Оґ : C kв€’1 в€’в†’ C k
Theorem 4.20 If g is the Lie algebra of a compact connected Lie group G, then

H k (g; R) = HdeRham (G) .
k
66 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

Proof. Exercise. Hint: by averaging show that the de Rham cohomology can be
computed from the subcomplex of G-invariant forms.
Meaning of H 1 (g; R) and H2 (g; R):
вЂў An element of C 1 = gв€— is a linear functional on g. If c в€€ gв€— , then Оґc(X0 , X1 ) =
в€’c([X0 , X1 ]). The commutator ideal of g is
[g, g] := {linear combinations of [X, Y ] for any X, Y в€€ g} .
Since Оґc = 0 if and only if c vanishes on [g, g], we conclude that
H 1 (g; R) = [g, g]0
where [g, g]0 вЉ† gв€— is the annihilator of [g, g].
вЂў An element of C 2 is an alternating bilinear map c : g Г— g в†’ R.
Оґc(X0 , X1 , X2 ) = в€’c([X0 , X1 ], X2 ) + c([X0 , X2 ], X1 ) в€’ c([X1 , X2 ], X0 ) .
If c = Оґb for some b в€€ C 1 , then
c(X0 , X1 ) = (Оґb)(X0 , X1 ) = в€’b([X0 , X1 ] ).

Theorem 4.21 If H 1 (g; R) = H2 (g, R) = 0, then any symplectic G-action is
hamiltonian.

Proof. Let П€ : G в†’ Sympl(M, П‰) be a symplectic action of G on a symplectic
manifold (M, П‰). Since
H 1 (g; R) = 0 в‡ђв‡’ [g, g] = g
and since commutators of symplectic vector п¬Ѓelds are hamiltonian, we have

dП€ : g = [g, g] в€’в†’ П‡ham (M ).
The action П€ is hamiltonian if and only if there is a Lie algebra homomorphism
Вµв€— : g в†’ C в€ћ (M ) such that the following diagram commutes.
E C в€ћ (M ) E П‡ham (M )
R
d
s 
В
d В
d В
?d В  dП€
d В
g
We п¬Ѓrst take an arbitrary vector space lift П„ : g в†’ C в€ћ (M ) making the diagram
commute, i.e., for each basis vector X в€€ g, we choose
П„ (X) = П„ X в€€ C в€ћ (M ) such that v(П„ X ) = dП€(X) .
67
4.9. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF MOMENT MAPS

The map X в†’ П„ X may not be a Lie algebra homomorphism. By construction,
П„ [X,Y ] is a hamiltonian function for [X, Y ]# , and (as computed in Section 4.3)
{П„ X , П„ Y } is a hamiltonian function for в€’[X # , Y # ]. Since [X, Y ]# = в€’[X #, Y # ],
the corresponding hamiltonian functions must diп¬Ђer by a constant:
П„ [X,Y ] в€’ {П„ X , П„ Y } = c(X, Y ) в€€ R .
By the Jacobi identity, Оґc = 0. Since H 2 (g; R) = 0, there is b в€€ gв€— satisfying
c = Оґb, c(X, Y ) = в€’b([X, Y ]). We deп¬Ѓne
Вµв€— : g в€’в†’ C в€ћ (M )
X в€’в†’ Вµв€— (X) = П„ X + b(X) = ВµX .
Now Вµв€— is a Lie algebra homomorphism:
Вµв€— ([X, Y ]) = П„ [X,Y ] + b([X, Y ]) = {П„ X , П„ Y } = {ВµX , ВµY } .

So when is H 1 (g; R) = H2 (g; R) = 0?
A compact Lie group G is semisimple if g = [g, g].
Examples. The unitary group U(n) is not semisimple because the multiples of
the identity, S 1 В· Id, form a nontrivial center; at the level of the Lie algebra, this
corresponds to the 1-dimensional subspace R В· Id of constant matrices which are
not commutators since they are not traceless.
Any direct product of the other compact classical groups SU(n), SO(n) and
Sp(n) is semisimple (n > 1). Any commutative Lie group is not semisimple. в™¦

Theorem 4.22 (Whitehead Lemmas) Let G be a compact Lie group.
H 1 (g; R) = H2 (g; R) = 0 .
в‡ђв‡’
G is semisimple
A proof can be found in [30, pages 93-95].
Corollary 4.23 If G is semisimple, then any symplectic G-action is hamiltonian.
As for the question of uniqueness, let G be a compact Lie group.
Theorem 4.24 If H 1 (g; R) = 0, then moment maps for hamiltonian G-actions
are unique.

Proof. Suppose that Вµв€— and Вµв€— are two comoment maps for an action П€:
1 2

E П‡ham (M )
C в€ћ (M )
d
s В

d Вµв€— В
d2 В
Вµв€— d В  dП€
1
d В
g
68 LECTURE 4. HAMILTONIAN FIELDS

For each X в€€ g, ВµX and ВµX are both hamiltonian functions for X # , thus ВµX в€’
1 2 1
ВµX = c(X) is locally constant. This deп¬Ѓnes c в€€ gв€— , X в†’ c(X).
2
Since Вµв€— , Вµв€— are Lie algebra homomorphisms, we have c([X, Y ]) = 0, в€ЂX, Y в€€
1 2
g, i.e., c в€€ [g, g]0 = {0}. Hence, Вµв€— = Вµв€— .
1 2

Corollary of this proof. In general, if Вµ : M в†’ gв€— is a moment map, then
given any c в€€ [g, g]0 , Вµ1 = Вµ + c is another moment map.
In other words, moment maps are unique up to elements of the dual of the
Lie algebra which annihilate the commutator ideal.
The two extreme cases are:
G semisimple: any symplectic action is hamiltonian ,
moment maps are unique .
G commutative: symplectic actions may not be hamiltonian ,
moment maps are unique up to any constant c в€€ gв€— .

Example. The circle action on (T 2 , П‰ = dОё1 в€§ dОё2 ) by rotations in the Оё1 direction
в€‚
has vector п¬Ѓeld X # = в€‚Оё1 ; this is a symplectic action but is not hamiltonian. в™¦
Lecture 5

Symplectic Reduction

The phase space of a system of n particles is the space parametrizing the position
and momenta of the particles. The mathematical model for the phase space is a
symplectic manifold. Classical physicists realized that, whenever there is a sym-
metry group of dimension k acting on a mechanical system, then the number of
degrees of freedom for the position and momenta of the particles may be reduced
by 2k. Symplectic reduction formulates this feature mathematically.

5.1 Marsden-Weinstein-Meyer Theorem
i
dzi в€§ dВЇi = dxi в€§ dyi = ri dri в€§ dОёi be the standard symplectic
Let П‰ = 2 z
1
form on C . Consider the following S -action on (Cn , П‰):
n

t в€€ S 1 в€’в†’ П€t = multiplication by eit .
The action П€ is hamiltonian with moment map
Вµ : Cn в€’в†’ R
2
в€’в†’ в€’ |z| + constant
z 2

since
1 2
dВµ = в€’ 2 d( ri )

в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
X# = + +... +
в€‚Оё1 в€‚Оё2 в€‚Оёn
1 2
=в€’ ri dri = в€’ 2
Д±X # П‰ dri .
If we choose the constant to be 1 , then Вµв€’1 (0) = S 2nв€’1 is the unit sphere. The
2
orbit space of the zero level of the moment map is
Вµв€’1 (0)/S 1 = S 2nв€’1 /S 1 = C Pnв€’1
,

69
70 LECTURE 5. SYMPLECTIC REDUCTION

which is thus called a reduced space. This is a particular observation of the
major theorem Marsden-Weinstein-Meyer which shows that reduced spaces are
symplectic manifolds.

Theorem 5.1 (Marsden-Weinstein-Meyer [34, 36]) Let (M, П‰, G, Вµ) be a
hamiltonian G-space for a compact Lie group G. Let i : Вµв€’1 (0) в†’ M be the
inclusion map. Assume that G acts freely on Вµв€’1 (0). Then

вЂў the orbit space Mred = Вµв€’1 (0)/G is a manifold,

вЂў ПЂ : Вµв€’1 (0) в†’ Mred is a principal G-bundle, and

вЂў there is a symplectic form П‰red on Mred satisfying iв€— П‰ = ПЂ в€— П‰red .

Deп¬Ѓnition 5.2 The pair (Mred , П‰red ) is the reduction of (M, П‰) with respect to
G, Вµ, or the reduced space, or the symplectic quotient, or the Marsden-
Weinstein-Meyer quotient, etc.

Low-brow proof for the case G = S 1 and dim M = 4.
In this case the moment map is Вµ : M в†’ R. Let p в€€ Вµв€’1 (0). Choose local
coordinates:

вЂў Оё along the orbit through p,

вЂў Вµ given by the moment map, and

вЂў О·1 , О·2 pullback of coordinates on Вµв€’1 (0)/S 1 .

Then the symplectic form can be written

П‰ = A dОё в€§ dВµ + Bj dОё в€§ dО·j + Cj dВµ в€§ dО·j + D dО·1 в€§ dО·2 .
в€‚
Since dВµ = Д± П‰, we must have A = 1, Bj = 0. Hence,
в€‚Оё

П‰ = dОё в€§ dВµ + Cj dВµ в€§ dО·j + D dО·1 в€§ dО·2 .

Since П‰ is symplectic, we must have D = 0. Therefore, iв€— П‰ = D dО·1 в€§ dО·2 is the
pullback of a symplectic form on Mred .
Examples.

1. For the natural action of U(k) on CkГ—n with moment map computed in
Section 4.7, we have Вµв€’1 (0) = {A в€€ CkГ—n | AAв€— = Id}. Then the quotient
manifold
Вµв€’1 (0)/U(k) = G (k, n)
is the grassmannian of k-planes in Cn .
71
5.2. INGREDIENTS

2. Consider the S 1 -action on (R2n+2 , П‰0 ) which, under the usual identiп¬Ѓcation
of R2n+2 with Cn+1 , corresponds to multiplication by eit . This action is
hamiltonian with a moment map Вµ : Cn+1 в†’ R given by
1 1
Вµ(z) = в€’ 2 |z|2 + .
2

Then the reduction Вµв€’1 (0)/S 1 is C P with the Fubini-Study symplectic form
n

П‰red = П‰FS . To prove this assertion, let pr : Cn+1 \ {0} в†’ C P denote the
n

standard projection, and check that
iВЇ
prв€— П‰FS = 2 в€‚ в€‚ log(|z|2 ) .

This form has the same restriction to S 2n+1 as П‰red .
в™¦

Exercise 27
The natural actions of T n+1 and U(n + 1) on (C Pn , П‰FS ) are hamiltonian, and
п¬Ѓnd formulas for their moment maps.
Hint: Previous example and Section 4.7.

5.2 Ingredients
The actual proof of the Marsden-Weinstein-Meyer theorem requires the following
ingredients.

1. Let gp be the Lie algebra of the stabilizer of p в€€ M . Then dВµp : Tp M в†’ gв€—
has
ker dВµp = (Tp Op )П‰p
im dВµp = g0 p

where Op is the G-orbit through p, and g0 = {Оѕ в€€ gв€— | Оѕ, X = 0, в€ЂX в€€ gp }
p
is the annihilator of gp .
#
Proof. Stare at the expression П‰p (Xp , v) = dВµp (v), X , for all v в€€ Tp M
and all X в€€ g, and count dimensions.

Consequences:

вЂў The action is locally free at p
в‡ђв‡’ gp = {0}
в‡ђв‡’ dВµp is surjective
в‡ђв‡’ p is a regular point of Вµ.
72 LECTURE 5. SYMPLECTIC REDUCTION

вЂў G acts freely on Вµв€’1 (0)
=в‡’ 0 is a regular value of Вµ
=в‡’ Вµв€’1 (0) is a closed submanifold of M
of codimension equal to dim G.
вЂў G acts freely on Вµв€’1 (0)
=в‡’ Tp Вµв€’1 (0) = ker dВµp (for p в€€ Вµв€’1 (0))
=в‡’ Tp Вµв€’1 (0) and Tp Op are symplectic orthocomplements in Tp M .
In particular, the tangent space to the orbit through p в€€ Вµв€’1 (0) is an
isotropic subspace of Tp M . Hence, orbits in Вµв€’1 (0) are isotropic.

Since any tangent vector to the orbit is the value of a vector п¬Ѓeld generated
by the group, we can conп¬Ѓrm that orbits are isotropic directly by computing,
for any X, Y в€€ g and any p в€€ Вµв€’1 (0),

П‰p (Xp , Yp# ) = hamiltonian function for [Y # , X # ] at p
#

= hamiltonian function for [Y, X]# at p
= Вµ[Y,X] (p) = 0 .

2. Lemma 5.3 Let (V, П‰) be a symplectic vector space. Suppose that I is an
isotropic subspace, that is, П‰|I в‰Ў 0. Then П‰ induces a canonical symplectic
form в„¦ on I П‰ /I.

Proof. Let u, v в€€ I П‰ , and [u], [v] в€€ I П‰ /I. Deп¬Ѓne в„¦([u], [v]) = П‰(u, v).

вЂў в„¦ is well-deп¬Ѓned:

в€Ђi, j в€€ I .
П‰(u + i, v + j) = П‰(u, v) + П‰(u, j) + П‰(i, v) + П‰(i, j) ,
0 0 0

вЂў в„¦ is nondegenerate:
Suppose that u в€€ I П‰ has П‰(u, v) = 0, for all v в€€ I П‰ .
Then u в€€ (I П‰ )П‰ = I, i.e., [u] = 0.

3. Proposition 5.4 If a compact Lie group G acts freely on a manifold M ,
then M/G is a manifold and the map ПЂ : M в†’ M/G is a principal G-
bundle.

Proof. We will п¬Ѓrst show that, for any p в€€ M , the G-orbit through p is a
compact embedded submanifold of M diп¬Ђeomorphic to G.
Since the action is smooth, the evaluation map ev : G Г— M в†’ M , ev(g, p) =
g В· p, is smooth. Let evp : G в†’ M be deп¬Ѓned by evp (g) = g В· p. The map evp
provides the embedding we seek:
73
5.2. INGREDIENTS

The image of evp is the G-orbit through p. Injectivity of evp follows from the
action of G being free. The map evp is proper because, if A is a compact,
hence closed, subset of M , then its inverse image (ev p )в€’1 (A), being a closed
subset of the compact Lie group G, is also compact. It remains to show that
evp is an immersion. For X в€€ g Te G, we have
#
d(evp )e (X) = 0 в‡ђв‡’ Xp = 0 в‡ђв‡’ X = 0 ,

as the action is free. We conclude that d(evp )e is injective. At any other point
g в€€ G, for X в€€ Tg G, we have

d(evp )g (X) = 0 в‡ђв‡’ d(evp в—¦ Rg )e в—¦ (dRgв€’1 )g (X) = 0 ,

where Rg : G в†’ G is right multiplication by g. But evp в—¦ Rg = evgВ·p has an
injective diп¬Ђerential at e, and (dRgв€’1 )g is an isomorphism. It follows that
d(evp )g is always injective.

Exercise 28
Show that, even if the action is not free, the G-orbit through p is a compact
embedded submanifold of M . In that case, the orbit is diп¬Ђeomorphic to the
quotient of G by the isotropy of p: Op G/Gp .

Let S be a transverse section to Op at p; this is called a slice. Choose a
coordinate system x1 , . . . , xn centered at p such that

Op G : x1 = . . . = xk =0
S : xk+1 = . . . = xn = 0.

Let SОµ = S в€© BОµ (0, Rn ) where BОµ (0, Rn ) is the ball of radius Оµ centered at 0
in Rn . Let О· : G Г— S в†’ M , О·(g, s) = g В· s. Apply the following equivariant
tubular neighborhood theorem.

Theorem 5.5 (Slice Theorem) Let G be a compact Lie group acting
on a manifold M such that G acts freely at p в€€ M . For suп¬ѓciently small
Оµ, О· : G Г— SОµ в†’ M maps G Г— SОµ diп¬Ђeomorphically onto a G-invariant
neighborhood U of the G-orbit through p.

The proof of this slice theorem is sketched further below.

Corollary 5.6 If the action of G is free at p, then the action is free on U.

Corollary 5.7 The set of points where G acts freely is open.

Corollary 5.8 The set G Г— SОµ U is G-invariant. Hence, the quotient
U/G SОµ is smooth.
74 LECTURE 5. SYMPLECTIC REDUCTION

Conclusion of the proof that M/G is a manifold and ПЂ : M в†’ M/G is a
smooth п¬Ѓber map.
For p в€€ M , let q = ПЂ(p) в€€ M/G. Choose a G-invariant neighborhood U of
p as in the slice theorem: U G Г— S (where S = SОµ for an appropriate Оµ).
Then ПЂ(U) = U/G =: V is an open neighborhood of q in M/G. By the slice
theorem, S в†’ V is a homeomorphism. We will use such neighborhoods V
as charts on M/G. To show that the transition functions associated with
these charts are smooth, consider two G-invariant open sets U1 , U2 in M and
corresponding slices S1 , S2 of the G-action. Then S12 = S1 в€©U2 , S21 = S2 в€©U1
are both slices for the G-action on U1 в€© U2 . To compute the transition map
S12 в†’ S21 , consider the diagram

в€’в†’ id Г— S12 в†’ G Г— S12
S12

в€’в†’ id Г— S21 в†’ G Г— S21
S21

Then the composition
pr
S12 в†’ U1 в€© U2 в€’в†’ G Г— S21 в€’в†’ S21

is smooth.
Finally, we need to show that ПЂ : M в†’ M/G is a smooth п¬Ѓber map. For
p в€€ M , q = ПЂ(p), choose a G-invariant neighborhood U of the G-orbit
through p of the form О· : GГ—S в†’ U. Then V = U/G S is the corresponding
neighborhood of q in M/G:
О·
MвЉ‡ U GГ—S GГ—V
в†“ПЂ в†“
M/G вЉ‡ V V
=

Since the projection on the right is smooth, ПЂ is smooth.

Exercise 29
Check that the transition functions for the bundle deп¬Ѓned by ПЂ are smooth.

Sketch for the proof of the slice theorem. We need to show that, for
Оµ suп¬ѓciently small, О· : G Г— SОµ в†’ U is a diп¬Ђeomorphism where U вЉ† M is a
G-invariant neighborhood of the G-orbit through p. Show that:

(a) dО·(id,p) is bijective.
75
5.3. PROOF OF THE REDUCTION THEOREM

(b) Let G act on G Г— S by the product of its left action on G and trivial
action on S. Then О· : G Г— S в†’ M is G-equivariant.
(c) dО· is bijective at all points of G Г— {p}. This follows from (a) and (b).
(d) The set G Г— {p} is compact, and О· : G Г— S в†’ M is injective on G Г— {p}
with dО· bijective at all these points. By the implicit function theorem,
there is a neighborhood U0 of G Г— {p} in G Г— S such that О· maps U0
diп¬Ђeomorphically onto a neighborhood U of the G-orbit through p.
(e) The sets G Г— SОµ , varying Оµ, form a neighborhood base for G Г— {p} in
G Г— S. So in (d) we may take U0 = G Г— SОµ .

5.3 Proof of the Reduction Theorem
Since
G acts freely on Вµв€’1 (0) =в‡’ dВµp is surjective for all p в€€ Вµв€’1 (0)
=в‡’ 0 is a regular value
=в‡’ Вµв€’1 (0) is a submanifold of codimension = dim G

for the п¬Ѓrst two parts of the Marsden-Weinstein-Meyer theorem it is enough to
apply the third ingredient from Section 5.2 to the free action of G on Вµв€’1 (0).
At p в€€ Вµв€’1 (0) the tangent space to the orbit Tp Op is an isotropic subspace
of the symplectic vector space (Tp M, П‰p ), i.e., Tp Op вЉ† (Tp Op )П‰ .

(Tp Op )П‰ = ker dВµp = Tp Вµв€’1 (0) .

The lemma (second ingredient) gives a canonical symplectic structure on the
quotient Tp Вµв€’1 (0)/Tp Op . The point [p] в€€ Mred = Вµв€’1 (0)/G has tangent space
T[p] Mred Tp Вµв€’1 (0)/Tp Op . Thus the lemma deп¬Ѓnes a nondegenerate 2-form П‰red
on Mred . This is well-deп¬Ѓned because П‰ is G-invariant.
By construction iв€— П‰ = ПЂ в€— П‰red where
i
Вµв€’1 (0) в†’M
в†“ПЂ
Mred

Hence, ПЂ в€— dП‰red = dПЂ в€— П‰red = dД±в€— П‰ = Д±в€— dП‰ = 0. The closedness of П‰red follows from
the injectivity of ПЂ в€— .
Remark. Suppose that another Lie group H acts on (M, П‰) in a hamiltonian way
with moment map П† : M в†’ hв€— . If the H-action commutes with the G-action, and
if П† is G-invariant, then Mred inherits a hamiltonian action of H, with moment
map П†red : Mred в†’ hв€— satisfying П†red в—¦ ПЂ = П† в—¦ i. в™¦
76 LECTURE 5. SYMPLECTIC REDUCTION

5.4 Elementary Theory of Reduction
Finding a symmetry for a 2n-dimensional mechanical problem may reduce it to
a (2n в€’ 2)-dimensional problem as follows: an integral of motion f for a 2n-
dimensional hamiltonian system (M, П‰, H) may enable us understand the tra-
jectories of this system in terms of the trajectories of a (2n в€’ 2)-dimensional
hamiltonian system (Mred , П‰red , Hred ). To make this precise, we will describe this
process locally. Suppose that U is an open set in M with Darboux coordinates
x1 , . . . , xn , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕn such that f = Оѕn for this chart, and write H in these coordi-
nates: H = H(x1 , . . . , xn , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕn ). Then
пЈ±
пЈґ the trajectories of vH lie on the
пЈґ
пЈІ hyperplane Оѕ = constant
n
Оѕn is an integral of motion =в‡’ в€‚H
пЈґ {Оѕn , H} = 0 = в€’ в€‚xn
пЈґ
пЈі
=в‡’ H = H(x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕn ) .
If we set Оѕn = c, the motion of the system on this hyperplane is described by
the following Hamilton equations:
пЈ±
пЈґ dx1 в€‚H
пЈґ = (x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 , c)
пЈґ
пЈґ dt в€‚Оѕ1
пЈґ
пЈґ
пЈґ .
пЈґ .
пЈґ
пЈґ .
пЈґ
пЈґ
пЈґ dxnв€’1 в€‚H
пЈґ
пЈґ = (x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 , c)
пЈґ
пЈґ
пЈІ dt в€‚Оѕnв€’1
пЈґ dОѕ
пЈґ в€‚H
пЈґ 1
пЈґ в€’
= (x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 , c)
пЈґ
пЈґ dt в€‚x1
пЈґ
пЈґ
пЈґ .
пЈґ
пЈґ .
пЈґ .
пЈґ
пЈґ
пЈґ dОѕnв€’1 в€‚H
пЈґ
пЈґ
пЈі =в€’ (x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 , c)
dt в€‚xnв€’1

dxn в€‚H
=
dt в€‚Оѕn

dОѕn в€‚H
=в€’ =0.
dt в€‚xn
The reduced phase space is
Ured = {(x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 ) в€€ R2nв€’2 |
(x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , a, Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 , c) в€€ U for some a} .
The reduced hamiltonian is
Hred : Ured в€’в†’ R ,
Hred (x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 ) = H(x1 , . . . , xnв€’1 , Оѕ1 , . . . , Оѕnв€’1 , c) .
77
5.5. REDUCTION FOR PRODUCT GROUPS

In order to п¬Ѓnd the trajectories of the original system on the hypersurface
Оѕn = c, we look for the trajectories
x1 (t), . . . , xnв€’1 (t), Оѕ1 (t), . . . , Оѕnв€’1 (t)
of the reduced system on Ured . We integrate the equation
dxn в€‚H
(t) = (x1 (t), . . . , xnв€’1 (t), Оѕ1 (t), . . . , Оѕnв€’1 (t), c)
dt в€‚Оѕn
to obtain the original trajectories
t в€‚H
xn (t) = xn (0) + 0 в€‚Оѕn (. . .)dt
Оѕn (t) = c.

5.5 Reduction for Product Groups
Let G1 and G2 be compact connected Lie groups and let G = G1 Г— G2 . Then
gв€— = gв€— вЉ• gв€— .
g = g 1 вЉ• g2 and 1 2

Suppose that (M, П‰, G, П€) is a hamiltonian G-space with moment map
П€ : M в€’в†’ gв€— вЉ• gв€— .
1 2

Write П€ = (П€1 , П€2 ) where П€i : M в†’ gв€— for i = 1, 2. The fact that П€ is equivariant
i
implies that П€1 is invariant under G2 and П€2 is invariant under G1 . Now reduce
(M, П‰) with respect to the G1 -action. Let
в€’1
Z1 = П€1 (0) .
Assume that G1 acts freely on Z1 . Let M1 = Z1 /G1 be the reduced space and let П‰1
be the corresponding reduced symplectic form. The action of G2 on Z1 commutes
with the G1 -action. Since G2 preserves П‰, it follows that G2 acts symplectically
on (M1 , П‰1 ). Since G1 preserves П€2 , G1 also preserves П€2 в—¦ О№1 : Z1 в†’ gв€— , where
2
p1
О№1 : Z1 в†’ M is inclusion. Thus П€2 в—¦ О№ is constant on п¬Ѓbers of Z1 в†’ M1 . We
conclude that there exists a smooth map Вµ2 : M1 в†’ gв€— such that Вµ2 в—¦ p = П€2 в—¦ i.
2

Exercise 30
Show that:
(a) the map Вµ2 is a moment map for the action of G 2 on (M1 , П‰1 ), and
(b) if G acts freely on П€ в€’1 (0, 0), then G2 acts freely on Вµв€’1 (0), and there
2
is a natural symplectomorphism
Вµв€’1 (0)/G2 П€ в€’1 (0, 0)/G .
2

This technique of performing reduction with respect to one factor of a product
group at a time is called reduction in stages. It may be extended to reduction
by a normal subgroup H вЉ‚ G and by the corresponding quotient group G/H.
78 LECTURE 5. SYMPLECTIC REDUCTION

5.6 Reduction at Other Levels
Suppose that a compact Lie group G acts on a symplectic manifold (M, П‰) in a
hamiltonian way with moment map Вµ : M в†’ gв€— . Let Оѕ в€€ gв€— .
To reduce at the level Оѕ of Вµ, we need Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) to be preserved by G, or else
take the G-orbit of Вµв€’1 (Оѕ), or else take the quotient by the maximal subgroup of
G which preserves Вµв€’1 (Оѕ).
Since Вµ is equivariant,
G preserves Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) в‡ђв‡’ G preserves Оѕ
Adв€— Оѕ = Оѕ, в€Ђg в€€ G .
в‡ђв‡’ g

Of course the level 0 is always preserved. Also, when G is a torus, any level
is preserved and reduction at Оѕ for the moment map Вµ, is equivalent to reduction
at 0 for a shifted moment map П† : M в†’ gв€— , П†(p) := Вµ(p) в€’ Оѕ.
Let O be a coadjoint orbit in gв€— equipped with the canonical symplectic
form (also know as the Kostant-Kirillov symplectic form or the Lie-Poisson
symplectic form) П‰ O deп¬Ѓned in Section 4.3. Let O в€’ be the orbit O equipped with
в€’П‰O . The natural product action of G on M Г— O в€’ is hamiltonian with moment
map ВµO (p, Оѕ) = Вµ(p) в€’ Оѕ. If the Marsden-Weinstein-Meyer hypothesis is satisп¬Ѓed
for M Г— Oв€’ , then one obtains a reduced space with respect to the coadjoint
orbit O.

5.7 Orbifolds

Example. Let G = T n be an n-torus. For any Оѕ в€€ (tn )в€— , Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) is preserved by
the Tn -action. Suppose that Оѕ is a regular value of Вµ. (By SardвЂ™s theorem, the
singular values of Вµ form a set of measure zero.) Then Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) is a submanifold of
codimension n. Note that
dВµp is surjective at all p в€€ Вµв€’1 (Оѕ)
Оѕ regular =в‡’
gp = 0 for all p в€€ Вµв€’1 (Оѕ)
=в‡’
the stabilizers on Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) are п¬Ѓnite
=в‡’
Вµв€’1 (Оѕ)/G is an orbifold [38, 39] .
=в‡’
Let Gp be the stabilizer of p. By the slice theorem (Theorem 5.5), Вµв€’1 (Оѕ)/G
is modeled by S/Gp , where S is a Gp -invariant disk in Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) through p and
transverse to Op . Hence, locally Вµв€’1 (Оѕ)/G looks indeed like Rn divided by a п¬Ѓnite
в™¦
group action.

Example. Consider the S 1 -action on C2 given by eiОё В· (z1 , z2 ) = (eikОё z1 , eiОё z2 ) for
some п¬Ѓxed integer k в‰Ґ 2. This is hamiltonian with moment map
C2 в€’в†’ R
Вµ:
1
(z1 , z2 ) в€’в†’ в€’ 2 (k|z1 |2 + |z2 |2 ) .
79
5.8. SYMPLECTIC TORIC MANIFOLDS

Any Оѕ < 0 is a regular value and Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) is a 3-dimensional ellipsoid. The stabilizer
2ПЂ
of (z1 , z2 ) в€€ Вµв€’1 (Оѕ) is {1} if z2 = 0, and is Z k = ei | = 0, 1, . . . , k в€’ 1 if
k

z2 = 0. The reduced space Вµв€’1 (Оѕ)/S 1 is called a teardrop orbifold or conehead;
it has one cone (also known as a dunce cap) singularity of type k (with cone
angle 2ПЂ ). в™¦
k

Example. Let S 1 act on C2 by eiОё В· (z1 , z2 ) = (eikОё z1 , ei Оё z2 ) for some integers
k, в‰Ґ 2. Suppose that k and are relatively prime. Then

(z1 , 0) has stabilizer Z k (for z1 = 0) ,
(0, z2 ) has stabilizer Z (for z2 = 0) ,
(z1 , z2 ) has stabilizer {1} (for z1 , z2 = 0) .

The quotient Вµв€’1 (Оѕ)/S 1 is called a football orbifold. It has two cone singularities,
в™¦
one of type k and another of type .

Example. More generally, the reduced spaces of S 1 acting on Cn by

eiОё В· (z1 , . . . , zn ) = (eik1 Оё z1 , . . . , eikn Оё zn ) ,

в™¦
are called weighted (or twisted) projective spaces.

5.8 Symplectic Toric Manifolds
Deп¬Ѓnition 5.9 A symplectic toric manifold is a compact connected symplectic
manifold (M, П‰) equipped with an eп¬Ђective hamiltonian action of a torus T of
dimension equal to half the dimension of the manifold,
1
dim T = dim M ,
2
and with a choice of a corresponding moment map Вµ.

Exercise 31
Show that an eп¬Ђective hamiltonian action of a torus T n on a 2n-dimensional
symplectic manifold gives rise to an integrable system.
Hint: The coordinates of the moment map are commuting integrals of motion.

Deп¬Ѓnition 5.10 Two symplectic toric manifolds, (Mi , П‰i , Ti , Вµi ), i = 1, 2, are
equivalent if there exists an isomorphism О» : T 1 в†’ T2 and a О»-equivariant
symplectomorphism П• : M1 в†’ M2 such that Вµ1 = Вµ2 в—¦ П•.
80 LECTURE 5. SYMPLECTIC REDUCTION

Equivalent symplectic toric manifolds are often undistinguished.

Examples of symplectic toric manifolds.

1. The circle S 1 acts on the 2-sphere (S 2 , П‰standard = dОё в€§ dh) by rotations

eiОЅ В· (Оё, h) = (Оё + ОЅ, h)

with moment map Вµ = h equal to the height function and moment polytope
[в€’1, 1].

Equivalently, the circle S 1 acts on P1 = C2 в€’ 0/ в€ј with the Fubini-Study
1
form П‰FS = 4 П‰standard , by eiОё В· [z0 : z1 ] = [z0 : eiОё z1 ]. This is hamiltonian
2
with moment map Вµ[z0 : z1 ] = в€’ 2 В· |z0 ||z+|z1 |2 , and moment polytope в€’ 2 , 0 .
1|
1 1
2

t t1
'\$
Вµ=h
E
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