<< стр. 3(всего 8)СОДЕРЖАНИЕ >>
HО  (M ). Because M is symplectic and connected, HО  (M ) R, and thus О˜J is
simply a bivector п¬Ѓeld. We then add О˜J to the Poisson tensor О gв€— , deп¬Ѓning a new
tensor О gв€— = О gв€— + О˜J , with respect to which J is a Poisson map.

Exercise 19
Show that ОґО˜J = 0 implies that О gв€— is again a Poisson tensor and that with
this Poisson structure on gв€— the map J is Poisson.

в™¦

7.6 Flat Connections for Poisson Maps with Symplectic Tar-
get
We will classify complete Poisson maps П• : M в†’ S, where M is a Poisson manifold
and S is a connected symplectic manifold. The structure of these maps turns out
to be remarkably simple and rigid.
Claim. Any Poisson map П• : M в†’ S is a submersion.

Proof. If not, then (Tx П•)(Tx M ) is a proper subspace V of TП•(x) S, and (Tx П•)(О (x)) вЉ†
V в€§ V , contradicting the fact that the image of О  under Tx П• is symplectic. 2
We can say even more if we assume that П• is complete:
Claim. Any complete Poisson map П• : M в†’ S is surjective.

Exercise 20
Prove this claim.

Let F be any Poisson manifold and let p1 : S Г— F в†’ S be the
Example.
в™¦
projection onto the п¬Ѓrst factor. This is clearly a complete Poisson map.
Inspired by this example, the claims above indicate that a complete Poisson
map should be a kind of п¬Ѓbration over S. To formalize this idea, we deп¬Ѓne a п¬‚at
connection for any submersion П• : M в†’ S between manifolds to be a subbundle
E вЉ† T M such that
7.6 Flat Connections for Poisson Maps with Symplectic Target 45

1. T M = E вЉ• ker T П• ,

2. [E, E] вЉ† E (that is, sections of E are closed under [В·, В·], and so by the Frobe-
nius theorem E is integrable),

3. every path in S has a horizontal lift through each lift of one of its points.

A subbundle E вЉ† T M satisfying conditions 1 and 3, or sometimes just 1, is
called an Ehresmann connection . Conditions 1 and 3 imply that П• : M в†’ S
is a locally trivial п¬Ѓbration. Condition 2 is the п¬‚atness property, which implies
that the п¬Ѓbration has a discrete structure group.

Theorem 7.2 A complete Poisson map П• : M в†’ S to a symplectic manifold has
a natural п¬‚at connection.

Proof. Let s = П•(x) for some x в€€ M and choose a v в€€ Ts S. We want to lift v to
Tx M in a canonical way. Because S is symplectic, О в€’1 (v) is a well-deп¬Ѓned covector
S
at s. Deп¬Ѓne a horizontal lift

Hx (v) = О M (Tx П•)в€— О в€’1 (v) в€€ Tx M .
S

The fact that П• is a Poisson map implies that (Tx П•)(Hx (v)) = v (see Section 6.1).
We need to check that the bracket of two horizontal lifts is again horizontal. On S,
choose canonical coordinates q1 , . . . , qn , p1 , . . . , pn , and lift their hamiltonian vector
п¬Ѓelds
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
в€’ ,...,в€’ , ,..., .
в€‚p1 в€‚pn в€‚q1 в€‚qn

The lifts are closed under commutators, hence span an integrable subbundle. Mul-
tiplying these vector п¬Ѓelds on S by compactly supported functions if necessary to
make them complete, we obtain a local trivialization of П•, because П• is complete.
Any path on S lifts to M because any path lifts locally. 2

In particular, if S is simply connected, then there is a Poisson manifold F
such that M and S Г— F are diп¬Ђeomorphic as Poisson manifolds. In general, П• is
determined up to isomorphism by its holonomy

ПЂ1 (S) в€’в†’ Aut(F )

on a typical п¬Ѓber F of the map.
46 7 HAMILTONIAN ACTIONS

F

s M
s E

П•

c

S
s E

We thus found a functor from the category of complete Poisson maps M в†’ S
to the category of actions of ПЂ1 (S) by Poisson automorphisms on Poisson manifolds
F.
We also have a functor going in the other direction. Let S be the universal
cover of the symplectic manifold S; S is a symplectic manifold. Let F be a Poisson
manifold with a ПЂ1 (S)-action by Poisson automorphisms. On the product S Г— F
there is an induced diagonal action

Оі В· (Лњ, f ) = (Оі В· s, Оі В· f ) for Оі в€€ ПЂ1 (S) .
s Лњ

If we form the quotient by this action, we still get a projection

SГ—F П•
в€’в†’ S .
ПЂ1 (S)

This is a complete Poisson map with п¬Ѓber F .

Exercise 21
Show that this actually deп¬Ѓnes a functor from the category of actions of ПЂ1 (S)
by Poisson automorphisms on Poisson manifolds to the category of complete
Poisson maps from Poisson manifolds to S.

Remark. Comparing the results of this section with the theory of hamiltonian
group actions, it is tempting to think of any symplectic manifold S as the вЂњdual of
в™¦
the Lie algebra of ПЂ1 (S)вЂќ!
Part IV
Dual Pairs
8 Operator Algebras
In this chapter, we introduce terminology and quote results leading to the double
commutant theorem (Theorem 8.3) proved by von Neumann . Chapter 9 will
be devoted to analogous results in Poisson geometry.
In the following discussion, we denote the algebra of bounded operators on a
complex Hilbert space H by B(H). There are several topologies worth considering
on B(H).

Norm Topology and C в€— -Algebras
8.1

The norm of a bounded operator L в€€ B(H) is by deп¬Ѓnition

||Lu||H
||L|| = sup .
uв€€H\{0} ||u||H

Exercise 22
Check that || В· || satisп¬Ѓes the axioms for a norm:
(a) ||О» В· L|| = |О»| В· ||L||, О» в€€ C,
(b) ||L + M || в‰¤ ||L|| + ||M ||, and
(c) ||L|| > 0 if L = 0 .

This induces a (complete) metric

d(M, L) = ||L в€’ M ||

and thus a topology on B(H), called the norm topology.
On B(H) there is an adjoint operation в€— deп¬Ѓned uniquely by

Lв€— u, v = u, Lv

which has the properties

вЂў Lв€—в€— = L,

вЂў (LM )в€— = M в€— Lв€— , and

вЂў ||LLв€— || = ||L||2 .

We say that B(H) equipped with this *-operation is a C в€— -algebra. In general, a C в€— -
algebra is an algebra with a norm such that the algebra is complete with respect
to the topology induced by the norm and possesses a *-operation satisfying the
properties above. As general references on C в€— -algebras, we recommend [7, 36, 45].
Any norm-closed *-subalgebra of B(H) inherits the properties above and thus is
a C в€— -algebra. If A вЉ† B(H) is any *-subalgebra, its norm-closure A is a C в€— -algebra.
Conversely, we have the following theorem:

47
48 8 OPERATOR ALGEBRAS

Theorem 8.1 (GelвЂ™fand-Naimark ) Any C в€— -algebra is isomorphic as a normed
*-algebra to a norm-closed subalgebra of B(H).

Example. The collection of all п¬Ѓnite rank operators is a *-subalgebra; its closure
is the C в€— -subalgebra of compact operators on H вЂ“ that is, operators L such that
L applied to a bounded subset has compact closure. The identity operator I is
not compact if H is inп¬Ѓnite dimensional, as the closed unit ball in H is bounded
but not compact. (For instance, the sequence ai = (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .), where the 1
is in the ith slot, has no convergent subsequences.) For diagonalizable operators,
в™¦
compactness amounts to convergence of the eigenvalues to 0.
Let X be any compact Hausdorп¬Ђ topological space, and let C(X) be the al-
gebra of complex-valued continuous functions on X equipped with the sup norm.
Then pointwise addition and multiplication together with the *-operation deп¬Ѓned
by f в€— (x) = f (x) give C(X) the structure of a C в€— -algebra. The following theorem
demonstrates how general this example is:

Theorem 8.2 [63, 65, 64] Any commutative C в€— -algebra A with identity is iso-
metrically *-isomorphic to C(X) for some compact Hausdorп¬Ђ space X. One can
take X to be the space of non-zero *-homomorphisms from A to C. (X is then
called the spectrum of A.)

Recalling Theorem 8.1, how can C(X) be regarded as an algebra of operators
on a Hilbert space? Because X is compact, we can п¬Ѓnd a Borel measure on X
which is positive on any non-empty open set. C(X) is then realized as an algebra
of multiplication operators on L2 (X). For any function u в€€ C(X), deп¬Ѓne the
multiplication operator mu by mu (g) = ug for g в€€ L2 (X).

Exercise 23
Show that
||mu ||B(L2 (X)) = ||u||C(X) .

8.2 Strong and Weak Topologies

A second topology on B(H) is the topology of pointwise convergence, or the
strong topology. For each u в€€ H, deп¬Ѓne a semi-norm

||L||u = ||Lu||H .

A semi-norm is essentially the same as a norm except for the positivity requirement:
non-zero elements may have 0 semi-norm. We deп¬Ѓne the strong topology on B(H)
by declaring a sequence {Li } to converge if and only if the sequence converges in
the semi-norms || В· ||u for all choices of u в€€ H.
Example. The sequence of operators Li on L2 (N) =: l2 deп¬Ѓned by

Li (a0 , a1 , a2 , . . .) = (0, . . . , 0, ai , 0, . . .)

в™¦
converges to 0 in the strong topology, though each Li has norm 1.
8.3 Commutants 49

Example. Let Mi be the operator on L2 (N)

Mi (a0 , a1 , a2 , . . .) = (0, . . . , 0, a0 , 0, . . .) ,

where the a0 on the right is the ith entry. The sequence of the Mi вЂ™s does not
converge in the strong topology, yet its adjoint

Miв€— (a0 , a1 , a2 , . . .) = (ai , 0, 0, . . .)

в™¦
does converge strongly (exercise).
Another topology on B(H) is the weak topology, or the topology of con-
vergence of matrix elements. For u, v в€€ H, deп¬Ѓne a semi-norm

||L||u,v = | Lu, v | .

We say that a sequence {Li }iв€€I converges in the weak topology, if ||Li ||u,v converges
for each choice of u, v.
The sequences Li , Mi and Miв€— in the examples above converge in the weak
topology. In general, any strongly convergent sequence is weakly convergent, and
any norm convergent sequence is strongly convergent, so the weak topology is in
fact weaker than the strong topology, which is still weaker than the norm topology.
By Exercise 23, the inclusion C(X) в†’ B(L2 (X)) given by u в†’ mu is an
isometry; this implies that C(X) is norm-closed when considered as a subalgebra
of B(L2 (X)), which illustrates Theorem 8.1. However, if we use a weaker topology
(say the strong or weak topology), then C(X) is no longer closed.

Exercise 24
Construct a sequence of functions in C(X) converging to (multiplication by) a
step function in the strong (or weak) topology. Show that this sequence does
not converge in the norm topology.

The weak (or strong) closure of C(X) in B(L2 (X)) is, in fact, Lв€ћ (X). Keep
in mind that elements of Lв€ћ (X) cannot be strictly considered as functions on X,
since two functions which diп¬Ђer on a set of measure 0 on X correspond to the same
element of B(L2 (X)).

8.3 Commutants

A subalgebra A of B(H) is called unital if it contains the identity operator of B(H).
For a subset A вЉ† B(H) closed under the *-operator, we deп¬Ѓne the commutant of
A to be
A = {L в€€ B(H) | в€Ђa в€€ A, La = aL} .

Exercise 25
Show that A is a weakly closed *-subalgebra.

A weakly closed unital *-subalgebra of B(H) is called a von Neumann alge-
bra. [47, 74, 156, 157, 158] are general references on von Neumann algebras. There
is a remarkable connection between algebraic and topological properties of these
algebras, as shown by the following theorem.
50 8 OPERATOR ALGEBRAS

Theorem 8.3 (von Neumann ) For a unital *-subalgebra A вЉ† B(H), the
following are equivalent:
1. A = A,
2. A is weakly closed,
3. A is strongly closed.
Corollary 8.4 If A is any subset of B(H), then A =A.
For an arbitrary unital *-subalgebra A вЉ† B(H), the double commutant A
coincides with the weak closure of A.
The center of A is
Z(A) = A в€© A .
If A is a von Neumann algebra with Z(A) = C В· 1, then A is called a factor.
These are the building blocks for von Neumann algebras. Von Neumann showed
that every von Neumann algebra is a direct integral (generalized direct sum) of
factors [129, 130].
Example. We have already seen some classes of von Neumann algebras:
вЂў B(H), which is a factor.
вЂў Lв€ћ (X) (with respect to a given measure class on X), which is a generalized
direct integral of copies of C (which are factors):

Lв€ћ (X) = вЉ• a copy of C for each point of X .
X

вЂў The commutant of any subset of B(H), for instance the collection of operators
which commute with the action of a group on H.
в™¦

8.4 Dual Pairs
A dual pair (A, A ) is a pair of unital *-subalgebras A and A of B(H) which are
the commutants of one another. By Theorem 8.3, A and A are then von Neumann
algebras.
If A is a von Neumann subalgebra of B(H), then there are inclusions
B(H)
В
 s
d
В  d
В  d
В  d
В  d
A A
which form a dual pair. The centers of A and A coincide:
Z(A) = A в€© A = A в€© A = Z(A ) ,
so that A is a factor if and only if A is.
We next turn to geometric counterparts of dual pairs in the context of Poisson
geometry.
9 Dual Pairs in Poisson Geometry
We will discuss a geometric version of dual pairs for Poisson algebras associated to
Poisson manifolds.

9.1 Commutants in Poisson Geometry

We have seen that a Poisson manifold (M, {В·, В·}) determines a Poisson algebra
(C в€ћ (M ), {В·, В·}) and that a Poisson map П• : M в†’ N induces a Poisson-algebra
homomorphism П•в€— : C в€ћ (N ) в†’ C в€ћ (M ).
Suppose that N is a Poisson quotient of M . Then there is a map C в€ћ (N ) в†’
C в€ћ (M ) identifying C в€ћ (N ) as a Poisson subalgebra of C в€ћ (M ) consisting of func-
tions constant along the equivalence classes of M determined by the quotient map.
In the converse direction, we might choose an arbitrary Poisson subalgebra of
C в€ћ (M ) and search for a corresponding quotient map. In general this is not possi-
ble. To understand the tie between Poisson quotients and Poisson subalgebras, we
examine examples of commutants in (C в€ћ (M ), {В·, В·}).
в€‚ в€‚
Example. Let M = R2n , with the standard Poisson structure О  = в€‚qi в€§ в€‚pi .
The Poisson subalgebra, Pol(R2n ), of polynomial functions does not correspond to
any Poisson quotient manifold. Since Pol(R2n ) separates any two points of R2n ,
the вЂњquotient mapвЂќ would have to be the identity map on R2n .
On the other hand, the Poisson subalgebra

ПЂ в€— C в€ћ (Rn1 ,...,qn ) вЉ† C в€ћ (R2n,...,qn ,p1 ,...,pn )
q q1

does correspond to the quotient ПЂ : R2n в†’ Rn . в™¦
The diп¬Ђerent behavior of the subalgebras Pol(R2n ) and C в€ћ (Rn1 ,...,qn ) of C в€ћ (R2n )
q
can be interpreted in the following manner.
Let A be a Poisson algebra and B вЉ† A a Poisson subalgebra. Deп¬Ѓne the
commutant of B in A to be

B = {f в€€ A | {f, B} = 0} .

Example. For A = C в€ћ (R2n ) we have:

Pol(R2n ) = constant functions

C в€ћ (R2n )
(constant functions) =

C в€ћ (Rn1 ,...,qn ) C в€ћ (Rn1 ,...,qn )
=
q q

C в€ћ (Rq1 ) C в€ћ (R2nв€’1 n ,p2 ,...,pn ) .
= q1 ,...,q

The double commutants of these subalgebras are:

C в€ћ (R2n )
Pol(R2n ) =

C в€ћ (Rn1 ,...,qn ) C в€ћ (Rn1 ,...,qn )
=
q q

C в€ћ (Rq1 ) C в€ћ (Rq1 ) .
=

51
52 9 DUAL PAIRS IN POISSON GEOMETRY

Since Pol(R2n ) does not correspond to a Poisson quotient while the other two
subalgebras do, this seems to indicate that the Poisson subalgebras that correspond
в™¦
to quotient maps are those which are their own double commutants.

Question. (R. Conti) Is A = A for every subset of a Poisson algebra? (See
Corollary 8.4.)

9.2 Pairs of Symplectically Complete Foliations
Suppose that M and N are Poisson manifolds and that J : M в†’ N is a Poisson map
with a dense image in N . Then the pull-back J в€— is an injection. The commutant
of the Poisson subalgebra

A = J в€— (C в€ћ (N )) вЉ† C в€ћ (M )

is
{f в€€ C в€ћ (M ) | {f, A} = 0}
A =
{f в€€ C в€ћ (M ) | в€Ђg в€€ A, Xg f = 0}
=
{f в€€ C в€ћ (M ) | в€Ђg в€€ A, df annihilates О (dg)} .
=
At a point x of M , we have
в€—
{values of hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds О (dg) at x | g в€€ A} = О (image Tx J)
О ((ker Tx J)в—¦ ) ,
=

where (ker Tx J)в—¦ is the subspace of covectors that annihilate ker Tx J вЉ† Tx M . When
M happens to be symplectic,

О ((ker Tx J)в—¦ ) = (ker Tx J)вЉҐ ,

where W вЉҐ is the symplectic orthogonal to the subspace W inside the tangent
space. (In the symplectic case, taking orthogonals twice returns the same subspace:
(W вЉҐ )вЉҐ = W .) In the symplectic case, we have

{values of hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds О (dg) at x | g в€€ A} = (ker Tx J)вЉҐ .

Exercise 26
Show that
{values of hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds О (dg) at x | g в€€ A } = ker Tx J .

Suppose now that J : M в†’ N is a constant-rank map from a symplectic
manifold M to a Poisson manifold N . The kernel

ker T J

forms an integrable subbundle of T M , deп¬Ѓning a foliation of M . The symplectic
orthogonal distribution
(ker T J)вЉҐ
is generated by a family of vector п¬Ѓelds closed under the bracket operation, since
they are lifts of hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds on N . Hence, it is an integrable distribu-
tion which deп¬Ѓnes another foliation. This is a particular instance of the following
lemma.
9.3 Symplectic Dual Pairs 53

Lemma 9.1 Let M be a symplectic manifold and F вЉ† T M an integrable subbun-
dle. Then F вЉҐ is integrable if and only if the set of functions on open sets of M
annihilated by vectors in F is closed under the Poisson bracket.

A foliation F deп¬Ѓned by a subbundle F вЉ† T M as in this lemma (i.e. integrable,
with the set of functions on open sets of M annihilated by vectors in F closed
under the Poisson bracket) is called a symplectically complete foliation .
Symplectically complete foliations come in orthogonal pairs, since (F вЉҐ )вЉҐ = F .

9.3 Symplectic Dual Pairs

Example. Suppose that M is symplectic and J : M в†’ gв€— is a constant-rank
Poisson map. The symplectic orthogonal to the foliation by the level sets of J is
exactly the foliation determined by hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds generated by functions
on gв€— , which is the same as the foliation determined by the hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds
generated by linear functions on gв€— (since the diп¬Ђerentials of linear functions span
the cotangent spaces of gв€— ). The leaves of this foliation are simply the orbits of
the induced G-action on M . We could hence consider the вЂњdualвЂќ to J to be the
projection of M to the orbit space, and write
M
В  d
JВ  dp
В  d
В  d
В
d
gв€— M/G .

Some conditions are required for this diagram to make sense as a pair of Poisson
maps between manifolds, in particular, for M/G to exist as a manifold:

1. J must have constant rank so that the momentum levels form a foliation.

2. The G-orbits must form a п¬Ѓbration (i.e. the G-action must be regular).

In this situation, the subalgebras J в€— (C в€ћ (gв€— )) and pв€— (C в€ћ (M/G)) of C в€ћ (M ) are
commutants of one another, and hence their centers are isomorphic. Furthermore,
when J is a submersion, the transverse structures to corresponding leaves in gв€— and
M/G are anti-isomorphic . So the Poisson geometry of the orbit space M/G
is вЂњmodulo symplectic manifoldsвЂќ very similar to the Poisson geometry of gв€— . This
construction depends on J being surjective or, equivalently, on the G-action being
locally free. When J is not surjective, we should simply throw out the part of gв€—
в™¦
not in the image of J.
In general, given a symplectic manifold M and Poisson manifolds P1 and P2 , a
symplectic dual pair is a diagram
M
В  d
J1 В  d J2
В  d
В  d
В
В‚
P1 P2
54 9 DUAL PAIRS IN POISSON GEOMETRY

of Poisson maps with symplectically orthogonal п¬Ѓbers. Orthogonality implies

{J1 (C в€ћ (P1 )), J2 (C в€ћ (P2 ))} = 0 .
в€— в€—

Sometimes, this relation is written as {J1 , J2 } = 0.
Remark. For a pair of Poisson maps J1 : M в†’ P1 and J2 : M в†’ P2 , imposing
{J1 , J2 } = 0 is equivalent to imposing that the product map

J1 Г— J2
P1 Г— P2
M E

в™¦
be a Poisson map.

9.4 Morita Equivalence

Let J1 , J2 be surjective Poisson submersions from a symplectic manifold M to
Poisson manifolds P1 , P2 . If

J1 (C в€ћ (P1 )) = J2 (C в€ћ (P2 ))
в€— в€—
J2 (C в€ћ (P2 )) = J1 (C в€ћ (P1 )) ,
в€— в€—
and

then the J1 -п¬Ѓbers are symplectic orthogonals to the J2 -п¬Ѓbers:

ker T J1 = (ker T J2 )вЉҐ .

The reverse implication is not true unless we assume that the п¬Ѓbers are connected,
essentially because ker T J1 = (ker T J2 )вЉҐ is a local condition while the hypothesis
was a global condition. If J1 and J2 have connected п¬Ѓbers, then the two conditions
above are equivalent. To require that п¬Ѓbers be connected is appropriate because of
the following property for such dual pairs.

Proposition 9.2 Let J1 , J2 be a pair of complete surjective Poisson submersions
M
В  d
J1 В  d J2
В  d
В  d
В
d
P1 P2
from a symplectic manifold M . Assume that the J1 -п¬Ѓbers are symplectically orthog-
onal to the J2 -п¬Ѓbers, and that all п¬Ѓbers are connected. Then there is a one-to-one
correspondence between the symplectic leaves of P1 and the symplectic leaves of P2 .

Let Fj вЉ† T M be the distribution spanned by the hamiltonian vector
Proof.
п¬Ѓelds of functions in Jj (C в€ћ (Pj )). The assumption says that, at each point, the
в€—

distribution F1 (respectively F2 ) gives the subspace tangent to the п¬Ѓbers of J2
(respectively J1 ); this clearly shows that each of F1 and F2 is integrable. To see
that F1 + F2 is also integrable, note that F1 + F2 is spanned by hamiltonian vector
п¬Ѓelds, and that the vector п¬Ѓelds from J1 commute with those from J2 . So we can
integrate F1 + F2 to a foliation of M .
A leaf L of the foliation deп¬Ѓned by F1 + F2 projects by each map Ji to a set
Ji (L), which is in fact a symplectic leaf of Pi (i = 1, 2) for the following two reasons.
9.5 Representation Equivalence 55

First, by completeness, we can move anywhere within a symplectic leaf of Pi by
moving in the Fi direction in L. Secondly, if we move in the F2 (respectively F1 )
direction in L, then nothing happens in the projection to P1 (respectively P2 ).
Therefore, there is a map from the leaf space of F1 + F2 to the product of the
leaf spaces of P1 and P2 . The image R of this map gives a relation between the leaf
space of P1 and the leaf space of P2 . Additionally, the projection of R to either
factor of the product is surjective. Because the п¬Ѓbers of J1 , J2 are connected, it
follows that R is the graph of a bijection. 2
We say that two Poisson manifolds P1 , P2 are Morita equivalent [176, 177] if
there is a symplectic manifold M and surjective submersions J1 , J2

M
В  d
J1 В  d J2
В  d
В  d
В
d
P1 P2

satisfying the following conditions:

вЂў J1 is a Poisson map and J2 is an anti-Poisson map (anti in the sense of being
an anti-homomorphism for the bracket).

вЂў each Ji is complete and has constant rank,

вЂў each Ji has connected, simply connected п¬Ѓbers,

вЂў the п¬Ѓbers of J1 , J2 are symplectically orthogonal to one another. Equivalently,
J1 (C в€ћ (P1 )) and J2 (C в€ћ (P2 )) are commutants of one another.
в€— в€—

Remark. The map J2 in the Morita equivalence is sometimes denoted as a
Poisson map J2 : M в†’ P 2 , where P 2 is the manifold P2 with Poisson bracket
deп¬Ѓned by {В·, В·}P 2 = в€’{В·, В·}P2 . в™¦

Remark. In spite of the name, Morita equivalence is not an equivalence relation,
в™¦
as it fails to be reп¬‚exive [176, 177].

9.5 Representation Equivalence

The Morita equivalence of Poisson manifolds provides a classical analogue to the
Morita equivalence of algebras. Let A1 , A2 be algebras over a п¬Ѓeld K. Deп¬Ѓne an
(A1 , A2 )-bimodule E to be an abelian group E with a left action of A1 and a right
action of A2 such that for a1 в€€ A1 , a2 в€€ A2 , e в€€ E

(a1 e)a2 = a1 (ea2 ) .

So we have injective maps

A1 в€’в†’ EndK (E)
opp
A2 в€’в†’ EndK (E) .
56 9 DUAL PAIRS IN POISSON GEOMETRY

where Aopp denotes A2 acting on the left by inverses. A Morita equivalence from
2
A1 to A2 is an (A1 , A2 )-bimodule E such that A1 and A2 are mutual commutants
in EndK (E). Morita introduced this as a weak equivalence between algebras, and he
showed that it implies that A1 -modules and A2 -modules are equivalent categories.
Xu [176, 177] showed that we can imitate this construction for symplectic real-
izations of Poisson manifolds. In particular, if P1 , P2 are Poisson manifolds, then we
say that they are representation equivalent if the category of complete Poisson
maps to P1 is equivalent to the category of complete Poisson maps to P2 . Xu then
proved the following theorem:

Theorem 9.3 (Xu [176, 177]) If two Poisson manifolds are Morita equivalent,
then they are representation equivalent.

For a survey of XuвЂ™s work and Morita equivalence in general, see the article
by Meyer . For a survey of the relation between Poisson geometry and von
Neumann algebras, see the article by Shlyakhtenko .

9.6 Topological Restrictions

The importance of the condition that the п¬Ѓbers of Ji be simply connected in the
deп¬Ѓnition of Morita equivalence between Poisson manifolds is explained by the
following property for the case where P1 and P2 are symplectic.

Proposition 9.4 Let S1 , S2 be symplectic manifolds. Then S1 and S2 are Morita
equivalent if and only if they have isomorphic fundamental groups.

Proof. Suppose that S1 , S2 are Morita equivalent. Then, from the long exact
sequence for homotopy

0 = ПЂ1 (п¬Ѓber) в€’в†’ ПЂ1 (M ) в€’в†’ ПЂ1 (Sj ) в€’в†’ ПЂ0 (п¬Ѓber) = 0 ,

we conclude that
ПЂ1 (S1 ) ПЂ1 (M ) ПЂ1 (S2 ) .
Furthermore, the Morita equivalence induces a speciп¬Ѓc isomorphism via pull-back
by the maps from S.
Conversely, suppose that ПЂ1 (S1 ) ПЂ1 (S2 ) ПЂ. Let Sj be the universal cover of
Sj , so that Sj is a principal ПЂ-bundle over Sj . Because ПЂ acts on S1 and S2 , there
is a natural diagonal action of ПЂ on S1 Г— S2 which allows us to deп¬Ѓne the dual pair

S1 Г— S 2
ПЂ
В  d
В  d
В  d
В  d
В  В‚
d
S1 = S1 /ПЂ S 2 = S 2 /ПЂ

Exercise 27
Check that these maps have simply connected п¬Ѓbers and that this deп¬Ѓnes a
Morita equivalence.
9.6 Topological Restrictions 57

2
Isomorphism of fundamental groups implies isomorphism of п¬Ѓrst de Rham coho-
mology groups. For symplectic manifolds, the de Rham cohomology is isomorphic
to Poisson cohomology. For general Poisson manifolds, we have the following result.

Theorem 9.5 (Ginzburg-Lu ) If P1 , P2 are Morita equivalent Poisson man-
1 1
ifolds, then HО  (P1 ) HО  (P2 ).

Since any two simply connected symplectic manifolds are Morita equivalent, we
are not able to say anything about the higher Poisson cohomology groups.
10 Examples of Symplectic Realizations
A symplectic realization of a Poisson manifold P is a Poisson map П• from a sym-
plectic manifold M to P .

Injective Realizations of T3
10.1

Let R3 have coordinates (x1 , x2 , x3 ) and (by an abuse of notation) let T3 be the
3-torus with coordinates (x1 , x2 , x3 ) such that xi в€ј xi + 2ПЂ. Deп¬Ѓne a Poisson
structure (on R3 or T3 ) by

в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
в€§
О = + О±1 + О±2 .
в€‚x1 в€‚x3 в€‚x2 в€‚x3
The Poisson bracket relations are:

{x1 , x2 } = 1 , {x2 , x3 } = в€’О±1 , {x1 , x3 } = О±2 .

On R3 , О  deп¬Ѓnes a foliation by planes with slope determined by О±1 , О±2 . If
1, О±1 , О±2 are linearly independent over Q, then О  also deп¬Ѓnes a foliation on T3 by
planes, each of which is dense in T3 . This is called a (fully) irrational foliation.
If both О±1 and О±2 are rational, then the foliation of T3 is by 2-tori, and if exactly
two of 1, О±1 , О±2 are linearly dependent over Q, then the foliation is by cylinders.
In the fully irrational case, the algebra HО  (T3 ) of Casimir functions is trivial; in
0

fact, the constants are the only Lв€ћ functions constant on symplectic leaves, since
the foliation on T3 is ergodic. There are no proper Poisson ideals. This structure
allows us to regard T3 as being вЂњalmost symplecticвЂќ. We will see, however, that
its complete symplectic realizations are more interesting than those of a symplectic
manifold.

Exercise 28
If О  deп¬Ѓnes a foliation by cylinders, are there any (nontrivial) Casimir func-
tions?

First we may deп¬Ѓne a realization J by inclusion of a symplectic leaf,

R2 (x1 , x2 )

J
c c
T3 (x1 , x2 , О±1 x1 + О±2 x2 ) (mod 2ПЂ)
Although J is not a submersion, it is a complete map. There is such a realization
for each symplectic leaf of T3 , deп¬Ѓned by

Jc : (x1 , x2 ) в€’в†’ (x1 , x2 , О±1 x1 + О±2 x2 + c) ,

with c в€€ R. For any integers n0 , n1 , n2 , substituting c + 2ПЂ(n0 + О±1 n1 + О±2 n2 ) for
c gives the same leaf. Thus the leaf space of T3 is parametrized by c в€€ R/2ПЂ(Z +
О±1 Z + О±2 Z).
The leaf space is highly singular; there is not even a sensible way to deп¬Ѓne
nonconstant measurable functions. It is better to consider the Poisson manifold T3

59
60 10 EXAMPLES OF SYMPLECTIC REALIZATIONS

itself as a model for the leaf space, just as one uses noncommutative algebras to
model such singular spaces in noncommutative geometry .
The map J : R2 в†’ T3 has a dense image, and thus the induced pull-back
on functions, J в€— : C в€ћ (T3 ) в†’ C в€ћ (R2 ), is injective. The following (periodic or
quasi-periodic) functions on R2 ,
eix1 , eix2 , ei(О±1 x1 +О±2 x2 ) ,
are in the image of J в€— , and generate such a large class of functions that any function
in C в€ћ (R2 ) can be uniformly C в€ћ -approximated by them on compact sets. Thus
J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )) = constants J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )) = C в€ћ (R2 ) .
and
Since the Poisson algebra J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )) is not its own double commutant, there can
not be another Poisson manifold P which will make
R2
В  d
JВ  d
В  d
В  d
В
В‚
T3 P
into a Morita equivalence. In fact, to form a dual pair, such a вЂњmanifoldвЂќ P would
have to be a single point because each п¬Ѓber of J is a single point and because of
orthogonality of п¬Ѓbers. The diagram
R2
В  d
JВ  d
В  d
В  d
В  d
В‚
T3 point
satisп¬Ѓes the conditions that the п¬Ѓbers be symplectic orthogonals and that the п¬Ѓbers
be all connected and simply connected. However, the function spaces of this pair are
not mutual commutants. Of course, the problem here is that J is not a submersion.

Submersive Realizations of T3
10.2
Noticing that T3 is a regular Poisson manifold, we can use the construction for prov-
ing LieвЂ™s theorem (Chapter 4) to form a symplectic realization by adding enough
extra dimensions. Speciп¬Ѓcally, consider the map
R4 (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 )

J
c c
T3 (x1 , x2 , x3 )
where R4 has symplectic structure deп¬Ѓned by
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
в€§ в€§
О R4 = + О±1 + О±2 + ,
в€‚x1 в€‚x3 в€‚x2 в€‚x3 в€‚x3 в€‚x4
Submersive Realizations of T3
10.2 61

and T3 has the fully irrational Poisson structure as above:

в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
в€§
О = + О±1 + О±2 .
в€‚x1 в€‚x3 в€‚x2 в€‚x3

Exercise 29
Check that О R4 deп¬Ѓnes a non-degenerate 2-form on R4 which is equivalent to
the standard symplectic structure
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
в€§ в€§
О std = + .
в€‚x1 в€‚x2 в€‚x3 в€‚x4
Show that the symplectic structures induced on T4 by О R4 and О std are not
equivalent, though they both have the same volume element
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
О R4 в€§ О R4 = О std в€§ О std = в€§ в€§ в€§ .
в€‚x1 в€‚x2 в€‚x3 в€‚x4
1
(Consider times the cohomology class of each symplectic structure.)
2ПЂ

To п¬Ѓnd the commutant of J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )) in this case, we examine the symplectic
orthogonals to the п¬Ѓbers of J. First, we list the Poisson brackets for the symplectic
structure on R4 :
{x1 , x2 } = 1 {x1 , x4 } = 0
{x2 , x3 } = в€’О±1 {x2 , x4 } = 0
{x1 , x3 } = О±2 {x3 , x4 } = 1
and the hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓelds
в€‚ в€‚
в€’ в€’ О±2
Xx1 = ,
в€‚x2 в€‚x3
в€‚ в€‚
Xx2 = + О±1 ,
в€‚x1 в€‚x3
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
в€’ О±1 в€’
Xx3 = О±2 ,
в€‚x1 в€‚x2 в€‚x4
в€‚
Xx4 = .
в€‚x3

The commutant of J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )) consists of the functions killed by Xx1 , Xx2 and Xx3 .
Since these three vector п¬Ѓelds are constant, it suп¬ѓces to п¬Ѓnd the linear functions
c1 x1 + c2 x2 + c3 x3 + c4 x4 killed by these vector п¬Ѓelds, i.e. solve the system
пЈ±
пЈІ в€’c2 в€’ О±2 c3 = 0
c1 + О±1 c3 = 0
О±2 c1 в€’ О±1 c2 в€’ c4 = 0
пЈі

The linear solutions are the constant multiples of

О±1 x1 + О±2 x2 в€’ x3 ,

and J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )) вЉ† C в€ћ (R4 ) consists of functions of О±1 x1 + О±2 x2 в€’ x3 .
Given the commutant, we can geometrically deп¬Ѓne the other leg of a dual pair
to be the map J2 : R4 в†’ R given

(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) в€’в†’ О±1 x1 + О±2 x2 в€’ x3 .
62 10 EXAMPLES OF SYMPLECTIC REALIZATIONS

Thus we have the diagram

R4
В  d
JВ  d J2
В  d
В  d
В
В‚
T3 R
Although О±1 x1 +О±2 x2 в€’x3 is not quasi-periodic, it lies in the closure of J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )).
One can check that J2 (C в€ћ (R)) = J в€— (C в€ћ (T3 )), and so this does not deп¬Ѓne a
в€—

Morita equivalence. The obstruction stems from the fact that J does not have
connected п¬Ѓbers; a п¬Ѓber of J is an inп¬Ѓnite collection of parallel lines in R4 .
We can factor J through the quotient R4 в†’ T4 , and denote the induced map by
JT4 : T4 в†’ T3 . The commutant of JT4 (C в€ћ (T3 )) in C в€ћ (T4 ) should be generated
в€—

by the linear function О±1 x1 + О±2 x2 в€’ x3 on T4 , but this is not periodic on R4 and
thus is not deп¬Ѓned on T4 . Therefore, the commutant of JT4 (C в€ћ (T3 )) in C в€ћ (T4 )
в€—

is trivial, and the double commutant must be all of C в€ћ (T4 ), which again prevents
Morita equivalence (moreover, п¬Ѓbers would fail to be simply connected). As before,
the other leg of the dual pair would have to be a single point rather than R:

T4
В  d
JT4 В  d
В  d
В  d
В  d
В‚
T3 point

The вЂњdualвЂќ to T3 thus depends on the choice of realization, but requiring that
the realization have connected п¬Ѓbers seems to imply that the dual is вЂњpointlikeвЂќ.
We close these sections on T3 by mentioning that there is still much to investigate
in the classiп¬Ѓcation of complete realizations. For instance, it would be interesting
to be able to classify complete Poisson maps from (connected) symplectic manifolds
to
в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ в€‚
вЂў T3 with the Poisson tensor О  = + О±1 в€‚x2 в€§ + О±2 в€‚x3 , or
в€‚x1 в€‚x2

вЂў a given manifold M with the zero Poisson tensor.

10.3 Complex Coordinates in Symplectic Geometry

The symplectic vector space R2n can be identiп¬Ѓed with the complex space Cn by
the coordinate change
zj = qj + ipj .
In order to study Cn as a (real) manifold, it helps to use the complex valued func-
tions, vector п¬Ѓelds, etc., even though the (real) symplectic form is not holomorphic.
On a general manifold M , the complexiп¬Ѓed tangent bundle is

TM вЉ— C
TC M =
T M вЉ• iT M ,
=
10.4 The Harmonic Oscillator 63

and the complexiп¬Ѓed cotangent bundle is
в€—
T в€—M вЉ— C
TC M =
T в€— M вЉ• iT в€— M
=
= HomC (TC M, C)
= HomR (T M, C).

Introducing complex conjugate coordinates z j = qj в€’ ipj , we п¬Ѓnd dzj = dqj +
idpj , dz j = dqj в€’ idpj as linear functionals on TC M , and

dzj в€§ dz j (dqj + idpj ) в€§ (dqj в€’ idpj )
=
в€’2i (dqj в€§ dpj ) .
=
в€—
Thus the standard symplectic structure on TC M can be written in complex coor-
dinates as
i
dzj в€§ dz j .
П‰=
2j

{В·, В·} to complex valued functions and
We linearly extend the Poisson bracket
compute
{zk , zj } = 0
{z k , z j } = 0
{zk , z j } = в€’2iОґkj .
By these formulas, the Poisson tensor becomes
в€‚ в€‚
О R2n = в€’2i в€§ ,
в€‚zj в€‚z j
j

в€‚ в€‚
where в€‚zj , в€‚z j form the dual basis to dzj , dz j , and hence satisfy

в€‚ 1 в€‚ в€‚ в€‚ 1 в€‚ в€‚
в€’i
= , = +i .
в€‚zj 2 в€‚qj в€‚pj в€‚z j 2 в€‚qj в€‚pj

10.4 The Harmonic Oscillator

The harmonic oscillator is a system of n simple harmonic oscillators without
coupling, modeled by (R2n , О R2n ) with hamiltonian function
1
О±j (qj + p2 ) .
2
hО± = j
2 j

The coeп¬ѓcients О±j are the n frequencies of oscillation. Using complex coordinates,
we rewrite hО± as
1
hО± = О±j zj z j .
2j

To compute the п¬‚ow of hО± , we work out the hamiltonian equations:
dzk 1 1
= {zk , hО± } = О±j {zk , zj z j } = О±k zk (в€’2i) = в€’iО±k zk ,
dt 2 2
j

dz k
= iО±k z k . The solution is thus zk (t) = zk (0)eв€’iО±k t .
and similarly, dt
64 10 EXAMPLES OF SYMPLECTIC REALIZATIONS

If О±k = 1 for all k, the п¬‚ow is the standard action of S 1 on Cn , which is free on
Cn \ {0}.
If all the О±k are rationally related, then we can assume after a change of time
scale that О±k в€€ Z and see that we still have an action of S 1 . This action on Cn \ {0}
will generally not be free, but rather will have discrete stabilizers.
If the О±k are not rationally related, then this deп¬Ѓnes an R-action, as the typical
orbits will not be closed, but will be dense on a torus. From now on, we will
concentrate on this case.
To study the orbit space of the R-action, we start by calculating the commu-
tant. Speciп¬Ѓcally, we want to п¬Ѓnd the polynomial functions commuting with the
hamiltonian.

Exercise 30
For a typical monomial z z m = z11 В· В· В· znn z m1 В· В· В· z mn , compute:
n
1
m m m
{zj j z j j , zj z j } = j zj j z j j (2i) + j zj j z j j (в€’2i) ,
(a)
{z z m , 1 О±j zj z j } = i О±j (mj в€’ j )z z m .
(b) 2

Thus the monomials in zj and z j are eigenvectors of the hamiltonian vector п¬Ѓeld
of the oscillator hО± . The corresponding eigenvalues are

О±j (mj в€’
i j) .
j

The commutant of hО± in Pol(Cnв€— ) is spanned by the monomials z z m with О±j (mj в€’
j ) = 0.

Example. Suppose that the О±j вЂ™s are linearly independent over Q. Then the only
monomials in the commutant are those with mj = j for all j, that is, monomials of
the form z z = (zz) . In this case, the functions invariant under the hamiltonian
action are just polynomials in Ij = zj z j = |zj |2 . Then we can see this roughly as a
pair
Cn
В  d
Ij В  d hО±
В  d
В  d
В
d
Rn R
Of course, Ij has a singularity at 0, and its image is only in the positive orthant of
Rn . This also could not be a dual pair of symplectic realizations, as the dimensions
of the п¬Ѓbers do not match up properly unless we delete the origin. Even so, this
в™¦
example provides some intuition toward our study of dual pairs.
If О±j в€€ Z for all j, then calculating the commutant of hО± is equivalent to solving
the system of linear equations

О±j (mj в€’ j) =0
j

over the integers. What makes this problem non-trivial is that we are only interested
in non-negative integer solutions for j , mj , in order to study the ring of invariant
functions deп¬Ѓned on all of Cn .
10.5 A Dual Pair from Complex Geometry 65

To avoid this diп¬ѓculty, we look п¬Ѓrst at the case О±j = 1 for all j. Thus our
equation reduces to (mj в€’ j ) = 0, or mj = j . The set of solutions for
this system of equations is spanned by the monomials zj z k . In fact, the set {zj z k }
forms a basis for the subring of solutions.
Remark. The real part of zj z k is invariant under the hamiltonian action since
it can be expressed as zj z k + zk z j . Similarly, the imaginary part zj z k в€’ zk z j is
в™¦
invariant under the hamiltonian п¬‚ow.
The most general linear combination of the basis elements (that is, the most

ajk в€€ C ,
ha = ajk zj z k ,
j,k

and any function of this form is invariant under the hamiltonian п¬‚ow. Furthermore,
these are all the quadratic invariants. The invariant functions will not commute
with one another, as the basis elements themselves did not commute.

10.5 A Dual Pair from Complex Geometry
To summarize the previous section: on Cn , the hamiltonian h = 1 zj z j generates
2
a п¬‚ow, which is just multiplication by unit complex numbers. The invariant func-
tions ha = j,k ajk zj z k generate complex linear п¬‚ows (i.e. п¬‚ows by transformations
commuting with multiplication by complex constants), which preserve h as well as
the symplectic form П‰.
Hence, transformations generated by ha are unitary. The group of all linear
transformations leaving h invariant is the unitary group U(n). We would like to
show that the п¬‚ows of the ha вЂ™s give a basis for the unitary Lie algebra u(n).
Remark. The function ha is real valued if and only if ajk = akj , i.e. the matrix
(ajk ) is hermitian. Thus the set of real valued quadratic solutions corresponds to
the set of hermitian matrices.
Recall that the Poisson bracket of two invariant functions is again invariant
under the hamiltonian п¬‚ow. Moreover, the bracket of two quadratics is again
quadratic, and thus we can use the correspondence above to deп¬Ѓne a bracket on
the group of hermitian matrices.

Exercise 31
Check that
{ha , hb } = hi[a,b] ,
where [a, b] is the standard commutator bracket of matrices.

в™¦
The algebra u(n) is the Lie algebra of skew-hermitian matrices. Denoting the
space of hermitian matrices by hn , we identify
в†ђв†’
hn u(n)
О»
в€’в†’
a ia .
For a, b в€€ hn , it is easy to check that

[О»a, О»b] = О»(i[a, b]) ,
66 10 EXAMPLES OF SYMPLECTIC REALIZATIONS

and thus the bilinear map hn Г— hn в†’ hn taking (a, b) to i[a, b] is the usual commu-
tator bracket on u(n) pulled back by О» to hn . With this identiп¬Ѓcation of invariant
п¬‚ows as unitary matrices, we see that the map

u(n) в€’в†’ C в€ћ (Cn )
hn

is a Lie algebra homomorphism. From our discussion in Section 7.2, we conclude
that there is a complete momentum map J : Cn в†’ u(n)в€— hв€— corresponding to
n
an action of U(n) on Cn . This is the standard action of the unitary group on Cn .
We may view J as a map J : z в†’ z вЉ— z (zj z k ). The value of the function ha at
(zj z k ) в€€ u(n)в€— is the inner product of the matrix (ajk ) with the matrix (zj z k ).
Therefore, we have a pair
Cn
В  d
JВ  dh
В  d
В  d
В
d
hв€— u(n)в€— R u(1)в€—
n

Removing the origin in Cn , we get a dual pair for which the image of the left leg
is the collection of rank-one skew-hermitian, positive semi-deп¬Ѓnite matrices, and
the image of the right leg is R+ . A function which commutes with J is invariant
on the concentric spheres centered at 0 and is thus a function of |zz| вЂ“ the square
of the radius. On the other hand, even though there is a singularity at 0 в€€ Cn , any
function on Cn commuting with h is in fact a pull-back of a function on u(n) by
the map J. In general, functions which are pull-backs by the momentum map J
are called collective functions.

Conjecture 10.1 (Guillemin-Sternberg ) Suppose that a symplectic torus
Tk acts linearly on Cn with quadratic momentum map J : Cn в†’ (tk )в€— . If the map
Cn в†’ Cn /Tk corresponds to the invariant functions under the torus action, then
Cn
В  d
J dp
В
В  d
В  d
В
В‚
(tk )в€— Cn /Tk
is a dual pair, in the sense that the images of J в€— and pв€— are mutual commutants in
C в€ћ (Cn ).

Guillemin and Sternberg  almost proved this as stated for tori and conjec-
tured that it held for any compact connected Lie group acting symplectically on
Cn . Lerman  gave a counterexample and, with Karshon , provided a proof
of the conjecture for (tk )в€— as well as an understanding of when this conjecture does
and does not hold for arbitrary compact groups.
Example. LermanвЂ™s counterexample for the more general conjecture is the group
SU(2) acting on C2 (see [93, 103] for more information). As for the case of u(2)
studied above, the invariant functions corresponding to the collective functions are
functions of the square of the radius. The commutator of these functions are pulled
10.5 A Dual Pair from Complex Geometry 67

back from u(2)в€— , not su(2)в€— . For instance, the function z1 z 1 + z2 z 2 cannot be the
pull-back of a smooth function on su(2)в€— , although the function (z1 z 1 + z2 z 2 )2 can
be so expressed. Thus the pair of maps

C2
В  d
JВ  d
В  d
В  d
В
d
su(2)в€— R3 R

is not a dual pair.

Exercise 32
What happens when we remove the origin from each space?

в™¦
Part V
Generalized Functions
11 Group Algebras
Multiplication on a (locally compact) group G can be coded into a coproduct struc-
ture on the algebra C(G) of continuous real functions on G, making it into a com-
mutative Hopf algebra. Conversely, the algebra C(G) determines the multiplication
on G. Noncommutative analogues of C(G) are studied as if they were algebras of
functions on so-called quantum groups.

11.1 Hopf Algebras

Example. Let G be a п¬Ѓnite set, and let C(G) be its algebra of real func-
tions. The tensor product C(G) вЉ— C(G) is naturally isomorphic as an algebra to
C(G Г— G) via the map

П• вЉ— П€ в€’в†’ ((g, h) в†’ П•(g)П€(h)) .

Now suppose that G is a group. Besides the pointwise product of functions,

m : C(G) вЉ— C(G) в€’в†’ C(G) , m(П• вЉ— П€) = П•П€ ,
m
we can use the group multiplication G Г— G в†’ G to deп¬Ѓne a coproduct on C(G)

mв€— : C(G) в€’в†’ C(G Г— G) = C(G) вЉ— C(G) , mв€— (П•)(g, h) = П•(gh) .

It is an easy exercise to check that this is a homomorphism with respect to the
pointwise products on C(G) and C(G Г— G). With this product and coproduct,
в™¦
C(G) becomes a Hopf algebra.
In general, a Hopf algebra is a vector space A equipped with the following
operations:
1. a multiplication
m
A вЉ— A в€’в†’ A , m(П•, П€) = П• В· П€ ,
also denoted

2. a comultiplication
в€†
A в€’в†’ A вЉ— A ,

3. a unit (or identity),
i : C в€’в†’ A ,

4. a co-unit (or coidentity),

Оµ : A в€’в†’ C , and

5. an antipode map
О± : A в€’в†’ A ,

69
70 11 GROUP ALGEBRAS

satisfying the following axioms:
1. the multiplication is associative, i.e.
m1,2 вЉ— E
id
AвЉ—AвЉ—A AвЉ—A

id вЉ— m2,3 m

m
c c
AвЉ—A EA
commutes, where m1,2 вЉ— id : П• вЉ— П€ вЉ— ПЃ в†’ m(П•, П€) вЉ— ПЃ, and similarly for other
indexed maps on tensor product spaces,
2. the comultiplication is coassociative, i.e.
в€† вЉ— id
AвЉ—AвЉ—A ' AвЉ—A
T T
id вЉ— в€† в€†

в€†
AвЉ—A ' A
commutes,
3. the comultiplication в€† is a homomorphism of algebras, i.e.
в€†
AвЉ—A ' A
T
T
m1,3 вЉ— m2,4 m

в€†вЉ—в€†
AвЉ—AвЉ—AвЉ—A ' AвЉ—A
commutes, (that is, в€†(П• В· П€) = в€†(П•) В· в€†(П€) where the multiplication on the
right hand side is m вЉ— m),
4. the unit is an identity for multiplication, i.e.
id вЉ— i
AвЉ—C CвЉ—A AвЉ—A
E

d
d id
i вЉ— id m
d
d
В‚
d
mEc
c
AвЉ—A A
commutes,
5. the co-unit is a co-identity for comultiplication, i.e.
id вЉ— Оµ
A' AвЉ—A
Ts T
d
d id
Оµ вЉ— id в€†
d
d
d
в€†
AвЉ—A ' A
11.1 Hopf Algebras 71

commutes,
6. the unit is a homomorphism of coalgebras, i.e.
i EA
C

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