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LIS (Luxembourg Income Study), 22,
industries domination by, 73
88
proportionality index for, 157
adjusted versions of, 149
welfare state in, 146
data demographics for, 148“9
worker protections in, 48, 148
gini coef¬cient in, 149
redistribution in, 148
Katzenstein, Peter, 25
“listwise deletion” approach, 99
King, Gary, 98
low protection countries, 63
Luxembourg Income Study. See LIS
labor markets
centralization (in postwar Europe),
majoritarian political systems, 25, 135,
37
155, 190“1
deindustrialization™s in¬‚uence on,
center-right governments and, 137,
185, 275
155
dislocations in, 185
elections under, 140“3
exit facilitation in, 247
income class representation under,
female participation in, 247
138“9
gender inequality in, 18, 27
representation problems in, 123
individual states in, 80

303
Index


negative income effects for, 99,
majoritarian political systems (cont.)
103
reputation as factor within, 141
political ideology variable in, 98,
in time inconsistency problems, 126
117“18
two-party, 137
positive tax rates within, 83
vote-maximizing platforms under,
redistribution logic in, 99, 150
140
social preferences optimization in,
voter platforms under, 140
81“7
“vote-seat elasticity” in, 135
speci¬c skills as part of, 78, 99
Manow, Phillip, 8
tax disincentive effects in, 82“4
manufacturing
unemployment protection within,
employment (postwar Europe), 69
79, 99
postwar predictions of, 32
union membership as variable in, 97,
service markets vs., 187, 209
102
technological progress in, 214
wage protection in, 79
Mares, Isabela, 8
Moene-Wallerstein model, 84, 103
market failures, 9
Mussolini, Benito, 33
Marshall Plan, 45
Martin, Cathie Jo, 255
National Industrial Recovery Act, 33
median voters
national skill structure
redistribution and, 190
vocational training rates and, 24
time inconsistency problem and, role
natural attrition. see retirement
in, 126
The Netherlands
utility function for, 165
coordinated industrialization in, 43
Medicaid (US), 45, 255
employment ratio in, 265, 268
Meltzer-Richard model, 77, 78, 128,
relative wages in, 262
138, 139
“selective and shielded deregulation”
age as variable in, 97
in, 265
Arrow-Pratt risk aversion in, 81,
service employment in, 252
113
social security system in, 44
asset model within, 85
taxation restraint in, 252
assumptions for, 78“81
work volume increases in, 265
dependent variables in, 91“3, 116
New Deal policies, 8, 45
employment protection in, 79
electoral politics and, 12
employment variables in, 97“8,
social security as part of, 45
102
New Labour Party, 253
Esping-Anderson study and, 138
labor market competition under,
¬ndings for, 98“111
254
¬‚at-rate payments within, 79
wage policies of, 254
government transfer income in, 78
WFTC program, 254
insurance model within, 84“5
New Zealand
ISSP and, 88“91, 116
labor market deregulation in,
labor markets in, 80, 102
246
market income as part of, 78
social spending support in, 249
mathematical proofs for, 112“14



304
Index


post-secondary education
OECD international literacy test, 56
international demographics for, 54
OPEC, 213
postwar Europe (economy)
open list system(s), 174, 175“6
agricultural employment in, 69
single member plurality systems vs.,
banking control measures in, 40
175
Bretton Woods System in, 62
centralized bargaining (economic)
partisanship (political). See also political
in, 36, 63
parties
collective-action problems in, 35
analytic study of, 248
corporatism in, 63
CoG index and, 155
distributive con¬‚icts in, 35“6
deindustrialization and, 207“8
economic crises in, 62
in electoral politics, 24“5, 149
education demographics in, 54
government effects of, 200
educational attainment in, 41
post-election government
electoral systems in, 32
composition and, 160
employee/employer investments
redistribution and, 149, 154, 155
during, 36
regression results for, 160
employer associations and, 36
part-time employment
GATT and, role in, 40
employer regulation of, 259
growth in, 34“46
per capita income, 235, 237
history of, 32“4
redistribution and, 151, 153
income taxation issues in, 35
physical capital, 77
industrial development in, 41
Pierson, Paul, 88, 89, 257
industries domination by, 73
political leaders, 131
interlocking directorships during, 36
cooperation conditions for, 165“6
labor centralization in, 238
incentives for, 175, 189
labor strikes in, 62
party defection by, 135
labor unions in, 37, 38, 62
party institutionalization™s in¬‚uence
manufacturing employment in, 69
on, 133
mass mobilization™s in¬‚uence on, 39
policy ¬‚exibility for, 133, 136
non-tariff barriers in, 40
political parties. See also
political party priorities in, 39
institutionalized parties
public spending increases in, 62
center-left, 141
public utilities control in, 40
center-right, 141
reconstruction in, 34
Christian democratic, 17
service markets in, 40, 74
classi¬cation of, 14, 146
state creation in, 32
electoral incentives for, 123
structural precondition index in, 41
liberal, 17
time inconsistency problems in,
social democratic, 17
34“5
political systems
wage modi¬cation in, 34
majoritarian, 25
power resources model, 28
PR, 25
electoral politics and, 12
Popular Front (political party), 33
for welfare state, 7
Porter, Michael, 66



305
Index


wholesale/retail trade and, 231
PPP (purchasing power parities), 218
women™s share of, 27
absolute levels of, 221
product market strategies, 58“67
cross-national differences in, 220
scienti¬c citations and, 60
deviations from, 223
in welfare state, 73
exchange rates and, 219
production system
international price comparisons and,
electoral politics and
219“220
proportionality index, 157
means reversion ¬ndings for, 219,
for Ireland, 157
221
for Japan, 157
thesis for, 219
public employment
PR (proportional-representation)
private sector employment™s
political systems, 25, 39, 123,
in¬‚uence from, 240
143“4. See also electoral systems
wage dispersion and, 240
center-left parties and, 161, 189
wage structures and, 240
“coordinated market economies”
public goods, 130
under, 25
in empiric theory, 144
income class representation under,
public utilities
138“9
in postwar Europe, 40
party fractionalization under, 161
purchasing power parities. See PPP
redistribution under, 137, 190
Rubinstein bargaining solution as
real exchange rates, 219, 221, 222
part of, 143
in Canada, 224
pre-tax/transfer income, 22, 153,
in Italy, 224
187
in Sweden, 222
pre-tax/transfer inequality variable,
in UK, 224
150
in US, 224
price elasticity
wage compression in¬‚uence on, 246
employment effects on, 228
wage structure and, 226
in service markets, 72
redistribution, 136“44, 148“51. See also
pricing
welfare state
law of one price and, 219
bene¬ts structure for, 137
in service markets, 218“28
center-left parties and, 154
private sector employment, 229
constitutional veto points and, 150,
consumption taxes™ in¬‚uence on,
154
235
cross-sectional time-series data for,
employee protection measures in, 48
152
female labor force participation in,
data ¬ndings for, 152“4
235, 238
dispersed income, 138
government controls of, 72
electoral politics and, 12
government employment vs., 235,
female labor force participation as
238
part of, 151
growth determinants for, 236
income shocks as function of, 190
public employment™s in¬‚uence on,
of incomes, 13, 163
240
independent causes of, 139
wage structure and, 229“31


306
Index


deindustrialization and, in¬‚uenced
intertemporal dimension within, 136
by, 201, 275
labor unionization and, 150, 154
risk aversion
median voters and, 190
in insurance model, 84, 85
in Meltzer-Richard model, 99, 150
social insurance and, 21
model of, 137
Rodrik, Dani, 7
non-regressivity constraints as part
Rowthorn-Ramaswamy study, 213
of, 138
Rubinstein bargaining solution, 143
partisanship and, 149, 154, 155
LM coalition as part of, 169“70
per capita income as factor in, 151,
MH coalition as part of, 171“4
153
run-off majority system, 176
political, 123, 137“40
in poverty rate, 154
¨
Saltsjobaden agreement, 33
under PR political systems, 136,
Scandinavia
190
female labor rates in, 27
pre-tax/transfer inequality variable
public sector service expansion in,
in, 150
246
statistical model for, 151“2
Scharpf, Fritz, 233
taxation as part of, 137
“selective and shielded deregulation,”
unemployment as variable in, 150“1
17, 257“68, 276
variables in¬‚uencing, 152
in Finland, 258
vocational training as factor in, 150,
labor market ¬‚exibility in, 257
154
in The Netherlands, 265
voter turnout as factor in, 150, 154
opposition to, 258
“Wagner™s Law” and, 151, 153
social protection and, 275
in welfare state, 77
tax-bene¬t subsidies in, 257
reform policies
worker protection as part of, 257
high protection countries, 276
service economy trilemma, 246“50
liberal case, 276
central bank independence as part of,
for taxation, 263
250
workfare, 256
¬scal costs increase within, 250
regression analysis
labor market regulation in, 246
for industrialization, 212
labor unions and, 250
for inequality reduction, 153
macroeconomic conditions in,
for political partisanship, 160
250
representation (political), 155“6
private service employment as part
contracting problems for, 123
of, 247
in majoritarian political systems,
product markets in, differentiated,
123
250
measure of disproportionality in,
public service sector expansion
157
effects on, 253
proportionality index and, 157
retirement effects on, 253
threshold of, 157
social bene¬ts reduction effects on,
retirement
253
Christian democratic parties and,
wage equality as part of, 247
248


307
Index


in OECD countries, 55
service employment, 251
pro¬les for, 58
in Germany, 252
in social policy preference theory,
in The Netherlands, 252
101
in service economy trilemma, 247
social protection and, 9“10, 14, 59
in US, 70
speci¬city in, 11, 27
service market(s). See also
standardized testing™s role in, 20
deindustrialization, consumer
tenure rates in, 56
services
transferability of, 186
demand for, 233
vocational training as part of, 19
demographics (in postwar Europe),
Smith, Adam, 271
70, 74
social democratic parties, 17, 40, 224
demographics (in US), 70
in Denmark
differentials in, 71
¬scal restraint by, 247
employment demographics in, 61,
social insurance, 21“5
215
institutionalized parties and, 132
government provision of, 234
risk-aversion and, 21
liberalization of, 271“4
social policy preferences theory, 73,
low productivity, 61
163
low wages in, 228
family as institution in, 87“9, 90
manufacturing vs., 187, 209
four models of, 83
in OECD countries, 61
gender role in, 78, 106
personal/social, 231
income levels as part of, 101, 106
in postwar Europe, 40
optimization in, 81“7
PPP in, 218
skills systems as part of, 101
price elasticity and, 72
time inconsistency problem as part
prices in, 218“28
of, 122, 124
private employment in, 70, 238
social protection, 46“54, 58, 122
product market specialization in, 271
asset theory of, 15, 16
productivity in, 72
deindustrialization™s in¬‚uence on,
public sector, 246
188
regime argument for, 218
education level as factor in, 109
standardized, 61
general skill workers and, 111
wage compression effects on, 71,
government spending support for,
246
104
wage structures™ in¬‚uence on, 218
income as factor for, 77, 111
sincere voting, 129
insurance facets of, 77
single member plurality system(s),
for labor markets, 187
175
“selective and shielded deregulation”
skill system(s), 54“8
and, 275
educational systems and, 111
skills systems as part of, 9“10, 14, 59
¬rm-speci¬c, 57
spending support for, 104
gender inequality in, 25“8
voting in¬‚uence on, 122
general, 57, 86
in welfare state, 73
independent, 96
social security, 263
in Meltzer-Richard model, 78


308
Index


tax and transfer schemes, 79. See also
social spending
redistribution
educational levels and, 109, 110
income protection index for, 52
factors for, 108
income redistribution as result of,
GDP percentages of, 15
21, 22, 187
income equality and, 112
inequality as result of, 23
in New Zealand, 249
vocational training activity and, 23
for OECD countries, 16, 100
tax wedge argument, 263
redistribution as part of, 87
taxation, 233
in Sweden, 15
consumption, 235
in UK, 249
ef¬ciency costs of, 139
in US, 16, 249
employment rates and, in¬‚uence on,
Soskice, David, 31, 133
241, 243, 245
SPD (social democratic party)
of incomes (postwar Europe), 35
in Germany, 159, 272
labor costs as result of, 233“4
speci¬c skills system(s), 11, 27. See also
in Meltzer-Richard model, 83
vocational training activity
in The Netherlands, restraint within,
in asset model, 86
252
in institutionalized parties, 129
parameter estimates for, 241
job mobility and, 94
in redistribution, 137
measurement of, 94“5
in time inconsistency problems, 126,
in Meltzer-Richard model, 78, 99
128
vocational training activity and,
tenure rates, 59
145
disadvantages in, 57
women and, 88“9, 106
organizational capacity and, 57
standardized testing, 21
in skills systems, 56
skills investment and, 20
voluntary job switching™s in¬‚uence
“statistical discrimination,” 25
on, 57
Stephens, John, 17
time inconsistency problem(s), 124“7,
Streeck, Wolfgang, 7, 15
163
Sweden
elections as factor in, 125
currency overvaluation in, 226
in electoral politics, 14
deindustrialization rates in, 185
income protection in, 128
machinery industries in, 60
institutional remedies for, 189“90
real exchange rates in, 222
in institutionalized parties, 130
real GDP in, 223
¨ majoritarian political systems in, 126
Saltsjobaden agreement in, 33
median voters™ role in, 126
school-based vocational training
non-cooperation effects in, 127
systems in, 57
old age insurance as part of, 128
social spending percentages in, 15
overlapping generations models in,
unemployment rates in, 64
126, 127
vocational training systems in, 56
in postwar Europe, 34“5
Swenson, Peter, 7, 38
private groups™ in¬‚uence on, 163
Switzerland, 54, 155
propositions for, 126“7
coordinated industrialization in, 43
quali¬cations for, 128“9
machinery industries in, 60


309
Index


unemployment rates
time inconsistency problem(s) (cont.)
in asset model, 87
retribution-motivated spending in,
employment effects from, 237
129
redistribution and, 150“1
in social policy preferences theory,
replacement, 64
122, 124
in selected countries, 65, 69, 117, 261
tax rates in, 126, 128
standardized, 234
unemployment as factor in, 125
in traditional sectors, 211
trade balance(s)
US
negative, 213
decentralized bargaining systems in,
positive, 213
252
with Third World nations, 213,
deindustrialization rates in, 185, 210
235
economic declines, 66
trade openness, 184, 196, 210
education demographics in, 41, 54
trade service liberalization strategy,
government employment guarantees
274
in, 45
in Germany, 272“3
income demographics for, 11
industries in¬‚uenced by,
industrial decline in, 66
274
industrial domination by, 73
labor division as part of, 274
in¬‚ation factors in, 64
low productivity and, 274
labor market deregulation in, 246,
opposition to, 273
252
in UK, 272
New Deal policies in, 45
transfer payments, 196
political economy in, 45
private service employment in, 70
UK (United Kingdom)
public university system
Blair, Tony, in, 253
expenditures in, 46
coordinated industrialization issues
real exchange rates in, 224
in, 44
social spending percentages in, 16
economic declines, 66
social spending support in, 249
in¬‚ation factors in, 64
unemployment factors in, 66
labor market deregulation in, 246,
welfare programs in, 45“6
252
welfare reform in, 255
labor union rates in, 45
real exchange rates in, 224
“varieties of capitalism.” See VoC
social policies in, 255
VoC (“varieties of capitalism”), 10, 13
trade services in, liberalization of,
vocational training activity
272
age cohorts in, 55
unemployment factors in, 66
company emphasis as part of, 56
workfare, 253“7, 275
deindustrialization and, 207
unemployment bene¬ts, 57
government spending for, 147
unemployment protection
high protection countries and, 59
income protection and, 58
institutionalized parties and, 147
indexes for, 58, 63
international differences in, 55
in Meltzer-Richard model, 79
national skill structure and, 24
in OECD countries, 50


310
Index


“Wagner™s Law,” 151, 153
redistribution and, 150, 154
welfare models, 257
as skills investment of, 19
welfare production regimes, 18, 36
speci¬c skills and, 145
product market strategies, and, 58
in Sweden, 56
service employment, and, 217
tax and transfer schemes and, 23
social protection and, 46
wage inequality and, 19, 112
training systems, and, 54
volume of work
welfare program(s) (US), 45“6
in Denmark, 267
food stamps, 45
employment rates and, in¬‚uence on,
public housing, 45
265“7
welfare reform
in The Netherlands, 265
EITC and, 255, 256
in OECD nations, 264
of Medicaid, 255
voter turnout
pre-tax inequality and, 256
redistribution in¬‚uence by, 150, 154
in US, 255
welfare state. See also redistribution
wage inequality
alternative approaches to, 6“12
vocational training and, 19, 112
asset speci¬city within, 10
wage structure(s)
asset theory of, 11
public employment and, 240
capital™s role in, 7
real exchange rates and, 226, 240
decommodi¬cation™s in¬‚uence on,
wages
6
bargaining index for, 41, 43
deindustrialization and, 184, 191
centralized bargaining system for,
development of, 73
18, 20, 37, 63, 68, 123, 249
economic preconditions for, 9
compression effects, 71, 224, 228,
employer™s role within, 7“8
246, 275
“exit options” as part of, 7
d5/d1 ratios and, 245
expansion of, 39, 183, 214
dispersion of, 235, 240, 261
German, 8
industry-level coordination of, 18
globalization and, 7, 184
intra-occupational compression of,
in Japan, 146
19
labor as part of, 6
low-skilled labor™s in¬‚uence on, 228
power resources model of, 7
modi¬cation of, in postwar Europe,
product market strategies as part of,
34
73
private sector employment and,
production theories for, 8“9
229“31
redistribution as part of, 77
protection measures for, 36, 72, 79
relation-speci¬c assets as part of, 10
relative (Netherlands), 262
social protection in, 73
restraints for, 37, 249
universalism and, 8
service markets and, in¬‚uence on,
women. See also gender inequality
218
under Christian democratic parties,
“social,” 39
248, 276
vocational training and, 19
educational access for, 87“9
wages bargaining system, 18, 20, 63,
employment trends for, 26
68, 123, 249


311
Index


women (cont.) occupational gender segregation of,
income demographics (v. men), 88, 27
105 in private sector employment, 27
labor force participation by, 105, redistribution and, labor role in, 151
151, 162, 233, 235, 238, 243, Scandinavian labor rates for, 27
248 speci¬c skills investment by, 88“9,
in Meltzer-Richard model, 97, 106
104“7 Wren, Anne, 17, 248




312
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Donatella della Porta, Social Movements, Political Violence, and the State
Gerald Easter, Reconstructing the State: Personal Networks and Elite Identity
Robert F. Franzese, Macroeconomic Policies of Developed Democracies
Roberto Franzosi, The Puzzle of Strikes: Class and State Strategies in Postwar
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Geoffrey Garrett, Partisan Politics in the Global Economy
Miriam Golden, Heroic Defeats: The Politics of Job Loss
Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements
Merilee Serrill Grindle, Changing the State
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Herbert Kitschelt, The Transformation of European Social Democracy
Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, Gary Marks, and John D. Stephens, eds.,
Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism
Herbert Kitschelt, Zdenka Mansfeldova, Radek Markowski, and Gabor Toka,
Post-Communist Party Systems
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Fabrice E. Lehoucq and Ivan Molina, Stuf¬ng the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral
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Mark Irving Lichbach and Alan S. Zuckerman, eds., Comparative Politics:
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Evan Lieberman, Race and Regionalism in the Politics of Taxation in Brazil and
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James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., Historical Analysis in the
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Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Soberg Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and
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Isabela Mares, The Politics of Social Risk: Business and Welfare State Development
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Scott Morgenstern and Benito Nacif, eds., Legislative Politics in Latin America
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Wolfgang C. Muller and Kaare Strom, Policy, Of¬ce, or Votes?
Maria Victoria Murillo, Labor Unions, Partisan Coalitions, and Market Reforms
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Ton Notermans, Money, Markets, and the State: Social Democratic Economic
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Roger Petersen, Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in
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