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the Federation of Small Businesses.
838 The legal profession


believe that they should continue to administer complaints handling, but
subject to several important changes.
11. We consider that lay participation should be increased so that all com-
plaints are heard by a majority of non-lawyers, including a lay chair. We believe
this change will provide the necessary openness and transparency required to
give consumers the con¬dence to make a complaint when they have received
poor service.
12. Increased lay participation should be coupled with strengthened over-
sight,435 with the Legal Services Oversight Commissioner having wide-ranging
powers, including an auditing function and the ability to set and monitor
targets. The proposed system should be more accessible and more accountable
than before and complaints committees should be functionally separate from
their professional bodies.436 The eligibility to make a complaint should also be
considerably widened.437
13. Compensation awards should give consumers e¬ective and adequate
redress, including a simpli¬ed process for pursuing a claim for professional neg-
ligence for smaller value cases. We set our limits lower than those proposed else-
where in these islands; at £3,500 for misconduct and poor service, and £3,500
for professional negligence.
The Oversight Commissioner should have a small sta¬ and su¬cient resources
˜to ensure that consumers in Northern Ireland are a¬orded an e¬ective level of
oversight to protect them™.438 Funding should be by the professions.439 The
Commissioner should have the power to:
• audit individual complaint ¬les;
• monitor and set targets for the complaint handling duties of both professional
bodies;
• select lay persons from the available pool to handle speci¬c cases;
• advise the professional bodies on their other regulatory functions, including
rule-making.
He should make an annual report to Parliament.

Alternative business structures
The Bain Review Group rejected the whole package of Clementi reforms aimed
at broadening the way in which legal services could be delivered.

434
The Future of Legal Services: Putting the Consumer First.
435
Lay people should be in a majority on all committees and they should be chaired by a lay
person (Recommendation 7).
436
Responsibility for complaints-handling should be transferred from the Bar Council to the
Benchers ˜to achieve functional separation between regulation and representation™
(Recommendation 8). Complaints committees of the Law Society should be functionally
separate from the Law Society™s Council (Recommendation 10). The Solicitors™ Disciplinary
Tribunal should continue to have a lawyer chair but the majority of members should be lay
persons (Recommendation 11).
437
Eligibility to make a complaint should be open to anyone and be subject to oversight
438
by the Oversight Commissioner (Recommendation 16). Recommendation 30.
439
There should be a general levy on all practitioners and a speci¬c levy on those found guilty of
839 Reform of the profession “ current issues


17. We believe that competition is in the best interests of the consumer and hence
to be welcomed. We found that it exists in Northern Ireland, with a general prac-
tice model of solicitors™ practices providing advice to consumers throughout
Northern Ireland, supported by an independent Bar Library from which about
560 barristers compete with each other to provide advocacy services to clients.
18. We were impressed by the existing model that gives anyone in any part of
Northern Ireland the chance to obtain advice on any matter from the top bar-
risters in Belfast. While we considered the alternative models being proposed in
England and Wales “ Legal Disciplinary Practices and Multi-Disciplinary
Practices “ we believe that allowing such models in Northern Ireland would not
have the desired e¬ect of increasing competition. Indeed, we consider that they
could actually reduce it. We accordingly leave the existing restrictions on such
parties as they are. We also concluded that allowing external ownership of legal
¬rms could carry with it unwanted problems, and we recommend no change to
this restriction for Northern Ireland.

Conclusion
The Executive Summary of the Bain Report concluded:
22. Our recommendations were unanimously agreed by representatives not just
from the legal professions on the Review Group, but also from those who rep-
resent the voices of the voluntary sector, the business sector and the consumer.
We believe that these proposals should be e¬ective and proportionate for
Northern Ireland, and should place the consumer in at least as good a position
as those in other parts of these islands, but without the high costs and complex
structures that have been recommended in these areas.

Competition: other aspects
The Bain Report equally rejected the proposal that the statutory bar on compe-
tition from licensed conveyancers should be lifted.
But it did recommend changes in the rules on direct access to a barrister for
advice. It recommended that the Bar Council should consider widening the
existing Direct Professional Access Scheme to allow members of the general
public to access barristers directly for advice.440
It also recommended the Government to consider amending the Judicature
(NI) Act 1978 to allow solicitor advocates to appear, subject to conditions, in
the higher courts.441 The Bar Council should consider its rules on the rights of
audience of employed barristers.442


The Irish Competition Authority follows Clementi
Two weeks after the publication of the Legal Services Bill and the Northern
Ireland report, the Irish Competition Authority published a 220-page report on
competition in legal services.443

poor service or misconduct (Recommendation 31).
440 441 442
Recommendation 40. Recommendation 41. Recommendation 42.
840 The legal profession


The Report called for the dismantling of a raft of restrictive practices a¬ecting
the legal profession and the establishment of an independent body “ to be
known as the Legal Services Commission “ with overall responsibility for regu-
lating the profession and the market for legal services.
Many of the recommendations concerned matters that had already been
reformed in the English system.444 Others were similar to those that emerged
from the Clementi report. They included:
• the establishment of the Legal Services Commission (LSC) much in the same
form as the Legal Services Board under the English Legal Services Bill;
• separation of the regulatory and the representative functions of the Law
Society and the Bar;
• abolition of the Law Society™s monopoly over the training of solicitors and the
Inns of Court™s monopoly over the training of barristers. A provider of edu-
cation and training for solicitors and for barristers should require the per-
mission of the LSC which would be responsible for the standards of education
and training;
• barristers should be permitted to join in partnership;
• the state, as the largest buyer of legal services, should consider the introduc-
tion of competitive tendering for legal services;
• the Legal Services Commission should consider alternative business struc-
tures.


Reform of the regulation of legal services in Scotland
In March 2004 Scottish ministers commissioned research into the Scottish legal
services market in response to the report by the European Commission entitled
Competition in Professional Services that invited member states and professional
bodies to review professional rules and regulations and eliminate those that
could be seen as restrictive of competition, disproportionate and not objectively
justi¬ed.
In May 2006 the Research Working Group published A Report on the Legal
Services Market in Scotland.445 Compared with the market in England and
Wales (valued at some £19bn) that in Scotland was small (some £1bn). The reg-
ulatory framework in Scotland was not complex. It was not comparable to the
˜regulatory maze™ described in the Clementi Report.
443
Competition in Professional Services Solicitors & Barristers, December 2006, www.tca.ie.
444
Introduction of licensed conveyancers. Much greater freedom for both barristers and
solicitors to advertise. Employed lawyers to be permitted to represent their employers in
court. Easier transfer from one branch of the profession to the other. Taxing Masters not to
allow junior barrister a fee equivalent to two-thirds of that paid to a leader “ they should be
paid only for the work they actually do. Solicitors to be required to issue meaningful fee or fee
estimate letters. Abolition of scale fees based on a percentage of the value of the assets.
Establish objective criteria for awarding the title of Senior Counsel, together with a procedure
for monitoring and removing the title. Solicitors to be eligible to become Senior Counsel.
445
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/04/12093822/0.
841 Reform of the profession “ current issues


The Legal Profession and Legal Aid (Scotland) Bill introduced in the Scottish
Parliament in March 2006 proposed the establishment of a Scottish Legal
Complaints Commission independent of the legal profession. The Commission
will receive complaints that it has not been possible to resolve at source. It will
also have jurisdiction to deal with low value negligence complaints where the
award is expected to be under £20,000 which would provide consumers with an
alternative to pursuing a claim through the court system.
A note supplied to the writer in December 2006 from the Access to Justice
Division of the Scottish Executive Justice Department stated:
A possible next step would be a consultation exercise, based on issues identi¬ed
in the report of the Research Working Group on the legal services market in
Scotland and the Scottish implications of the recommendations made by Sir
David Clementi (˜MacClementi™). At this stage in the second session of the
Scottish Parliament, it is too late to embark on a consultative process which
could not result in legislation before the elections in May 2007 for the next
session of the Scottish Parliament. It will therefore be for the incoming
Administration in May 2007 to consider the case for taking forward a
˜MacClementi™ reform agenda in Scotland.
Index




Abrams, P., 54, 126, 135, 146n, 648 small claims, a special system, 384“89
Abuse of process, 484 tribunals and the adversary system, 398“99
Access to a lawyer in police station, Woolf Report, 393
delay, 177 Advisory Committee on Legal Education and
Conduct (ACLEC), See ¬¤
duty solicitor, 176
®¬¬™ ¤© ©
research data, 180
terrorism cases, 176 Alibi defence, 302
Access to court documents, 425“26 Allocation of cases “ civil, 11“12, 50“51, 67,
Access to Justice Act 1999, 78
appeals, 659“60 Allocation of cases “ criminal, 315“22
CLAF, 646 Alternative Business Structures (ABSs),
conducting litigation, 794 829“33, 835“36, 838“39
indemnity principle, 581 Alternative dispute resolution (ADR), 141“50
leave to appeal, 664 Andrews, N., 92n, 117n, 141, 382n, 394
Legal Services Commission, 587“88 Anonymity for victims and defendants in sex
Legal Services Complaints Commissioner, o¬ences cases, 376
821 Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001,
˜recoverability™ of CFA insurance premiums 213
and success fees, 634 ˜Anton Piller order™, 102
rights of audience, 786 Appeals,
Access to proceedings in chambers, 427 abolition of House of Lords, 2, 657“58
Acknowledgment of service, 76 Anglo-American comparisons, 678“82
Acquittals, applying for leave, 673“74
Diplock courts, 542 Bowman reforms, 658“61
directing, 523 Bowman Report (1997), 659
juries, 537“40 case stated, 677
research, 515 Criminal Appeal Act 1995, 701“08
Adler, Professor Michael, 46 Crown Court, heard by, 662
Administrative Justice and Tribunals Council, double jeopardy rule, 668“71
46 errors at trial, 696“97
Admiralty Court, 3, 4 ¬ndings of fact, 688“90, 692“96
Advance disclosure, See ¤©¬µ, ©©¬ fresh evidence, 708“13
and ©®¦©® µ°°¬©¤   grounds for allowing appeals,
 ©¤ civil, 687“91
Adversary system, 379“401 criminal, 691“96
exceptions, 384“92 grounds for appealing, 685“86
expert witness, 390“91 history, 655“66
inquisitorial system compared, 395“98 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council,
judicial role in, 380“84 662“63
844 Index


Appeals (cont.) prosecutions, 266
leapfrog, 677“78 unduly lenient sentence appeals, 667
leave to appeal, 673“74 Auld, Lord Justice, Review of the Criminal
legal advice for appellants, 676“77 Courts (2001)
loss of time, 674“75 aids for the jury, 511
˜lurking doubt™ test, 693“96 appeal judges pressure of time, 696
mistakes of counsel, 685“86 bad character, 437
new points on appeal, 713“14 bail appeals, 279, 284
only one appeal, 686 Case and Issues Summary, 511“12
oral argument, 683“85 case management, 345
perverse verdicts, 527“28 case stated, 662
powers of Court of Appeal, 687 charging, 248
prosecution, 666“71 committals for sentence only, 18
proviso, the, 699“700 committal proceedings, 345
retrials, 714“18 Court Service, 1
review or re-hearing, 671“72 CPS, 248
right of, 664“68, 673“74 criminal procedure code, 153
single judge procedure, 673“74 defendant™s right to jury trial, 321
skeleton argument, 682“83 disclosure, 293“94, 307“08
structure of appeal courts, 655“63 double jeopardy, 669
terminating rulings, 667“68 established, 1, 152, 347
time-limits on argument, 683“85 evidence by pre-recorded video, 434
unduly lenient sentence, 667 fraud trials, 545
˜unsafe™ verdicts, 701“08 Government™s Response, 152
Appropriate adult, 190“91 hearsay evidence, 454“55
Arrest, IT, 40
citizen™s, 202 joint inspection unit, 37
common law, 200“01 judge™s summing up on fact and law, 522
detention by a civilian for 30 minutes, jurisdiction of magistrates™ courts, 30
203 jury aids, 511
detention for questioning, 207“08 jury not giving reasons, 529
giving the reason for arrest, 204“05 jury selection, 487“88, 490
informing someone of whereabouts, 188 lay and professional magistrates, 30
necessity test, 201 laying an information, 206
non-arrestable o¬ences, abolished, 201 making magistracy more representative, 23,
PACE amended by SOCPA, 201 26
procedure, 203“05 managing the criminal justice system, 1,
reasonable grounds required, 201 34“36
remedies for unlawful, 206“07 middle tier of jurisdiction, 39
search of arrested person, 220 not proven verdict, 530
search of premises after an arrest, 220“22 perverse verdicts, 527“28
serious arrestable o¬ences, abolished, 182 ˜pre-trial assessment™, 354“55
under warrant, 200 pre-trial hearings, 352“54
when does it occur, 203“04 private prosecution, 270
without warrant, 200“01 prosecution appeals, 668
Ashworth, Professor Andrew, 156, 252n, 273, questions to the jury, 530
326, 327n, 478n, 480n, 483, 703, 705, racial mix of jurors, 500
706 sanctions, 356
Assizes, sentence canvass, 331
abolition, 16“17 sentence discount,
Attorney General, terms of reference, 155“56
Guidelines on disclosure, 288“89 ticketing of judges, 19
845 Index


time-limits, 366, 368 Benson Royal Commission on Legal Services,
See ¬ ©©® ® ¬§¬
training of magistrates, 27
©
wasted costs orders, 360, 570
young defendants, 548“50 Better Regulation Task Force, 55, 56n, 644n
Automatic striking out, 123 ˜Big Tent™, 564
Bingham, Lord, 415, 509, 657n, 689, 785n, 792
Bad character evidence, 435“42, 438“42 Bowen LJ, 131
Bail, 273“87 Bowman Report on Civil Appeals (1997),
appeals against grant, 284 654n, 658, 660, 661, 664, 673, 679, 680,
appeals against refusal, 283 681, 685
Bail Act 1976, 277 Bridges, Professor Lee , 152n, 179, 181, 182n,
bail hostels, 276, 287 322, 324, 337, 338, 362, 614
conditions, 276, 279 Brooke, LJ., 41“42, 43
concerns regarding, 285 Bugging, 234“38
courts, 276“84 Burns, Suzanne, 63, 132, 140n, 141
information schemes, 286
Law Commission on bail and the ECHR, ˜Cab-rank™ rule, 780, 808, 809
278 Calderbank letter, 83
length of remand period, 283 Cantley Working Party on Personal Injury
Nottingham Justices case, 282 Litigation Procedure (1979), 47, 57n,
police station, 275“76 114
street bail, 275 delay, 120“21
surety, 280“81 Cape, Professor Ed, 173n, 182, 210, 238n, 310,
Baldwin, Professor John, 8n, 9, 25n, 58, 156n, 603, 614, 616n , 617“18
157, 158, 175n, 181, 184n, 249n, 322n, Carter, Lord, Review of Legal Aid
323, 324, 325n, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, Procurement (2005“06), 588, 596, 611,
389, 324, 325n, 384, 385, 387, 388 612n, 620“28
Bar/barristers Case Disposal Manual, 253
advertising, 756“57 Case management, 114“28, 347“61
BarDIRECT, 799“800 American research, 126
BarMark, 806“07 Australian experience, 128
cab-rank rule, 780 courts™ duty of, 50
chambers, 742“45 Practice Statement (1995), 124
circuits, 755 Case Preparation Project, 357“62
clerks, 744“48 Case stated, appeal, 677
complaints against, 820 Cases and Issues Summary for jurors, 511
complaints against, 820 Caution,
direct access to, 799“800 new,
employed, 760 old,
entry and training, 736“42 Cautioning, as an alternative to prosecution,
ethnic minorities, 755 255“58
funding entry, 739“41 CDS Direct, 612
management, 757“59 Cell confessions, 461
numbers, 742 Central Summoning Bureau, 492
partnerships, 752“54 Challenges, jury selection,
training and entry, 736“42 for cause, 494“96
Queen™s Counsel, 748“52, 801“06 peremptory, 493“94
women, 754 Chancery Division, 5
BCCI v Bank of England, 49, 82, 417n, 422n, Charging standards, 254“55
757n Charging the suspect, 248“50
Beeching Royal Commission on Assizes and Code for Crown Prosecutors, 250“53
Quarter Sessions (1969), 16 Full Code Test, 250“51
846 Index


Charging the suspect (cont.) Compellability,
Guide to case disposal, 253“54 accused person, 463“66
Threshold Test, 252 spouses, 445“46, 462
Children, Compensation Act 2006, 56, 635
appropriate adult, 190“91 Compensation culture, 55“56
evidence of, 442“45 Compensation for miscarriages of justice,
interviewing, 190“91 730“34
See also µ¬®¬ ·©® Competence of children to give evidence,
Citizen™s arrest, 202 444
Civil courts, Competitive tendering for legal aid work, 587,
allocation of cases, 11“12, 50“51, 67, 78 617, 619, 620, 621n, 623n, 625, 627,
three tracks, 50 628
uni¬cation, 13“16 Complaints against lawyers, 821, 828, 837“38
Civil Justice Council, Computerisation for the courts, 40“42
˜Big Tent™, 564 Computerised Summons Production Centre,
contingency fees, 646 74
court fees, 72 Concordat, the, 3
legal expenses insurance, 650 Conditional cautions, 258
predictable costs, 564, 565, 580 Conditional fees (CFAs), 630“640
small claims jurisdiction level, 8 claims management companies, 635“36
Civil legal aid, See ¬§¬ ©¤ ˜costs wars™, 636“40
Civil Procedure Rules (CPR), 51“52 history, 631“32
CLAF, 646 recoverability of success fees and insurance
Claim form, 68 premiums, 633“35
Claims assessors, 795“96 start, 632“33
Claims Direct, 635 success fees, 631“32
Claims management companies, 635“36 Confessions,
Class actions, 63“66 admissibility, 470“77
Class bias in prosecutions, 243“44 cell, 461
Clementi Review of Regulation of Legal false, 159
Services Market (2004) oppression, 474
Alternative Business Structures(ABSs), unreliability, 476“77
829“33, 835“36, 838“39 voluntary, 470“73
appointed, 781 Contempt through publicity, 370“76
complaints against lawyers, 828“29 Contingency fees, 641“46
consultation paper, 782 Contingency Legal Aid Fund (CLAF), 646
developments, 834 Controls on costs,
¬nal report, 782 assessment of costs (formerly taxation),
Government response, 783 558“59
regulation of the legal profession, 824“27, ¬xed costs, 563“66, 577“78, 587, 603, 617,
834 619“27
terms of reference, 823 legal aid work, 568“69
Clerks to the justices, 33 predictable costs, 564
Closed court, 423“24 remuneration certi¬cates, 568
Coaching the witness, 418 scale fees, 566
Code for Crown Prosecutors, 250“53 taxation of costs, 558“59
Codes of Practice (PACE), 151 wasted costs orders, 569
See also 
Committals for sentence only, 18
Committal proceedings, 340“44 Control orders, 214“17
Community Legal Services see ¬§¬ ©¤ Conveyancing, 566, 567, 570, 766, 773, 778,
COMPASS IT system, 41“42 782, 815“18, 837
847 Index


Convictions, admissibility, See °© pros and cons, 571“73
®©©® exceptions,
Cost capping orders, 567“68 contemptuous damages, 582
Costs criminal cases, 576“77
acquittal on, 577 group actions, 573“75
assessment, detailed and summary, 558“59 indemnity principle, 581“82
˜between party™, 563 legal aid cases, 578“79
capping, 567“68 litigants in person, 579“81
Civil Justice Council™s ˜Big Tent™, 564 non-party funders, 575“76
compliance auditing, 565 public interest cases, 583“84
controls, 562“71 small claims, 577“78
costs estimates, 561 ˜Costs wars™, 636
costs only proceedings, 560 Council on Tribunals, 46
detailed assessment, 559 County courts
factors to be taken into account, 558 jurisdiction, 7
small claims, See ¬¬ ¬©
fast track, 564“65
¬xed, 563“66 work of, 7
follow-the-event See Costs Follow the Event Court fees, 71“73
graduated fees, 569 Court of Common Pleas, 3
group actions, 573 Court of Exchequer, 3
Group Litigation Orders, 574 Court of Protection, 6
indemnity basis, 562 Courts Act 2003, 1, 11, 22n, 37“39
indemnity rule, 581“82 See also - Courts and Legal Services Act 1990 (CLSA)
¦¬¬· -® Advisory Committee to Lord Chancellor,
legal aid work, 565, 568“69, 578“79 785, 786
new rules, 556 conditional fees, 631
non-contentious, 562 ˜general principle™, 785
non-parties, 575 rights of audience, 785
party and party, 562 ˜statutory objective™, 785
predictable, 564 Court Service, 1, 38 355
pro bono representation, 582 Covert surveillance, 234“38
proportionality, 560 Crime and Disorder Act 1998
remuneration certi¬cates, 568 abolition of committal proceedings for
road tra¬c cases, 564 indictable-only o¬ences, 344
scale, 566 jurisdiction of court clerks, 33
small claims, 563 Criminal Appeal Act 1995,
solicitor and own client assessment, 563 Criminal Cases Review Commission, 725
standard basis, 562 unsafe convictions, 701
standard fees, 569 Criminal Cases Management Framework, 361
starting cases, 72 Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC),
summary assessment, 559 725“30
Very High Cost cases, 569 Criminal courts,
wasted, 569“71 allocation of cases between higher and
who pays, 557 lower, 315“22
See also ®¤©©®¬ ¦, ®©®§® management, 34“37
¦, ®¬ ® ¦, - Criminal Defence Service(CDS), 587, 603,
¦¬¬·--® 605, 607n, 608, 612n, 617n
Costs-follow-the-event, Criminal Justice Act 2003
civil cases, 557 bad character, 438
CPR 44.3(1), 556 bail from the court, 278, 279, 284
criminal cases, 576“77 bail on condition extended, 276
848 Index


Criminal Justice Act 2003 (cont.) Crown Court Study (1993), 152 n 9
charging by CPS, 245 barrister™s brief delivered when, 364
committal for sentence only, 18 CPS pressure on prosecution barrister, 271
committal proceedings abolished, 289, 340 defendants testifying, proportion, 463
conditional cautions, 258 experts, 306
defence disclosure, 308“10 judge aware of uncalled relevant witness,
detention for question, time limit, 209, 212 383
double jeopardy, 669“701 judge in¬‚uencing the jury, 522
evidence by video recording, 434 innocent who plead guilty, 324
fraud trials, 546 jurors taking notes, 510
hearsay evidence, 455“58 jurors™ understanding, 491, 517, 520
jury eligibility, 488, 489, 490 jury composition, 502
jury tampering, 548 jury decisions, 517, 518
laying an information abolished, 206 length of jury deliberations, 518
magistrates™ sentencing powers, 30, 321 listing information supplied, frequency, 355
non-intimate sample, 223“24 majority acquittals, 530
prior convictions, 438 o¬cer in charge of the case a constable,
prosecution appeals, 667“68 313
prosecution disclosure, 294 pre-trial conference with defence barrister,
reasoned decisions on sentencing, 422 frequency, 353
reference to Commission by Court of pre-trial review, value, 119n
Appeal, 728 previous convictions of defendants, 436
reference to CCRC, 727 returned briefs, 512, 790
sentence indication, 331 telling the defendant his sentence prospects,
Sentencing Guidelines Council, 331 329
street bail, 275 Turner on sentence discount, 329
terrorism detainees, time limit, 212 unwelcome pressure on prosecution
time limit, 367 barristers by CPS,
trial on indictment by judge alone, 540, 546, weakness of prosecution cases, 259, 325
548 Crown Prosecution Service (CPS)
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 cautioning as an alternative to prosecution,
(CJPOA) 255“58
abolition of committal proceedings, 343 charging, 248“50
bail, 276 Code for Prosecutors, 250“53
right of silence, 170 conditional cautions, 258
Criminal Law Revision Committee (CLRC) decision to prosecute, 250“58
11th Report (1972) Designated Case Workers, 793
adverse inferences from silence, 166 discretion to prosecute, 241“44
confessions, admissibility, 472 discontinuance by, 258
defendant™s failure to give evidence, 464 establishment, 246
right to silence, 166 failure to prosecute, 262“63
Criminal legal aid, 603“12 Full Code Test, 250“51
Criminal Procedure Rules, 153“54 Glidewell Report, 247
Cross-examination, 108, 382, 388, 396, Guide to case disposal, 253
419“20, 422n, 432, 459, 464 independence from police, 263“64
special measures in rape cases, 468“69 prosecuting barristers and, 271“73
Crown Court, reasons for not prosecuting, 252
division of work with magistrates™ court, reasons for prosecuting, 251
315“22 rights of audience for lawyers and non-
establishment, 16 lawyers, 786“90, 791“93
judicial manpower, 18“19 three stages, 264“66
work of, 17“18 Threshold Test, 252
849 Index


Custody o¬cer, 187 non-parties, 97“98
Custody record, 188 pre-Woolf, 86“87
Custody time limits, 208 public interest immunity (PII), 94“95
subsequent use of disclosed document,
Damages, 98“99
General, 69 third-party, 97“98
Special, 68 use of disclosed document, 98“99
Darbyshire, Dr Penny, 20“24, 31, 32, 34, 327, witness (mere witness rule), 98
519, 530 Woolf ™s proposals, 87“88
Disclosure, criminal See ©®¦©®
Davies, Mark, 28
µ°°¬©¤    ©¤
Deaf suspects, questioning, 191
Default judgment, 81“82 Disclosure Protocol (2006), 310“11
Discovery (civil), See ¤©¬µ
Defence,
access to forensic facilities, 299 Discretion in prosecutions, 241“44
disclosure, 302“09 judicial control of, 260
preparation of cases, 362“65 police, 241“43
Defence case preparation, research, 362“65 Dismissal for want of prosecution, 123
Defence disclosure, criminal, 302“09 Dismore, A., MP, 750
Defendant, not a compellable witness, 463“66 District judges, 6, 7, 20
Delay, Divided legal profession, 773“75, 779“80
Cantley Committee (1979), 120 Divisional Court of the Queen™s Bench
civil cases, 119“26 Division, 4
Civil Justice Review (1985“88), 121 DNA, 223, 224, 225, 475, 713
criminal cases, 365“70 Dock, defendant™s unsworn statement, 445,
Evershed Committee (1953), 120 469
Goriely et al, 126 Donovan Committee (1965), 692
Heilbron-Hodge (1992), 121 Double jeopardy rule, abolition, 668“71
KPMG Peat Marwick (1994), 124 Dougherty, Luke, 709
Practice Direction (1995), 124 Draft Legal Services Bill 2006, 783, 824, 832
Winn Committee (1969), 120 Drafting of documents, 69“71
Woolf reforms (1995. 1996), 125“26 Drug testing, 224
Detention for questioning, 207“17 Duty solicitor schemes, 610“12
legality, 207
terrorism, 212“17 Early Administrative Hearings (EAHs), 351
time-limits, 208“11 E¬ective Trial Management Programme,
See also °¬© ©®, °¬© 350n, 357, 361
±µ©®©®§ ˜Either way o¬ences™, 316“17
Devlin, Lord, 399, 459, 505n, 525, 554, 710, Entry on premises,
716“17, 720 bugging, 234“38
Committee on Identi¬cation, 710 with consent, 232
retrials, 716“17 with warrant, 226, 231
Diamond, SS., 29n without warrant, 226
See also  ®¤ ©µ
Dignan, J., 25, 26
Dingwall, R., 59, 139 Ethnic minority,
˜Diplock courts™, 541“42 barristers, 755
Direct access to barristers, 797“98 magistrates, 24
Directed acquittal, 259, 523“25 solicitors, 769
Directing the jury to acquit/convict, 523“27 EU Directives, 821
Disclosure, civil, 86“99 European lawyers, right of establishment,
CPR, 88“90 821“22
legal professional privilege, 87, 90“94 European small claims proposal, 9n, 68
medical records, 96 Evaluating criminal justice systems, 155“56
850 Index


Evershed Committee on Supreme Court Farquharson Guidelines, 270, 271, 273
Practice and Procedure (1953) Fast and Fair scheme, 63
delay, 120 Fast track,
robust summons for directions, 114 allocation, 12, 51, 78
Evidence, case management conferences, 116, 117
accused person not compellable, 463“66 characteristics, 51
bad character, 435“42, 438“42 costs, 137, 559, 561, 564, 565
children, 442“45 directions hearings, 115, 116
confessions, 470“77 disclosure/ discovery, 88
contrary to public interest, 462“83 expert evidence, 110“11, 113, 416
discretion to exclude evidence, 477“82 ¬xed costs, 564, 65
exclusionary rules, 435“83 jurisdiction, 12
experts, See ° ·©® Faulks Committee on Defamation (1971),
hearsay, 446“59 506“08
identi¬cation, 459“60 Fenn, P., 135, 136, 614, 642
improperly obtained evidence, 470“83 Financial Services Ombudsman, 44, 143,
informers, 468 829n
legal professional privilege, 466“67 Fingerprints, 217“18
New Zealand, 483 Fiss, O., 59
parties, 445 Fixed costs, 563“66, 577“78, 587, 603, 617,
prior convictions, 435“42 619“27
propensity, 439“40, 442 Footwear impressions, 218
rape victims, 468“69 Forensic material, access for defence,
Scotland, 482 299“300
self-incrimination, 463 Fraud Review (2006), 258, 295, 314, 315, 327,
similar fact evidence, 436, 438“40 335, 336n
spouses, 445, 462 Fraud trials without jury, 543“48
˜tit for tat™ rule, 435, 440 Free pardon, 720
unduly prejudicial, 435“42 ˜Freezing order™ (Mareva injunctions),
United States, 458 civil, 102“03
unreliable, 442“62 criminal, 240
voir dire, 467 French criminal justice reforms, 1993, 2000,
vulnerable witnesses, 431 401n
See also ©¬¤®™ ©¤® Fresh evidence, 708“13
Funding Code, See ¬§¬ ©¤
Examination-in-chief, 417
Exchange of witness statements, 104“08
Excluded material, 228“29 Galanter, Professor Marc, 59, 134
Exclusionary rules of evidence, 435“77 ˜General damages™, 69
Expert witnesses, General warrants forbidden, 233
Academy, 112 Genn, Professor Hazel, 54n, 57, 59, 146, 147,
calling, 394 149, 404, 405, 407, 630, 777
disclosure of, 309 Gladwell, D., 133n
duties, 299, 390 Glidewell Report
˜hired guns™, 109 CPS, 247“48, 255, 264, 265
legal professional privilege, 93 Queen™s Counsel, 751“52
no property in, 100 Goldsmith, Lord, 217n, 264“65, 266, 470, 546,
Protocol, 112 547, 651, 652, 667, 739, 740, 741
single, 78, 113 Goriely, Tamara, 54, 58, 62n, 113, 126, 135,
139, 612n, 613n
False confessions, 159 Graduated fees, 314, 565, 569, 620, 621, 623,
Family court work, 10“11, 13“14, 15 624, 627, 628
Family Division, 5 Graduates of an Inn, 737
851 Index


Green Papers (1989), 778n Information supplied to the other side,
Green, T.A., 526 disclosure, criminal,
Group actions, 63“66 Auld, 293“94, 307“08
Group Litigation Order (GLO), 66 Criminal Justice Act 2003, 294“97, 308“10
Grove, Trevor, 519 Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act
Gudjonsson, G, 159, 170n 1996 (CPIA), 305“06
Guilty pleas, 322“40 defence disclosure, 302
Criminal Justice Act 2003, 331 Disclosure Protocol (2006), 310“12
innocent who plead guilty, 322“24 evidence the prosecution do not intend to
judge™s involvement, 327“34 use (unused material), 290“97
plea bargaining, 322“36 evidence the prosecution intend to use,
plea before venue, 337“40 288“90
role of the lawyers, 324“25 prosecution disclosure, 288“302
sentence canvass, 329“34 public interest immunity, 297“99
sentence discount, 326“27, 329“36 scienti¬c evidence, 299“301
supergrasses, 335 unused material, 290“97
Innocent who plead guilty, 322“24
Hansen, Ole, 324, 325, 599 Inns of Court, 735
Harris, Don, 56n Inquisitorial system, 395“98
Hawkins, K., 59, 83, 268, 413n Inspecting witness statements, 425“27
Hearsay evidence, Inspectorate for the courts, 37“38
civil cases, 446“52 Institute of Legal Executives, 767
criminal cases, 452“59 Insurance, legal costs,
Hedderman, C., 22n, 318n, 319n, 343n before-the-event (BTE, LEI), 648“51
Heilbron-Hodge Report on Civil Justice after-the-event (ATE), 633“5
(1992), 121 Interim remedies, 101“04
Helping the police with their inquiries, Interlocutory work, 6
199“200 Interpreters, 191
Interviews in police stations See °¬©
Henham, R., 327n
¤®©®, ±µ©®©®§ ©® °¬©
Herbert, A., 337n
©®
High Cost legal aid cases, see Very High Cost
cases Intimate samples, 223
High Court, 3“6 destruction, 224“25
Hodgson, J., 181, 182n, 191, 362, 400, 401n Intimate searches, 222“23
˜Holding charges™, 211 Intrusive surveillance, 234“38
Home Secretary, Ipp, DA, 392
pardon, 720 Irish Competition Authority Report (2006),
reference to Court of Appeal, 721 839“40
Hoogstraten, van, N., 77n Issue of civil proceedings, 74“76
House of Lords, abolition of judicial function, Issue of criminal summons, 205“06
2, 657“58 IT, 40“42
Human Rights Act 1999
civil procedure rules, and, 53 Jacob, Sir Jack, 114, 140, 141, 393, 399
Hung jury, 530 Jacob, Joseph, 52, 53, 112n, 141, 659n
Hurd, Lord, (Douglas), 168 James Committee (1975), 316“17
Jolowicz, Professor JA., 661, n.24
Identi¬cation evidence, 459 Journalistic material, 229
Immunity of advocates, 571 Jubilee Line Case, 547
Immunity from prosecution, 335“36 Judge alone trial, 540“50
Incorporation of solicitors™ practices, 814 Judges,
Indemnity principle of costs, 581“82 adversary system, 380“87
Informers, protection, 468 calling witnesses, 382“83
852 Index


Judges (cont.) publication of jury room secrets, 536“37
Crown Court in, 18“19 quality of decision-making, 513“19
directing an acquittal, 523 questionnaires for jury selection, 496“97
directing a conviction, 525 racial mix, 498“500
fact ¬nders, as, 688“89 roles of judge and jury, 519“27
Focusing judicial resources appropriately secrecy, 536“37
(2005), 15“16 size, 502
interventionist, 386“87 social class, 502
plea bargaining, and, 327“34 stand by for the Crown, 498
summing up on fact, 521 summoning, 492
summing up on law, 519 tampering, 548
˜ticketing™, 19 unreasoned decision, ECHR compatibility,
Judges™ Rules, 159“60 529“60
Judgment in default, 80“81 used in civil cases, 503“07
Judicial assistants, 661, 680 used in criminal cases, 509“10
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, vetting, 500“02
662“63 work status, 502
Jury, Justices™ clerks, role, 31
Justices of the peace, See §©
acquittal rate, 537“40
age, 486“87 Juveniles,
aids, 510“13 appropriate adult, 190“91
asking of questions by the jury, 510 questioning, 190“91
asking questions of the jury, 528 trials for indictable o¬ences, 550
Central Summoning Bureau, 492
challenge for cause, 494“96, 497 Kalven, H., 513, 554
challenging, 493“97 Karlen, Delmar, 678
civil cases, 503“09 Kelcey, I., 365
contempt of court, 536 Kentridge, Sir Sydney QC, 779n, 787, 799,
Court of Appeal and jury room, 532“36 809
criminal cases, 509“10 Kirby, Hon Michael, 663“64
damages™ decisions, 504“09 KPMG Peat Marwick report on delay (1994),
disquali¬ed, 489 124
eligibility for jury service, 486“88
ethnic mix, 498“500 Langbein, Professor John, 399, 400, 550
excused, 490“91 Law centres, 614“15, 775
Faulks Committee, 506“08 Law Commission,
former times, 550“54 Attorney General™s consent to prosecution,
fraud cases, 543“48 266
gender, 502 bail, 278, 279
history, 486, 55“54 challenge of jurors for causes, 497
hung jury, 532 court of protection, 6
ineligible, 487“88 double jeopardy, 669
libel proceedings, 507“08 hearsay evidence, civil, 447, 451
literacy test, 491 hearsay evidence, criminal, 453, 454, 455
majority verdicts, 530“32 juries in personal injury cases, 506, 508
Maxwell case, 496, 497 prior convictions, admissibility, 436, 227n,
Morris Committee, 486“87 439
origins, 486 prosecution appeals, 668
peremptory challenge, 493“94 trial for specimen o¬ences, 549
perverse verdicts, 527“28 uncorroborated evidence, 461
pre-trial publicity a¬ecting selection, 497 Law O¬cers as prosecutors, 266
853 Index


Law Society, 770 means test,
reorganisation, 770“72 civil, 592“93
selection of QCs, 751 criminal, 605“10
Lawrence, Stephen, 199, 262, 269, 668 merits test,
Legal aid, civil, 591
Access to Justice Act 1999, 587 criminal, 604“05
Advice and Assistance, 588n Modernising Justice (1998), 587, 603
Approved Family Help, 588n not-for-pro¬t sector, 596, 615“16
Carter Review, 620“29 numbers of providers, 596
CDS Direct, 612 partnerships, 598
civil, 587“602 peer review, 601
Community Legal Service(CLS), 596“99 Preferred Supplier initiative, 600“01
CLS Direct, 597 proportion of population eligible, 616
Community Legal Advice Centres (CLACS), public defenders, 612“14
598“99 quality control, 599
Community Legal Advice Networks Quality Mark, 597
(CLANS), 598“99 reasons for rising cost, 616“18
competitive tendering, 619 Recovery of Defence Costs Order, 606
contributions, research, 597
civil, 592“93 Scottish Public Defence Solicitors™ O¬ce,
criminal, 605“10 614
Controlled Work, 588, 589 Specialist Support, 602
cost, 597 statutory charge, 593
criminal, 603“14 Support Funding, 588n
Criminal Defence Service (CDS), 603“04 tribunals, 615
duty solicitor schemes, 610“12 Very High Cost Cases, 610
Early Cover, 608n Widgery criteria, 604
eligibility, 616 Legal Disciplinary Partnerships (LDPs), 783,
Emergency Representation, 591 830, 833
exclusions, 590 Legal executives,
Focus, 588n number, 767
Full Representation, 591 rights of audience, 791
Funding Code, 588 Legal expenses insurance (LEI), 648“50
funding priorities, 589 Legal profession, ch 8
future, 618 division, 773
General Civil Contract, 588 transfer between branches, 774
See also , ©, ©®® ¦ µ,
glossary of terms, 588n
¦¦© ¦ ¦© ¤©®§, ±µ®™
group litigation, 573“74
µ®¬, ¬©©, ¬
Help at Court, 588, 594
©©® ® ¬§¬ ©
history, 586
immigration and asylum work, 594 Legal professional privilege,
international comparisons, 629 civil, 782, 90“93
Investigative Help, 588n criminal, 228n, 229, 231, 239, 240, 309,
Legal Aid: A Sustainable Future (2006), 466“67
622 Legal Services Board (LSB), 782, 824“40
Legal Help, 588, 593“94 Legal Services Commission (LSC), 587“88
Legal Representation, 588 See also Legal aid
Legal Services Commission, 587, 588 Legal Services Consultative Panel, 796
Licensed Work, 589 Legal Services Ombudsman, 820
Litigation Support, 588n Legatt report (Tribunals for Users “ One
matter starts, 596 System, One Service), 2001, 43, 44, 46
854 Index


Leigh, Professor Leonard, 397, 702 McCabe, Sarah, 515, 539n
Levi, M., 118n McConville, Professor M., 152n, 156n, 175n,
Libra IT system, 41n 181, 210n, 244, 322n, 323“25, 327n,
Licensed conveyancers, 815, 816, 840, 841 362, 515, 539, 540
Lidstone, K., 162, 227n, 230n, 231, 268 ˜McKenzie man™, 408“10, 429
Lightman, J., 50, 117, 130, 131, 394 Mediation, 142“49
Limited liability partnerships, 814, 815n, 831 Medical records, disclosure, 96
Listing, 116, 117, 121, 130 Medical treatment for suspects, 190
Litigants in person, 101, 406“07, 408“11, 579, Mentally disordered suspects, 191
580 ˜Mere witness™ rule, 98
Lord Chancellor, proposed abolition of, 1n Merricks, Walter, 544, 829n
Lord Chancellor™s Advisory Committee on Middleton, Sir Peter, 643
Legal Education and Conduct Miscarriages of justice, 719“34
(ACLEC), 796 compensation, 730“34
Lord Chancellor™s Department (LCD), Mode of Trial Bill No.1, 320
abolition of, 1n Mode of Trial Bill No 2, 320
˜Lurking doubt™ test, 693“95 Money laundering, 91, 92
Moorhead, Richard, 54n, 62n, 126, 135, 406n,
Macdonald, Sir Kenneth, DPP, 217n, 250n, 408n, 409, 411, 598n, 601n, 614, 616n,
266, 360, 470, 789 617, 618, 629
Magistrates, Morgan, Professor Rod, 22“25, 29, 205n,
age, 24 210n, 279n, 287
appointment, 22 Morris Committee on Jury Service (1965),
District Judges (Magistrates™ Courts), 20 486
ethnic minority representation, 24 Motions (now called ˜applications™), 79
gender, 24 Moxon, D., 22n, 260n, 318n, 319n, 343n, 518n
number, 20 Multi-disciplinary partnerships (MDPs), See
°®©°
political balance, 25“26
recruitment, 23 Multi-national partnerships (MNPs), See
°®©°
selection process, 22“23
sentencing powers, 30 Multi-party actions, 63“66, 573“75
social class, 24“25 Multi-track,
stipendiaries, 20 ADR, 143
training, 27“28 allocation, 51, 78
Magistrates™ Courts, 9, 19“34 case management conferences, 109
clerks, 31“34, 38 characteristics, 87“88
division of work with Crown Court, delay, 126
315“22 directions hearings, 116
either way o¬ences in, 316“21 disclosure/discovery, 87
inspectorate, 37 time limits, 130
jurisdiction, 9, 20“21 See also Woolf Report
lay and professional magistrates, 29“30
managing, 36 Narey Report, Review of Delay in the Criminal
number, 20 Justice System (1997), 33 n 150, 320
Majority verdicts, 530“32 New Jersey study of case management, 352
Malleson, Profesor Kate, 382, 674n, 680n, 696, New Zealand, improperly obtained evidence,
697, 705n, 716n, 729, 751n, 781 483
Managing the courts, 34“39 New Zealand jury study, 118
˜Mareva™ injunction, 53, 102 NHS Redress Bill 2005, 57
Mark, Sir Robert, 537“40 Nobles, Professor Richard, 143n, 654n, 702,
Martineau, Professor Robert, 683, 684 703n, 706, 729, 730, 732n
855 Index


No property in a witness, 99“100 Partnerships, between
Non-intimate samples, 223“24 barristers, 752“54, 807“09, 829“30
destruction, 224“25 barristers and non-barristers, 809
Non-jury trials on indictment, lawyers and foreign lawyers (MNPs),
defendant opting for trial by judge alone, 809“10
542“43 lawyers of di¬erent kinds (LDPs), 830
˜Diplock courts™, 541“42 lawyers and non-lawyers (MDPs/ABSs),
jury tampering, 548 810“13, 830“33, 835“36, 838“39
long fraud cases, 543“48 Paterson, Professor Alan, 58, 382, 666n, 777,
trial of sample counts only, 548“49 814n
young defendants, 549 Payment into court (Part 36 o¬ers), 82“86
Non-practising employed barristers, Peach Report, An Independent Scrutiny of the
Northern Ireland, Appointment Processes of Judges and
Bain Report on legal services (2006), Queen™s Counsel (1999), 750“51
836“39) Peremptory challenge, 493“94
Diplock courts, 541“42 ˜Personal records™, 228
right to silence, 168 Perverse jury verdicts, 515, 525, 527“28, 667
supergrasses, 335“36 Peysner, Professor John, 51n, 54, 62, 80, 113,
117n, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 147,
Oath taking, children, 443 451n, 564n, 576n, 582n, 646n, 648, 650
O™Brien, D., 81“82 Phillips, J. (later Lord Chief Justice), 372, 496,
O¬ce of Fair Trading (OFT) Report, 646n, 741
Philips Royal Commission See ¬
Competition in professions (2001),
©©® ® ©©®¬
778“79
°¤µ
advertising, 756, 757
Phone tapping, See ¬°® °°©®§
Bar™s Response to OFT, 779“80
conveyancing monopoly, 567 Photographs, 218
Law Society™s Response to OFT, 781 Pigot Committee on Video Recorded
partnerships at the Bar, 754 Evidence, 431“32
Plea bargaining, See §µ©¬ °¬
Queen™s Counsel, 751
O¬cial Referee, 5 ˜Plea before venue™, 319“20
˜One shotters™, 59 Plea and Case Management Hearings
Open court, 422“31 (PCMH), 349“50
Opening speech, 417 Plea and directions hearings (PDHs), 349
Oppression, 160, 192, 471, 472, 474“6 Pleadings, 69“71
Opren case, 573 Pleasence, Pascoe, 57n, 59, 587n, 591n, 597n,
Orality, 415“17 598n, 629, 630
Otton Working Party on Litigants in Person Plotniko¬, Joyce, 117n, 128, 292n, 293, 294n,
(1995), 410“11 295, 307, 353n, 444n, 512, 513, 659n
˜Overriding objective™, 675n, 676n
Civil, 48“50, 52, 61, 75, 82, 88, 90, 130, 131, Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1994
132, 139, 144 (PACE)
Criminal, 153“55, 347, 390, 392, 708 access to solicitor in police station (s. 58),
Oxford Penal Research Unit, 515 176“77
Oxford Socio-Legal Centre, 56 admissibility of evidence (ss.76, 78), 474,
479
PACE, See °¬© ®¤ ©©®¬ ©¤® arrest (s.24), 201“02
 1984 confessions, admissibility (s.76), 474
Pardon, 720 custody o¬cer (s.36), 187“88
Part 36 o¬ers, 82“86 discretion to exclude evidence (s. 78),
Particulars of claim, 69 479“83
856 Index


Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1994 Pre-trial publicity a¬ecting,
(PACE) (cont.) fair trial, 370“76
excluded material (s.11), 228“29 jury verdicts, 376
informing someone of arrest (s.56), 183 Pre-trial reviews, 351
intimate samples (s.62), 223 Pre-trial rulings, 350“51
intimate search (s.55), 222 Pre-trial settlement conference, 118
non-intimate samples (s.63), 224 Prior convictions, admissibility, 435“42
search after an arrest (ss.18, 32), 220“22 Private prosecutions, 268“70
search, no arrest, 228“31 Privilege to promote settlement, 60
See also ¬§¬ °¦©®¬ °©©¬§
seizure of evidence (s.19), 239“40
special procedure material (Sch.1), 230 Privy Council, 662“63
stop and search (Code A), 196“99 Probate, 3, 4, 5, 7, 567, 777, 778n, 781n, 782,
time-limits on detention for questioning 812, 818“19, 822, 825
(ss.41“44), 209“11 Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division, 5
unfair proceedings (s. 78), 479“83 Pro bono work, 651“53
Police detention See    ¬·, ˜Propensity™, 435, 439“42
, °¬© ©®, Prosecution system, 241“73
±µ©®©®§ ¦ µ° appeal by prosecution, 666“68
Police discretion to prosecute, 241“44 Auld, 248
Police questioning of suspects, See Case Disposal Manual, 253“54
±µ©®©®§ ¦ µ° cautioning, as an alternative, 255“58
Police station, charging standards, 254“55
bail from, 275“76 Code for Prosecutors, 250“53
conditions of detention, 189“91 CPS charging, 248“50
conduct of interviews, 190 Customs and Excise, 267
custody o¬cer, 187“88 decision to prosecute, 250“55
duty solicitors, 610“12 discontinuance, 258
record of interview, 188 discretion to prosecute, 240“44
regime in, 187“91 duties of prosecuting lawyers, 270“71
tape-recording of interviews, 183“85 failure to prosecute, remedies, 262“63
video-recording of interview, 186 Farquharson Guidelines, 270“71
Practice Directions, signi¬cance of, 52n Glidewell Report, 247
Practice Direction on Case Management 1995, independence from the police, 263“64
124“25 judicial control of, 260“62
Pre-action protocols, 60“65 law o¬cers, 266
˜Precognosing™ of witnesses, Scotland, 290 Philips Royal Commission, 245
Predictable costs, 564 private, 268“70
Pre-emptive cost capping orders, 567“68 prosecution counsel and the CPS, 271“73
Preparatory hearings, 350 prosecution counsel and the judge, 273
Press reporting of judicial proceedings, Serious Fraud O¬ce, 267
428“30 Protective Costs Order, 584
Pre-trial assessment, 354“55 Proviso, ˜the™, 699“700
Public Defender, See ©©®¬ ¤¦®
Pre-trial case management,
© and ¬§¬ ©¤
civil cases, 114“40
criminal cases, 347“62 Public interest immunity, 297“99
Pre-trial conference with barrister, frequency, Publicity and contempt of court, 370“78
353 Public justice, 422“430
Pre-trial depositions, 101 Pupillage, 738“41
Pre-trial hearings, utility of, 118, 351“53 Purves, Robert, 515, 539n
Pre-trial preparation,
pre-trial assessment, 354“55 Quarter Sessions, abolition, 16
pre-trial hearings, 349 “54 Queen™s Bench Division (QBD), 4
857 Index


Queen™s Counsel, 748“52, 801“06 ˜Repeat players™, 59
Andrew Dismore™s campaign, 750 Reporting of legal proceedings, 428“30
appointment system, 748, Representation,
Bar™s arguments in favour, 801“02 advantages, 402“05
cost of application, 806 handicaps for the unrepresented, 405“11
ethnic minority, 755, 806 litigants in person, 408“11
Glidewell Working Party (2003), 751“52 magistrates™ courts, 405“07
history, 748 small claims cases, 402“04
Kalisher Committee report (1994), 748 tribunal cases, 407“08
Monopolies and Mergers Commission™s Representative actions, 63“66
report (1976), 749 Reprimands and warnings, 256
Law Society™s withdrawal, 803 Retrials, 714“18
Lord Chancellor™s Department™s Returned briefs, 790
consultation papers (2002, 2003), 802, Revenue and Customs Prosecutions O¬ce
804 (RCPO), 267
Review of the Criminal Courts, See µ¬¤
new system, 805“06
number, 749, 806 Review of Regulation of Legal Services Market
O¬ce of Fair Trading Reports (2001, 2002), (Clementi, 2003“04), See Clementi
751, 802 Rickman, N., 135, 136, 642, 648, 649n
Peach Committee report(1993), 750“01 Right of silence, 165“82, 463“66
reasons for applying 749 accused person is not a compellable witness,
solicitors eligible, 801 463“66
suspended April 2003, 752 in police questioning, 165“82
women, 754, 806 research, 173“75
Questioning of suspects self-incrimination rule, 463
Right to trial by jury, See ©¬  µ
access to lawyer, 175“82
after charge, 168 Rights of audience,
caution, 167“68 employed lawyers, 789“90
danger of false confession, 159 legal executives, 791
detention for, 207“08 ˜McKenzie man™, 408“10
duty to answer, 162“64 non-lawyers, 799“93
importance, 156“57 small claims, 793“94
improper pressure, 191“92 solicitors, 784“89
investigative interviewing, 158 Roberts, Professor Simon, 59, 142, 150
juveniles, 190“91 Rosenberg, M., 352
mentally disordered, 191 Roskill Committee on Fraud Trials,
quality, 157“58 defence disclosure, 303
right to silence, 161“75 jury trial, 543“44
tape recording, 183“85 Royal Commission on Assizes and Quarter
voluntary statements, 192, 470“72 Sessions (Beeching, 1969), 16
Royal Commission on Criminal Justice
Rand Corporation, (Runciman, 1993)
case management, 126“28 adversary system, 395
delay, 139 committal proceedings, 343
Rape victims, protection from cross- confession evidence, 477
examination, 468“69 Criminal Cases Review Commission
Recorders, 6, 16, 17, 19 (CCRC), 723
Recording of stops, 199 defence disclosure, 304
Recording of stops and searches, 198“99 disclosure of scienti¬c evidence, 299
Reference to Court of Appeal Criminal expert evidence, 306
Division, 727“28 fresh evidence, 709, 712, 717
Remuneration certi¬cate, 568 Galbraith, 524
858 Index


Runciman Royal Commission See ¬
Royal Commission on Criminal Justice (cont.)
©©® ® ©©®¬ µ©
grounds for allowing appeals, 697, 700
hearsay evidence, 453 Russell, Neil, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 418n
inquisitorial system, 397
judge summing up facts, 522 Sanctions,
jury aids, 511 civil cases, 128“32
jury composition, 502 criminal cases, 355“57
jury research, 513 Sanders, Professor Andrew, 22n, 156n, 179,
jury trial for either way o¬ences, 318 180, 210, 243, 271n, 325n, 605n
˜lurking doubt™ test, 695 Scale fees, 566
miscarriages of justice, machinery, 723 Scienti¬c facilities for defence, 300
opening speech, 417 Schi¬, Professor David, 654n, 702, 703n, 706,
pre-trial process, 349n 729, 730, 732
prosecution disclosure of unused material, Scotland,
292 detaining witnesses, 164
racial mix of jury, 499 improperly obtained evidence, 482
retrials, 714 majority jury verdicts, 530
retrial after jury tampering ends with no opening speech, 417
acquittal, 667 Report on the Legal Services Market (2006),
right of silence, 169, 465 840
right to trial by jury, 318 requirement to give name and address, 164
sentence canvass, 330 time-limits for trials, 366
tems of reference, 155 Scott, Professor Ian R., 14, 64, 120n, 657n
Zander dissent Scott, Sir Richard/Lord, 72
on defence disclosure, 304“05 Scottish Public Defence Solicitors™ O¬ce,
on pre-trial malpractice, 528 613“14
on pre-trial process, 349n Search and seizure,
Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure arrested person, 220“22
(Philips, 1981) ˜bug and burgle™ provisions, 234“38
access to a lawyer in police station, 176 premises, after an arrest, 220“22
committal proceedings, 342 premises, no arrest, 225“31
See also ® ® °©
confessions, admissibility, 473
defence disclosure, 302 Search by consent, 232
improperly obtained evidence, 478“79 ˜Search order™(formerly Anton Piller), 102
independent prosecution system, 245 Search warrants, 231
right to silence, 167, 464 Sefton, M., 406, 411, 617“18
search of premises, 227“28, 231 ˜Seize and sift™, 240
seizure of evidence, 239 Seizure of evidence, 239“40
stop and search, 195“96 Self-incrimination, 463
time-limits on detention for questioning, Seneviratne, Professor Mary, 51n, 54, 80, 90,
209 113, 117n, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139,
terms of reference, 155 147, 571n
Royal Commission on Legal Services (Benson, Senior Court of England and Wales, 2
1979) Sentence canvass, 329“34
access to lawyers in police stations, 176 Sentence discount, 326“27, 329“36
divided legal profession, 773 Sentencing, scale levels, 316
multi-disciplinary partnerships, 807 ˜Serious arrestable o¬ence™, abolished, 182
partnerships for barristers, 752“53 Serious Organised Crime Agency, 267
right of audience, 784 Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005
solicitors™ conveyancing monopoly, 815 (SOCPA),
Rule Committees, 39, 52 all premises warrants, 231
859 Index


arrest, 201 size of ¬rms, 767
arrestable o¬ences to indictable o¬ences, 221 structure of the profession, 766“67
civilian custody o¬cers, 187 use of, 776
˜disclosure notice™, 164 vocational training, 762“66
footwear impressions, 218 women, 768
immunity from prosecution, 335 Special Advocate, 214, 217, 298
photographs, 218 ˜Special damages™, 68
Service of proceedings, 74“75 Special Immigration Appeal Tribunal, 214
Settlement of civil litigation, 55“60 Special measures directions for vulnerable
Sexual history, cross-examination on, 468“69 witnesses, 431
Shapland, Professor Joanna, 54n, 101, 370n, Special procedure material (PACE Sch.1), 230
736n, 738n, Spencer, Professor John, 279n, 400, 443n,
Silence, See ©§ ¦ ©¬® 454n, 457n, 469, 470, 529, 718
Silkwood, Karen, 101 Spouse, evidence of, 445“46, 462
Similar fact evidence, 436 ˜Stand by for the Crown™, 498
Single civil court, 13“16 Standard disclosure, 88
Single joint experts, 78, 113 Standard fees, 562, 569
Skeleton arguments, 682“83 Statement of truth, 69
Slapper, G., 244, 268n Statutory charge, 593
Small claims system, ˜Statutory objective™, 785
analysis of special characteristics, 384 Stay of prosecution, 368“69
costs, 577“78 Stevenson, Sir Dennis (now Lord), 771
created, 7 Stipendiary magistrates (now District Judges),
European Small Claims Procedure, 9n, 68 20
judge™s role, 386“87 Stop and question, 192“94, 199
jurisdiction, 7“8 Stop and search, 192“99
numbers, 9 random, 197
pre-trial review, 118 records, 198“99
procedure, 384 voluntary, 198
satisfaction with, 385, 388“89 Street bail, 275
standard directions, 115 Summary judgment, 81
Solicitors, Summing up on fact and law, 519“23
access to in police stations, 175“82 Summons for directions, 114
client care, 819 Summons or arrest, 205
complaints against, 820 Summons Production Centre, 74
continuing education, 765“66 Supergrasses, 335
conveyancing, 815“18 Supreme Court (House of Lords), 657“58
distribution of, 768 Surety, 280
entry and training, 761“66
ethnic minorities, 769 Tague, Professor Peter, 325
history, 761 ˜Taken into consideration™ (TICs), 336
incorporation, 814“15 Tape-recording interviews, 183“85
legal executives, 767 Tata, C., 325n, 290n, 614n
limited liability, 814“15 Taxation of costs, 558“59
management, 770“73 Technology and Construction Court, 5
multi-disciplinary partnerships, 809“13 Telephone hearings, 71, 79“80
multi-national partnerships, 810 Telephone tapping, 234“38, 469
numbers, 766 Televising trials, 430
personnel, 767 Terrorism cases,
probate, 818“19 access to lawyer in police station, 171, 176,
rights of audience, 784“90 177, 178
860 Index


Terrorism cases (cont.) Video identi¬cation, 219
control orders, 214 Video-taping of police station interviews, 186
cordoning o¬ an area, 195 Vidmar, NJ., 555
duty to answer questions, 162“63 Voir dire, 467
excluded material not exempt, 228n Voluntary Bill of Indictment, 346
inde¬nite detention without charges, ˜Voluntary™ searches,
213“14 persons, banned, 198
Joint Parliamentary Human Rights premises, 232
Committee Report (2006), 217 Vulnerable witnesses, 431“35
production order, 230
right of silence, 174n Wasted costs order, 117, 124, 129, 356, 357,
Special Independent Counsel, 298 373, 569“71
stop and question, 194 ˜Widgery criteria™, 604
stop and search randomly, 197“98 Wigs, 786
tape-recording of interviews, 185 Winn Committee on Personal Injuries (1968),
time-limits for detention for questioning, automatic directions, 114
212“13 compulsory exchange of witness statements,
video recording, 185 104, 105
˜Tesco law™, 782n, 811, 837 delay, 120
Thaman, S., 554 exchange of witness statements, 95
Thompson, EP., 527“28 pleadings, 70
Threshold Test, 250 ˜Without prejudice™ negotiations, 60
˜Ticketing™ of judges, 19 Witness,
˜TICs™, 336 accused not compellable, 463
Time limits, adversary system, calling, 382“84
advocacy, 421“22 children, 442“45
criminal cases, 366“68 discovering identity of opponent™s, 104“06
police detention, 208“10 examination of, 417“20
Torture evidence, inadmissibility, 481“82 exchange, 104“06
Transfer to crown court, 345 expert, 108“14
Trial by judge alone, 540“50 judge calling, 382
Trial by jury, no property in, 99
the right to have, civil cases, 503“07 protection of vulnerable, 431“35
the right to have, criminal cases, 315“22, witness statements, 106“08
See also ©¬¤®™ ©¤®
509“10
See also Jury Wolchover, D., 172, 186, 273, 367n, 412, 420n,
Trial on indictment without a jury, 540“50 522n, 524n
Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Bill, 2006, Women,
44 barristers, 754
Tribunal Service, 43“45 solicitors, 768
Tribunal system, 42“46 Woolf, Lord, career, 12n
Woolf, Lord, criticisms of the Criminal Justice
Ultra sound scans, 222 Act 2003, 441, 458
˜Unsafe™ verdicts, 693“708 Woolf reforms, assessment, 54“55, 59, 112“13,
Unduly lenient sentence, appeals, 667 125“26, 132“40
˜Unused material, disclosure, 290“97 Woolf Reports on Access to Justice (1995,
1996)
Venue of civil cases, 73 adversary system, 381, 393“94
Very High Cost cases, 610 ADR, 143“44
Victim™s advocate, 421 allocation of civil cases, 78
Victim™s personal statement, 421 case management conferences, 117“18
Video-link, 283, 353, 354, 431 Civil Procedure Rules, 12n, 51“52
861 Index


costs, 135, 138, 557, 564 X-rays of suspects, 222
costs-only hearings, 636
court control, 125 Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act
cross-examination, restricting, 108 1999,
defences, drafting, 77 caution for those who have not had legal
delay, 125“26 advice, 171
directions hearings, 115“17 competence of child witnesses, 444
disclosure/discovery, 87“90 compulsorily obtained evidence not
divisions of High Court, 14“15 admissible, 164
established, 12 computer evidence, 454
expert witnesses, 109“11 oath taking by children, 444
fast track cases, 12, 51, 116, 125 prohibition on reporting identifying witness
High Court and county court, 13“14 a¬ected by ˜fear or distress™, 378
indemnity rule of costs, 573 rape cases, cross-examination of victim by
judicial training to promote consistency, 387 accused, 468“69
leave to appeal requirement, 658 right of silence and legal advice, 171
multi-party actions, 65“66 sexual o¬ences, cross-examination by
multi track cases, 12, 51, 116 defendant of victim banned, 419
˜overriding objective™, 48 special measures directions for vulnerable
payment into court, 83 witnesses, 425, 432“35
pleadings, 70
pre-action protocols, 60“63 Zander, Professor Michael,
pre-trial case management, 114“18 abolition of ACLEC, 785n
pro-active judges, 116 Auld Report on perverse jury verdict,
research, 54 response, 527“28
right of reply, 77 Case Preparation Project, 360
sanctions, 128“30 disclosure, 307
single method of starting claims, 67 PACE, s 78, 480“81
small claims, 7n, 51, 115“16, 387 Runciman Royal Commission, Dissent,
summary judgment, 81“82 defence disclosure, 304“05
uni¬cation of high court and county court, pre-trial malpractice, 698“99
13 pre-trial process, 354n
user-friendly language, 53 sanctions, 356
venue, 73 Woolf reforms, 12n and 132“40
witness statements, 107“08 Zedner, Professor Lucia, 397
Woolfson, Richard, 117n, 292n, 293, 294n, Zeisel, H., 513, 554
295, 307, 353n, 444n, 512, 513, 659n, Zuckerman, Professor Adrian, 12, 49, 85, 94,
675n, 676n 122n, 128, 132, 139n, 141, 394, 448,
Wynne, A., 25, 26 453n, 480n, 565n, 649n

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