Chapter 5
The Financial Environment:
Markets, Institutions, and Interest Rates
ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS




5-1 a. A money market is a financial market for debt securities with maturities of less than one year (short-term). The New York money market is the world’s largest. Capital markets are the financial markets for long-term debt and corporate stocks. The New York Stock Exchange is an example of a capital market.

b. Primary markets are the markets in which newly issued securities are sold for the first time. Secondary markets are where securities are resold after initial issue in the primary market. The New York Stock Exchange is a secondary market.

c. In private markets, transactions are worked out directly between two parties and structured in any manner that appeals to them. Bank loans and private placements of debt with insurance companies are examples of private market transactions. In public markets, standardized contracts are traded on organized exchanges. Securities that are issued in public markets, such as common stock and corporate bonds, are ultimately held by a large number of individuals. Private market securities are more tailor-made but less liquid, whereas public market securities are more liquid but subject to greater standardization.

d. Derivatives are claims whose value depends on what happens to the value of some other asset. Futures and options are two important types of derivatives, and their values depend on what happens to the prices of other assets, say IBM stock, Japanese yen, or pork bellies. Therefore, the value of a derivative security is derived from the value of an underlying real asset.

e. An investment banker is a middleman between businesses and savers. Investment banking houses assist in the design of corporate securities and then sell them to savers (investors) in the primary markets. Financial service corporations offer a wide range of financial services such as brokerage operations, insurance, and commercial banking.

f. A financial intermediary buys securities with funds that it obtains by issuing its own securities. An example is a common stock mutual fund that buys common stocks with funds obtained by issuing shares in the mutual fund.

g. A mutual fund is a corporation that sells shares in the fund and uses the proceeds to buy stocks, long-term bonds, or short-term debt instruments. The resulting dividends, interest, and capital gains are distributed to the fund’s shareholders after the deduction of operating expenses. Different funds are designed to meet different objectives. Money market funds are mutual funds which invest in short-term debt instruments and offer their shareholders check writing privileges; thus, they are essentially interest-bearing checking accounts.

h. Organized security exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange, facilitate communication between buyers and sellers of securities.
Each organized exchange is a physical entity and is governed by an elected board of governors. The over-the-counter market consists of all the facilities that provide for security transactions not conducted on the organized exchanges. These facilities are, basically, the relatively few dealers who hold inventories of over-the-counter securities, the thousands of brokers who act as agents in bringing these dealers together with investors, and the communications network that links the dealers and agents.

I. Production opportunities are the returns available within an economy from investment in productive assets. The higher the production opportunities, the more producers would be willing to pay for required capital. Consumption time preferences refer to the preferred pattern of consumption. Consumer’s time preferences for consumption establish how much consumption they are willing to defer, and hence save, at different levels of interest.

j. The real risk-free rate is that interest rate which equalizes the aggregate supply of, and demand for, riskless securities in an economy with zero inflation. The real risk-free rate could also be called the pure rate of interest since it is the rate of interest that would exist on very short-term, default-free U.S. Treasury securities if the expected rate of inflation were zero. It has been estimated that this rate of interest, denoted by k*, has fluctuated in recent years in the United States in the range of 2 to 4 percent. The nominal risk-free rate of interest, denoted by kRF, is the real risk-free rate plus a premium for expected inflation. The short-term nominal risk-free rate is usually approximated by the U.S. Treasury bill rate, while the long-term nominal risk-free rate is approximated by the rate on U.S. Treasury bonds. Note that while T-bonds are free of default and liquidity risks, they are subject to risks due to changes in the general level of interest rates.

k. The inflation premium is the premium added to the real risk-free rate of interest to compensate for the expected loss of purchasing power. The inflation premium is the average rate of inflation expected over the life of the security.

l. Default risk is the risk that a borrower will not pay the interest and/or principal on a loan as they become due. Thus, a default risk premium (DRP) is added to the real risk-free rate to compensate investors for bearing default risk.

m. Liquidity refers to a firm’s cash and marketable securities position, and to its ability to meet maturing obligations. A liquid asset is any asset that can be quickly sold and converted to cash at its “fair” value. Active markets provide liquidity. A liquidity premium is added to the real risk-free rate of interest, in addition to other premiums, if a security is not liquid.

n. Interest rate risk arises from the fact that bond prices decline when interest rates rise. Under these circumstances, selling a bond prior to maturity will result in a capital loss, and the longer the term to maturity, the larger the loss. Thus, a maturity risk premium must be added to the real risk-free rate of interest to compensate for interest rate risk.

o. Reinvestment rate risk occurs when a short-term debt security must be “rolled over.” If interest rates have fallen, the reinvestment of principal will be at a lower rate, with correspondingly lower interest payments and ending value. Note that long-term debt securities also have some reinvestment rate risk because their interest payments have to be reinvested at prevailing rates.

p. The term structure of interest rates is the relationship between yield to maturity and term to maturity for bonds of a single risk class. The yield curve is the curve that results when yield to maturity is plotted on the Y axis with term to maturity on the X axis.

q. When the yield curve slopes upward, it is said to be “normal,” because it is like this most of the time. Conversely, a downward-sloping yield curve is termed “abnormal” or “inverted.”

r. The expectations theory states that the slope of the yield curve depends on expectations about future inflation rates and interest rates. Thus, if the annual rate of inflation and future interest rates are expected to increase, the yield curve will be upward sloping, whereas the curve will be downward sloping if the annual rates are expected to decrease.


s. A foreign trade deficit occurs when businesses and individuals in the U. S. import more goods from foreign countries than are exported.
Trade deficits must be financed, and the main source of financing is debt. Therefore, as the trade deficit increases, the debt financing increases, driving up interest rates. U. S. interest rates must be competitive with foreign interest rates; if the Federal Reserve attempts to set interest rates lower than foreign rates, foreigners will sell U.S. bonds, decreasing bond prices, resulting in higher U. S. rates. Thus, if the trade deficit is large relative to the size of the overall economy, it may hinder the Fed’s ability to combat a recession by lowering interest rates.

5-2 Financial intermediaries are business organizations that receive funds in one form and repackage them for the use of those who need funds. Through financial intermediation, resources are allocated more effectively, and the real output of the economy is thereby increased.

5-3 Regional mortgage rate differentials do exist, depending on supply/demand conditions in the different regions. However, relatively high rates in one region would attract capital from other regions, and the end result would be a differential that was just sufficient to cover the costs of effecting the transfer (perhaps 2 of one percentage point). Differentials are more likely in the residential mortgage market than the business loan market, and not at all likely for the large, nationwide firms, which will do their borrowing in the lowest-cost money centers and thereby quickly equalize rates for large corporate loans. If Congress were to permit nationwide branching, interest rates would become more competitive, making it easier for small borrowers, and borrowers in rural areas, to obtain lower cost loans.

5-4 It would be difficult for firms to raise capital. Thus, capital investment would slow down, unemployment would rise, the output of goods and services would fall, and, in general, our standard of living would decline.

5-5 The prices of goods and services must cover their costs. Costs include labor, materials, and capital. Capital costs to a borrower include a return to the saver who supplied the capital, plus a mark-up (called a “spread”) for the financial intermediary which brings the saver and the borrower together. The more efficient the financial system, the lower the costs of intermediation, the lower the costs to the borrower, and, hence, the lower the prices of goods and services to consumers.

5-6 Short-term rates are more volatile because (1) the Fed operates mainly in the short-term sector, hence Federal Reserve intervention has its major effect here, and (2) long-term rates reflect the average expected inflation rate over the next 20 to 30 years, and this average does not change as radically as year-to-year expectations.

5-7 Interest rates will fall as the recession takes hold because (1) business borrowings will decrease and (2) the Fed will increase the money supply to stimulate the economy. Thus, it would be better to borrow short-term now, and then to convert to long-term when rates have reached a cyclical low. Note, though, that this answer requires interest rate forecasting, which is extremely difficult to do with better than 50 percent accuracy.

5-8 a. If transfers between the two markets are costly, interest rates would be different in the two areas. Area Y, with the relatively young population, would have less in savings accumulation and stronger loan demand. Area O, with the relatively old population, would have more savings accumulation and weaker loan demand as the members of the older population have already purchased their houses and are less consumption oriented. Thus, supply/demand equilibrium would be at a higher rate of interest in Area Y.

b. Yes. Nationwide branching, and so forth, would reduce the cost of financial transfers between the areas. Thus, funds would flow from Area O with excess relative supply to Area Y with excess relative demand. This flow would increase the interest rate in Area O and decrease the interest rate in Y until the rates were roughly equal, the difference being the transfer cost.

5-9 A significant increase in productivity would raise the rate of return on producers’ investment, thus causing the investment curve (see Figure 5-2 in the textbook) to shift to the right. This would increase the amount of savings and investment in the economy, thus causing all interest rates to rise.

5-10 a. The immediate effect on the yield curve would be to lower interest rates in the short-term end of the market, since the Fed deals primarily in that market segment. However, people would expect higher future inflation, which would raise long-term rates. The result would be a much steeper yield curve.

b. If the policy is maintained, the expanded money supply will result in increased rates of inflation and increased inflationary expectations. This will cause investors to increase the inflation premium on all debt securities, and the entire yield curve would rise; that is, all rates would be higher.

5-11 a. S&Ls would have a higher level of net income with a “normal” yield curve. In this situation their liabilities (deposits), which are short-term, would have a lower cost than the returns being generated by their assets (mortgages), which are long-term. Thus they would have a positive “spread.”

b. It depends on the situation. A sharp increase in inflation would increase interest rates along the entire yield curve. If the increase were large, short-term interest rates might be boosted above the long-term interest rates that prevailed prior to the inflation increase. Then, since the bulk of the fixed-rate mortgages were initiated when interest rates were lower, the deposits (liabilities) of the S&Ls would cost more than the return being provided on the assets. If this situation continued for any length of time, the equity (reserves) of the S&Ls would be drained to the point that only a “bailout” would prevent bankruptcy. This has indeed happened in the United States. Thus, in this situation the S&L industry would be better off selling their mortgages to federal agencies and collecting servicing fees rather than holding the mortgages they originated.

5-12 Treasury bonds, along with all other bonds, are available to investors as an alternative investment to common stocks. An increase in the return on Treasury bonds would increase the appeal of these bonds relative to common stocks, and some investors would sell their stocks to buy T-bonds. This would cause stock prices, in general, to fall. Another way to view this is that a relatively riskless investment (T-bonds) has increased its return by 7 percentage points. The return demanded on riskier investments (stocks) would also increase, thus driving down stock prices. The exact relationship will be discussed in Chapters 5 (with respect to risk) and 8 and 9 (with respect to price).
SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS



5-1 k* = 3%; I1 = 2%; I2 = 4%; I3 = 4%; MRP = 0; kT-2 = ?; kT-3 = ?

k = k* + IP + DRP + LP + MRP.

Since these are Treasury securities, DRP = LP = 0.

kT-2 = k* + IP2
IP2 = (2% + 4%)/2 = 3%
kT-2 = 3% + 3% = 6%.

kT-3 = k* + IP3
IP3 = (2% + 4% + 4%)/3 = 3.33%
kT-3 = 3% + 3.33% = 6.33%.


5-2 kT-10 = 6%; kC-10 = 8%; LP = 0.5%; DRP = ?

k = k* + IP + DRP + LP + MRP.

kT-10 = 6% = k* + IP + MRP; DRP = LP = 0.

kC-10 = 8% = k* + IP + DRP + 0.5% + MRP.

Because both bonds are 10-year bonds the inflation premium and maturity risk premium on both bonds are equal. The only difference between them is the liquidity and default risk premiums.

kC-10 = 8% = k* + IP + MRP + 0.5% + DRP. But we know from above that k* + IP + MRP = 6%; therefore,

kC-10 = 8% = 6% + 0.5% + DRP
1.5% = DRP.


5-3 kT-1, 1 = 5%; kT-1, 2 = 6%; kT-2 = ?

kT-2 = = 5.5%.


5-4 k* = 3%; IP = 3%; kT-2 = 6.2%; MRP2 = ?

kT-2 = k* + IP + MRP = 6.2%
kT-2 = 3% + 3% + MRP = 6.2%
MRP = 0.2%.
5-5 Let x equal the yield on 1-year securities 1 year from now:

(5.6% + x)/2 = 6%
5.6% + x = 12%
x = 6.4%.


5-6 Let x equal the yield on 2-year securities 4 years from now:

7.5% = [(4)(7%) + 2x]/6
0.45 = 0.28 + 2x
x = 0.085 or 8.5%.


5-7 k = k* + IP + MRP + DRP + LP.
k* = 0.03.
IP = [0.03 + 0.04 + (5)(0.035)]/7 = 0.035.
MRP = 0.0005(6) = 0.003.
DRP = 0.
LP = 0.

k = 0.03 + 0.035 + 0.003 = 0.068 = 6.8%.


5-8 a. k1 = 3%, and

k2 = = 4.5%,

Solving for k1 in Year 2, we obtain

k1 in Year 2 = (4.5% x 2) - 3% = 6%.

b. For riskless bonds under the expectations theory, the interest rate for a bond of any maturity is kn = k* + average inflation over n years. If k* = 1%, we can solve for IPn:

Year 1: k1 = 1% + I1 = 3%;
I1 = expected inflation = 3% - 1% = 2%.

Year 2: k1 = 1% + I2 = 6%;
I2 = expected inflation = 6% - 1% = 5%.

Note also that the average inflation rate is (2% + 5%)/2 = 3.5%, which, when added to k* = 1%, produces the yield on a 2-year bond, 4.5%. Therefore, all of our results are consistent.

Alternative solution: Solve for the inflation rates in Year 1 and Year 2 first:

kRF = k* + IP
Year 1: 3% = 1% + IP1; IP1 = 2%, thus I1 = 2%.

Year 2: 4.5% = 1% + IP2; IP2 = 3.5%.

IP2 = (I1 + I2)/2
3.5% = (2% + I2)/2
I2 = 5%.

Then solve for the yield on the one-year bond in the second year:

Year 2: k1 = 1% + 5% = 6%.


5-9 k* = 2%; MRP = 0%.

k1 = 5%; k2 = 7%.

k2 = ,

7% = ,

9% = k1 in Year 2.

k1 in Year 2 = k* + I2,
9% = 2% + I2
7% = I2.

The average interest rate during the 2-year period differs from the 1-year interest rate expected for Year 2 because of the inflation rate reflected in the two interest rates. The inflation rate reflected in the interest rate on any security is the average rate of inflation expected over the security’s life.


5-10 First, note that we will use the equation kt = 3% + IPt + MRPt. We have the data needed to find the IPs:

IP5 = = = 5%.

IP2 = = 6.5%.

Now we can substitute into the equation:

k2 = 3% + 6.5% + MRP2 = 10%. k5 = 3% + 5% + MRP5 = 10%.

Now we can solve for the MRPs, and find the difference:

MRP5 = 10% - 8% = 2%. MRP2 = 10% - 9.5% = 0.5%.

Difference = (2% - 0.5%) = 1.5%.


5-11 Basic relevant equations:

kt = k* + IPt + DRPt + MRPt + LPt.

But here IP is the only premium, so kt = k* + IPt.

IPt = Avg. inflation = (I1 + I2 + ...)/N.

We know that I1 = IP1 = 3% and k* = 2%. Therefore,

k1 = 2% + 3% = 5%. k3 = k1 + 2% = 5% + 2% = 7%. But,

k3 = k* + IP3 = 2% + IP3 = 7%, so

IP3 = 7% - 2% = 5%.

We also know that It = Constant after t = 1.

We can set up this table:

k* I Avg. I = IPt k = k* + IPt
1 2 3 3%/1 = 3% 5%
2 2 I (3% + I)/2 = IP2
3 2 I (3% + I + I)/3 = IP3 k3 = 7%, so IP3 = 7% - 2% = 5%.

Avg. I = IP3 = (3% + 2I)/3 = 5%
2I = 12%
I = 6%.


5-12 a. Real
Years to Risk-Free
Maturity Rate (k*) IP** MRP kT = k* + IP + MRP
1 2% 7.00% 0.2% 9.20%
2 2 6.00 0.4 8.40
3 2 5.00 0.6 7.60
4 2 4.50 0.8 7.30
5 2 4.20 1.0 7.20
10 2 3.60 1.0 6.60
20 2 3.30 1.0 6.30



**The computation of the inflation premium is as follows:

Expected Average
Year Inflation Expected Inflation
1 7% 7.00%
2 5 6.00
3 3 5.00
4 3 4.50
5 3 4.20
10 3 3.60
20 3 3.30

For example, the calculation for 3 years is as follows:


Thus, the yield curve would be as follows:






b. The interest rate on the Exxon bonds has the same components as the Treasury securities, except that the Exxon bonds have default risk, so a default risk premium must be included. Therefore,

kExxon = k* + IP + MRP + DRP.

For a strong company such as Exxon, the default risk premium is virtually zero for short-term bonds. However, as time to maturity increases, the probability of default, although still small, is sufficient to warrant a default premium. Thus, the yield risk curve for the Exxon bonds will rise above the yield curve for the Treasury securities. In the graph, the default risk premium was assumed to be 1.0 percentage point on the 20-year Exxon bonds. The return should equal 6.3% + 1% = 7.3%.

c. LILCO bonds would have significantly more default risk than either Treasury securities or Exxon bonds, and the risk of default would increase over time due to possible financial deterioration. In this example, the default risk premium was assumed to be 1.0 percentage point on the 1-year LILCO bonds and 2.0 percentage points on the 20-year bonds. The 20-year return should equal 6.3% + 2% = 8.3%.


5-13 Term Rate
6 months 6.4%
1 year 6.3
2 years 6.9
3 years 6.8
5 years 6.7
10 years 6.5
20 years 6.6
30 years 6.2





5-14 a. The average rate of inflation for the 5-year period is calculated as:

= (0.13 + 0.09 + 0.07 + 0.06 + 0.06)/5 = 8.20%.

b. k = k* + IPAvg. = 2% + 8.2% = 10.20%.

c. Here is the general situation:

Arithmetic
1-Year Average Maturity Estimated
Expected Expected Risk Interest
Year Inflation Inflation k* Premium Rates
1 13% 13.0% 2% 0.1% 15.1%
2 9 11.0 2 0.2 13.2
3 7 9.7 2 0.3 12.0
5 6 8.2 2 0.5 10.7
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
10 6 7.1 2 1.0 10.1
20 6 6.6 2 2.0 10.6

d. The “normal” yield curve is upward sloping because, in “normal” times, inflation is not expected to trend either up or down, so IP is the same for debt of all maturities, but the MRP increases with years, so the yield curve slopes up. During a recession, the yield curve typically slopes up especially steeply, because inflation and consequently short-term interest rates are currently low, yet people expect inflation and interest rates to rise as the economy comes out of the recession.
e. If inflation rates are expected to be constant, then the expectations theory holds that the yield curve should be horizontal. However, in this event it is likely that maturity risk premiums would be applied to long-term bonds because of the greater risks of holding long-term rather than short-term bonds:




If maturity risk premiums were added to the yield curve in Part e above, then the yield curve would be more nearly normal; that is, the long-term end of the curve would be raised. (The yield curve shown in this answer is upward sloping; the yield curve shown in Part c is downward sloping.)

SPREADSHEET PROBLEM




5-15 The detailed solution for the spreadsheet problem is available both on the instructor’s resource CD-ROM (in the file Solution for Ch 05-15 Build a Model.xls) and on the instructor’s side of the Harcourt College Publishers’ web site, http://www.harcourtcollege.com/finance/theory10e.
CYBERPROBLEM




5-16 The detailed solution for the cyberproblem is available on the instructor’s side of the Harcourt College Publishers’ web site: http://www.harcourtcollege.com/finance/theory10e.

MINI CASE




ASSUME THAT YOU RECENTLY GRADUATED WITH A DEGREE IN FINANCE AND HAVE JUST REPORTED TO WORK AS AN INVESTMENT ADVISOR AT THE BROKERAGE FIRM OF BALIK AND KIEFER INC. YOUR FIRST ASSIGNMENT IS TO EXPLAIN THE NATURE OF THE U.S. FINANCIAL MARKETS TO MICHELLE DELLATORRE, A PROFESSIONAL TENNIS PLAYER WHO HAS JUST COME TO THE UNITED STATES FROM CHILE. DELLATORRE IS A HIGHLY RANKED TENNIS PLAYER WHO EXPECTS TO INVEST SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTS OF MONEY THROUGH BALIK AND KIEFER. SHE IS ALSO VERY BRIGHT, AND, THEREFORE, SHE WOULD LIKE TO UNDERSTAND IN GENERAL TERMS WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO HER MONEY. YOUR BOSS HAS DEVELOPED THE FOLLOWING SET OF QUESTIONS WHICH YOU MUST ASK AND ANSWER TO EXPLAIN THE U.S. FINANCIAL SYSTEM TO DELLATORRE.

A. WHAT IS A MARKET? HOW ARE PHYSICAL ASSET MARKETS DIFFERENTIATED FROM FINANCIAL MARKETS?

ANSWER: A MARKET IS ONE IN WHICH ASSETS ARE BOUGHT AND SOLD. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF FINANCIAL MARKETS, EACH ONE DEALING WITH A DIFFERENT TYPE OF FINANCIAL ASSET, SERVING A DIFFERENT SET OF CUSTOMERS, OR OPERATING IN A DIFFERENT PART OF THE COUNTRY. FINANCIAL MARKETS DIFFER FROM PHYSICAL ASSET MARKETS IN THAT REAL, OR TANGIBLE, ASSETS SUCH AS MACHINERY, REAL ESTATE, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ARE TRADED IN THE PHYSICAL ASSET MARKETS, BUT FINANCIAL SECURITIES REPRESENTING CLAIMS ON ASSETS ARE TRADED IN THE FINANCIAL MARKETS.


B. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN MONEY MARKETS AND CAPITAL MARKETS.

ANSWER: MONEY MARKETS ARE THE MARKETS IN WHICH DEBT SECURITIES WITH MATURITIES OF LESS THAN ONE YEAR ARE TRADED. NEW YORK, LONDON, AND TOKYO ARE MAJOR MONEY MARKET CENTERS. LONGER-TERM SECURITIES, INCLUDING STOCKS AND BONDS, ARE TRADED IN THE CAPITAL MARKETS. THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A CAPITAL MARKET, WHILE THE NEW YORK COMMERCIAL PAPER AND TREASURY BILL MARKETS ARE MONEY MARKETS.


C. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN A PRIMARY MARKET AND A SECONDARY MARKET. IF APPLE COMPUTER DECIDED TO ISSUE ADDITIONAL COMMON STOCK AND DELLATORRE PURCHASED 100 SHARES OF THIS STOCK FROM MERRILL LYNCH, THE UNDERWRITER, WOULD THIS TRANSACTION BE A PRIMARY MARKET TRANSACTION OR A SECONDARY MARKET TRANSACTION? WOULD IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE IF DELLATORRE PURCHASED PREVIOUSLY OUTSTANDING APPLE STOCK IN THE NASDAQ MARKET?

ANSWER: A PRIMARY MARKET IS ONE IN WHICH COMPANIES RAISE CAPITAL BY SELLING NEWLY ISSUED SECURITIES, WHEREAS PREVIOUSLY OUTSTANDING SECURITIES ARE TRADED AMONG INVESTORS IN THE SECONDARY MARKETS. IF DELLATORRE PURCHASED NEWLY ISSUED APPLE STOCK, THIS WOULD CONSTITUTE A PRIMARY MARKET TRANSACTION, WITH MERRILL LYNCH ACTING AS AN INVESTMENT BANKER IN THE TRANSACTION. IF DELLATORRE PURCHASED “USED” STOCK, THEN THE TRANSACTION WOULD BE IN THE SECONDARY MARKET.


D. DESCRIBE THE THREE PRIMARY WAYS IN WHICH CAPITAL IS TRANSFERRED BETWEEN SAVERS AND BORROWERS.

ANSWER: TRANSFERS OF CAPITAL CAN BE MADE (1) BY DIRECT TRANSFER OF MONEY AND SECURITIES, (2) THROUGH AN INVESTMENT BANKING HOUSE, OR (3) THROUGH A FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY. IN A DIRECT TRANSFER, A BUSINESS SELLS ITS STOCKS OR BONDS DIRECTLY TO INVESTORS (SAVERS), WITHOUT GOING THROUGH ANY TYPE OF INSTITUTION. THE BUSINESS BORROWER RECEIVES DOLLARS FROM THE SAVERS, AND THE SAVERS RECEIVE SECURITIES (BONDS OR STOCK) IN RETURN.
IF THE TRANSFER IS MADE THROUGH AN INVESTMENT BANKING HOUSE, THE INVESTMENT BANK SERVES AS A MIDDLEMAN. THE BUSINESS SELLS ITS SECURITIES TO THE INVESTMENT BANK, WHICH IN TURN SELLS THEM TO THE SAVERS. ALTHOUGH THE SECURITIES ARE SOLD TWICE, THE TWO SALES CONSTITUTE ONE COMPLETE TRANSACTION IN THE PRIMARY MARKET.
IF THE TRANSFER IS MADE THROUGH A FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY, SAVERS INVEST FUNDS WITH THE INTERMEDIARY, WHICH THEN ISSUES ITS OWN SECURITIES IN EXCHANGE. BANKS ARE ONE TYPE OF INTERMEDIARY, RECEIVING DOLLARS FROM MANY SMALL SAVERS AND THEN LENDING THESE DOLLARS TO BORROWERS TO PURCHASE HOMES, AUTOMOBILES, VACATIONS, AND SO ON, AND ALSO TO BUSINESSES AND GOVERNMENT UNITS. THE SAVERS RECEIVE A CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSIT OR SOME OTHER INSTRUMENT IN EXCHANGE FOR THE FUNDS DEPOSITED WITH THE BANK. MUTUAL FUNDS, INSURANCE COMPANIES, AND PENSION FUNDS ARE OTHER TYPES OF INTERMEDIARIES.


E. SECURITIES CAN BE TRADED ON ORGANIZED EXCHANGES OR IN THE OVER-THE-COUNTER MARKET. DEFINE EACH OF THESE MARKETS, AND DESCRIBE HOW STOCKS ARE TRADED IN EACH OF THEM.

ANSWER: THE ORGANIZED SECURITY EXCHANGES ARE FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVING TANGIBLE, PHYSICAL LOCATIONS AND TRADING IN DESIGNATED SECURITIES. THERE ARE EXCHANGES FOR STOCKS, BONDS, COMMODITIES, FUTURES, AND OPTIONS. TWO WELL-KNOWN EXCHANGES IN THE UNITED STATES ARE THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE AND THE AMERICAN STOCK EXCHANGE. THE ORGANIZED EXCHANGES ARE CONDUCTED AS AUCTION MARKETS WITH SECURITIES GOING TO THE HIGHEST BIDDER. BUYERS AND SELLERS PLACE ORDERS WITH THEIR BROKERS WHO THEN EXECUTE THOSE ORDERS BY MATCHING BUYERS AND SELLERS, ALTHOUGH SPECIALISTS ASSIST IN PROVIDING CONTINUITY TO THE MARKETS.
THE OVER-THE-COUNTER MARKET IS MADE UP OF HUNDREDS OF BROKERS AND DEALERS AROUND THE COUNTRY WHO ARE CONNECTED ELECTRONICALLY BY TELEPHONES AND COMPUTERS. THE OVER-THE-COUNTER MARKET FACILITATES TRADING OF SECURITIES THAT ARE NOT LISTED WITH AN ORGANIZED EXCHANGE. THIS MARKET CONSISTS OF (1) THE DEALERS WHO HOLD INVENTORIES OF OVER-THE-COUNTER SECURITIES, (2) THE BROKERS WHO ACT AS AGENTS IN BRINGING TOGETHER DEALERS AND INVESTORS, AND (3) THE COMPUTERS, TERMINALS, AND ELECTRONIC NETWORKS THAT FACILITATE COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN DEALERS AND BROKERS. DEALERS CONTINUOUSLY POST A PRICE AT WHICH THEY ARE WILLING TO BUY THE STOCK (THE BID PRICE) AND A PRICE AT WHICH THEY ARE WILLING TO SELL THE STOCK (THE ASKED PRICE). THE ASKED PRICE IS ALWAYS HIGHER THAN THE BID PRICE, AND THE DIFFERENCE (OR “SPREAD”) REPRESENTS THE DEALER’S PROFIT.


F. WHAT DO WE CALL THE PRICE THAT A BORROWER MUST PAY FOR DEBT CAPITAL? WHAT IS THE PRICE OF EQUITY CAPITAL? WHAT ARE THE FOUR MOST FUNDAMENTAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE COST OF MONEY, OR THE GENERAL LEVEL OF INTEREST RATES, IN THE ECONOMY?

ANSWER: THE INTEREST RATE IS THE PRICE PAID FOR BORROWED CAPITAL, WHILE THE RETURN ON EQUITY CAPITAL COMES IN THE FORM OF DIVIDENDS PLUS CAPITAL GAINS. THE RETURN THAT INVESTORS REQUIRE ON CAPITAL DEPENDS ON (1) PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES, (2) TIME PREFERENCES FOR CONSUMPTION, (3) RISK, AND (4) INFLATION.
PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES REFER TO THE RETURNS THAT ARE AVAILABLE FROM INVESTMENT IN PRODUCTIVE ASSETS: THE MORE PRODUCTIVE A PRODUCER FIRM BELIEVES ITS ASSETS WILL BE, THE MORE IT WILL BE WILLING TO PAY FOR THE CAPITAL NECESSARY TO ACQUIRE THOSE ASSETS.
TIME PREFERENCE FOR CONSUMPTION REFERS TO CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCES FOR CURRENT CONSUMPTION VERSUS SAVINGS FOR FUTURE CONSUMPTION: CONSUMERS WITH LOW PREFERENCES FOR CURRENT CONSUMPTION WILL BE WILLING TO LEND AT A LOWER RATE THAN CONSUMERS WITH A HIGH PREFERENCE FOR CURRENT CONSUMPTION.
INFLATION REFERS TO THE TENDENCY OF PRICES TO RISE, AND THE HIGHER THE EXPECTED RATE OF INFLATION, THE LARGER THE REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN.
RISK, IN A MONEY AND CAPITAL MARKET CONTEXT, REFERS TO THE CHANCE THAT A LOAN WILL NOT BE REPAID AS PROMISED--THE HIGHER THE PERCEIVED DEFAULT RISK, THE HIGHER THE REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN.
RISK IS ALSO LINKED TO THE MATURITY AND LIQUIDITY OF A SECURITY.
THE LONGER THE MATURITY AND THE LESS LIQUID (MARKETABLE) THE SECURITY, THE HIGHER THE REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN, OTHER THINGS CONSTANT.
THE PRECEDING DISCUSSION RELATED TO THE GENERAL LEVEL OF MONEY COSTS, BUT THE LEVEL OF INTEREST RATES WILL ALSO BE INFLUENCED BY SUCH THINGS AS FED POLICY, FISCAL AND FOREIGN TRADE DEFICITS, AND THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY. ALSO, INDIVIDUAL SECURITIES WILL HAVE HIGHER YIELDS THAN THE RISK-FREE RATE BECAUSE OF THE ADDITION OF VARIOUS PREMIUMS AS DISCUSSED BELOW.


G. WHAT IS THE REAL RISK-FREE RATE OF INTEREST (k*) AND THE NOMINAL RISK-FREE RATE (kRF)? HOW ARE THESE TWO RATES MEASURED?

ANSWER: KEEP THESE EQUATIONS IN MIND AS WE DISCUSS INTEREST RATES. WE WILL DEFINE THE TERMS AS WE GO ALONG:

k = k* + IP + DRP + LP + MRP.

kRF = k* + IP.
THE REAL RISK-FREE RATE, k*, IS THE RATE THAT WOULD EXIST ON DEFAULT-FREE SECURITIES IN THE ABSENCE OF INFLATION.
THE NOMINAL RISK-FREE RATE, kRF, IS EQUAL TO THE REAL RISK-FREE RATE PLUS AN INFLATION PREMIUM WHICH IS EQUAL TO THE AVERAGE RATE OF INFLATION EXPECTED OVER THE LIFE OF THE SECURITY.
THERE IS NO TRULY RISKLESS SECURITY, BUT THE CLOSEST THING IS A SHORT-TERM U. S. TREASURY BILL (T-BILL), WHICH IS FREE OF MOST RISKS. THE REAL RISK-FREE RATE, k*, IS ESTIMATED BY SUBTRACTING THE EXPECTED RATE OF INFLATION FROM THE RATE ON SHORT-TERM TREASURY SECURITIES. IT IS GENERALLY ASSUMED THAT k* IS IN THE RANGE OF 1 TO 4 PERCENTAGE POINTS. THE T-BOND RATE IS USED AS A PROXY FOR THE LONG-TERM RISK-FREE RATE. HOWEVER, WE KNOW THAT ALL LONG-TERM BONDS CONTAIN INTEREST RATE RISK, SO THE T-BOND RATE IS NOT REALLY RISKLESS. IT IS, HOWEVER, FREE OF DEFAULT RISK.


H. DEFINE THE TERMS INFLATION PREMIUM (IP), DEFAULT RISK PREMIUM (DRP), LIQUIDITY PREMIUM (LP), AND MATURITY RISK PREMIUM (MRP). WHICH OF THESE PREMIUMS IS INCLUDED WHEN DETERMINING THE INTEREST RATE ON (1) SHORT-TERM U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES, (2) LONG-TERM U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES, (3) SHORT-TERM CORPORATE SECURITIES, AND (4) LONG-TERM CORPORATE SECURITIES? EXPLAIN HOW THE PREMIUMS WOULD VARY OVER TIME AND AMONG THE DIFFERENT SECURITIES LISTED ABOVE.

ANSWER: THE INFLATION PREMIUM (IP) IS A PREMIUM ADDED TO THE REAL RISK-FREE RATE OF INTEREST TO COMPENSATE FOR EXPECTED INFLATION.
THE DEFAULT RISK PREMIUM (DRP) IS A PREMIUM BASED ON THE PROBABILITY THAT THE ISSUER WILL DEFAULT ON THE LOAN, AND IT IS MEASURED BY THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE INTEREST RATE ON A U.S. TREASURY BOND AND A CORPORATE BOND OF EQUAL MATURITY AND MARKETABILITY.
A LIQUID ASSET IS ONE THAT CAN BE SOLD AT A PREDICTABLE PRICE ON SHORT NOTICE; A LIQUIDITY PREMIUM IS ADDED TO THE RATE OF INTEREST ON SECURITIES THAT ARE NOT LIQUID.
THE MATURITY RISK PREMIUM (MRP) IS A PREMIUM WHICH REFLECTS INTEREST RATE RISK; LONGER-TERM SECURITIES HAVE MORE INTEREST RATE RISK (THE RISK OF CAPITAL LOSS DUE TO RISING INTEREST RATES) THAN DO SHORTER-TERM SECURITIES, AND THE MRP IS ADDED TO REFLECT THIS RISK.

1. SHORT-TERM TREASURY SECURITIES INCLUDE ONLY AN INFLATION PREMIUM.

2. LONG-TERM TREASURY SECURITIES CONTAIN AN INFLATION PREMIUM PLUS A MATURITY RISK PREMIUM. NOTE THAT THE INFLATION PREMIUM ADDED TO LONG-TERM SECURITIES WILL DIFFER FROM THAT FOR SHORT-TERM SECURITIES UNLESS THE RATE OF INFLATION IS EXPECTED TO REMAIN CONSTANT.

3. THE RATE ON SHORT-TERM CORPORATE SECURITIES IS EQUAL TO THE REAL RISK-FREE RATE PLUS PREMIUMS FOR INFLATION, DEFAULT RISK, AND LIQUIDITY. THE SIZE OF THE DEFAULT AND LIQUIDITY PREMIUMS WILL VARY DEPENDING ON THE FINANCIAL STRENGTH OF THE ISSUING CORPORATION AND ITS DEGREE OF LIQUIDITY, WITH LARGER CORPORATIONS GENERALLY HAVING GREATER LIQUIDITY BECAUSE OF MORE ACTIVE TRADING.

4. THE RATE FOR LONG-TERM CORPORATE SECURITIES ALSO INCLUDES A PREMIUM FOR MATURITY RISK. THUS, LONG-TERM CORPORATE SECURITIES GENERALLY CARRY THE HIGHEST YIELDS OF THESE FOUR TYPES OF SECURITIES.


I. WHAT IS THE TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES? WHAT IS A YIELD CURVE?

ANSWER: THE TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTEREST RATES, OR YIELDS, AND MATURITIES OF SECURITIES. WHEN THIS RELATIONSHIP IS GRAPHED, THE RESULTING CURVE IS CALLED A YIELD CURVE.


J. SUPPOSE MOST INVESTORS EXPECT THE INFLATION RATE TO BE 5 PERCENT NEXT YEAR, 6 PERCENT THE FOLLOWING YEAR, AND 8 PERCENT THEREAFTER. THE REAL RISK-FREE RATE IS 3 PERCENT. THE MATURITY RISK PREMIUM IS ZERO FOR SECURITIES THAT MATURE IN 1 YEAR OR LESS, 0.1 PERCENT FOR 2-YEAR SECURITIES, AND THEN THE MRP INCREASES BY 0.1 PERCENT PER YEAR THEREAFTER FOR 20 YEARS, AFTER WHICH IT IS STABLE. WHAT IS THE INTEREST RATE ON 1-YEAR, 10-YEAR, AND 20-YEAR TREASURY SECURITIES? DRAW A YIELD CURVE WITH THESE DATA. WHAT FACTORS CAN EXPLAIN WHY THIS CONSTRUCTED YIELD CURVE IS UPWARD SLOPING?

ANSWER: STEP 1: FIND THE AVERAGE EXPECTED INFLATION RATE OVER YEARS 1 TO 20:

YR 1: IP = 5.0%.

YR 10: IP = (5 + 6 + 8 + 8 + 8 + ... + 8)/10 = 7.5%.

YR 20: IP = (5 + 6 + 8 + 8 + ... + 8)/20 = 7.75%.

STEP 2: FIND THE MATURITY PREMIUM IN EACH YEAR:

YR 1: MRP = 0.0%.

YR 10: MRP = 0.1 ? 9 = 0.9%.

YR 20: MRP = 0.1 ? 19 = 1.9%.

STEP 3: SUM THE IPs AND MRPs, AND ADD k* = 3%:

YR 1: kRF = 3% + 5.0% + 0.0% = 8.0%.

YR 10: kRF = 3% + 7.5% + 0.9% = 11.4%.

YR 20: kRF = 3% + 7.75% + 1.9% = 12.65%.

THE SHAPE OF THE YIELD CURVE DEPENDS PRIMARILY ON TWO FACTORS:
(1) EXPECTATIONS ABOUT FUTURE INFLATION AND (2) THE RELATIVE RISKINESS OF SECURITIES WITH DIFFERENT MATURITIES.
THE CONSTRUCTED YIELD CURVE IS UPWARD SLOPING. THIS IS DUE TO INCREASING EXPECTED INFLATION AND AN INCREASING MATURITY RISK PREMIUM.


K. AT ANY GIVEN TIME, HOW WOULD THE YIELD CURVE FACING AN AAA-RATED COMPANY COMPARE WITH THE YIELD CURVE FOR U. S. TREASURY SECURITIES? AT ANY GIVEN TIME, HOW WOULD THE YIELD CURVE FACING A BB-RATED COMPANY COMPARE WITH THE YIELD CURVE FOR U. S. TREASURY SECURITIES? DRAW A GRAPH TO ILLUSTRATE YOUR ANSWER.

ANSWER: THE YIELD CURVE NORMALLY SLOPES UPWARD, INDICATING THAT SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES ARE LOWER THAN LONG-TERM INTEREST RATES. YIELD CURVES CAN BE DRAWN FOR GOVERNMENT SECURITIES OR FOR THE SECURITIES OF ANY CORPORATION, BUT CORPORATE YIELD CURVES WILL ALWAYS LIE ABOVE GOVERNMENT YIELD CURVES, AND THE RISKIER THE CORPORATION, THE HIGHER ITS YIELD CURVE. THE SPREAD BETWEEN A CORPORATE YIELD CURVE AND THE TREASURY CURVE WIDENS AS THE CORPORATE BOND RATING DECREASES.





L. WHAT IS THE PURE EXPECTATIONS THEORY? WHAT DOES THE PURE EXPECTATIONS THEORY IMPLY ABOUT THE TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES?

ANSWER: THE PURE EXPECTATIONS THEORY ASSUMES THAT INVESTORS ESTABLISH BOND PRICES AND INTEREST RATES STRICTLY ON THE BASIS OF EXPECTATIONS FOR INTEREST RATES. THIS MEANS THAT THEY ARE INDIFFERENT WITH RESPECT TO MATURITY IN THE SENSE THAT THEY DO NOT VIEW LONG-TERM BONDS AS BEING RISKIER THAN SHORT-TERM BONDS. IF THIS WERE TRUE, THEN THE MATURITY RISK PREMIUM WOULD BE ZERO, AND LONG-TERM INTEREST RATES WOULD SIMPLY BE A WEIGHTED AVERAGE OF CURRENT AND EXPECTED FUTURE SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES. IF THE PURE EXPECTATIONS THEORY IS CORRECT, YOU CAN USE THE YIELD CURVE TO “BACK OUT” EXPECTED FUTURE INTEREST RATES.


M. SUPPOSE THAT YOU OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING TERM STRUCTURE FOR TREASURY SECURITIES:

MATURITY YIELD
1 YEAR 6.0%
2 YEARS 6.2
3 YEARS 6.4
4 YEARS 6.5
5 YEARS 6.5

ASSUME THAT THE PURE EXPECTATIONS THEORY OF THE TERM STRUCTURE IS CORRECT. (THIS IMPLIES THAT YOU CAN USE THE YIELD CURVE GIVEN ABOVE TO “BACK OUT” THE MARKET’S EXPECTATIONS ABOUT FUTURE INTEREST RATES.) WHAT DOES THE MARKET EXPECT WILL BE THE INTEREST RATE ON 1-YEAR SECURITIES, ONE YEAR FROM NOW? WHAT DOES THE MARKET EXPECT WILL BE THE INTEREST RATE ON 3-YEAR SECURITIES, TWO YEARS FROM NOW?

ANSWER: CALCULATION FOR k ON 1-YEAR SECURITIES, ONE YEAR FROM NOW:

6.2% =
12.4% = 6.0% + X
6.4% = X.

1-YEAR SECURITIES, ONE YEAR FROM NOW WILL YIELD 6.4%.

CALCULATION FOR k ON 3-YEAR SECURITIES, TWO YEARS FROM NOW:

6.5% =
32.5% = 12.4% + 3X
20.1% = 3X
6.7% = X.

3-YEAR SECURITIES, TWO YEARS FROM NOW WILL YIELD 6.7%.


N. FINALLY, DELLATORRE IS ALSO INTERESTED IN INVESTING IN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN THE UNITED STATES. DESCRIBE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF RISKS THAT ARISE WHEN INVESTING OVERSEAS.

ANSWER: FIRST, DELLATORRE SHOULD CONSIDER COUNTRY RISK, WHICH REFERS TO THE RISK THAT ARISES FROM INVESTING OR DOING BUSINESS IN A PARTICULAR COUNTRY. THIS RISK DEPENDS ON THE COUNTRY’S ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT. COUNTRY RISK ALSO INCLUDES THE RISK THAT PROPERTY WILL BE EXPROPRIATED WITHOUT ADEQUATE COMPENSATION, AS WELL AS NEW HOST COUNTRY STIPULATIONS ABOUT LOCAL PRODUCTION, SOURCING OR HIRING PRACTICES, AND DAMAGE OR DESTRUCTION OF FACILITIES DUE TO INTERNAL STRIFE.
SECOND, DELLATORRE SHOULD CONSIDER EXCHANGE RATE RISK. DELLATORRE NEEDS TO KEEP IN MIND WHEN INVESTING OVERSEAS THAT MORE OFTEN THAN NOT THE SECURITY WILL BE DENOMINATED IN A CURRENCY OTHER THAN THE DOLLAR, WHICH MEANS THAT THE VALUE OF THE INVESTMENT WILL DEPEND ON WHAT HAPPENS TO EXCHANGE RATES. TWO FACTORS CAN LEAD TO EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATIONS. CHANGES IN RELATIVE INFLATION WILL LEAD TO CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATES. ALSO, AN INCREASE IN COUNTRY RISK WILL ALSO CAUSE THE COUNTRY’S CURRENCY TO FALL. CONSEQUENTLY, INFLATION RISK, COUNTRY RISK, AND EXCHANGE RATE RISK ARE ALL INTERRELATED.