Chapter 14
Financial Planning and Forecasting Pro Forma Financial Statements
ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS


14-1 a. The operating plan provides detailed implementation guidance designed to accomplish corporate objectives. It details who is responsible for what particular function, and when specific tasks are to be accomplished. The financial plan details the financial aspects of the corporation’s operating plan. In addition to an analysis of the firm’s current financial condition, the financial plan normally includes a sales forecast, the capital budget, the cash budget, pro forma financial statements, and the external financing plan. A sales forecast is merely the forecast of unit and dollar sales for some future period. Of course, a lot of work is required to produce a good sales forecast. Generally, sales forecasts are based on the recent trend in sales plus forecasts of the economic prospects for the nation, industry, region, and so forth. The sales forecast is critical to good financial planning.

b. A pro forma financial statement shows how an actual statement would look if certain assumptions are realized. With the percent of sales forecasting method, many items on the income statement and balance sheets are assumed to increase proportionally with sales. As sales increase, these items that are tied to sales also increase, and the values of these items for a particular year are estimated as percentages of the forecasted sales for that year.

c. Funds are spontaneously generated if a liability account increases spontaneously (automatically) as sales increase. An increase in a liability account is a source of funds, thus funds have been generated. Two examples of spontaneous liability accounts are accounts payable and accrued wages. Note that notes payable, although a current liability account, is not a spontaneous source of funds since an increase in notes payable requires a specific action between the firm and a creditor.

d. Additional funds needed (AFN) are those funds required from external sources to increase the firm’s assets to support a sales increase. A sales increase will normally require an increase in assets. However, some of this increase is usually offset by a spontaneous increase in liabilities as well as by earnings retained in the firm. Those funds that are required but not generated internally must be obtained from external sources. Although most firms’ forecasts of capital requirements are made by constructing pro forma income statements and balance sheets, the AFN formula is sometimes used to forecast financial requirements. It is written as follows:



Capital intensity is the dollar amount of assets required to produce a dollar of sales. The capital intensity ratio is the reciprocal of the total assets turnover ratio.

e. “Lumpy” assets are those assets that cannot be acquired smoothly, but require large, discrete additions. For example, an electric utility that is operating at full capacity cannot add a small amount of generating capacity, at least not economically.

14-2 Accounts payable, accrued wages, and accrued taxes increase spontaneously and proportionately with sales. Retained earnings increase, but not proportionately.

14-3 The equation gives good forecasts of financial requirements if the ratios A*/S and L*/S, as well as M and d, are stable. Otherwise, another forecasting technique should be used.

14-5 a. +.

b. +. It reduces spontaneous funds; however, it may eventually increase retained earnings.

c. +.

d. +.











SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS



14-1 AFN = (A*/S0)?S - (L*/S0)?S - MS1(1 - d)
= $1,000,000 - $1,000,000 - 0.05($6,000,000)(1 - 0.7)
= (0.6)($1,000,000) - (0.1)($1,000,000) - ($300,000)(0.3)
= $600,000 - $100,000 - $90,000
= $410,000.


14-2 AFN = $1,000,000 – (0.1)($1,000,000) – ($300,000)(0.3)
= (0.8)($1,000,000) - $100,000 - $90,000
= $800,000 - $190,000
= $610,000.

The capital intensity ratio is measured as A*/S0. This firm’s capital intensity ratio is higher than that of the firm in Problem 14-1; therefore, this firm is more capital intensive--it would require a large increase in total assets to support the increase in sales.


14-3 AFN = (0.6)($1,000,000) - (0.1)($1,000,000) - 0.05($6,000,000)(1 - 0)
= $600,000 - $100,000 - $300,000
= $200,000.

Under this scenario the company would have a higher level of retained earnings which would reduce the amount of additional funds needed.


14-4 S2004 = $2,000,000; A2004 = $1,500,000; CL2004 = $500,000;
NP2004 = $200,000; A/P2004 = $200,000; Accruals2004 = $100,000;
PM = 5%; d = 60%; A*/S0 = 0.75.

AFN = (A*/S0)?S - (L*/S0)?S - MS1(1 - d)
= (0.75)?S - ?S -(0.05)(S1)(1 - 0.6)
= (0.75)?S - (0.15)?S - (0.02)S1
= (0.6)?S - (0.02)S1
= 0.6(S1 - S0) - (0.02)S1
= 0.6(S1 - $2,000,000) - (0.02)S1
= 0.6S1 - $1,200,000 - 0.02S1
$1,200,000 = 0.58S1
$2,068,965.52 = S1.

Sales can increase by $2,068,965.52 - $2,000,000 = $68,965.52 without additional funds being needed.


14-5 a. AFN = (A*/S)(DS) – (L*/S)(DS) – MS1(1 – d)
= ($70) - ($70) - ($420)(0.6) = $13.44 million.

b. Upton Computers
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
December 31, 2005
(Millions of Dollars)

Forecast Pro Forma
Basis % after
2004 2005 Sales Additions Pro Forma Financing Financing
Cash $ 3.5 0.0100 $ 4.20 $ 4.20
Receivables 26.0 0.7430 31.20 31.20
Inventories 58.0 0.1660 69.60 69.60
Total current
assets $ 87.5 $105.00 $105.00
Net fixed assets 35.0 0.100 42.00 42.00
Total assets $122.5 $147.00 $147.00

Accounts payable $ 9.0 0.0257 $ 10.80 $ 10.80
Notes payable 18.0 18.00 +13.44 31.44
Accruals 8.5 0.0243 10.20 10.20

Total current
liabilities $ 35.5 $ 39.00 $ 52.44
Mortgage loan 6.0 6.00 6.00
Common stock 15.0 15.00 15.00
Retained earnings 66.0 7.56* 73.56 73.56
Total liab.
and equity $122.5 $133.56 $147.00

AFN = $ 13.44

*PM = $10.5/$350 = 3%.
Payout = $4.2/$10.5 = 40%.
NI = $350 ? 1.2 ? 0.03 = $12.6.
Addition to RE = NI - DIV = $12.6 - 0.4($12.6) = 0.6($12.6) = $7.56.


14-6 a. Stevens Textiles
Pro Forma Income Statement
December 31, 2005
(Thousands of Dollars)

Forecast Pro Forma
2004 Basis 2005
Sales $36,000 1.15 ? Sales04 $41,400
Operating costs $32,440 0.9011 ? Sales05 37,306
EBIT $ 3,560 $ 4,094
Interest 460 0.10 ? Debt04 560
EBT $ 3,100 $ 3,534
Taxes (40%) 1,240 1,414
Net income $ 1,860 $ 2,120

Dividends (45%) $ 837 $ 954
Addition to RE $ 1,023 $ 1,166

Stevens Textiles
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
December 31, 2005
(Thousands of Dollars)

Forecast Pro Forma
Basis % after
2004 2005 Sales Additions Pro Forma Financing Financing
Cash $ 1,0800 0.0300 $ 1,242 $ 1,242
Accts receivable 6,480 0.1883 7,452 7,452
Inventories 9,000 0.2005 10,350 10,350
Total curr.
assets $16,560 $19,044 $19,044
Fixed assets 12,600 0.3500 14,490 14,490
Total assets $29,160 $33,534 $33,534

Accounts payable $ 4,320 0.1200 $ 4,968 $ 4,968
Accruals 2,880 0.0800 3,312 3,312
Notes payable 2,100 2,100 +2,128 4,228
Total current
liabilities $ 9,300 $10,380 $12,508
Long-term debt 3,500 3,500 3,500
Total debt $12,800 $13,880 $16,008
Common stock 3,500 3,500 3,500
Retained earnings 12,860 1,166* 14,026 14,026
Total liabilities
and equity $29,160 $31,406 $33,534

AFN = $ 2,128
*From income statement.



14-7 a. & b. Garlington Technologies Inc.
Pro Forma Income Statement
December 31, 2005

Forecast
2004 Basis Additions 2005
Sales $3,600,000 1.10 ? Sales04 $3,960,000
Operating costs 3,279,720 0.911 ? Sales05 3,607,692
EBIT $ 320,280 $ 352,308
Interest 18,280 0.13 ? Debt04 20,280
EBT $ 302,000 $ 332,028
Taxes (40%) 120,800 132,811
Net income $ 181,200 $ 199,217

Dividends: $ 108,000 Set by management $ 112,000
Addition to RE: $ 73,200 $ 87,217


Garlington Technologies Inc.
Pro Forma Balance Statement
December 31, 2005

Forecast
Basis % AFN With AFN
2004 2005 Sales Additions 2005 Effects 2005
Cash $ 180,000 0.05 $ 198,000 $ 198,000
Receivables 360,000 0.10 396,000 396,000
Inventories 720,000 0.20 792,000 792,000
Total current
assets $1,260,000 $1,386,000 $1,386,000
Fixed assets 1,440,000 0.40 1,584,000 1,584,000
Total assets $2,700,000 $2,970,000 $2,970,000

Accounts payable $ 360,000 0.10 $ 396,000 $ 396,000
Notes payable 156,000 156,000 +128,783 284,783
Accruals 180,000 0.05 198,000 198,000
Total current
liabilities $ 696,000 $ 750,000 $ 878,783
Common stock 1,800,000 1,800,000 1,800,000
Retained earnings 204,000 87,217* 291,217 291,217
Total liab.
and equity $2,700,000 $2,841,217 $2,970,000

AFN = $ 128,783

Cumulative AFN = $ 128,783

*See income statement.


14-8 a.

$1,200,000 = $375,000 + Long-term debt + $425,000 + $295,000
Long-term debt = $105,000.

Total debt = Accounts payable + Long-term debt
= $375,000 + $105,000 = $480,000.

Alternatively,

Total debt = - Common stock - Retained earnings
= $1,200,000 - $425,000 - $295,000 = $480,000.

b. Assets/Sales (A*/S) = $1,200,000/$2,500,000 = 48%.
L*/Sales = $375,000/$2,500,000 = 15%.
2002 Sales = (1.25)($2,500,000) = $3,125,000.

AFN = (A*/S)(?S) - (L*/S)(?S) - MS1(1 - d) - New common stock
= (0.48)($625,000) - (0.15)($625,000) - (0.06)($3,125,000)(0.6) - $75,000
= $300,000 - $93,750 - $112,500 - $75,000 = $18,750.

Alternatively, using the percentage of sales method:

Forecast
Basis % Additions (New
2004 2005 Sales Financing, R/E) Pro Forma
Total assets $1,200,000 0.48 $1,500,000
Current liabilities $ 375,000 0.15 $ 468,750
Long-term debt 105,000 105,000
Total debt $ 480,000 $ 573,750
Common stock 425,000 75,000* 500,000
Retained earnings 295,000 112,500** 407,500
Total common equity $ 720,000 $ 907,500
Total liabilities
and equity $1,200,000 $1,481,250

AFN = Long-term debt = $ 18,750

*Given in problem that firm will sell new common stock = $75,000.
**PM = 6%; Payout = 40%; NI2005 = $2,500,000 x 1.25 x 0.06 = $187,500.
Addition to RE = NI x (1 - Payout) = $187,500 x 0.6 = $112,500.

14-9 Cash $ 100.00 ? 2 = $ 200.00
Accounts receivable 200.00 ? 2 = 400.00
Inventories 200.00 ? 2 = 400.00
Net fixed assets 500.00 + 0.0 = 500.00
Total assets $1,000.00 $1,500.00

Accounts payable $ 50.00 ? 2 = $ 100.00
Notes payable 150.00 150.00 + 360.00 = 510.00
Accruals 50.00 ? 2 = 1 00.00
Long-term debt 400.00 400.00
Common stock 100.00 100.00
Retained earnings 250.00 + 40 = 290.00
Total liabilities
and equity $1,000.00 $1,140.00
AFN $ 360.00

Capacity sales = Sales/0.5 = $1,000/0.5 = $2,000.

Target FA/S ratio = $500/$2,000 = 0.25.

Target FA = 0.25($2,000) = $500 = Required FA. Since the firm currently has $500 of fixed assets, no new fixed assets will be required.

Addition to RE = M(S1)(1 - Payout ratio) = 0.05($2,000)(0.4) = $40.


























SOLUTION TO SPREADSHEET PROBLEM




14-10 The detailed solution for the spreadsheet problem is available both on the instructor’s resource CD-ROM (in the file Solution to FM11 Ch 14 -10 Build a Model.xls) and on the instructor’s side of the web site, http://brigham.swcollege.com.



MINI CASE



Betty Simmons, the new financial manager of Southeast Chemicals (SEC), a Georgia producer of specialized chemicals for use in fruit orchards, must prepare a financial forecast for 2005. SEC’s 2004 sales were $2 billion, and the marketing department is forecasting a 25 percent increase for 2005. Simmons thinks the company was operating at full capacity in 2004, but she is not sure about this. The 2004 financial statements, plus some other data, are shown below.
Assume that you were recently hired as Simmons’ assistant, and your first major task is to help her develop the forecast. She asked you to begin by answering the following set of questions.


Financial Statements And Other Data On SEC
(Millions Of Dollars)

A. 2004 Balance Sheet % of % of
sales sales
Cash & Securities $ 20 1% Accounts Payable
And Accruals $ 100 5%
Accounts Receivable 240 12 Notes Payable 100
Inventory 240 12 Total Current Liabilities $ 200
Total Current Assets $ 500 Long-Term Debt 100
Net Fixed Assets 500 25 Common Stock 500
Retained Earnings 200
Total Assets $1,000 Total Liabilities And Equity $1,000

B. 2004 Income Statement % of
sales
Sales $2,000.00
Cost Of Goods Sold (COGS) 1,200.00 60%
Sales, General, And Administrative Costs 700.00 35
Earnings Before Interest And Taxes $ 100.00
Interest 10.00
Earnings Before Taxes $ 90.00
Taxes (40%) 36.00
Net Income $ 54.00
Dividends (40%) $ 21.60
Addition To Retained Earnings $ 32.40



C. Key Ratios Sec Industry
Profit Margin 2.70 4.00
Return On Equity 7.71 15.60
Days Sales Outstanding (365 Days) 43.80 Days 32.00 Days
Inventory Turnover 8.33? 11.00?
Fixed Assets Turnover 4.00 5.00
Debt/Assets 30.00% 36.00%
Times Interest Earned 10.00? 9.40?
Current Ratio 2.50 3.00
Return On Invested Capital
(NOPAT/Operating Capital) 6.67% 14.00%


a. Describe three ways that pro forma statements are used in financial planning.

Answer: Three important uses: (1) forecast the amount of external financing that will be required, (2) evaluate the impact that changes in the operating plan have on the value of the firm, (3) set appropriate targets for compensation plans


b. Explain the steps in financial forecasting.

Answer: (1) forecast sales, (2) project the assets needed to support sales, (3) project internally generated funds, (4) project outside funds needed, (5) decide how to raise funds, and (6) see effects of plan on ratios and stock price.



c. Assume (1) that SEC was operating at full capacity in 2004 with respect to all assets, (2) that all assets must grow proportionally with sales, (3) that accounts payable and accruals will also grow in proportion to sales, and (4) that the 2004 profit margin and dividend payout will be maintained. Under these conditions, what will the company’s financial requirements be for the coming year? Use the AFN equation to answer this question.

Answer: SEC will need $184.5 million. Here is the AFN equation:

AFN = (A*/S0)?S - (L*/S0)?S - M(S1)(RR)
= (A*/S0)(g)(S0) - (L*/S0)(g)(S0) - M(S0)(1 + g)(1 - payout)
= ($1,000/$2,000)(0.25)($2,000) - ($100/$2,000)(0.25)($2,000)
- 0.0270($2,000)(1.25)(0.6)
= $250 - $25 - $40.5 = $184.5 million.


d. How would changes in these items affect the AFN? (1) sales increase, (2) the dividend payout ratio increases, (3) the profit margin increases, (4) the capital intensity ratio increases, and (5) SEC begins paying its suppliers sooner. (Consider each item separately and hold all other things constant.)

Answer: 1. If sales increase, more assets are required, which increases the AFN.

2. If the payout ratio were reduced, then more earnings would be retained, and this would reduce the need for external financing, or AFN. Note that if the firm is profitable and has any payout ratio less than 100 percent, it will have some retained earnings, so if the growth rate were zero, AFN would be negative, i.e., the firm would have surplus funds. As the growth rate rose above zero, these surplus funds would be used to finance growth. At some point, i.e., at some growth rate, the surplus AFN would be exactly used up. This growth rate where AFN = $0 is called the “sustainable growth rate,” and it is the maximum growth rate which can be financed without outside funds, holding the debt ratio and other ratios constant.

3. If the profit margin goes up, then both total and retained earnings will increase, and this will reduce the amount of AFN.

4. The capital intensity ratio is defined as the ratio of required assets to total sales, or a*/s0. Put another way, it represents the dollars of assets required per dollar of sales. The higher the capital intensity ratio, the more new money will be required to support an additional dollar of sales. Thus, the higher the capital intensity ratio, the greater the AFN, other things held constant.

5. If SEC begins paying sooner, this reduces spontaneous liabilities, leading to a higher AFN.


e. Briefly explain how to forecast financial statements using the percent of sales approach. Be sure to explain how to forecast interest expenses.

Answer: Project sales based on forecasted growth rate in sales. Forecast some items as a percent of the forecasted sales, such as costs, cash, accounts receivable, inventories, net fixed assets, accounts payable, and accruals. Choose other items according to the company’s financial policy: debt, dividend policy (which determines retained earnings), common stock. Given the previous assumptions and choices, we can estimate the required assets to support sales and the specified sources of financing. The additional funds needed (AFN) is: required assets minus specified sources of financing. If AFN is positive, then you must secure additional financing. If AFN is negative, then you have more financing than is needed and you can pay off debt, buy back stock, or buy short-term investments.

Interest expense is actually based on the daily balance of debt during the year. There are three ways to approximate interest expense. You can base it on: (1) debt at end of year, (2) debt at beginning of year, or (3) average of beginning and ending debt.

Basing interest expense on debt at end of year will over-estimate interest expense if debt is added throughout the year instead of all on January 1. It also causes circularity called financial feedback: more debt causes more interest, which reduces net income, which reduces retained earnings, which causes more debt, etc.

Basing interest expense on debt at beginning of year will under-estimate interest expense if debt is added throughout the year instead of all on December 31. But it doesn’t cause problem of circularity.

Basing interest expense on average of beginning and ending debt will accurately estimate the interest payments if debt is added smoothly throughout the year. But it has the problem of circularity.

A solution that balances accuracy and complexity is to base interest expense on beginning debt, but use a slightly higher interest rate. This is easy to implement and is reasonably accurate. See FM11 Ch 14 Mini Case Feedback.xls for an example basing interest expense on average debt.


f. Now estimate the 2005 financial requirements using the percent of sales approach. Assume (1) that each type of asset, as well as payables, accruals, and fixed and variable costs, will be the same percent of sales in 2005 as in 2004; (2) that the payout ratio is held constant at 40 percent; (3) that external funds needed are financed 50 percent by notes payable and 50 percent by long-term debt (no new common stock will be issued); (4) that all debt carries an interest rate of 10 percent; and (5) interest expenses should be based on the balance of debt at the beginning of the year.

Answer: See the completed worksheet. The problem is not difficult to do “by hand,” but we used a spreadsheet model for the flexibility such a model provides.

Income Statement




(In Millions Of Dollars)
Actual


Forecast


2004
Forecast Basis

2005
Sales

$ 2,000.0
Growth
1.25
$ 2,500.0
COGS

$ 1,200.0
% Of Sales
60.00%
$ 1,500.0
SGA Expenses

$ 700.0
% Of Sales
35.00%
$ 875.0
EBIT

$ 100.0


$ 125.0
Less Interest

$ 10.0
Interest Rate X Debt04
$ 20.0
EBT

$ 90.0


$ 105.0
Taxes (40%)

$ 36.0


$ 42.0
Net Income

$ 54.0


$ 63.0
Dividends

$ 21.6


$ 25.2
Add. To Retained Earnings
$ 32.4


$ 37.8






2005

2005
Balance Sheet



Forecast

Forecast
(In Millions Of Dollars)



Without

With

2004
Forecast Basis

AFN
AFN
AFN
Assets





0
Cash
$ 20.0
% Of Sales
1.00%
$ 25.0

$ 25.0
Accounts Receivable
$240.0
% Of Sales
12.00%
$300.0

$300.0
Inventories
$240.0
% Of Sales
12.00%
$300.0

$300.0
Total Current Assets
$500.0


$625.0

$625.0
Net Plant And Equipment
$500.0
% Of Sales
25.00%
$625.0

$625.0
Total Assets
$1,000.0


$1,250.0

$1,250.0







Liabilities And Equity






Accounts Payable & Accruals
$100.0
% Of Sales
5.00%
$125.0

$125.0
Notes Payable
$100.0
Carry-Over

$100.0
$93.6
$193.6
Total Current Liabilities
$200.0


$225.0

$318.6
Long-Term Bonds
$100.0
Carry-Over

$100.0
$93.6
$193.6
Total Liabilities
$300.0


$325.0

$512.2
Common Stock
$500.0
Carry-Over

$500.0

$500.0
Retained Earnings
$200.0
RE04 + DRE04

$237.8

$237.8
Total Common Equity
$700.0


$737.8

$737.8
Total Liabilities And Equity
$1,000.0


$1,062.8

$1,250.0







Required Assets =



$1,250.0


Specified Sources Of Financing =



$1,062.8


Additional Funds Needed (AFN)



$187.20





g. Why does the percent of sales approach produce a somewhat different AFN than the equation approach? Which method provides the more accurate forecast?

Answer: The difference occurs because the AFN equation method assumes that the profit margin remains constant, while the forecasted balance sheet method permits the profit margin to vary. The balance sheet method is somewhat more accurate, but in this case the difference is not very large. The real advantage of the balance sheet method is that it can be used when everything does not increase proportionately with sales. In addition, forecasters generally want to see the resulting ratios, and the balance sheet method is necessary to develop the ratios.
In practice, the only time we have ever seen the AFN equation used is to provide (1) a “quick and dirty” forecast prior to developing the balance sheet forecast and (2) a rough check on the balance sheet forecast.


h. Calculate SEC's forecasted ratios, and compare them with the company's 2004 ratios and with the industry averages. Calculate SEC’s forecasted free cash flow and return on invested capital (ROIC).

Answer:

Actual
Forecast

Key Ratios
2004
2005
Industry




Profit Margin
2.70%
2.52%
4.00%
ROE
7.71%
8.54%
15.60%
DSO
43.80
43.80
32.00
Inventory Turnover
8.33
8.33
11.00
Fixed Asset Turnover
4.00
4.00
5.00
Debt/Assets
30.00%
40.98%
36.00%
TIE
10.00
6.25
9.40
Current Ratio
2.50
1.96
3.00



= -
= NOPAT - Net Investment In Operating Capital
FCF = NOPAT - (Operating Capital2005 - Operating Capital2004)
= $125(1 - 0.4) + [($625 - $125 + $625) - ($500 - $100 + $500)
= $75 - ($1,125 - $900) = $75 - $225 = -$150.

Note: Operating Capital = Net Operating Working Capital + Net Fixed Assets.

ROIC = NOPAT / Capital = $75 / $1,125 = 0.067 = 6.67%.


i. Based on comparisons between SEC's days sales outstanding (DSO) and inventory turnover ratios with the industry average figures, does it appear that SEC is operating efficiently with respect to its inventory and accounts receivable? Suppose SEC was able to bring these ratios into line with the industry averages and reduce its SGA/sales ratio to 33%. What effect would this have on its AFN and its financial ratios? What effect would this have on free cash flow and ROIC?

Answer: The DSO and inventory turnover ratio indicate that SEC has excessive inventories and receivables. The effect of improvements here would reduce asset requirements and AFN. See the results below based on the spreadsheet FM11 Ch 14 Mini Case.xls.

Inputs
Before
After
DSO
43.20
32.01
Accounts Receivable/Sales
12.0%
8.77%
Inventory Turnover
8.33
11.00
Inventory/Sales
12.0%
9.09%
SGA/Sales
35.0%
33.0%



Outputs


AFN
$187.2
$15.7
FCF
-$150.0
$33.5
ROIC
6.7%
10.8%
ROE
8.5%
12.3%

j. Suppose you now learn that SEC’s 2004 receivables and inventories were in line with required levels, given the firm’s credit and inventory policies, but that excess capacity existed with regard to fixed assets. Specifically, fixed assets were operated at only 75 percent of capacity.

j. 1. What level of sales could have existed in 2004 with the available fixed assets?

Answer: Full Capacity Sales = = = $2,667.

Since the firm started with excess fixed asset capacity, it will not have to add as much fixed assets during 2005 as was originally forecasted:

j. 2. How would the existence of excess capacity in fixed assets affect the additional funds needed during 2005?

Answer: We had previously found an AFN of $184.5 using the balance sheet method. The fixed assets increase was 0.25($500) = $125. Therefore, the funds needed will decline by $125.


k. The relationship between sales and the various types of assets is important in financial forecasting. The percent of sales approach, under the assumption that each asset item grows at the same rate as sales, leads to an AFN forecast that is reasonably close to the forecast using the AFN equation. Explain how each of the following factors would affect the accuracy of financial forecasts based on the AFN equation: (1) economies of scale in the use of assets, and (2) lumpy assets.

Answer: 1. Economies of scale in the use of assets mean that the asset item in question must increase less than proportionately with sales; hence it will grow less rapidly than sales. Cash and inventory are common examples, with possible relationship to sales as shown below:







2. Lumpy assets would cause the relationship between assets and sales to look as shown below. This situation is common with fixed assets.